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The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin

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Brauer, F., on dimorphism in Neurothemis.

Brazil, skulls found in caves of;
population of;
compression of the nose by the natives of.

Break between man and the apes.

Bream, proportion of the sexes in the.

Breeding, age of, in birds.

Breeding season, sexual characters making their appearance in the, in

Brehm, on the effects of intoxicating liquors on monkeys;
on the recognition of women by male Cynocephali;
on the diversity of the mental faculties of monkeys;
on the habits of baboons;
on revenge taken by monkeys;
on manifestations of maternal affection by monkeys and baboons;
on the instinctive dread of monkeys for serpents;
on the use of stones as missiles by baboons;
on a baboon using a mat for shelter from the sun;
on the signal-cries of monkeys;
on sentinels posted by monkeys;
on co-operation of animals;
on an eagle attacking a young Cercopithecus;
on baboons in confinement protecting one of their number from punishment;
on the habits of baboons when plundering;
on polygamy in Cynocephalus and Cebus;
on the numerical proportion of the sexes in birds;
on the love-dance of the blackcock;
Palamedea cornuta;
on the habits of the Black-grouse;
on sounds produced by birds of paradise;
on assemblages of grouse;
on the finding of new mates by birds;
on the fighting of wild boars;
on sexual differences in Mycetes;
on the habits of Cynocephalus hamadryas.

Brent, Mr., on the courtship of fowls.

Breslau, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Bridgeman, Laura.

Brimstone butterfly, sexual difference of colour in the.

British, ancient, tattooing practised by.

Broca, Prof., on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the human
anthropomorphous apes more bipedal than quadrupedal;
on the capacity of Parisian skulls at different periods;
comparison of modern and mediaeval skulls;
on tails of quadrupeds;
on the influence of natural selection;
on hybridity in man;
on human remains from Les Eyzies;
on the cause of the difference between Europeans and Hindoos.

Brodie, Sir B., on the origin of the moral sense in man.

Bronn, H.G., on the copulation of insects of distinct species.

Bronze period, men of, in Europe.

Brown, R., sentinels of seals generally females;
on the battles of seals;
on the narwhal;
on the occasional absence of the tusks in the female walrus;
on the bladder-nose seal;
on the colours of the sexes in Phoca Groenlandica;
on the appreciation of music by seals;
on plants used as love-philters, by North American women.

Browne, Dr. Crichton, injury to infants during parturition.

Brown-Sequard, Dr., on the inheritance of the effects of operations by

Bruce, on the use of the elephant's tusks.

Brulerie, P. de la, on the habits of Ateuchus cicatricosus;
on the stridulation of Ateuchus.

Brunnich, on the pied ravens of the Feroe islands.

Bryant, Dr., preference of tame pigeon for wild mate.

Bryant, Captain, on the courtship of Callorhinus ursinus.

Bubas bison, thoracic projection of.

Bubalus caffer, use of horns.

Bucephalus capensis, difference of the sexes of, in colour.

Buceros, nidification and incubation of.

Buceros bicornis, sexual differences in the colouring of the casque, beak,
and mouth in.

Buceros corrugatus, sexual differences in the beak of.

Buchner, L., on the origin of man;
on the use of the human foot as a prehensile organ;
on the mode of progression of the apes;
on want of self-consciousness, etc., in savages.

Bucholz, Dr., quarrels of chamaeleons.

Buckinghamshire, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Buckland, F., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in rats;
on the proportion of the sexes in the trout;
on Chimaera monstrosa.

Buckland, W., on the complexity of crinoids.

Buckler, W., proportion of sexes of Lepidoptera reared by.

Bucorax abyssinicus, inflation of the neck-wattle of the male during

Budytes Raii.

Buffalo, Cape.

Buffalo, Indian, horns of the.

Buffalo, Italian, mode of fighting of the.

Buffon, on the number of species of man.

Bufo sikimmensis.


Buist, R., on the proportion of the sexes in salmon;
on the pugnacity of the male salmon.

Bulbul, pugnacity of the male;
display of under tail-coverts by the male.

Bull, mode of fighting of the;
curled frontal hair of the.

Buller, Dr., on the Huia;
the attachment of birds.

Bullfinch, sexual differences in the;
female, singing of the;
courtship of the;
widowed, finding a new mate;
attacking a reed-bunting;
nestling, sex ascertained by pulling out breast feathers.

Bullfinches, distinguishing persons;
rivalry of female.

Bulls, two young, attacking an old one;
wild, battles of.

Bull-trout, male, colouring of, during the breeding season.

Bunting, reed, head feathers of the male;
attacked by a bullfinch.

Buntings, characters of young.

Buphus coromandus, sexes and young of;
change of colour in.

Burchell, Dr., on the zebra;
on the extravagance of a Bushwoman in adorning herself;
celibacy unknown among the savages of South Africa;
on the marriage-customs of the Bushwomen.

Burke, on the number of species of man.

Burmese, colour of the beard in.

Burton, Captain, on negro ideas of female beauty;
on a universal ideal of beauty.

Bushmen, marriage among.

Bushwoman, extravagant ornamentation of a.

Bushwomen, hair of;
marriage-customs of.

Bustard, throat-pouch of the male;
humming noise produced by a male;
Indian, ear-tufts of.

Bustards, occurrence of sexual differences and of polygamy among the;
love-gestures of the male;
double moult in.

Butler, A.G., on sexual differences in the wings of Aricoris epitus;
courtship of butterflies;
on the colouring of the sexes in species of Thecla;
on the resemblance of Iphias glaucippe to a leaf;
on the rejection of certain moths and caterpillars by lizards and frogs.

Butterfly, noise produced by a;
meadow brown, instability of the ocellated spots of.

