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The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin

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on the throat-pouch of the male bustard;
on the mane of Otaria jubata;
on the sub-orbital pits of Ruminants;
on the colours of the sexes in Otaria nigrescens.

Murray, A., on the Pediculi of different races of men.

Murray, T.A., on the fertility of Australian women with white men.

Mus coninga.

Mus minutus, sexual difference in the colour of.

Musca vomitoria.

Muscicapa grisola.

Muscicapa luctuosa.

Muscicapa ruticilla, breeding in immature plumage.

Muscle, ischio-pubic.

Muscles, rudimentary, occurrence of, in man;
variability of the;
effects of use and disuse upon;
animal-like abnormalities of, in man;
correlated variation of, in the arm and leg;
variability of, in the hands and feet;
of the jaws, influence of, on the physiognomy of the Apes;
habitual spasms of, causing modifications of the facial bones, of the early
progenitors of man;
greater variability of the, in men than in women.

Musculus sternalis, Prof. Turner on the.

Music, of birds;
discordant, love of savages for;
reason of power of perception of notes in animals;
power of distinguishing notes;
its connection with primeval speech;
different appreciation of, by different peoples;
origin of;
effects of.

Musical cadences, perception of, by animals;
powers of man.

Musk-deer, canine teeth of male;
male, odoriferous organs of the;
winter change of the.

Musk-duck, Australian;
large size of male;
of Guiana, pugnacity of the male.

Musk-ox, horns of.

Musk-rat, protective resemblance of the, to a clod of earth.

Musophagae, colours and nidification of the;
both sexes of, equally brilliant.

Mussels opened by monkeys.

Mustela, winter change of two species of.

Musters, Captain, on Rhea Darwinii;
marriages amongst Patagonians.

Mutilations, healing of;
inheritance of.

Mutilla europaea, stridulation of.

Mutillidae, absence of ocelli in female.

Mycetes caraya, polygamous;
vocal organs of;
beard of;
sexual differences of colour in;
voice of.

Mycetes seniculus, sexual differences of colour in.


Nageli, on the influence of natural selection on plants;
on the gradation of species of plants.

Nails, coloured yellow or purple in part of Africa.

Narwhal, tusks of the.

Nasal cavities, large size of, in American aborigines.

Nascent organs.

Nathusius, H. von, on the improved breeds of pigs;
male domesticated animals more variable than females;
horns of castrated sheep;
on the breeding of domestic animals.

Natural selection, its effects on the early progenitors of man;
influence of, on man;
limitation of the principle;
influence of, on social animals;
Mr. Wallace on the limitation of, by the influence of the mental faculties
in man;
influence of, in the progress of the United States;
in relation to sex.

Natural and sexual selection contrasted.

Naulette, jaw from, large size of the canines in.

Neanderthal skull, capacity of the.

Neck, proportion of, in soldiers and sailors.

Necrophorus, stridulation of.

Nectarinia, young of.

Nectariniae, moulting of the;
nidification of.

Negro, resemblance of a, to Europeans in mental characters.

Negro-women, their kindness to Mungo Park.

Negroes, Caucasian features in;
character of;
lice of;
fertility of, when crossed with other races;
blackness of;
variability of;
immunity of, from yellow fever;
difference of, from Americans;
disfigurements of the;
colour of new-born children of;
comparative beardlessness of;
readily become musicians;
appreciation of beauty of their women by;
idea of beauty among;
compression of the nose by some.

Nemertians, colours of.

Neolithic period.

Neomorpha, sexual difference of the beak in.

Nephila, size of male.

Nests, made by fishes;
decoration of, by Humming-birds.

Neumeister, on a change of colour in pigeons after several moultings.

Neuration, difference of, in the two sexes of some butterflies and


Neurothemis, dimorphism in.

New Zealand, expectation by the natives of, of their extinction;
practice of tattooing in;
aversion of natives of, to hairs on the face;
pretty girls engrossed by the chiefs in.

Newton, A., on the throat-pouch of the male bustard;
on the differences between the females of two species of Oxynotus;
on the habits of the Phalarope, dotterel, and godwit.


Nicholson, Dr., on the non-immunity of dark Europeans from yellow fever.

Nictitating membrane.

Nidification of fishes;
relation of, to colour;
of British birds.

Night-heron, cries of the.

Nightingale, arrival of the male before the female;
object of the song of the.

Nightingales, new mates found by.

Nightjar, selection of a mate by the female;
Australian, sexes of;
coloration of the.

Nightjars, noise made by some male, with their wings;
elongated feathers in.

Nilghau, sexual differences of colour in the.

Nilsson, Prof., on the resemblance of stone arrow-heads from various
on the development of the horns of the reindeer.

Nipples, absence of, in Monotremata.

Nitsche, Dr., ear of foetal orang.

Nitzsch, C.L., on the down of birds.

Noctuae, brightly-coloured beneath.

Noctuidae, coloration of.

Nomadic habits, unfavourable to human progress.

Nordmann, A., on Tetrao urogalloides.

Norfolk Island, half-breeds on.

Norway, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Nose, resemblance of, in man and the apes;
piercing and ornamentation of the;
very flat, not admired in negroes;
flattening of the.

Nott and Gliddon, on the features of Rameses II.;
on the features of Amunoph III.;
on skulls from Brazilian caves;
on the immunity of negroes and mulattoes from yellow fever;
on the deformation of the skull among American tribes.

Novara, voyage of the, suicide in New Zealand.

Nudibranch Mollusca, bright colours of.

Numerals, Roman.

Nunemaya, natives of, bearded.

Nuthatch, of Japan, intelligence of;

Obedience, value of.

Observation, powers of, possessed by birds.

