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The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin

Part 15 out of 17

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Giard, M., disputes descent of vertebrates from Ascidians;
colour of sponges and Ascidians;
musky odour of Sphinx.

Gibbon, voice of.

Gibbon, Hoolock, nose of.

Gibbs, Sir D., on differences of the voice in different races of men.

Gill, Dr., male seals larger than females;
sexual differences in seals.

Giraffe, its mode of using the horns;
mute, except in the rutting season.

Giraud-Teulon, on the cause of short sight.

Glanders, communicable to man from the lower animals.

Glands, odoriferous, in mammals.

Glareola, double moult in.

Glomeris limbata, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Glow-worm, female, apterous;
luminosity of the.

Gnats, dances of;
auditory powers of.

Gnu, skeletons of, found locked together;
sexual differences in colour of the.

Goat, male, wild, falling on his horns;
male, odour emitted by;
male, wild, crest of the;
Berbura, mane, dewlap, etc., of the male;
Kemas, sexual difference in the colour of the.

Goats, sexual differences in the horns of;
horns of;
mode of fighting of;
domestic, sexual differences of, late developed;
beards of.

Goatsucker, Virginian, pairing of the.

Gobies, nidification of.

God, want of the idea of, in some races of men.

Godron, M., on variability;
on difference of stature;
on the want of connexion between climate and the colour of the skin;
on the colour of the skin;
on the colour of infants.

Goldfinch, proportion of the sexes in the;
sexual differences of the beak in the;
courtship of the.

Goldfinch, North American, young of.


Gomphus, proportions of the sexes in;
difference in the sexes of.

Gonepteryx Rhamni, sexual difference of colour in.

Goodsir, Prof., on the affinity of the lancelet to the ascidians.

Goosander, young of.

Goose, Antarctic, colours of the.

Goose, Canada, pairing with a Bernicle gander.

Goose, Chinese, knob on the beak of the.

Goose, Egyptian.

Goose, Sebastopol, plumage of.

Goose, Snow-, whiteness of the.

Goose, Spur-winged.

Gorilla, semi-erect attitude of the;
mastoid processes of the;
protecting himself from rain with his hands;
manner of sitting;
supposed to be a kind of mandrill;
polygamy of the;
voice of the;
cranium of;
fighting of male.

Gosse, P.H., on the pugnacity of the male Humming-bird.

Gosse, M., on the inheritance of artificial modifications of the skull.

Gould, B.A., on variation in the length of the legs in man;
measurements of American soldiers;
on the proportions of the body and capacity of the lungs in different races
of men;
on the inferior vitality of mulattoes.

Gould, J., on migration of swifts;
on the arrival of male snipes before the females;
on the numerical proportion of the sexes in birds;
on Neomorpha Grypus;
on the species of Eustephanus;
on the Australian musk-duck;
on the relative size of the sexes in Briziura lobata and Cincloramphus
on Lobivanellus lobatus;
on habits of Menura Alberti;
on the rarity of song in brilliant birds;
on Selasphorus platycerus;
on the Bower-birds;
on the ornamental plumage of the Humming-birds;
on the moulting of the ptarmigan;
on the display of plumage by the male Humming-birds;
on the shyness of adorned male birds;
on the decoration of the bowers of Bower-birds;
on the decoration of their nest by Humming-birds;
on variation in the genus Cynanthus;
on the colour of the thighs in a male parrakeet;
on Urosticte Benjamini;
on the nidification of the Orioles;
on obscurely-coloured birds building concealed nests;
on trogons and king-fishers;
on Australian parrots;
on Australian pigeons;
on the moulting of the ptarmigan;
on the immature plumage of birds;
on the Australian species of Turnix;
on the young of Aithurus polytmus;
on the colours of the bills of toucans;
on the relative size of the sexes in the marsupials of Australia;
on the colours of the Marsupials.

Goureaux, on the stridulation of Mutilla europaea.

Gout, sexually transmitted.

Graba, on the Pied Ravens of the Feroe Islands;
variety of the Guillemot.

Gradation of secondary sexual characters in birds.

Grallatores, absence of secondary sexual characters in;
double moult in some.

Grallina, nidification of.

Grasshoppers, stridulation of the.

Gratiolet, Prof., on the anthropomorphous apes;
on the evolution of the anthropomorphous apes;
on the difference in the development of the brains of apes and of man.

Gray, Asa, on the gradation of species among the Compositae.

Gray, J.E., on the caudal vertebrae of monkeys;
on the presence of rudiments of horns in the female of Cervulus moschatus;
on the horns of goats and sheep;
on crests of male antelopes;
on the beard of the ibex;
on the Berbura goat;
on sexual differences in the coloration of Rodents;
ornaments of male sloth;
on the colours of the Elands;
on the Sing-sing antelope;
on the colours of goats;
on Lemur Macaco;
on the hog-deer.

"Greatest happiness principle."

Greeks, ancient.

Green, A.H., on beavers fighting;
on the voice of the beaver.

Greenfinch, selected by a female canary.

Greg, W.R., on the effects of natural selection on civilised nations;
on the early marriages of the poor;
on the Ancient Greeks.

Grenadiers, Prussian.

Greyhounds, numerical proportion of the sexes in;
numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Grouse, red, monogamous;
pugnacity of young male;
producing a sound by beating their wings together;
duration of courtship of;
colours and nidification of.

Gruber, Dr., on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the
humerus of man;
on division of malar bone;
stridulation of locust;
on ephippiger.

Grus americanus, age of mature plumage in;
breeding in immature plumage.

Grus virgo, trachea of.

Gryllus campestris, pugnacity of male.

Gryllus domesticus.

Grypus, sexual differences in the beak in.

Guanacoes, battles of;
canine teeth of.

Guanas, strife for women among the;
polyandry among the.

Guanche skeletons, occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus

Guaranys, proportion of men and women among;
colour of new-born children of the;
beards of the.

Guenee, A., on the sexes of Hyperythra.

Guilding, L., on the stridulation of the Locustidae.

Guillemot, variety of the.

Guinea, sheep of, with males only horned.