Butterflies, proportion of the sexes in;
forelegs atrophied in some males;
sexual difference in the neuration of the wings of;
pugnacity of male;
protective resemblances of the lower surface of;
display of the wings by;
white, alighting upon bits of paper;
attracted by a dead specimen of the same species;
courtship of;
male and female, inhabiting different stations.

Buxton, C., observations on macaws;
on an instance of benevolence in a parrot.

Buzzard, Indian honey-;
variation in the crest of.

Cabbage butterflies.

Cachalot, large head of the male.

Cadences, musical, perception of, by animals.

Caecum, large, in the early progenitors of man.

Cairina moschata, pugnacity of the male.

Californian Indians, decrease of.

Callianassa, chelae of, figured.

Callidryas, colours of sexes.

Callionymus lyra, characters of the male.

Callorhinus ursinus, relative size of the sexes of;
courtship of.

Calotes maria.

Calotes nigrilabris, sexual difference in the colour of.

Cambridge, O. Pickard, on the sexes of spiders;
on the size of male Nephila.

Camel, canine teeth of male.

Campbell, J., on the Indian elephant;
on the proportion of male and female births in the harems of Siam.

Campylopterus hemileucurus.

Canaries distinguishing persons.

Canary, polygamy of the;
change of plumage in, after moulting;
female, selecting the best singing male;
sterile hybrid, singing of a;
female, singing of the;
selecting a greenfinch;
and siskin, pairing of.

Cancer pagurus.

Canestrini, G., on rudimentary characters and the origin of man;
on rudimentary characters;
on the movement of the ear in man;
of the variability of the vermiform appendage in man;
on the abnormal division of the malar bone in man;
on abnormal conditions of the human uterus;
on the persistence of the frontal suture in man;
on the proportion of the sexes in silk-moths;
secondary sexual characters of spiders.

Canfield, Dr., on the horns of the Antilocapra.

Canine teeth in man, diminution of, in man;
diminution of, in horses;
disappearance of, in male ruminants;
large in the early progenitors of man.

Canines, and horns, inverse development of.

Canoes, use of.

Cantharis, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of.

Cantharus lineatus.

Capercailzie, polygamous;
proportion of the sexes in the;
pugnacity of the male;
pairing of the;
autumn meetings of the;
call of the;
duration of the courtship of;
behaviour of the female;
inconvenience of black colour to the female;
sexual difference in the coloration of the;
crimson eye-cere of the male.

Capitonidae, colours and nidification of the.

Capra aegagrus, crest of the male;
sexual difference in the colour of.

Capreolus Sibiricus subecaudatus.

Caprice, common to man and animals.

Caprimulgus, noise made by the males of some species of, with their wings.

Caprimulgus virginianus, pairing of.


Carbonnier, on the natural history of the pike;
on the relative size of the sexes in fishes;
courtship of Chinese Macropus.

Carcineutes, sexual difference of colour in.

Carcinus moenas.

Cardinalis virginianus.

Carduelis elegans, sexual differences of the beak in.

Carnivora, marine, polygamous habits of;
sexual differences in the colours of.

Carp, numerical proportion of the sexes in the.

Carr, R., on the peewit.

Carrier pigeon, late development of the wattle in the.

Carrion beetles, stridulation of.

Carrion-hawk, bright coloured female of.

Carus, Prof. V., on the development of the horns in merino sheep;
on antlers of red deer.

Cassowary, sexes and incubation of the.

Castnia, mode of holding wings.


Castration, effects of.

Casuarius galeatus.

Cat, convoluted body in the extremity of the tail of a;
sick, sympathy of a dog with a.

Cataract in Cebus Azarae.

Catarrh, liability of Cebus Azarae to.

Catarrhine monkeys.

Caterpillars, bright colours of.

Cathartes aura.

Cathartes jota, love-gestures of the male.

Catlin, G., correlation of colour and texture of hair in the Mandans;
on the development of the beard among the North American Indians;
on the great length of the hair in some North American tribes.

Caton, J.D., on the development of the horns in Cervus virginianus and
on the wild turkey;
on the presence of traces of horns in the female wapiti;
on the fighting of deer;
on the crest of the male wapiti;
on the colours of the Virginian deer;
on sexual differences of colour in the wapiti;
on the spots of the Virginian deer.

Cats, dreaming;
enticed by valerian;
colours of.

Cattle, rapid increase of, in South America;
domestic, lighter in winter in Siberia;
horns of;
domestic, sexual differences of, late developed;
numerical proportion of the sexes in.

Caudal vertebrae, number of, in macaques and baboons;
basal, of monkeys, imbedded in the body.

Cavolini, observations on Serranus.

Cebus, maternal affection in a;
gradation of species of.

Cebus Apella.

Cebus Azarae, liability of, to the same diseases as man;
distinct sounds produced by;
early maturity of the female.

Cebus capucinus, polygamous;
sexual differences of colour in;
hair on the head of.

Cebus vellerosus, hair on the head of.

Cecidomyiidae, proportions of the sexes in.

Celibacy, unknown among the savages of South Africa and South America.


Cephalopoda, absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Cephalopterus ornatus.

Cephalopterus penduliger.

Cerambyx heros, stridulant organ of.

Ceratodus, paddle of.

Ceratophora aspera, nasal appendages of.

Ceratophora Stoddartii, nasal horn of.

Cerceris, habits of.

Cercocebus aethiops, whiskers, etc., of.

Cercopithecus, young, seized by an eagle and rescued by the troop;
definition of species of.

Cercopithecus cephus, sexual difference of colour in.

Cercopithecus cynosurus and griseo-viridis, colour of the scrotum in.

Cercopithecus Diana, sexual differences of colour in.