Occupations, sometimes a cause of diminished stature;
effect of, upon the proportions of the body.

Ocelli, absence of, in female Mutilidae.

Ocelli of birds, formation and variability of the.

Ocelot, sexual differences in the colouring of the.

Ocyhaps lophotes.


Odonestis potatoria, sexual difference of colour in.

Odour, correlation of, with colour of skin;
of moths;
emitted by snakes in the breeding season;
of mammals.

Oecanthus nivalis, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Oecanthus pellucidus.

Ogle, Dr. W., relation between colour and power of smell.


Oliver, on sounds produced by Pimelia striata.

Omaloplia brunnea, stridulation of.

Onitis furcifer, processes of anterior femora of the male, and on the head
and thorax of the female.


Onthophagus rangifer, sexual differences of;
variations in the horns of the male.

Ophidia, sexual differences of.


Opossum, wide range of, in America.

Optic nerve, atrophy of the, caused by destruction of the eye.

Orang-Outan, Bischoff on the agreement of the brain of the, with that of
adult age of the;
ears of the;
vermiform appendage of;
hands of the;
absence of mastoid processes in the;
platforms built by the;
alarmed at the sight of a turtle;
using a stick as a lever;
using missiles;
using the leaves of the Pandanus as a night covering;
direction of the hair on the arms of the;
its aberrant characters;
supposed evolution of the;
voice of the;
monogamous habits of the;
male, beard of the.

Oranges, treatment of, by monkeys.

Orange-tip butterfly.

Orchestia Darwinii, dimorphism of males of.

Orchestia Tucuratinga, limbs of.

Ordeal, trial by.

Oreas canna, colours of.

Oreas Derbianus, colours of.

Organs, prehensile;
utilised for new purposes.

Organic scale, von Baer's definition of progress in.

Orioles, nidification of.

Oriolus, species of, breeding in immature plumage.

Oriolus melanocephalus, coloration of the sexes in.

Ornaments, prevalence of similar;
of male birds;
fondness of savages for.

Ornamental characters, equal transmission of, to both sexes, in mammals;
of monkeys.

Ornithoptera croesus.

Ornithorhynchus, reptilian tendency of;
spur of the male.

Orocetes erythrogastra, young of.

Orrony, Grotto of.

Orsodacna atra, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Orsodacna ruficollis.

Orthoptera, metamorphosis of;
stridulating apparatus of;
colours of;
rudimentary stridulating organs in female;
stridulation of the, and Homoptera, discussed.

Ortygornis gularis, pugnacity of the male.

Oryctes, stridulation of;
sexual differences in the stridulant organs of.

Oryx leucoryx, use of the horns of.

Osphranter rufus, sexual difference in the colour of.

Ostrich, African, sexes and incubation of the.

Ostriches, stripes of young.

Otaria jubata, mane of the male.

Otaria nigrescens, difference in the coloration of the sexes of.

Otis bengalensis, love-antics of the male.

Otis tarda, throat-pouch of the male;

Ouzel, ring-, colours and nidification of the.

Ouzel, water-, singing in the autumn;
colours and nidification of the.

Ovibos moschatus, horns of.

Ovipositor of insects.

Ovis cycloceros, mode of fighting of.

Ovule of man.

Owen, Prof., on the Corpora Wolffiana;
on the great toe in man;
on the nictitating membrane and semilunar fold;
on the development of the posterior molars in different races of man;
on the length of the caecum in the Koala;
on the coccygeal vertebrae;
on rudimentary structures belonging to the reproductive system;
on abnormal conditions of the human uterus;
on the number of digits in the Ichthyopterygia;
on the canine teeth in man;
on the walking of the chimpanzee and orang;
on the mastoid processes in the higher apes;
on the hairiness of elephants in elevated districts;
on the caudal vertebrae of monkeys;
classification of mammalia;
on the hair in monkeys;
on the piscine affinities of the Ichthyosaurians;
on polygamy and monogamy among the antelopes;
on the horns of Antilocapra Americana;
on the musky odour of crocodiles during the breeding season;
on the scent-glands of snakes;
on the Dugong, Cachalot, and Ornithorhynchus;
on the antlers of the red deer;
on the dentition of the Camelidae;
on the horns of the Irish elk;
on the voice of the giraffe, porcupine, and stag;
on the laryngeal sac of the gorilla and orang;
on the odoriferous glands of mammals;
on the effects of emasculation on the vocal organs of men;
on the voice of Hylobates agilis;
on American monogamous monkeys.

Owls, white, new mates found by.

Oxynotus, difference of the females of two species of.


Pachytylus migratorius.

Paget, on the abnormal development of hairs in man;
on the thickness of the skin on the soles of the feet of infants.

Pagurus, carrying the female.

Painting, pleasure of savages in.

Palaemon, chelae of a species of.

Palaeornis, sexual differences of colour in.

Palaeornis javanicus, colour of beak of.

Palaeornis rosa, young of.

Palamedea cornuta, spurs on the wings.

Paleolithic period.

Palestine, habits of the chaffinch in.

Pallas, on the perfection of the senses in the Mongolians;
on the want of connexion between climate and the colour of the skin;
on the polygamous habits of Antilope Saiga;
on the lighter colour of horses and cattle in winter in Siberia;
on the tusks of the musk-deer;
on the odoriferous glands of mammals;
on the odoriferous glands of the musk-deer;
on winter changes of colour in mammals;
on the ideal of female beauty in North China.

Palmaris accessorius, muscle variations of the.

Pampas, horses of the.

Pangenesis, hypothesis of.

Panniculus carnosus.

Pansch, on the brain of a foetal Cebus apella.

Papilio, proportion of the sexes in North American species of;
sexual differences of colouring in species of;
coloration of the wings in species of.