Guinea-fowl, monogamous;
occasional polygamy of the;
markings of the.

Guinea-pigs, inheritance of the effects of operations by.

Gulls, seasonal change of plumage in;

Gunther, Dr., on paddle of Ceradotus;
on hermaphroditism in Serranus;
on male fishes hatching ova in their mouths;
on mistaking infertile female fishes for males;
on the prehensile organs of male Plagiostomous fishes;
spines and brushes on fishes;
on the pugnacity of the male salmon and trout;
on the relative size of the sexes in fishes;
on sexual differences in fishes;
on the genus Callionymus;
on a protective resemblance of a pipe-fish;
on the genus Solenostoma;
on the coloration of frogs and toads;
combat of Testudo elegans;
on the sexual differences in the Ophidia;
on differences of the sexes of lizards.

Gynanisa Isis, ocellated spots of.

Gypsies, uniformity of, in various parts of the world.

Habits, bad, facilitated by familiarity;
variability of the force of.

Haeckel, E., on the origin of man;
on rudimentary characters;
on death caused by inflammation of the vermiform appendage;
on the canine teeth in man;
on the steps by which man became a biped;
on man as a member of the Catarrhine group;
on the position of the Lemuridae;
on the genealogy of the Mammalia;
on the lancelet;
on the transparency of pelagic animals;
on the musical powers of women.

Hagen, H., and Walsh, B.D., on American Neuroptera.

Hair, development of, in man;
character of, supposed to be determined by light and heat;
distribution of, in man;
possibly removed for ornamental purposes;
arrangement and direction of;
of the early progenitors of man;
different texture of, in distinct races;
and skin, correlation of colour of;
development of, in mammals;
management of, among different peoples;
great length of, in some North American tribes;
elongation of the, on the human head;
possible inherited effect of plucking out.

Hairiness, difference of, in the sexes in man;
variation of, in races of men.

Hairs and excretory pores, numerical relation of, in sheep.

Hairy family, Siamese.

Halbertsma, Prof., hermaphroditism in Serranus.

Hamadryas baboon, turning over stones;
mane of the male.

Hamilton, C., on the cruelty of the Kaffirs to animals;
on the engrossment of the women by the Kaffir chiefs.

Hammering, difficulty of.

Hancock, A., on the colours of the nudibranch Mollusca.

Hands, larger at birth, in the children of labourers;
structure of, in the quadrumana;
and arms, freedom of, indirectly correlated with diminution of canines.

Handwriting, inherited.

Handyside, Dr., supernumerary mammae in men.

Harcourt, E. Vernon, on Fringilla cannabina.

Hare, protective colouring of the.

Harelda glacialis.

Hares, battles of male.

Harlan, Dr., on the difference between field- and house-slaves.

Harris, J.M., on the relation of complexion to climate.

Harris, T.W., on the Katy-did locust;
on the stridulation of the grasshoppers;
on Oecanthus nivalis;
on the colouring of Lepidoptera;
on the colouring of Saturnia Io.

Harting, spur of the Ornithorhynchus.

Hartman, Dr., on the singing of Cicada septendecim.

Hatred, persistence of.

Haughton, S., on a variation of the flexor pollicis longus in man.

Hawks, feeding orphan nestling.

Hayes, Dr., on the diverging of sledge-dogs on thin ice.

Haymond, R., on the drumming of the male Tetrao umbellus;
on the drumming of birds.

Head, altered position of, to suit the erect attitude of man;
hairiness of, in man;
processes of, in male beetles;
artificial alterations of the form of the.

Hearne, on strife for women among the North American Indians;
on the North American Indians' notion of female beauty;
repeated elopements of a North American woman.

Heart, in the human embryo.

Heat, supposed effects of.


Hedge-warbler, young of the.

Heel, small projection of, in the Aymara Indians.

Hegt, M., on the development of the spurs in peacocks.

Heliconidae, mimicry of, by other butterflies.

Heliopathes, stridulation peculiar to the male.

Heliothrix auriculata, young of.

Helix pomatia, example of individual attachment in.

Hellins, J., proportions of sexes of Lepidoptera reared by.

Helmholtz, on pleasure derived from harmonies;
on the human eye;
on the vibration of the auditory hairs of crustacea;
the physiology of harmony.


Hemitragus, beardless in both sexes.

Hemsbach, M. von, on medial mamma in man.

Hen, clucking of.

Hepburn, Mr., on the autumn song of the water-ouzel.

Hepialus humuli, sexual difference of colour in the.

Herbs, poisonous, avoided by animals.

Hermaphroditism, of embryos;
in fishes.

Herodias bubulcus, vernal moult of.

Heron, Sir R., on the habits of peafowl.

Herons, love-gestures of;
decomposed feathers in;
breeding plumage of;
young of the;
sometimes dimorphic;
continued growth of crest and plumes in the males of some;
change of colour in some.

Hesperomys cognatus.

Hetaerina, proportion of the sexes in;
difference in the sexes of.

Heterocerus, stridulation of.

Hewitt, Mr., on a game-cock killing a kite;
on the recognition of dogs and cats by ducks;
on the pairing of a wild duck with a pintail drake;
on the courtship of fowls;
on the coupling of pheasants with common hens.

Hilgendorf, sounds produced by crustaceans.

Hindoo, his horror of breaking his caste.

Hindoos, local difference of stature among;
difference of, from Europeans;
colour of the beard in.

Hipparchia Janira, instability of the ocellated spots of.

Hippocampus, development of;
marsupial receptacles of the male.

Hippocampus minor.

Hippopotamus, nakedness of.

Hips, proportions of, in soldiers and sailors.

Hodgson, S., on the sense of duty.

Hoffberg, on the horns of the reindeer;
on sexual preferences shewn by reindeer.

Hoffman, Prof., protective colours;
fighting of frogs.

Hog, wart-;


Holland, Sir H., on the effects of new diseases.

Homologous structures, correlated variation of.

Homoptera, stridulation of the, and Orthoptera, discussed.

Honduras, Quiscalus major in.

Honey-buzzard of India, variation in the crest of.

Honey-sucker, females and young of.