Cercopithecus griseo-viridis.

Cercopithecus petaurista, whiskers, etc., of.

Ceres, of birds, bright colours of.

Ceriornis Temminckii, swelling of the wattles of the male during courtship.

Cervulus, weapons of.

Cervulus moschatus, rudimentary horns of the female.

Cervus alces.

Cervus campestris, odour of.

Cervus canadensis, traces of horns in the female;
attacking a man;
sexual difference in the colour of.

Cervus elaphus, battles of male;
horns of, with numerous points;
long hairs on the throat of.

Cervus Eldi.

Cervus mantchuricus.

Cervus paludosus, colours of.

Cervus strongyloceros.

Cervus virginianus, horns of, in course of modification.

Ceryle, male black-belted in some species of.

Cetacea, nakedness of.

Ceylon, frequent absence of beard in the natives of.

Chaffinch, proportion of the sexes in the;
courtship of the.

Chaffinches, new mates found by.

Chalcophaps indicus, characters of young.

Chalcosoma atlas, sexual differences of.

Chamaeleo, sexual differences in the genus;
combats of.

Chamaeleo bifurcus.

Chamaeleo Owenii.

Chamaeleo pumilus.

Chamaepetes unicolor, modified wing-feather in the male.


Chamois, danger-signals of;
transfer of male characters to an old female.

Champneys, Mr., acromio-basilar muscle and quadrupedal gait.

Chapman, Dr., on stridulation in Scolytus.

Chapuis, Dr., on the transmission of sexual peculiarities in pigeons;
on streaked Belgian pigeons.

Char, male, colouring of, during the breeding season.

Characters, male, developed in females;
secondary sexual, transmitted through both sexes;
natural, artificial, exaggeration of, by man.

Charadrus hiaticula and pluvialis, sexes and young of.

Chardin on the Persians.

Charms, worn by women.

Charruas, freedom of divorce among the.

Chasmorhynchus, difference of colour in the sexes of;
colours of.

Chasmorhynchus niveus.

Chasmorhynchus nudicollis.

Chasmorhynchus tricarunculatus.

Chastity, early estimation of.

Chatterers, sexual differences in.

Cheever, Rev. H.T., census of the Sandwich Islands.

Cheiroptera, absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Chelae of crustacea.

Chelonia, sexual differences in.

Chenalopex aegyuptiacus, wing-knobs of.

Chera progne.

Chest, proportions of, in soldiers and sailors;
large, of the Quechua and Aymara Indians.

Chevrotains, canine teeth of.

Chiasognathus, stridulation of.

Chiasognathus Grantii, mandibles of.

Children, legitimate and illegitimate, proportion of the sexes in.

Chiloe, lice of the natives of;
population of.

Chimaera monstrosa, bony process on the head of the male.

Chimaeroid fishes, prehensile organs of male.

Chimpanzee, ears of the;
representatives of the eyebrows in the;
hands of the;
absence of mastoid processes in the;
platforms built by the;
cracking nuts with a stone;
direction of the hair on the arms of the;
supposed evolution of the;
polygamous and social habits of the.

China, North, idea of female beauty in.

China, Southern, inhabitants of.

Chinese, use of flint tools by the;
difficulty of distinguishing the races of the;
colour of the beard in;
general beardlessness of the;
opinions of the, on the appearance of Europeans and Cingalese;
compression of the feet of.

Chinsurdi, his opinion of beards.

Chlamydera maculata.

Chloeon, pedunculated eyes of the male of.

Chloephaga, coloration of the sexes in.

Chlorocoelus Tanana.

Chorda dorsalis.

Chough, red beak of the.

Chromidae, frontal protuberance in male;
sexual differences in colour of.

Chrysemys picta, long claws of the male.

Chrysococcyx, characters of young of.

Chrysomelidae, stridulation of.

Cicada pruinosa.

Cicada septendecim.

Cicadae, songs of the;
rudimentary sound-organs in females of.

Cicatrix of a burn, causing modification of the facial bones.

Cichla, frontal protuberance of male.

Cimetiere du Sud, Paris.

Cincloramphus cruralis, large size of male.

Cinclus aquaticus.

Cingalese, Chinese opinion of the appearance of the.

Cirripedes, complemental males of.

Civilisation, effects of, upon natural selection;
influence of, in the competition of nations.

Clanging of geese, etc.

Claparede, E., on natural selection applied to man.

Clarke, on the marriage-customs of Kalmucks.


Claus, C., on the sexes of Saphirina.

Cleft-palate, inherited.

Climacteris erythrops, sexes of.

Climate, cool, favourable to human progress;
power of supporting extremes of, by man;
want of connexion of, with colour;
direct action of, on colours of birds.

Cloaca, existence of a, in the early progenitors of man.

Cloacal passage existing in the human embryo.

Clubs, used as weapons before dispersion of mankind.

Clucking of fowls.

Clythra 4-punctata, stridulation of.

Coan, Mr., Sandwich-islanders.

Cobbe, Miss, on morality in hypothetical bee-community.

Cobra, ingenuity of a.


Coccyx, in the human embryo;
convoluted body at the extremity of the;
imbedded in the body.

Cochin-China, notions of beauty of the inhabitants of.

Cock, blind, fed by its companion;
game, killing a kite;
comb and wattles of the;
preference shewn by the, for young hens;
game, transparent zone in the hackles of a.

Cock of the rock.

Cockatoos, nestling;
black, immature plumage of.

Coelenterata, absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Coffee, fondness of monkeys for.

Cold, supposed effects of;
power of supporting, by man.

Coleoptera, stridulation of;
stridulant organs of, discussed.

Colias edusa and hyale.

Collingwood, C., on the pugnacity of the butterflies of Borneo;
on butterflies being attracted by a dead specimen of the same species.