Papilio ascanius.

Papilio Sesostris and Childrenae, variability of.

Papilio Turnus.

Papilionidae, variability in the.

Papuans, line of separation between the, and the Malays;
beards of the;
teeth of.

Papuans and Malays, contrast in characters of.

Paradise, Birds of;
supposed by Lesson to be polygamous;
rattling of their quills by;
racket-shaped feathers in;
sexual differences in colour of;
decomposed feathers in;
display of plumage by the male;
sexual differences in colour of.

Paradisea apoda, barbless feathers in the tail of;
plumage of;
and P. papuana;
divergence of the females of;
increase of beauty with age.

Paradisea papuana, plumage of.

Paraguay, Indians of, eradication of eyebrows and eyelashes by.

Parallelism of development of species and languages.

Parasites, on man and animals;
as evidence of specific identity or distinctness;
immunity from, correlated with colour.

Parental feeling in earwigs, starfishes, and spiders;
affection, partly a result of natural selection.

Parents, age of, influence upon sex of offspring.

Parinae, sexual difference of colour in.

Park, Mungo, negro-women teaching their children to love the truth;
his treatment by the negro-women;
on negro opinions of the appearance of white men.

Parker, Mr., no bird or reptile in line of mammalian descent.

Parrakeet, young of;
Australian, variation in the colour of the thighs of a male.

Parrot, racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a;
instance of benevolence in a.

Parrots, change of colour in;
imitative faculties of;
living in triplets;
affection of;
colours and nidification of the;
immature plumage of the;
colours of;
sexual differences of colour in;
musical powers of.

Parthenogenesis in the Tenthredinae;
in Cynipidae;
in Crustacea.

Partridge, monogamous;
proportion of the sexes in the;


Partridges, living in triplets;
spring coveys of male;
distinguishing persons.

Parus coeruleus.

Passer, sexes and young of.

Passer brachydactylus.

Passer domesticus.

Passer montanus.

Patagonians, self-sacrifice by;
marriages of.

Patterson, Mr., on the Agrionidae.

Patteson, Bishop, decrease of Melanesians.

Paulistas of Brazil.

Pavo cristatus.

Pavo muticus, possession of spurs by the female.

Pavo nigripennis.

Payaguas Indians, thin legs and thick arms of the.

Payan, Mr., on the proportion of the sexes in sheep.

Peacock, polygamous;
sexual characters of;
pugnacity of the;
Javan, possessing spurs;
rattling of the quills by;
elongated tail-coverts of the;
love of display of the;
ocellated spots of the;
inconvenience of long tail of the, to the female;
continued increase of beauty of the.


Peafowl, preference of females for a particular male;
first advances made by the female.

Pediculi of domestic animals and man.

Pedigree of man.

Pedionomus torquatus, sexes of.

Peel, J., on horned sheep.

Peewit, wing-tubercles of the male.

Pelagic animals, transparency of.

Pelecanus erythrorhynchus, horny crest on the beak of the male, during the
breeding season.

Pelecanus onocrotalus, spring plumage of.

Pelele, an African ornament.

Pelican, blind, fed by his companions;
young, guided by old birds;
pugnacity of the male.

Pelicans, fishing in concert.

Pelobius Hermanni, stridulation of.

Pelvis, alteration of, to suit the erect attitude of man;
differences of the, in the sexes of man.

Penelope nigra, sound produced by the male.

Pennant, on the battles of seals;
on the bladder-nose seal.

Penthe, antennal cushions of the male.

Perch, brightness of male, during breeding season.

Peregrine falcon, new mate found by.

Period of variability, relation of, to sexual selection.

Periodicity, vital, Dr. Laycock on.

Periods, lunar, followed by functions in man and animals.

Periods of life, inheritance at corresponding.

Perisoreus canadensis, young of.

Peritrichia, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of.


Pernis cristata.

Perrier, M., on sexual selection;
on bees.

Perseverance, a characteristic of man.

Persians, said to be improved by intermixture with Georgians and

Personnat, M., on Bombyx Yamamai.

Peruvians, civilisation of the, not foreign.

Petrels, colours of.

Petrocincla cyanea, young of.



Pfeiffer, Ida, on Javan ideas of beauty.

Phacochoerus aethiopicus, tusks and pads of.

Phalanger, Vulpine, black varieties of the.

Phalaropus fulicarius.

Phalaropus hyperboreus.


Phanaeus carnifex, variation of the horns of the male.

Phanaeus faunus, sexual differences of.

Phanaeus lancifer.

Phaseolarctus cinereus, taste for rum and tobacco.

Phasgonura viridissima, stridulation of.

Phasianus Soemmerringii.

Phasianus versicolor.

Phasianus Wallichii.

Pheasant, polygamous;
and black grouse, hybrids of;
production of hybrids with the common fowl;
immature plumage of the.

Pheasant, Amherst, display of.

Pheasant, Argus, display of plumage by the male;
ocellated spots of the;
gradation of characters in the.

Pheasant, Blood-

Pheasant, Cheer.

Pheasant, Eared, length of the tail in the;
sexes alike in the.

Pheasant, Fire-backed, possessing spurs.

Pheasant, Golden, display of plumage by the male;
age of mature plumage in the;
sex of young, ascertained by pulling out head-feathers.

Pheasant, Kalij, drumming of the male.

Pheasant, Reeve's, length of the tail in.

Pheasant, Silver, triumphant male, deposed on account of spoiled plumage;
sexual coloration of the.

Pheasant, Soemmerring's.

Pheasant, Tragopan, display of plumage by the male;
marking of the sexes of the.

Pheasants, period of acquisition of male characters in the family of the;
proportion of sexes in chicks of;
length of the tail in.