Honey-suckers, moulting of the;
Australian, nidification of.

Honour, law of.

Hooker, Dr., forbearance of elephant to his keeper;
on the colour of the beard in man.

Hookham, Mr., on mental concepts in animals.

Hoolock Gibbon, nose of.

Hoopoe, sounds produced by male.

Hoplopterus armatus, wing-spurs of.

Hornbill, African, inflation of the neck-wattle of the male during

Hornbills, sexual difference in the colour of the eyes in;
nidification and incubation of.

Horne, C., on the rejection of a brightly-coloured locust by lizards and

Horns, sexual differences of, in sheep and goats;
loss of, in female merino sheep;
development of, in deer;
development in antelopes;
from the head and thorax, in male beetles;
of deer;
originally a masculine character in sheep;
and canine teeth, inverse development of.

Horse, fossil, extinction of the, in South America;
canine teeth of male;
winter change of colour.

Horses, rapid increase of, in South America;
diminution of canine teeth in;
of the Falkland Islands and Pampas;
numerical proportion of the sexes, in;
lighter in winter in Siberia;
sexual preferences in;
pairing preferently with those of the same colour;
numerical proportion of male and female births in;
formerly striped.

Hottentot women, peculiarities of.

Hottentots, lice of;
readily become musicians;
notions of female beauty of the;
compression of nose by.

Hough, Dr. S., men's temperature more variable than women's;
proportion of sexes in man.

House-slaves, difference of, from field-slaves.

Houzeau, on the baying of the dog;
on reason in dogs;
birds killed by telegraph wires;
on the cries of domestic fowls and parrots;
animals feel no pity;
suicide in the Aleutian Islands.

Howorth, H.H., extinction of savages.

Huber, P., on ants playing together;
on memory in ants;
on the intercommunication of ants;
on the recognition of each other by ants after separation.

Huc, on Chinese opinions of the appearance of Europeans.

Huia, the, of New Zealand.

Human, man, classed alone in a kingdom.

Human sacrifices.

Humanity, unknown among some savages;
deficiency of, among savages.

Humboldt, A. von, on the rationality of mules;
on a parrot preserving the language of a lost tribe;
on the cosmetic arts of savages;
on the exaggeration of natural characters by man;
on the red painting of American Indians.

Hume, D., on sympathetic feelings.

Humming-bird, racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a;
display of plumage by the male.

Humming-birds, ornament their nests;
proportion of the sexes in;
sexual differences in;
pugnacity of male;
modified primaries of male;
coloration of the sexes of;
display by;
nidification of the;
colours of female;
young of.

Humour, sense of, in dogs.

Humphreys, H.N., on the habits of the stickleback.

Hunger, instinct of.

Huns, ancient, flattening of the nose by the.

Hunter, J., on the number of species of man;
on secondary sexual characters;
on the general behaviour of female animals during courtship;
on the muscles of the larynx in song-birds;
on strength of males;
on the curled frontal hair of the bull;
on the rejection of an ass by a female zebra.

Hunter, W.W., on the recent rapid increase of the Santali;
on the Santali.

Huss, Dr. Max, on mammary glands.

Hussey, Mr., on a partridge distinguishing persons.

Hutchinson, Col., example of reasoning in a retriever.

Hutton, Captain, on the male wild goat falling on his horns.

Huxley, T.H., on the structural agreement of man with the apes;
on the agreement of the brain in man with that of lower animals;
on the adult age of the orang;
on the embryonic development of man;
on the origin of man;
on variation in the skulls of the natives of Australia;
on the abductor of the fifth metatarsal in apes;
on the nature of the reasoning power;
on the position of man;
on the suborders of primates;
on the Lemuridae;
on the Dinosauria;
on the amphibian affinities of the Ichthyosaurians;
on variability of the skull in certain races of man;
on the races of man;
Supplement on the brain.

Hybrid birds, production of.

Hydrophobia, communicable between man and the lower animals.

Hydroporus, dimorphism of females of.

Hyelaphus porcinus.


Hyla, singing species of.

Hylobates, absence of the thumb in;
upright progression of some species of;
maternal affection in a;
direction of the hair on the arms of species of;
females of, less hairy below than males.

Hylobates agilis, hair on the arms of;
musical voice of the;
superciliary ridge of;
voice of.

Hylobates hoolock, sexual difference of colour in.

Hylobates lar, hair on the arms of;
female less hairy.

Hylobates leuciscus, song of.

Hylobates syndactylus, laryngeal sac of.

Hylophila prasinana.

Hymonoptera, large size of the cerebral ganglia in;
classification of;
sexual differences in the wings of;
aculeate, relative size of the sexes of.

Hymenopteron, parasitic, with a sedentary male.

Hyomoschus aquaticus.

Hyperythra, proportion of the sexes in.

Hypogymna dispar, sexual difference of colour in.

Hypopyra, coloration of.

Ibex, male, falling on his horns;
beard of the.

Ibis, white, change of colour of naked skin in, during the breeding season;
scarlet, young of the.

Ibis tantalus, age of mature plumage in;
breeding in immature plumage.

Ibises, decomposed feathers in;
and black.

Ichneumonidae, difference of the sexes in.



Idiots, microcephalous, their characters and habits;
hairiness and animal nature of their actions;
microcephalous, imitative faculties of.

Iguana tuberculata.


illegitimate and legitimate children, proportion of the sexes in.

Imagination, existence of, in animals.

Imitation, of man by monkeys;
tendency to, in monkeys,;
microcephalous idiots and savages;
influence of.

Immature plumage of birds.


Implements, employed by monkeys;
fashioning of, peculiar to man.

Impregnation, period of, influence of, upon sex.

Improvement, progressive, man alone supposed to be capable of.

Incisor teeth, knocked out or filed by some savages.

Increase, rate of;
necessity of checks in.

Indecency, hatred of, a modern virtue.

India, difficulty of distinguishing the native races of;
Cyprinidae of;
colour of the beard in races of men of.

Indian, North American, honoured for scalping a man of another tribe.

Individuality, in animals.

Indolence of man, when free from a struggle for existence.