Colobus, absence of the thumb.

Colombia, flattened heads of savages of.

Colonists, success of the English as.

Coloration, protective, in birds.

Colour, supposed to be dependent on light and heat;
correlation of, with immunity from certain poisons and parasites;
purpose of, in lepidoptera;
relation of, to sexual functions, in fishes;
difference of, in the sexes of snakes;
sexual differences of, in lizards;
influence of, in the pairing of birds of different species;
relation of, to nidification;
sexual differences of, in mammals;
recognition of, by quadrupeds;
of children, in different races of man;
of the skin in man.

Colours, admired alike by man and animals;
bright, due to sexual selection;
bright, among the lower animals;
bright, protective to butterflies and moths;
bright, in male fishes;
transmission of, in birds.

Colquhoun, example of reasoning in a retriever.

Columba passerina, young of.

Colymbus glacialis, anomalous young of.

Comb, development of, in fowls.

Combs and wattles in male birds.

Community, preservation of variations useful to the, by natural selection.

Complexion, different in men and women, in an African tribe.

Compositae, gradation of species among the.

Comte, C., on the expression of the ideal of beauty by sculpture.

Conditions of life, action of changed, upon man;
influence of, on plumage of birds.

Condor, eyes and comb of the.

Conjugations, origin of.

Conscience, absence of, in some criminals.

Constitution, difference of, in different races of men.

Consumption, liability of Cebus Azarae to;
connection between complexion and.

Convergence of characters.

Cooing of pigeons and doves.

Cook, Captain, on the nobles of the Sandwich Islands.

Cope, E.D., on the Dinosauria.

Cophotis ceylanica, sexual differences of.


Copris Isidis, sexual differences of.

Copris lunaris, stridulation of.

Corals, bright colours of.


Cordylus, sexual difference of colour in a species of.

Corfu, habits of the Chaffinch in.

Cornelius, on the proportions of the sexes in Lucanus Cervus.

Corpora Wolffiana, agreement of, with the kidneys of fishes.

Correlated variation.

Correlation, influence of, in the production of races.

Corse, on the mode of fighting of the elephant.

Corvus corone.

Corvus graculus, red beak of.

Corvus pica, nuptial assembly of.

Corydalis cornutus, large jaws of the male.


Cosmetornis vexillarius, elongation of wing-feathers in.

Cotingidae, sexual differences in;
coloration of the sexes of;
resemblance of the females of distinct species of.

Cottus scorpius, sexual differences in.

Coulter, Dr., on the Californian Indians.

Counting, origin of;
limited power of, in primeval man.

Courage, variability of, in the same species;
universal high appreciation of;
importance of;
characteristic of men.

Courtship, greater eagerness of males in;
of fishes;
of birds.

Cow, winter change of colour.

Crab, devil.

Crab, shore, habits of.

Crabro cribrarius, dilated tibiae of the male.

Crabs, proportions of the sexes in.

Cranz, on the inheritance of dexterity in seal-catching.

Crawfurd, on the number of species of man.

Crenilabrus massa and C. melops, nests, built by.

Crest, origin of, in Polish fowls.

Crests, of birds, difference of, in the sexes;
dorsal hairy, of mammals.

Cricket, field-, stridulation of the;
pugnacity of male.

Cricket, house-, stridulation of the.

Crickets, sexual differences in.

Crinoids, complexity of.

Crioceridae, stridulation of the.

Croaking of frogs.

Crocodiles, musky odour of, during the breeding season.


Crossbills, characters of young.

Crosses in man.

Crossing of races, effects of the.

Crossoptilon auritum, adornment of both sexes of;
sexes alike in.

Crotch, G.R., on the stridulation of beetles;
on the stridulation of Heliopathes;
on the stridulation of Acalles;
habit of female deer at breeding time.

Crow, Indians, long hair of the.

Crow, young of the.

Crows, vocal organs of the;
living in triplets.

Crows, carrion, new mates found by.

Crows, Indian, feeding their blind companions.

Cruelty of savages to animals.

Crustacea, parasitic, loss of limbs by female;
prehensile feet and antennae of;
male, more active than female;
parthenogenesis in;
secondary sexual characters of;
amphipod, males sexually mature while young;
auditory hairs of.

Crystal worn in the lower lip by some Central African women.

Cuckoo fowls.

Culicidae, attracted by each other's humming.

Cullen, Dr., on the throat-pouch of the male bustard.

Cultivation of plants, probable origin of.

Cupples, Mr., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in dogs, sheep, and
on the Scotch deerhound;
on sexual preference in dogs.

Curculionidae, sexual difference in length of snout in some;
hornlike processes in male;

Curiosity, manifestations of, by animals.

Curlews, double moult in.

Cursores, comparative absence of sexual differences among the.

Curtis, J., on the proportion of the sexes in Athalia.

Cuvier, F., on the recognition of women by male quadrumana.

Cuvier, G., on the number of caudal vertebrae in the mandrill;
on instinct and intelligence;
views of, as to the position of man;
on the position of the seals;
on Hectocotyle.

Cyanalcyon, sexual difference in colours of;
immature plumage of.

Cyanecula suecica, sexual differences of.

Cychrus, sounds produced by.

Cycnia mendica, sexual difference of, in colour.

Cygnus ferus, trachea of.

Cygnus immutabilis.

Cygnus olor, white young of.

Cyllo Leda, instability of the ocellated spots of.

Cynanthus, variation in the genus.

Cynipidae, proportion of the sexes in.

Cynocephalus, difference of the young from the adult;
male, recognition of women by;
polygamous habits of species of.

Cynocephalus babouin.

Cynocephalus chacma.

Cynocephalus gelada.