Philters, worn by women.

Phoca groenlandica, sexual difference in the coloration of.

Phoenicura ruticilla.

Phosphorescence of insects.

Phryganidae, copulation of distinct species of.

Phryniscus nigricans.

Physical inferiority, supposed, of man.

Pickering, on the number of species of man.

Picton, J.A., on the soul of man.

Picus auratus.

Picus major.


Pigeon, female, deserting a weakened mate;
carrier, late development of the wattle in;
pouter, late development of crop in;
domestic, breeds and sub-breeds of.

Pigeons, nestling, fed by the secretion of the crop of both parents;
changes of plumage in;
transmission of sexual peculiarities in;
Belgian, with black-streaked males;
changing colour after several moultings;
numerical proportion of the sexes in;
cooing of;
variations in plumage of;
display of plumage by male;
local memory of;
antipathy of female, to certain males;
pairing of;
profligate male and female;
wing-bars and tail-feathers of;
supposititious breed of;
pouter and carrier, peculiarities of, predominant in males;
nidification of;
immature plumage of the.

Pigs, origin of the improved breeds of;
numerical proportion of the sexes in;
stripes of young;
tusks of miocene;
sexual preference shewn by.

Pike, American, brilliant colours of the male, during the breeding season.

Pike, reasoning powers of;
male, devoured by females.

Pike, L.O., on the psychical elements of religion.

Pimelia striata, sounds produced by the female.

Pinel, hairiness in idiots.

Pintail, drake, plumage of;
pairing with a wild duck.

Pintail Duck, pairing with a widgeon.

Pipe-fish, filamentous;
marsupial receptacles of the male.

Pipits, moulting of the.

Pipra, modified secondary wing-feathers of male.

Pipra deliciosa.

Pirates stridulus, stridulation of.

Pitcairn island, half-breeds on.

Pithecia leucocephala, sexual differences of colour in.

Pithecia Satanas, beard of;
resemblance of, to a negro.

Pits, suborbital, of Ruminants.

Pittidae, nidification of.


Plagiostomous fishes.

Plain-wanderer, Australian.

Planariae, bright colours of some.

Plantain-eaters, colours and nidification of the;
both sexes of, equally brilliant.

Plants, cultivated, more fertile than wild;
Nageli, on natural selection in;
male flowers of, mature before the female;
phenomena of fertilisation in.

Platalea, change of plumage in.


Platycercus, young of.

Platyphyllum concavum.

Platyrrhine monkeys.

Platysma myoides.

Plecostomus, head-tentacles of the males of a species of.

Plecostomus barbatus, peculiar beard of the male.

Plectropterus gambensis, spurred wings of.


Plovers, wing-spurs of;
double moult in.

Plumage, changes of, inheritance of, by fowls;
tendency to analogous variation in;
display of, by male birds;
changes of, in relation to season;
immature, of birds;
colour of, in relation to protection.

Plumes on the head in birds, difference of, in the sexes.

Pneumora, structure of.

Podica, sexual difference in the colour of the irides.

Poeppig, on the contact of civilised and savage races.

Poison, avoidance of, by animals.

Poisonous fruits and herbs avoided by animals.

Poisons, immunity from, correlated with colour.

Polish fowls, origin of the crest in.

Pollen and van Dam, on the colours of Lemur macaco.

Polyandry, in certain Cyprinidae;
among the Elateridae.

Polydactylism in man.

Polygamy, influence of, upon sexual selection;
superinduced by domestication;
supposed increase of female births by.
In the stickleback.


Polynesia, prevalence of infanticide in.

Polynesians, wide geographical range of;
difference of stature among the;
crosses of;
variability of;
heterogeneity of the;
aversion of, to hairs on the face.

Polyplectron, number of spurs in;
display of plumage by the male;
gradation of characters in;
female of.

Polyplectron chinquis.

Polyplectron Hardwickii.

Polyplectron malaccense.

Polyplectron Napoleonis.



Pontoporeia affinis.

Porcupine, mute, except in the rutting season.

Pores, excretory, numerical relation of, to the hairs in sheep.

Porpitae, bright colours of some.

Portax picta, dorsal crest and throat-tuft of;
sexual differences of colour in.

Portunus puber, pugnacity of.

Potamochoerus pencillatus, tusks and facial knobs of the.

Pouchet, G., the relation of instinct to intelligence;
on the instincts of ants;
on the caves of Abou-Simbel;
on the immunity of negroes from yellow fever;
change of colour in fishes.

Pouter pigeon, late development of the large crop in.

Powell, Dr., on stridulation.

Power, Dr., on the different colours of the sexes in a species of Squilla.

Powys, Mr., on the habits of the chaffinch in Corfu.

Pre-eminence of man.

Preference for males by female birds;
shewn by mammals, in pairing.

Prehensile organs.

Presbytis entellus, fighting of the male.

Preyer, Dr., on function of shell of ear;
on supernumerary mammae in women.

Prichard, on the difference of stature among the Polynesians;
on the connection between the breadth of the skull in the Mongolians and
the perfection of their senses;
on the capacity of British skulls of different ages;
on the flattened heads of the Colombian savages;
on Siamese notions of beauty;
on the beardlessness of the Siamese;
on the deformation of the head among American tribes and the natives of

Primary sexual organs.

Primates, sexual differences of colour in.

Primogeniture, evils of.

Prionidae, difference of the sexes in colour.

Proctotretus multimaculatus.

Proctotretus tenuis, sexual difference in the colour of.


Progenitors, early, of man.

Progress, not the normal rule in human society;
elements of.

Prong-horn antelope, horns of.

Proportions, difference of, in distinct races.