Indopicus carlotta, colours of the sexes of.

Infanticide, prevalence of;
supposed cause of;
prevalence and causes of.

Inferiority, supposed physical, of man.

Inflammation of the bowels, occurrence of, in Cebus Azarae.

Inheritance, of long and short sight;
of effects of use of vocal and mental organs;
of moral tendencies;
laws of;
sexually limited.

Inquisition, influence of the.

Insanity, hereditary.

insect, fossil, from the Devonian.

Insectivora, absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Insects, relative size of the cerebral ganglia in;
male, appearance of, before the females;
pursuit of female, by the males;
period of development of sexual characters in;
secondary sexual characters of;
kept in cages;

Insessores, vocal organs of.

Instep, depth of, in soldiers and sailors.

Instinct and intelligence.

Instinct, migratory, vanquishing the maternal.

Instinctive actions, the result of inheritance.

Instinctive impulses, difference of the force;
and moral impulses, alliance of.

Instincts, complex origin of, through natural selection;
possible origin of some;
acquired, of domestic animals;
variability of the force of;
difference of force between the social and other;
utilised for new purposes.

Instrumental music of birds.

Intellect, influence of, in natural selection in civilised society.

Intellectual faculties, their influence on natural selection in man;
probably perfected through natural selection.

Intelligence, Mr. H. Spencer on the dawn of.

Intemperance, no reproach among savages;
its destructiveness.

Intoxication in monkeys.

Iphias glaucippe.

Iris, sexual difference in the colour of the, in birds.

Ischio-pubic muscle.

Ithaginis cruentus, number of spurs in.

Iulus, tarsal suckers of the males of.

Jackals learning from dogs to bark.

Jack-snipe, coloration of the.

Jacquinot, on the number of species of man.

Jaeger, Dr., length of bones increased from carrying weights;
on the difficulty of approaching herds of wild animals;
male Silver-pheasant, rejected when his plumage was spoilt.

Jaguars, black.

Janson, E.W., on the proportions of the sexes in Tomicus villosus;
on stridulant beetles.

Japan, encouragement of licentiousness in.

Japanese, general beardlessness of the;
aversion of the, to whiskers.

Jardine, Sir W., on the Argus pheasant.

Jarrold, Dr., on modifications of the skull induced by unnatural position.

Jarves, Mr., on infanticide in the Sandwich Islands.

Javans, relative height of the sexes of;
notions of female beauty.

Jaw, influence of the muscles of the, upon the physiognomy of the apes.

Jaws, smaller proportionately to the extremities;
influence of food upon the size of;
diminution of, in man;
in man, reduced by correlation.

Jay, young of the;
Canada, young of the.

Jays, new mates found by;
distinguishing persons.

Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, on the form of the shell in the sexes of the
on the influence of light upon the colours of shells.

Jelly-fish, bright colours of some.

Jenner, Dr., on the voice of the rook;
on the finding of new mates by magpies;
on retardation of the generative functions in birds.

Jenyns, L., on the desertion of their young by swallows;
on male birds singing after the proper season.

Jerdon, Dr., on birds dreaming;
on the pugnacity of the male bulbul;
on the pugnacity of the male Ortygornis gularis;
on the spurs of Galloperdix;
on the habits of Lobivanellus;
on the spoonbill;
on the drumming of the Kalij-pheasant;
on Indian bustards;
on Otis bengalensis;
on the ear-tufts of Sypheotides auritus;
on the double moults of certain birds;
on the moulting of the honeysuckers;
on the moulting of bustards, plovers, and drongos;
on the spring change of colour in some finches;
on display in male birds;
on the display of the under-tail coverts by the male bulbul;
on the Indian honey-buzzard;
on sexual differences in the colour of the eyes of hornbills;
on the markings of the Tragopan pheasant;
on the nidification of the Orioles;
on the nidification of the hornbills;
on the Sultan yellow-tit;
on Palaeornis javanicus;
on the immature plumage of birds;
on representative species of birds;
on the habits of Turnix;
on the continued increase of beauty of the peacock;
on coloration in the genus Palaeornis.

Jevons, W.S., on the migrations of man.

Jews, ancient use of flint tools by the;
uniformity of, in various parts of the world;
numerical proportion of male and female births among the;
ancient, tattooing practised by.

Johnstone, Lieut., on the Indian elephant.

Jollofs, fine appearance of the.

Jones, Albert, proportion of sexes of Lepidoptera, reared by.

Juan Fernandez, humming-birds of.

Junonia, sexual differences of colouring in species of.

Jupiter, comparison with Assyrian effigies.

Kaffir skull, occurrence of the diastema in a.

Kaffirs, their cruelty to animals;
lice of the;
colour of the;
engrossment of the handsomest women by the chiefs of the;
marriage-customs of the.

Kalij-pheasant, drumming of the male;
young of.

Kallima, resemblance of, to a withered leaf.

Kulmucks, general beardlessness of;
aversion of, to hairs on the face;
marriage-customs of the.

Kangaroo, great red, sexual difference in the colour of.

Kant, Imm., on duty;
on self-restraint;
on the number of species of man.

Katy-did, stridulation of the.

Keen, Dr., on the mental powers of snakes.

Keller, Dr., on the difficulty of fashioning stone implements.

Kent, W.S., elongation of dorsal fin of Callionymus lyra;
courtship of Labrus mixtus;
colours and courtship of Cantharus lineatus.

Kestrels, new mates found by.

Kidney, one, doing double work in disease.

King, W.R., on the vocal organs of Tetrao cupido;
on the drumming of grouse;
on the reindeer;
on the attraction of male deer by the voice of the female.

King and Fitzroy, on the marriage-customs of the Fuegians.

King-crows, nidification of.

Kingfisher, racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a.

Kingfishers, colours and nidification of the;
immature plumage of the;
young of the.

King Lory, immature plumage of the.

Kingsley, C., on the sounds produced by the Umbrina.