Cynocephalus hamadryas, sexual difference of colour in.

Cynocephalus leucophaeus, colours of the sexes of.

Cynocephalus mormon, colours of the male.

Cynocephalus porcarius, mane of the male.

Cynocephalus sphinx.

Cynopithecus niger, ear of.

Cypridina, proportions of the sexes in.

Cyprinidae, proportion of the sexes in the.

Cyprinidae, Indian.

Cyprinodontidae, sexual differences in the.

Cyprinus auratus.

Cypris, relation of the sexes in.

Cyrtodactylus rubidus.

Cystophora cristata, hood of.

Dacelo, sexual difference of colour in.

Dacelo Gaudichaudi, young male of.

Dal-ripa, a kind of ptarmigan.

Damalis albifrons, peculiar markings of.

Damalis pygarga, peculiar markings of.

Dampness of climate, supposed influence of, on the colour of the skin.


Dances of birds.

Dancing, universality of.

Danger-signals of animals.

Daniell, Dr., his experience of residence in West Africa.

Darfur, protuberances artificially produced by natives of.

Darwin, F., on the stridulation of Dermestes murinus.

Dasychira pudibunda, sexual difference of colour in.

Davis, A.H., on the pugnacity of the male stag-beetle.

Davis, J.B., on the capacity of the skull in various races of men;
on the beards of the Polynesians.

Death's Head Sphinx.

Death-rate higher in towns than in rural districts.


De Candolle, Alph., on a case of inherited power of moving the scalp.

Declensions, origin of.

Decoration in birds.


Deer, development of the horns in;
spots of young;
horns of;
use of horns of;
horns of a, in course of modification;
size of the horns of;
female, pairing with one male whilst others are fighting for her;
male, attracted by the voice of the female;
male, odour emitted by.

Deer, Axis, sexual difference in the colour of the.

Deer, fallow, different coloured herds of.

Deer, Mantchurian.

Deer, Virginian, colour of the, not affected by castration;
colours of.

Deerhound, Scotch, greater size of the male.

Defensive orders of mammals.

De Geer, C., on a female spider destroying a male.

Dekay, Dr., on the bladder-nose seal.

Delorenzi, G., division of malar bone.

Demerara, yellow fever in.


Dendrophila frontalis, young of.

Denison, Sir W., manner of ridding themselves of vermin among the
extinction of Tasmanians.

Denny, H., on the lice of domestic animals.

Dermestes murinus, stridulation of.

Descent traced through the mother alone.

Deserts, protective colouring of animals inhabiting.

Desmarest, on the absence of suborbital pits in Antilope subgutturosa;
on the whiskers of Macacus;
on the colour of the opossum;
on the colours of the sexes of Mus minutus;
on the colouring of the ocelot;
on the colours of seals;
on Antilope caama;
on the colours of goats;
on sexual difference of colour in Ateles marginatus;
on the mandrill;
on Macacus cynomolgus.

Desmoulins, on the number of species of man;
on the muskdeer.

Desor, on the imitation of man by monkeys.

Despine, P., on criminals destitute of conscience.

Development, embryonic of man;

Devil, not believed in by the Fuegians.


Devonian, fossil-insect from the.

Dewlaps, of Cattle and antelopes.

Diadema, sexual differences of colouring in the species of.

Diamond-beetles, bright colours of.

Diastema, occurrence of, in man.

Diastylidae, proportion of the sexes in.

Dicrurus, racket-shaped feathers in;
nidification of.

Dicrurus macrocercus, change of plumage in.

Didelphis opossum, sexual difference in the colour of.

Differences, comparative, between different species of birds of the same

Digits, supernumerary, more frequent in men than in women;
supernumerary, inheritance of;
supernumerary, early development of.

Dimorphism, in females of water-beetles;
in Neurothemis and Agrion.

Diodorus, on the absence of beard in the natives of Ceylon.

Dipelicus Cantori, sexual differences of.

Diplopoda, prehensile limbs of the male.

Dipsas cynodon, sexual difference in the colour of.


Disease, generated by the contact of distinct peoples.

Diseases, common to man and the lower animals;
difference of liability to, in different races of men;
new, effects of, upon savages;
sexually limited.

Display, coloration of Lepidoptera for;
of plumage by male birds.

Distribution, wide, of man;
geographical, as evidence of specific distinctness in man.

Disuse, effects of, in producing rudimentary organs;
and use of parts, effects of;
of parts, influence of, on the races of men.

Divorce, freedom of, among the Charruas.

Dixon, E.S., on the pairing of different species of geese;
on the courtship of peafowl.

Dobrizhoffer, on the marriage-customs of the Abipones.

Dobson, Dr., on the Cheiroptera;
scent-glands of bats;
frugivorous bats.

Dogs, suffering from tertian ague;
memory of;
diverging when drawing sledges over thin ice;
exercise of reasoning faculties by;
domestic, progress of, in moral qualities;
distinct tones uttered by;
parallelism between his affection for his master and religious feeling;
sociability of the;
sympathy of, with a sick cat;
sympathy of, with his master;
their possession of conscience;
possible use of the hair on the fore-legs of the;
races of the;
numerical proportion of male and female births in;
sexual affection between individuals of;
howling at certain notes;
rolling in carrion.

Dolichocephalic structure, possible cause of.

Dolphins, nakedness of.

Domestic animals, races of;
change of breeds of.

Domestication, influence of, in removing the sterility of hybrids.

D'Orbigny, A., on the influence of dampness and dryness on the colour of
the skin;
on the Yuracaras.


Doubleday, E., on sexual differences in the wings of butterflies.