Protective colouring in butterflies;
in lizards;
in birds;
in mammals.

Protective nature of the dull colouring of female Lepidoptera.

Protective resemblances in fishes.

Protozoa, absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Pruner-Bey, on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus
of man;
on the colour of negro infants.

Prussia, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Psocus, proportions of the sexes in.

Ptarmigan, monogamous;
summer and winter plumage of the;
nuptial assemblages of;
triple moult of the;
protective coloration of.

Puff-birds, colours and nidification of the.

Pugnacity of fine-plumaged male birds.

Pumas, stripes of young.

Puppies learning from cats to clean their faces.

Pycnonotus haemorrhous, pugnacity of the male;
display of under-tail coverts by the male.

Pyranga aestiva, male aiding in incubation;
male characters in female of.

Pyrodes, difference of the sexes in colour.

Quadrumana, hands of;
differences between man and the;
sexual differences of colour in;
ornamental characters of;
analogy of sexual differences of, with those of man;
fighting of males for the females;
monogamous habits of;
beards of the.

Quain, R., on the variation of the muscles in man.

Quatrefages, A. de, on the occurrence of a rudimentary tail in man;
on variability;
on the moral sense as a distinction between man and animals;
civilised men stronger than savages;
on the fertility of Australian women with white men;
on the Paulistas of Brazil;
on the evolution of the breeds of cattle;
on the Jews;
on the liability of negroes to tropical fevers after residence in a cold
on the difference between field- and house-slaves;
on the influence of climate on colour;
colours of annelids;
on the Ainos;
on the women of San Giuliano.

Quechua, see Quichua.

Querquedula acuta.

Quetelet, proportion of sexes in man;
relative size in man and woman.

Quichua Indians;
local variation of colour in the;
no grey hair among the;
hairlessness of the;
long hair of the.

Quiscalus major, proportions of the sexes of, in Florida and Honduras.

Rabbit, white tail of the.

Rabbits, domestic, elongation of the skull in;
modification of the skull in, by the lopping of the ear;
danger-signals of;
numerical proportion of the sexes in.

Races, distinctive characters of;
or species of man;
crossed, fertility or sterility of;
of man, variability of the;
of man, resemblance of, in mental characters;
formation of;
of man, extinction of;
effects of the crossing of;
of man, formation of the;
of man, children of the;
beardless, aversion of, to hairs on the face.

Raffles, Sir S., on the banteng.

Rafts, use of.

Rage, manifested by animals.

Raia batis, teeth of.

Raia clavata, female spined on the back;
sexual difference in the teeth of.

Raia maculata, teeth of.

Rails, spur-winged.

Ram, mode of fighting of the;
African, mane of an;

Rameses II., features of.

Ramsay, Mr., on the Australian musk-duck;
on the regent-bird;
on the incubation of Menura superba.

Rana esculenta, vocal sacs of.

Rat, common, general dispersion of, a consequence of superior cunning;
supplantation of the native in New Zealand, by the European rat;
common, said to be polygamous;
numerical proportion of the sexes in.

Rats, enticed by essential oils.

Rationality of birds.

Rattlesnakes, difference of the sexes in the;
rattles as a call.

Raven, vocal organs of the;
stealing bright objects;
pied, of the Feroe Islands.

Rays, prehensile organs of male.

Razor-bill, young of the.

Reade, Winwood, suicide among savages in Africa;
mulattoes not prolific;
effect of castration of horned sheep;
on the Guinea sheep;
on the occurrence of a mane in an African ram;
on singing of negroes;
on the negroes' appreciation of the beauty of their women;
on the admiration of negroes for a black skin;
on the idea of beauty among negroes;
on the Jollofs;
on the marriage-customs of the negroes.

Reason in animals.

Redstart, American, breeding in immature plumage.

Redstarts, new mates found by.

Reduvidae, stridulation of.

Reed-bunting, head-feathers of the male;
attacked by a bullfinch.

Reefs, fishes frequenting.

Reeks, H., retention of horns by breeding deer;
cow rejected by a bull;
destruction of piebald rabbits by cats.

Regeneration, partial, of lost parts in man.

Regent bird.

Reindeer, horns of the;
battles of;
horns of the female;
antlers of, with numerous points;
winter change of the;
sexual preferences shown by.

Relationship, terms of.

Religion, deficiency of among certain races;
psychical elements of.

Remorse, deficiency of, among savages.

Rengger, on the diseases of Cebus Azarae;
on the diversity of the mental faculties of monkeys;
on the Payaguas Indians;
on the inferiority of Europeans to savages in their senses;
revenge taken by monkeys;
on maternal affection in a Cebus;
on the reasoning powers of American monkeys;
on the use of stones by monkeys for cracking hard nuts;
on the sounds uttered by Cebus Azarae;
on the signal-cries of monkeys;
on the polygamous habits of Mycetes caraya;
on the voice of the howling monkeys;
on the odour of Cervus campestris;
on the beards of Mycetes caraya and Pithecia Satanas;
on the colours of Felis mitis;
on the colours of Cervus paludosus;
on sexual differences of colour in Mycetes;
on the colour of the infant Guaranys;
on the early maturity of the female of Cebus Azarae;
on the beards of the Guaranys;
on the emotional notes employed by monkeys;
on American polygamous monkeys.

Representative species, of birds.

Reproduction, unity of phenomena of, throughout the mammalia;
period of, in birds.

Reproductive system, rudimentary structures in the;
accessory parts of.


Reptiles and birds, alliance of.

Resemblances, small, between man and the apes.

Retrievers, exercise of reasoning faculties by.

Revenge, manifested by animals.

Reversion, perhaps the cause of some bad dispositions.

Rhagium, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of.

Rhamphastos carinatus.