Kirby and Spence, on sexual differences in the length of the snout in
on the courtship of insects;
on the elytra of Dytiscus;
on peculiarities in the legs of male insects;
on the relative size of the sexes in insects;
on the Fulgoridae;
on the habits of the Termites;
on difference of colour in the sexes of beetles;
on the horns of the male lamellicorn beetles;
on hornlike processes in male Curculionidae;
on the pugnacity of the male stag-beetle.

Kite, killed by a game-cock.

Knot, retention of winter plumage by the.

Knox, R., on the semilunar fold;
on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of man;
on the features of the young Memmon.

Koala, length of the caecum in.

Kobus ellipsiprymnus, proportion of the sexes in.

Kolreuter, on the sterility of hybrid plants.

Koodoo, development of the horns of the;
markings of the.

Koppen, F.T., on the migratory locust.

Koraks, marriage customs of.

Kordofan, protuberances artificially produced by natives of.

Korte, on the proportion of sexes in locusts;
Russian locusts.

Kovalevsky, A., on the affinity of the Ascidia to the Vertebrata.

Kovalevsky, W., on the pugnacity of the male capercailzie;
on the pairing of the capercailzie.

Krause, on a convoluted body at the extremity of the tail in a Macacus and
a cat.

Kupffer, Prof., on the affinity of the Ascidia to the Vertebrata.

Labidocera Darwinii, prehensile organs of the male.

Labrus, splendid colours of the species of.

Labrus mixtus, sexual differences in.

Labrus pavo.

Lacertilia, sexual differences of.

Lafresnaye, M. de, on birds of paradise.

Lamarck, on the origin of man.


Lamellicorn beetles, horn-like processes from the head and thorax of;
influence of sexual selection on.

Lamellicornia, stridulation of.

Lamont, Mr., on the tusks of the walrus;
on the use of its tusks by the walrus;
on the bladder-nose seal.

Lampornis porphyrurus, colours of the female.

Lampyridae, distasteful to mammals.


Landois, H., gnats attracted by sound;
on the production of sound by the Cicadae;
on the stridulating organ of the crickets;
on Decticus;
on the stridulating organs of the Acridiidae;
stridulating apparatus, in Orthoptera;
on the stridulation of Necrophorus;
on the stridulant organ of Cerambyx heros;
on the stridulant organ of Geotrupes;
on the stridulating organs in the Cleoptera;
on the ticking of Anobium.

Landor, Dr., on remorse for not obeying tribal custom.

Language, an art;
articulate, origin of;
relation of the progress of, to the development of the brain;
effects of inheritance in production of;
complex structure of, among barbarous nations;
natural selection in;
of a lost tribe preserved by a parrot.

Languages, presence of rudiments in;
classification of;
variability of;
crossing or blending of;
complexity of, no test of perfection or proof of special creation;
resemblance of, evidence of community of origin.

Languages and species, identity of evidence of their gradual development.

Lanius, characters of young.

Lanius rufus, anomalous young of.

Lankester, E.R., on comparative longevity;
on the destructive effects of intemperance.

Lanugo of the human foetus.

Lapponian language, highly artificial.

Lark, proportion of the sexes in the;
female, singing of the.

Larks, attracted by a mirror.

Lartet, E., comparison of cranial capacities of skulls of recent and
tertiary mammals;
on the size of the brain in mammals;
on Dryopithecus;
on pre-historic flutes.

Larus, seasonal change of plumage in.

Larva, luminous, of a Brazilian beetle.

Larynx, muscles of the, in songbirds.

Lasiocampa quercus, attraction of males by the female;
sexual difference of colour in.

Latham, R.G., on the migrations of man.

Latooka, perforation of the lower lip by the women of.

Laurillard, on the abnormal division of the malar bone in man.

Lawrence, W., on the superiority of savages to Europeans in power of sight;
on the colour of negro infants;
on the fondness of savages for ornaments;
on beardless races;
on the beauty of the English aristocracy.

Layard, E.L., on the instance of rationality in a cobra;
on the pugnacity of Gallus Stanleyi.

Laycock, Dr., on vital periodicity;
theroid nature of idiots.

Leaves, autumn, tints useless.

Lecky, Mr., on the sense of duty;
on suicide;
on the practice of celibacy;
his view of the crimes of savages;
on the gradual rise of morality.

Leconte, J.L., on the stridulant organ in the Coprini and Dynastini.

Lee, H., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in the trout.

Leg, calf of the, artificially modified.

Legitimate and illegitimate children, proportion of the sexes in.

Legs, variation of the length of the, in man;
proportions of, in soldiers and sailors;
front, atrophied in some male butterflies;
peculiarities of, in male insects.

Leguay, on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of

Lek of the black-cock and capercailzie.

Lemoine, Albert, on the origin of language.

Lemur macaco, sexual difference of colour in.

Lemuridae, ears of the;
variability of the muscles in the;
position and derivation of the;
their origin.

Lemurs, uterus in the.

Lenguas, disfigurement of the ears of the.

Leopards, black.

Lepidoptera, numerical proportions of the sexes in the;
colouring of;
ocellated spots of.


Leptalides, mimicry of.

Leptorhynchus angustatus, pugnacity of male.

Leptura testacea, difference of colour in the sexes.

Leroy, on the wariness of young foxes in hunting-districts;
on the desertion of their young by swallows.

Leslie, D., marriage customs of Kaffirs.

Lesse, valley of the.

Lesson, on the birds of paradise;
on the sea-elephant.

Lessona, M., observations on Serranus.

Lethrus cephalotes, pugnacity of the males of.

Leuciscus phoxinus.

Leuckart, R., on the vesicula prostatica;
on the influence of the age of parents on the sex of offspring.

Levator claviculae muscle.

Libellula depressa, colour of the male.

Libellulidae, relative size of the sexes of;
difference in the sexes of.

Lice of domestic animals and man.

Licentiousness a check upon population;
prevalence of, among savages.

Lichtenstein, on Chera progne.

Life, inheritance at corresponding periods of.

Light, effects on complexion;
influence of, upon the colours of shells.

Lilford, Lord, the ruff attracted by bright objects.

Limosa lapponica.


Linaria montana.

Lindsay, Dr. W.L., diseases communicated from animals to man;
madness in animals;
the dog considers his master his God.