Doubleday, H., on the proportion of the sexes in the smaller moths;
males of Lasiocampa quercus and on the attraction of the Saturnia carpini
by the female;
on the proportion of the sexes in the Lepidoptera;
on the ticking of Anobium tesselatum;
on the structure of Ageronia feronia;
on white butterflies alighting upon paper.

Douglas, J.W., on the sexual differences of the Hemiptera;
colours of British Homoptera.

Down, of birds.

Draco, gular appendages of.

Dragonet, Gemmeous.

Dragon-flies, caudal appendages of male;
relative size of the sexes of;
difference in the sexes of;
want of pugnacity by the male.

Drake, breeding plumage of the.

Dreams, possible source of the belief in spiritual agencies.

Drill, sexual difference of colour in the.

Dromaeus irroratus.

Dromolaea, Saharan species of.

Drongo shrike.

Drongos, racket-shaped feathers in the tails of.

Dryness of climate, supposed influence of, on the colour of the skin.


Duck, harlequin, age of mature plumage in the;
breeding in immature plumage.

Duck, long-tailed, preference of male, for certain females.

Duck, pintail, pairing with a widgeon.

Duck, voice of the;
pairing with a shield-drake;
immature plumage of the.

Duck, wild, sexual differences in the;
speculum and male characters of;
pairing with a pin-tail drake.

Ducks, wild, becoming polygamous under partial domestication;
dogs and cats recognised by.

Dufosse, Dr., sounds produced by fish.

Dugong, nakedness of;
tusks of.

Dujardin, on the relative size of the cerebral ganglia, in insects.

Duncan, Dr., on the fertility of early marriages;
comparative health of married and single.

Dupont, M., on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus
of man.

Durand, J.P., on causes of variation.

Dureau de la Malle, on the songs of birds;
on the acquisition of an air by blackbirds.

Dutch, retention of their colour by the, in South Africa.

Duty, sense of.

Duvaucel, female Hylobates washing her young.

Dyaks, pride of, in mere homicide.

Dynastes, large size of males of.

Dynastini, stridulation of.

Dytiscus, dimorphism of females of;
grooved elytra of the female.

Eagle, young Cercopithecus rescued from, by the troop.

Eagle, white-headed, breeding in immature plumage.

Eagles, golden, new mates found by.

Ear, motion of the;
external shell of the, useless in man;
rudimentary point of the, in man.

Ears, more variable in men than women;
piercing and ornamentation of the.

Earwigs, parental feeling in.


Echini, bright colours of some.

Echinodermata, absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Echis carinata.

Ecker, figure of the human embryo;
on the development of the gyri and sulci of the brain;
on the sexual differences in the pelvis in man;
on the presence of a sagittal crest in Australians.

Edentata, former wide range of, in America;
absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Edolius, racket-shaped feathers in.

Edwards, Mr., on the proportion of the sexes in North American species of

Eels, hermaphroditism of.

Egerton, Sir P., on the use of the antlers of deer;
on the pairing of red deer;
on the bellowing of stags.

Eggs, hatched by male fishes.

Egret, Indian, sexes and young of.

Egrets, breeding plumage of;

Ehrenberg, on the mane of the male Hamadryas baboon.

Ekstrom, M., on Harelda glacialis.

Elachista rufocinerea, habits of male.

Eland, development of the horns of the.

Elands, sexual differences of colour in.

Elaphomyia, sexual differences in.

Elaphrus uliginosus, stridulation of.


Elateridae, proportion of the sexes in.

Elaters, luminous.

Elephant, rate of increase of the;
nakedness of the;
using a fan;
Indian, forbearance to his keeper;
polygamous habits of the;
pugnacity of the male;
tusks of;
Indian, mode of fighting of the;
male, odour emitted by the;
attacking white or grey horses.

Elevation of abode, modifying influence of.

Elimination of inferior individuals.

Elk, winter change of the.

Elk, Irish, horns of the.

Ellice Islands, beards of the natives.

Elliot, D.G., on Pelecanus erythrorhynchus.

Elliot, R., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in young rats;
on the proportion of the sexes in sheep.

Elliot, Sir W., on the polygamous habits of the Indian wild boar.

Ellis, on the prevalence of infanticide in Polynesia.

Elphinstone, Mr., on local difference of stature among the Hindoos;
on the difficulty of distinguishing the native races of India.

Elytra, of the females of Dytiscus Acilius, Hydroporus.

Emberiza, characters of young.

Emberiza miliaria.

Emberiza schoeniclus, head-feathers of the male.

Embryo of man;
of the dog.

Embryos of mammals, resemblance of the.


Emotions experienced by the lower animals in common with man;
manifested by animals.

Emperor butterfly.

Emperor moth.

Emu, sexes and incubation of.

Emulation of singing birds.

Endurance, estimation of.

Energy, a characteristic of men.

England, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Engleheart, Mr., on the finding of new mates by starlings.

English, success of, as colonists.

Engravers, short-sighted.


Entozoa, difference of colour between the males and females of some.

Environment, direct action of the, in causing differences between the

Envy, persistence of.

Eocene period, possible divergence of men during the.

Eolidae, colours of, produced by the biliary glands.

Epeira nigra, small size of the male of.



Ephippiger vitium, stridulating organs of.

Epicalia, sexual differences of colouring in the species of.

Equus hemionus, winter change of.

Erateina, coloration of.

Ercolani, Prof., hermaphroditism in eels.

Erect attitude of man.

Eristalis, courting of.

Eschricht, on the development of hair in man;
on a languinous moustache in a female foetus;
on the want of definition between the scalp and the forehead in some
on the arrangement of the hair in the human foetus;
on the hairiness of the face in the human foetus of both sexes.

Esmeralda, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Esox lucius.

Esox reticulatus.

Esquimaux, their belief in the inheritance of dexterity in seal-catching;
mode of life of.