Rhea Darwinii.

Rhinoceros, nakedness of;
horns of;
horns of, used defensively;
attacking white or grey horses.

Rhynchaea, sexes and young of.

Rhynchaea australis.

Rhynchaea bengalensis.

Rhynchaea capensis.

Rhythm, perception of, by animals.

Richard, M., on rudimentary muscles in man.

Richardson, Sir J., on the pairing of Tetrao umbellus;
on Tetrao urophasianus;
on the drumming of grouse;
on the dances of Tetrao phasianellus;
on assemblages of grouse;
on the battles of male deer;
on the reindeer;
on the horns of the musk-ox;
on antlers of the reindeer with numerous points;
on the moose;
on the Scotch deerhound.

Richter, Jean Paul, on imagination.

Riedel, on profligate female pigeons.

Riley, Mr., on mimicry in butterflies;
bird's disgust at taste of certain caterpillars.

Ring-ouzel, colours and nidification of the.

Ripa, Father, on the difficulty of distinguishing the races of the Chinese.

Rivalry, in singing, between male birds.

River-hog, African, tusks and knobs of the.

Rivers, analogy of, to islands.

Roach, brightness of the male during breeding-season.

Robbery, of strangers, considered honourable.

Robertson, Mr., remarks on the development of the horns in the roebuck and
red deer.

Robin, pugnacity of the male;
autumn song of the;
female singing of the;
attacking other birds with red in their plumage;
young of the.

Robinet, on the difference of size of the male and female cocoons of the

Rodents, uterus in the;
absence of secondary sexual characters in;
sexual differences in the colours of.

Roe, winter changes of the.

Rohfs, Dr., Caucasian features in negro;
fertility of mixed races in Sahara;
colours of birds in Sahara;
ideas of beauty amongst the Bornuans.

Rolle, F., on the origin of man;
on a change in German families settled in Georgia.

Roller, harsh cry of.

Romans, ancient, gladiatorial exhibitions of the.

Rook, voice of the.

Rossler, Dr., on the resemblance of the lower surface of butterflies to the
bark of trees.

Rostrum, sexual difference in the length of in some weevils.

Royer, Madlle., mammals giving suck.

Rudimentary organs, origin of.

Rudiments, presence of, in languages.

Rudolphi, on the want of connexion between climate and the colour of the

Ruff, supposed to be polygamous;
proportion of the sexes in the;
pugnacity of the;
double moult in;
duration of dances of;
attraction of the, to bright objects.

Ruminants, male, disappearance of canine teeth in;
generally polygamous;
suborbital pits of;
sexual differences of colour in.

Rupicola crocea, display of plumage by the male.

Ruppell, on canine teeth in deer and antelopes.

Russia, numerical proportion of male and female births in.


Rutimeyer, Prof., on the physiognomy of the apes;
on tusks of miocene boar;
on the sexual differences of monkeys.

Rutlandshire, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Sachs, Prof., on the behaviour of the male and female elements in

Sacrifices, human.

Sagittal crest, in male apes and Australians.

Sahara, fertility of mixed races in;
birds of the;
animal inhabitants of the.

Sailors, growth of, delayed by conditions of life;

Sailors and soldiers, difference in the proportions of.

St. John, Mr., on the attachment of mated birds.

St. Kilda, beards of the inhabitants of.

Salmo eriox, and Salmo umbla, colouring of the male,
during the breeding season.

Salmo lycaodon.

Salmo salar.

Salmon, leaping out of fresh water;
male, ready to breed before the female;
proportion of the sexes in;
male, pugnacity of the;
male, characters of, during the breeding season;
spawning of the;
breeding of immature male.

Salvin, O., inheritance of mutilated feathers;
on the Humming-birds;
on the numerical proportion of the sexes in Humming-birds;
on Chamaepetes and Penelope;
on Selasphorus platycercus;
Pipra deliciosa;
on Chasmorhynchus.

Samoa Islands, beardlessness of the natives of.

Sandhoppers, claspers of male.


Sandwich Islands, variation in the skulls of the natives of the;
decrease of native population;
population of;
superiority of the nobles in the.

Sandwich Islanders, lice of.

San-Giuliano, women of.

Santali, recent rapid increase of the;
Mr. Hunter on the.

Saphirina, characters of the males of.

Sarkidiornis melanonotus, characters of the young.

Sars, O., on Pontoporeia affinis.

Saturnia carpini, attraction of males by the female.

Saturnia Io, difference of coloration in the sexes of.

Saturniidae, coloration of the.

Savage, Dr., on the fighting of the male gorillas;
on the habits of the gorilla.

Savage and Wyman on the polygamous habits of the gorilla.

Savages, uniformity of, exaggerated;
rate of increase among, usually small;
retention of the prehensile power of the feet by;
imitative faculties of;
causes of low morality of;
tribes of, supplanting one another;
improvements in the arts among;
arts of;
fondness of, for rough music;
on long-enduring fashions among;
attention paid by, to personal appearance;
relation of the sexes among.

Saviotti, Dr., division of malar bone.

Saw-fly, pugnacity of a male.

Saw-flies, proportions of the sexes in.

Saxicola rubicola, young of.

Scalp, motion of the.

Scent-glands in snakes.

Schaaffhausen, Prof., on the development of the posterior molars in
different races of man;
on the jaw from La Naulette;
on the correlation between muscularity and prominent supra-orbital ridges;
on the mastoid processes of man;
on modifications of the cranial bones;
on human sacrifices;
on the probable speedy extermination of the anthropomorphous apes;
on the ancient inhabitants of Europe;
on the effects of use and disuse of parts;
on the superciliary ridge in man;
on the absence of race-differences in the infant skull in man;
on ugliness.