Linnaeus, views of, as to the position of man.

Linnet, numerical proportion of the sexes in the;
crimson forehead and breast of the;
courtship of the.

Lion, polygamous;
mane of the, defensive;
roaring of the.

Lions, stripes of young.

Lips, piercing of the, by savages.

Lithobius, prehensile appendages of the female.

Lithosia, coloration in.

Littorina littorea.

Livingstone, Dr., manner of sitting of gorilla;
on the influence of dampness and dryness on the colour of the skin;
on the liability of negroes to tropical fevers after residence in a cold
on the spur-winged goose;
on weaverbirds;
on an African night-jar;
on the battle-scars of South African male mammals;
on the removal of the upper incisors by the Batokas;
on the perforation of the upper lip by the Makalolo;
on the Banyai.

Livonia, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Lizards, relative size of the sexes of;
gular pouches of.

Lloyd, L., on the polygamy of the capercailzie and bustard;
on the numerical proportion of the sexes in the capercailzie and blackcock;
on the salmon;
on the colours of the sea-scorpion;
on the pugnacity of male grouse;
on the capercailzie and blackcock;
on the call of the capercailzie;
on assemblages of grouse and snipes;
on the pairing of a shield-drake with a common duck;
on the battles of seals;
on the elk.

Lobivanellus, wing-spurs in.

Local influences, effect of, upon stature.

Lockwood, Mr., on the development of Hippocampus.

Lockwood, Rev. S., musical mouse.

Locust, bright-coloured, rejected by lizards and birds.

Locust, migratory;
selection by female.

Locustidae, stridulation of the;
descent of the.

Locusts, proportion of sexes in;
stridulation of.

Longicorn beetles, difference of the sexes of, in colour;
stridulation of.

Lonsdale, Mr., on an example of personal attachment in Helix pomatia.

Lophobranchii, marsupial receptacles of the male.

Lophophorus, habits of.

Lophorina atra, sexual difference in coloration of.

Lophornis ornatus.

Lord, J.K., on Salmo lycaodon.

Lory, King;
immature plumage of the.

Lory, king, constancy of.

Love-antics and dances of birds.

Lowne, B.T., on Musca vomitoria.

Loxia, characters of young of.

Lubbock, Sir J., on the antiquity of man;
on the origin of man;
on the mental capacity of savages;
on the origin of implements;
on the simplification of languages;
on the absence of the idea of God among certain races of men;
on the origin of the belief in spiritual agencies;
on superstitions;
on the sense of duty;
on the practice of burying the old and sick among the Fijians;
on the immorality of savages;
on Mr. Wallace's claim to the origination of the idea of natural selection;
on the former barbarism of civilised nations;
on improvements in the arts among savages;
on resemblances of the mental characters in different races of men;
on the arts practised by savages;
on the power of counting in primeval man;
on the prehensile organs of the male Labidocera Darwinii;
on Chloeon;
on Smynthurus luteus;
finding of new mates by jays;
on strife for women among the North American Indians;
on music;
on the ornamental practices of savages;
on the estimation of the beard among the Anglo-Saxons;
on artificial deformation of the skull;
on "communal marriages;"
on exogamy;
on the Veddahs;
on polyandry.

Lucanidae, variability of the mandibles in the male.

Lucanus, large size of males of.

Lucanus cervus, numerical proportion of sexes of;
weapons of the male.

Lucanus elaphus, use of mandibles of;
large jaws of male.

Lucas, Prosper, on pigeons;
on sexual preference in horses and bulls.

Luminosity in insects.

Lunar periods.

Lund, Dr., on skulls found in Brazilian caves.

Lungs, enlargement of, in the Quichua and Aymara Indians;
a modified swim-bladder;
different capacity of, in races of man.

Luschka, Prof., on the termination of the coccyx.

Luxury, expectation of life uninfluenced by.

Lycaena, sexual differences of colour in species of.

Lycaenae, colours of.

Lyell, Sir C., on the antiquity of man;
on the origin of man;
on the parallelism of the development of species and languages;
on the extinction of languages;
on the Inquisition;
on the fossil remains of vertebrata;
on the fertility of mulattoes.

Lynx, Canadian throat-ruff of the.

Lyre-bird, assemblies of.

Macacus, ears of;
convoluted body in the extremity of the tail of;
variability of the tail in species of;
whiskers of species of.

Macacus brunneus.

Macacus cynomolgus, superciliary ridge of;
beard and whiskers of;
becoming white with age.

Macacus ecaudatus.

Macacus lasiotus, facial spots of.

Macacus nemestrinus.

Macacus radiatus.

Macacus rhesus, sexual difference in the colour of.

Macalister, Prof., on variations of the palmaris accessorius muscle;
on muscular abnormalities in man;
on the greater variability of the muscles in men than in women.

Macaws, Mr. Buxton's observations on.

McCann, J., on mental individuality.

McClelland, J., on the Indian Cyprinidae.

Macculloch, Col., on an Indian village without any female children.

Macculloch, Dr., on tertian ague in a dog.

Macgillivray, W., on the vocal organs of birds;
on the Egyptian goose;
on the habits of woodpeckers;
on the habits of the snipe;
on the whitethroat;
on the moulting of the snipes;
on the moulting of the Anatidae;
on the finding of new mates by magpies;
on the pairing of a blackbird and thrush;
on pied ravens;
on the guillemots;
on the colours of the tits;
on the immature plumage of birds.

Machetes, sexes and young of.

Machetes pugnax, supposed to be polygamous;
numerical proportion of the sexes in;
pugnacity of the male;
double moult in.

McIntosh, Dr., colours of the Nemertians.

McKennan, marriage customs of Koraks.

Mackintosh, on the moral sense.

MacLachlan, R., on Apatania muliebris and Boreus hyemalis;
on the anal appendages of male insects;
on the pairing of dragon-flies;
on dragon-flies;
on dimorphism in Agrion;
on the want of pugnacity in male dragon-flies;
colour of ghost-moth in the Shetland Islands.