Estrelda amandava, pugnacity of the male.

Eubagis, sexual differences of colouring in the species of.

Euchirus longimanus, sound produced by.

Eudromias morinellus.

Eulampis jugularis, colours of the female.

Euler, on the rate of increase in the United States.

Eunomota superciliaris, racket-shaped feathers in the tail of.

Eupetomena macroura, colours of the female.

Euphema splendida.

Euplocamus erythrophthalmus, possession of spurs by the female.

Europe, ancient inhabitants of.

Europeans, difference of, from Hindoos;
hairiness of, probably due to reversion.

Eurostopodus, sexes of.

Eurygnathus, different proportions of the head in the sexes of.

Eustephanus, sexual differences of species of;
young of.

Exaggeration of natural characters by man.


Experience, acquisition of, by animals.

Expression, resemblances in, between man and the apes.

Extinction of races, causes of.

Eye, destruction of the;
change of position in;
obliquity of, regarded as a beauty by the Chinese and Japanese.

Eyebrows, elevation of;
development of long hairs in;
in monkeys;
eradicated in parts of South America and Africa;
eradication of, by the Indians of Paraguay.

Eyelashes, eradication of, by the Indians of Paraguay.

Eyelids, coloured black, in part of Africa.

Eyes, pillared, of the male of Chloeon;
difference in the colour of, in the sexes of birds.

Eyton, T.C., observations on the development of the horns in the fallow

Eyzies, Les, human remains from.

Fabre, M., on the habits of Cerceris.

Facial bones, causes of modification of the.

Faculties, diversity of, in the same race of men;
inheritance of;
diversity of, in animals of the same species;
mental variation of, in the same species;
of birds.

Fakirs, Indian, tortures undergone by.

Falco leucocephalus.

Falco peregrinus.

Falco tinnunclus.

Falcon, peregrine, new mate found by.

Falconer, H., on the mode of fighting of the Indian elephant;
on canines in a female deer;
on Hyomoschus aquaticus.

Falkland Islands, horses of.

Fallow-deer, different coloured herds of.

Famines, frequency of, among savages.

Farr, Dr., on the effects of profligacy;
on the influence of marriage on mortality.

Farrar, F.W., on the origin of language;
on the crossing or blending of languages;
on the absence of the idea of God in certain races of men;
on early marriages of the poor;
on the middle ages.

Farre, Dr., on the structure of the uterus.

Fashions, long prevalence of, among savages.

Faye, Prof., on the numerical proportion of male and female births in
Norway and Russia;
on the greater mortality of male children at and before birth.

Feathers, modified, producing sounds;
elongated, in male birds;
barbless and with filamentous barbs in certain birds;
shedding of margins of.

Feeding, high, probable influence of, in the pairing of birds of different

Feet, thickening of the skin on the soles of the;
modification of, in man.

Felis canadensis, throat-ruff of.

Felis pardalis and F. mitis, sexual difference in the colouring of.

Female, behaviour of the, during courtship.

Female birds, differences of.

Females, presence of rudimentary male organs in;
preference of, for certain males;
pursuit of, by males;
occurrence of secondary sexual characters in;
development of male character by.

Females and males, comparative numbers of;
comparative mortality of, while young.

Femur and tibia, proportions of, in the Aymara Indians.

Fenton, Mr., decrease of Maories;
infanticide amongst the Maories.

Ferguson, Mr., on the courtship of fowls.

Fertilisation, phenomena of, in plants;
in the lower animals.

Fertility lessened under changed conditions.

Fevers, immunity of Negroes and Mulattoes from.

Fiber zibethicus, protective colouring of it.

Fick, H., effect of conscription for military service.

Fidelity, in the elephant;
of savages to one another;
importance of.

Field-slaves, difference of, from house-slaves.

Fiji Archipelago, population of the.

Fiji Islands, beards of the natives;
marriage-customs of the.

Fijians, burying their old and sick parents alive;
estimation of the beard among the;
admiration of, for a broad occiput.

Filial affection, partly the result of natural selection.

Filum terminale.

Finch, racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a.

Finches, spring change of colour in;
British, females of the.

Fingers, partially coherent, in species of Hylobates.

Finlayson, on the Cochin Chinese.

Fire, use of.

Fischer, on the pugnacity of the male of Lethrus cephalotes.

Fischer, F. Von, on display of brightly coloured parts by monkeys in

Fish, eagerness of male;
proportion of the sexes in;
sounds produced by.

Fishes, kidneys of, represented by Corpora Wolffiana in the human embryo;
male, hatching ova in their mouths;
receptacles for ova possessed by;
relative size of the sexes in;
fresh-water, of the tropics;
protective resemblances in;
change of colour in;
spawning of;
sounds produced by;
continued growth of.

Flamingo, age of mature plumage.

Flexor pollicis longus, similar variation of, in man.

Flies, humming of.

Flint tools.

Flints, difficulty of chipping into form.

Florida, Quiscalus major in.

Florisuga mellivora.

Flounder, coloration of the.

Flower, W.H., on the abductor of the fifth metatarsal in apes;
on the position of the Seals;
on the Pithecia monachu;
on the throat-pouch of the male bustard.

Fly-catchers, colours and nidification of.

Foetus, human, woolly covering of the;
arrangement of the hair on.

Food, influence of, upon stature.

Foot, prehensile power of the, retained in some savages;
prehensile, in the early progenitors of man.

Foramen, supra-condyloid, exceptional occurrence of in the humerus of man;
in the early progenitors of man.

Forbes, D., on the Aymara Indians;
on local variation of colour in the Quichuas;
on the hairlessness of the Aymaras and Quichuas;
on the long hair of the Aymaras and Quichaus.