Schaum, H., on the elytra of Dytiscus and Hydroporus.

Scherzer and Schwarz, measurements of savages.

Schelver, on dragon-flies.

Schiodte, on the stridulation of Heterocerus.

Schlegel, F. von, on the complexity of the languages of uncivilised

Schlegel, Prof., on Tanysiptera.

Schleicher, Prof, on the origin of language.

Schomburgk, Sir R., on the pugnacity of the male musk-duck of Guiana;
on the courtship of Rupicola crocea.

Schoolcraft, Mr., on the difficulty of fashioning stone implements.

Schopenhauer, on importance of courtship to mankind.

Schweinfurth, complexion of negroes.

Sciaena aquila.

Sclater, P.L., on modified secondary wing-feathers in the males of Pipra;
on elongated feathers in nightjars;
on the species of Chasmorhynchus;
on the plumage of Pelecanus onocrotalus;
on the plantain-eaters;
on the sexes and young of Tadorna variegata;
on the colours of Lemur macaco;
on the stripes in asses.

Scolecida, absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Scolopax frenata, tail feathers of;

Scolopax gallinago, drumming of.

Scolopax javensis, tail-feathers of.

Scolopax major, assemblies of.

Scolopax Wilsonii, sound produced by.

Scolytus, stridulation of.

Scoter-duck, black, sexual difference in coloration of the;
bright beak of male.

Scott, Dr., on idiots smelling their food.

Scott, J., on the colour of the beard in man.

Scrope, on the pugnacity of the male salmon;
on the battles of stags.

Scudder, S.H., imitation of the stridulation of the Orthoptera;
on the stridulation of the Acridiidae;
on a Devonian insect;
on stridulation.

Sculpture, expression of the ideal of beauty by.

Sea-anemones, bright colours of.

Sea-bear, polygamous.

Sea-elephant, male, structure of the nose of the;

Sea-lion, polygamous.

Seal, bladder-nose.

Seals, their sentinels generally females;
evidence furnished by, on classification;
polygamous habits of;
battles of male;
canine teeth of male;
sexual differences;
pairing of;
sexual peculiarities of;
in the coloration of;
appreciation of music by.

Sea-scorpion, sexual differences in.

Season, changes of colour in birds, in accordance with the;
changes of plumage of birds in relation to.

Seasons, inheritance at corresponding.

Sebituani, African chief, trying to alter a fashion.

Sebright Bantam.

Secondary sexual characters;
relations of polygamy to;
transmitted through both sexes;
gradation of, in birds.

Sedgwick, W., on hereditary tendency to produce twins.

Seemann, Dr., on the different appreciation of music by different peoples;
on the effects of music.

Seidlitz, on horns of reindeer.

Selasphorus platycercus, acuminate first primary of the male.

Selby, P.J., on the habits of the black and red grouse.

Selection as applied to primeval man.

Selection, double.

Selection, injurious forms of, in civilised nations.

Selection of male by female birds.

Selection, methodical, of Prussian grenadiers.

Selection, sexual, explanation of;
influence of, on the colouring of Lepidoptera.

Selection, sexual and natural, contrasted.

Self-command, habit of, inherited;
estimation of.

Self-consciousness, in animals.

Self-preservation, instinct of.

Self-sacrifice, by savages;
estimation of.

Semilunar fold.

Semnopithecus, long hair on the heads of species of.

Semnopithecus chrysomelas, sexual differences of colour in.

Semnopithecus comatus, ornamental hair on the head of.

Semnopithecus frontatus, beard etc., of.

Semnopithecus nasica, nose of.

Semnopithecus nemaeus, colouring of.

Semnopithecus rubicundus, ornamental hair on the head of.

Senses, inferiority of Europeans to savages in the.

Sentinels, among animals.

Serpents, instinctively dreaded by apes and monkeys.

Serranus, hermaphroditism in.

Setina, noise produced by.

Sex, inheritance limited by.

Sexes, relative proportions of, in man;
proportions of, sometimes influenced by selection;
probable relation of the, in primeval man.

Sexual and natural selection, contrasted.

Sexual characters, effects of the loss of;
limitation of.

Sexual characters, secondary;
relations of polygamy to;
transmitted through both sexes;
gradation of, in birds.

Sexual differences in man.

Sexual selection, explanation of;
influence of, on the colouring of Lepidoptera;
objections to;
action of, in mankind.

Sexual selection in spiders.

Sexual selection, supplemental note on.

Sexual similarity.

Shaler, Prof., sizes of sexes in whales.


Sharks, prehensile organs of male.

Sharpe, Dr., Europeans in the tropics.

Sharpe, R.B., on Tanysiptera sylvia;
on Ceryle;
on the young male of Dacelo Gaudi-chaudi.

Shaw, Mr., on the pugnacity of the male salmon.

Shaw, J., on the decorations of birds.

Sheep, danger-signals of;
sexual differences in the horns of;
horns of;
domestic, sexual differences of, late developed;
numerical proportion of the sexes in;
inheritance of horns by one sex;
effect of castration;
mode of fighting of;
arched foreheads of some.

Sheep, Merino, loss of horns in females of;
horns of.

Shells, difference in form of, in male and female Gasteropoda;
beautiful colours and shapes of.

Shield-drake, pairing with a common duck;
New Zealand, sexes and young of.

Shooter, J., on the Kaffirs;
on the marriage-customs of the Kaffirs.

Shrew-mice, odour of.

Shrike, Drongo.

Shrikes, characters of young.

Shuckard, W.E., on sexual differences in the wings of Hymenoptera.

Shyness of adorned male birds;

Siagonium, proportions of the sexes in;
dimorphism in males of.