M'Lennan, Mr., on infanticide;
on the origin of the belief in spiritual agencies;
on the prevalence of licentiousness among savages;
on the primitive barbarism of civilised nations;
on traces of the custom of the forcible capture of wives;
on polyandry.

Macnamara, Mr., susceptibility of Andaman islanders and Nepalese to change.

M'Neill, Mr., on the use of the antlers of deer;
on the Scotch deerhound;
on the long hairs on the throat of the stag;
on the bellowing of stags.

Macropus, courtship of.

Macrorhinus proboscideus, structure of the nose of.

Magpie, power of speech of;
vocal organs of the;
nuptial assemblies of;
new mates found by;
stealing bright objects;
young of the;
coloration of the.

Maillard, M., on the proportion of the sexes in a species of Papilio from

Maine, Sir Henry, on the absorption of one tribe by another;
a desire for improvement not general.

Major, Dr. C. Forsyth, on fossil Italian apes;
skull of Bos etruscus;
tusks of miocene pigs.

Makalolo, perforation of the upper lip by the.

Malar bone, abnormal division of, in man.

Malay, Archipelago, marriage-customs of the savages of the.

Malays, line of separation between the Papuans and the;
general beardlessness of the;
staining of the teeth among;
aversion of some, to hairs on the face.

Malays and Papuans, contrasted characters of.

Male animals, struggles of, for the possession of the females;
eagerness of, in courtship;
generally more modified than female;
differ in the same way from females and young.

Male characters, developed in females;
transfer of, to female birds.

Male, sedentary, of a hymenopterous parasite.


Males, presence of rudimentary female organs in.

Males and females, comparative numbers of;
comparative mortality of, while young.

Malherbe, on the woodpeckers.

Mallotus Peronii.

Mallotus villosus.

Malthus, T., on the rate of increase of population.

Maluridae, nidification of the.

Malurus, young of.

Mammae, rudimentary, in male mammals;
supernumerary, in women;
of male human subject.

Mammalia, Prof. Owen's classification of;
genealogy of the.

Mammals, recent and tertiary, comparison of cranial capacity of;
nipples of;
pursuit of female, by the males;
secondary sexual characters of;
weapons of;
relative size of the sexes of;
parallelism of, with birds in secondary sexual characters;
voices of, used especially during the breeding season.

Man, variability of;
erroneously regarded as more domesticated than other animals;
migrations of;
wide distribution of;
causes of the nakedness of;
supposed physical inferiority of;
a member of the Catarrhine group;
early progenitors of;
transition from ape indefinite;
numerical proportions of the sexes in;
difference between the sexes;
proportion of sexes amongst the illegitimate;
different complexion of male and female negroes;
secondary sexual characters of;
primeval condition of.

Mandans, correlation of colour and texture of hair in the.

Mandible, left, enlarged in the male of Taphroderes distortus.

Mandibles, use of the, in Ammophila;
large, of Corydalis cornutus;
large, of male Lucanus elaphus.

Mandrill, number of caudal vertebrae in the;
colours of the male.

Mantegazza, Prof., on last molar teeth of man;
bright colours in male animals;
on the ornaments of savages;
on the beardlessness of the New Zealanders;
on the exaggeration of natural characters by man.

Mantell, W., on the engrossment of pretty girls by the New Zealand chiefs.

Mantis, pugnacity of species of.

Maories, mortality of;
infanticide and proportion of sexes;
distaste for hairiness amongst men.

Marcus Aurelius, on the origin of the moral sense;
on the influence of habitual thoughts.

Mareca penelope.

Marks, retained throughout groups of birds.

Marriage, restraints upon, among savages;
influence of, upon morals;
influence of, on mortality;
development of.

Marriages, early;

Marshall, Dr. W., protuberances on birds' heads;
on the moulting of birds;
advantage to older birds of paradise.

Marshall, Col., interbreeding amongst Todas;
infanticide and proportion of sexes with Todas;
choice of husband amongst Todas.

Marshall, Mr., on the brain of a Bushwoman.

Marsupials, development of the nictitating membrane in;
uterus of;
possession of nipples by;
their origin from Monotremata;
abdominal sacs of;
relative size of the sexes of;
colours of.

Marsupium, rudimentary in male marsupials.

Martin, W.C.L., on alarm manifested by an orang at the sight of a turtle;
on the hair in Hylobates;
on a female American deer;
on the voice of Hylobates agilis;
on Semnopithecus nemaeus.

Martin, on the beards of the inhabitants of St. Kilda.

Martins deserting their young.

Martins, C., on death caused by inflammation of the vermiform appendage.

Mastoid processes in man and apes.

Maudsley, Dr., on the influence of the sense of smell in man;
on idiots smelling their food;
on Laura Bridgman;
on the development of the vocal organs;
moral sense failing in incipient madness;
change of mental faculties at puberty in man.

Mayers, W.F., on the domestication of the goldfish in China.

Mayhew, E., on the affection between individuals of different sexes in the

Maynard, C.J., on the sexes of Chrysemys picta.

Meckel, on correlated variation of the muscles of the arm and leg.

Medicines, effect produced by, the same in man and in monkeys.

Medusae, bright colours of some.

Megalithic structures, prevalence of.

Megapicus validus, sexual difference of colour in.

Megasoma, large size of males of.

Meigs, Dr. A., on variation in the skulls of the natives of America.

Meinecke, on the numerical proportion of the sexes in butterflies.

Melanesians, decrease of.

Meldola, Mr., colours and marriage flight of Colias and Pieris.

Meliphagidae, Australian, nidification of.

Melita, secondary sexual characters of.

Meloe, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of.

Memnon, young.

Memory, manifestations of, in animals.

Mental characters, difference of, in different races of men.

Mental faculties, diversity of, in the same race of men;
inheritance of;
variation of, in the same species;
similarity of the, in different races of man;
of birds.

Mental powers, difference of, in the two sexes in man.

Menura Alberti, song of.

Menura superba, long tails of both sexes of.

Merganser, trachea of the male.

Merganser serrator, male plumage of.

Mergus cucullatus, speculum of.

Mergus merganser, young of.

Metallura, splendid tail-feathers of.

Methoca ichneumonides, large male of.