Forel, F., on white young swans.

Forester, Hon. O.W., on an orphan hawk.

Formica rufa, size of the cerebral ganglia in.

Fossils, absence of, connecting man with the apes.

Fowl, occurrence of spurs in the female;
game, early pugnacity of;
Polish, early development of cranial peculiarities of;
variations in plumage of;
examples of correlated development in the;
domestic, breeds and sub-breeds of.

Fowls, spangled Hamburg;
inheritance of changes of plumage by;
sexual peculiarities in, transmitted only to the same sex;
loss of secondary sexual characters by male;
Polish, origin of the crest in;
period of inheritance of characters by;
development of the comb in;
numerical proportion of the sexes in;
courtship of;
mongrel, between a black Spanish cock and different hens;
pencilled Hamburg, difference of the sexes in;
Spanish, sexual differences of the comb in;
spurred, in both sexes.

Fox, W.D., on some half-tamed wild ducks becoming polygamous, and on
polygamy in the guinea-fowl and canary-bird;
on the proportion of the sexes in cattle;
on the pugnacity of the peacock;
on a nuptial assembly of magpies;
on the finding of new mates by crows;
on partridges living in triplets;
on the pairing of a goose with a Chinese gander.

Foxes, wariness of young, in hunting districts;

Fraser, C., on the different colours of the sexes in a species of Squilla.

Fraser, G., colours of Thecla.

Frere, Hookham, quoting Theognis on selection in mankind.

Fringilla cannabina.

Fringilla ciris, age of mature plumage in.

Fringilla cyanea, age of mature plumage in.

Fringilla leucophrys, young of.

Fringilla spinus.

Fringilla tristis, change of colour in, in spring;
young of.

Fringillidae, resemblance of the females of distinct species of.

Frog, bright coloured and distasteful to birds.

Frogs, male;
temporary receptacles for ova possessed by;
ready to breed before the females;
fighting of;
vocal organs of.

Frontal bone, persistence of the suture in.

Fruits, poisonous, avoided by animals.

Fuegians, difference of stature among the;
power of sight in the;
skill of, in stone-throwing;
resistance of the, to their severe climate;
mental capacity of the;
quasi-religious sentiments of the;
resemblance of, in mental characters, to Europeans;
mode of life of the;
aversion of, to hair on the face;
said to admire European women.

Fulgoridae, songs of the.

Fur, whiteness of, in Arctic animals in winter.

Fur-bearing animals, acquired sagacity of.

Gallicrex, sexual difference in the colour of the irides in.

Gallicrex cristatus, pugnacity of male;
red carbuncle occurring in the male during the breeding-season.

Gallinaceae, frequency of polygamous habits and of sexual differences in
love-gestures of;
decomposed feathers in;
stripes of young;
comparative sexual differences between the species of;
plumage of.

Gallinaceous birds, weapons of the male;
racket-shaped feathers on the heads of.

Gallinula chloropus, pugnacity of the male.

Galloperdix, spurs of;
development of spurs in the female.

Gallophasis, young of.


Gallus bankiva, neck-hackles of.

Gallus Stanleyi, pugnacity of the male.

Galton, Mr., on hereditary genius;
gregariousness and independence in animals;
on the struggle between the social and personal impulses;
on the effects of natural selection on civilised nations;
on the sterility of sole daughters;
on the degree of fertility of people of genius;
on the early marriages of the poor;
on the ancient Greeks;
on the Middle Ages;
on the progress of the United States;
on South African notions of beauty.

Gammarus, use of the chelae of.

Gammarus marinus.

Gannets, white only when mature.

Ganoid fishes.

Gaour, horns of the.

Gap between man and the apes.

Gaper, sexes and young of.

Gardner, on an example of rationality in a Gelasimus.

Garrulus glandarius.

Gartner, on sterility of hybrid plants.

Gasteropoda, pulmoniferous, courtship of.

Gasterosteus, nidification of.

Gasterosteus leiurus.

Gasterosteus trachurus.

Gastrophora, wings of, brightly coloured beneath.

Gauchos, want of humanity among the.

Gaudry, M., on a fossil monkey.

Gavia, seasonal change of plumage in.

Geese, clanging noise made by;
pairing of different species of;
Canada, selection of mates by.

Gegenbaur, C., on the number of digits in the Ichthyopterygia;
on the hermaphroditism of the remote progenitors of the vertebrata;
two types of nipple in mammals.

Gelasimus, proportions of the sexes in a species of;
use of the enlarged chelae of the male;
pugnacity of males of;
rational actions of a;
difference of colour in the sexes of a species of.

Gemmules, dormant in one sex.

Genius, hereditary.

Genius, fertility of men and women of.

Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, Isid., on the recognition of women by male
on monstrosities;
coincidences of arrested development with polydactylism;
on animal-like anomalies in the human structure;
on the correlation of monstrosities;
on the distribution of hair in man and monkeys;
on the caudal vertebrae of monkeys;
on correlated variability;
on the classification of man;
on the long hair on the heads of species of Semnopithecus;
on the hair in monkeys;
on the development of horns in female deer;
and F. Cuvier, on the mandrill;
on Hylobates.

Geographical distribution, as evidence of specific distinctions in man.

Geometrae, brightly coloured beneath.

Geophagus, frontal protuberance of, male;
eggs hatched by the male, in the mouth or branchial cavity.

Georgia, change of colour in Germans settled in.

Geotrupes, stridulation of.

Gerbe, M., on the nest-building of Crenilabus massa and C. Melops.

Gerland, Dr., on the prevalence of infanticide;
on the extinction of races.

Gervais, P., on the hairiness of the gorilla;
on the mandrill.


Ghost-moth, sexual difference of colour in the.

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