Siam, proportion of male and female births in.

Siamese, general beardlessness of the;
notions of beauty of the;
hairy family of.

Sidgwick, H., on morality in hypothetical bee community;
our actions not entirely directed by pain and pleasure.

Siebold, C.T., von, on the proportion of sexes in the Apus;
on the auditory apparatus of the stridulent Orthoptera.

Sight, inheritance of long and short.

Signal-cries of monkeys.

Silk-moth, proportion of the sexes in;
Ailanthus, Prof. Canestrini, on the destruction of its larvae by wasps;
difference of size of the male and female cocoons of the;
pairing of the.

Simiadae, their origin and divisions.

Similarity, sexual.

Singing of the Cicadae and Fulgoridae;
of tree-frogs;
of birds, object of the.

Sirenia, nakedness of.

Sirex juvencus.

Siricidae, difference of the sexes in.

Siskin, pairing with a canary.

Sitana, throat-pouch of the males of.

Size, relative, of the sexes of insects.

Skin, dark colour of, a protection against heat.

Skin, movement of the;
nakedness of, in man;
colour of the.

Skin and hair, correlation of colour of.

Skull, variation of, in man;
cubic contents of, no absolute test of intellect;
Neanderthal, capacity of the;
causes of modification of the;
difference of, in form and capacity, in different races of men;
variability of the shape of the;
differences of, in the sexes in man;
artificial modification of the shape of.

Skunk, odour emitted by the;
white tail of, protective.

Slavery, prevalence of;
of women.

Slaves, difference between field- and house-slaves.

Sloth, ornaments of male.

Smell, sense of, in man and animals.

Smith, Adam, on the basis of sympathy.

Smith, Sir A., on the recognition of women by male Cynocephali;
on revenge by a baboon;
on an instance of memory in a baboon;
on the retention of their colour by the Dutch in South Africa;
on the polygamy of the South African antelopes;
on the polygamy of the lion;
on the proportion of the sexes in Kobus ellipsiprymnus;
on Bucephalus capensis;
on South African lizards;
on fighting gnus;
on the horns of rhinoceroses;
on the fighting of lions;
on the colours of the Cape Eland;
on the colours of the gnu;
on Hottentot notions of beauty;
disbelief in communistic marriages.

Smith, F., on the Cynipidae and Tenthredinidae;
on the relative size of the sexes of Aculeate Hymenoptera;
on the difference between the sexes of ants and bees;
on the stridulation of Trox sabulosus;
on the stridulation of Mononychus pseudacori.

Smynthurus luteus, courtship of.

Snakes, sexual differences of;
mental powers of;
male, ardency of.

"Snarling muscles."

Snipe, drumming of the;
coloration of the.

Snipe, painted, sexes and young of.

Snipe, solitary, assemblies of.

Snipes, arrival of male before the female;
pugnacity of male;
double moult in.

Snow-goose, whiteness of the.

Sociability, the sense of duty connected with;
impulse to, in animals;
manifestations of, in man;
instinct of, in animals.

Social animals, affection of, for each other;
defence of, by the males.

Sociality, probable, of primeval men;
influence of, on the development of the intellectual faculties;
origin of, in man.

Soldiers, American, measurements of.

Soldiers and sailors, difference in the proportions of.

Solenostoma, bright colours and marsupial sac of the females of.

Song, of male birds appreciated by their females;
want of, in brilliant plumaged birds;
of birds.

Sorex, odour of.

Sounds, admired alike by man and animals;
produced by fishes;
produced by male frogs and toads;
instrumentally produced by birds.

Spain, decadence of.

Sparassus smaragdulus, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Sparrow, pugnacity of the male;
acquisition of the Linnet's song by a;
coloration of the;
immature plumage of the.

Sparrow, white-crowned, young of the.

Sparrows, house- and tree-.

Sparrows, new mates found by.

Sparrows, sexes and young of;
learning to sing.

Spathura Underwoodi.

Spawning of fishes.

Spear, used before dispersion of man.

Species, causes of the advancement of;
distinctive characters of;
or races of man;
sterility and fertility of, when crossed;
supposed, of man;
gradation of;
difficulty of defining;
representative, of birds;
of birds, comparative differences between the sexes of distinct.

Spectrum femoratum, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Speech, connection between the brain and the faculty of;
connection of intonation with music.

Spel, of the black-cock.

Spencer, Herbert, on the influence of food on the size of the jaws;
on the dawn of intelligence;
on the origin of the belief in spiritual agencies;
on the origin of the moral sense;
on music.

Spengel, disagrees with explanation of man's hairlessness.

Sperm-whales, battles of male.

Sphingidae, coloration of the.

Sphinx, Humming-bird.

Sphinx, Mr. Bates on the caterpillar of a.

Sphinx moth, musky odour of.

Spiders, parental feeling in;
male, more active than female;
proportion of the sexes in;
secondary sexual characters of;
courtship of male;
attracted by music;
male, small size of.

Spilosoma menthastri, rejected by turkeys.

Spine, alteration of, to suit the erect attitude of man.

Spirits, fondness of monkeys for.

Spiritual agencies, belief in, almost universal.

Spiza cyanea and ciris.

Spoonbill, Chinese, change of plumage in.

Spots, retained throughout groups of birds;
disappearance of, in adult mammals.

Sprengel, C.K., on the sexuality of plants.

Springboc, horns of the.

Sproat, Mr., on the extinction of savages in Vancouver Island;
on the eradication of facial hair by the natives of Vancouver Island;
on the eradication of the beard by the Indians of Vancouver Island.

Spurs, occurrence of, in female fowls;
development of, in various species of Phasianidae;
of Gallinaceous birds;
development of, in female Gallinaceae.

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