Meves, M., on the drumming of the snipe.

Mexicans, civilisation of the, not foreign.

Meyer, on a convoluted body at the extremity of the tail in a Macacus and a

Meyer, Dr. A., on the copulation of Phryganidae of distinct species.

Meyer, Prof. L., on development of helix of ear;
men's ears more variable than women's;
antennae serving as ears.

Migrations of man, effects of.

Migratory instinct of birds;
vanquishing the maternal.

Mill, J.S., on the origin of the moral sense;
on the "greatest happiness principle;"
on the difference of the mental powers in the sexes of man.


Milne-Edwards, H., on the use of enlarged chelae of the male Gelasimus.

Milvago leucurus, sexes and young of.


Mimus polyglottus.

Mind, difference of, in man and the highest animals;
similarity of the, in different races.

Minnow, proportion of the sexes in the.

Mirror, behaviour of monkeys before.

Mirrors, larks attracted by.

Mitchell, Dr., interbreeding in the Hebrides.

Mitford, selection of children in Sparta.

Mivart, St. George, on the reduction of organs;
on the ears of the lemuroidea;
on variability of the muscles in lemuroidea;
on the caudal vertebrae of monkeys;
on the classification of the primates;
on the orang and on man;
on differences in the lemuroidea;
on the crest of the male newt.

Mobius, Prof., on reasoning powers in a pike.

Mocking-thrush, partial migration of;
young of the.

Modifications, unserviceable.

Moggridge, J.T., on habits of spiders;
on habits of ants.

Moles, numerical proportion of the sexes in;
battles of male.

Mollienesia petenensis, sexual difference in.

Mollusca, beautiful colours and shapes of;
absence of secondary sexual characters in the.


Monacanthus scopas and M. Peronii.

Monboddo, Lord, on music.

Mongolians, perfection of the senses in.

Monkey, protecting his keeper from a baboon;
rhesus-, sexual difference in colour of the;
moustache-, colours of the.

Monkeys, liability of, to the same diseases as man;
male, recognition of women by;
diversity of the mental faculties in;
breaking hard fruits with stones;
hands of the;
basal caudal vertebrae of, imbedded in the body;
revenge taken by;
maternal affection in;
variability of the faculty of attention in;
American, manifestation of reason in;
using stones and sticks;
imitative faculties of;
signal-cries of;
mutual kindnesses of;
sentinels posted by;
human characters of;
American, direction of the hair on the arms of some;
gradation of species of;
beards of;
ornamental characters of;
analogy of sexual differences of, with those of man;
different degrees of difference in the sexes of;
expression of emotions by;
generally monogamous habits of;
polygamous habits of some;
naked surfaces of;
courtship of.

Monogamy, not primitive.


Mononychus pseudacori, stridulation of.

Monotremata, development of the nictitating membrane in;
lactiferous glands of;
connecting mammals with reptiles.

Monstrosities, analogous, in man and lower animals;
caused by arrest of development;
correlation of;
transmission of.

Montagu, G., on the habits of the black and red grouse;
on the pugnacity of the ruff;
on the singing of birds;
on the double moult of the male pintail.

Monteiro, Mr., on Bucorax abyssinicus.

Montes de Oca, M., on the pugnacity of male Humming-birds.

Monticola cyanea.

Monuments, as traces of extinct tribes.

Moose, battles of;
horns of the, an incumbrance.

Moral and instinctive impulses, alliance of.

Moral faculties, their influence on natural selection in man.

Moral rules, distinction between the higher and lower.

Moral sense, so-called, derived from the social instincts;
origin of the.

Moral tendencies, inheritance of.

Morality, supposed to be founded in selfishness;
test of, the general welfare of the community;
gradual rise of;
influence of a high standard of.

Morgan, L.H., on the beaver;
on the reasoning powers of the beaver;
on the forcible capture of wives;
on the castoreum of the beaver;
marriage unknown in primeval times;
on polyandry.

Morley, J., on the appreciation of praise and fear of blame.

Morris, F.O., on hawks feeding an orphan nestling.

Morse, Dr., colours of mollusca.

Morselli, E., division of the malar bone.

Mortality, comparative, of female and male.

Morton on the number of species of man.

Moschkau, Dr. A., on a speaking starling.

Moschus moschiferus, odoriferous organs of.

Motacillae, Indian, young of.

Moth, odoriferous.

Moths, absence of mouth in some males;
apterous female;
male, prehensile use of the tarsi by;
male, attracted by females;
sound produced by;
coloration of;
sexual differences of colour in.

Motmot, inheritance of mutilation of tail feathers;
racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a.

Moult, double;
double annual, in birds.

Moulting of birds.

Moults, partial.

Mouse, song of.

Moustache-monkey, colours of the.

Moustaches, in monkeys.

Mud-turtle, long claws of the male.

Mulattoes, persistent fertility of;
immunity of, from yellow fever.

Mule, sterility and strong vitality of the.

Mules, rational.

Muller, Ferd., on the Mexicans and Peruvians.

Muller, Fritz, on astomatous males of Tanais;
on the disappearance of spots and stripes in adult mammals;
on the proportions of the sexes in some Crustacea;
on secondary sexual characters in various Crustaceans;
musical contest between male Cicadae;
mode of holding wings in Castina;
on birds shewing a preference for certain colours;
on the sexual maturity of young amphipod Crustacea.

Muller, Hermann, emergence of bees, from pupa;
pollen-gathering of bees;
proportion of sexes in bees;
courting of Eristalis;
colour and sexual selection with bees.

Muller, J., on the nictitating membrane and semilunar fold.

Muller, Max, on the origin of language;
language implies power of general conception;
struggle for life among the words, etc., of languages.

Muller, S., on the banteng;
on the colours of Semnopithecus chrysomelas.

Muntjac-deer, weapons of the.

Murie, J., on the reduction of organs;
on the ears of the Lemuroidea;
on variability of the muscles in the Lemuroidea;
basal caudal vertebrae of Macacus brunneus imbedded in the body;
on the manner of sitting in short-tailed apes;
on differences in the Lemuroidea;

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