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The Delights of Wisdom Pertaining to Conjugial Love by Emanuel Swedenborg

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therefore it is to love his own insanity. Hereupon the men observed,
"Possibly the wife unites herself with the man's strength or ability."
At this the wives smiled, saying, "There is no deficiency of ability
while the man loves the wife from intelligence; but there is if he loves
her from insanity. Intelligence consists in loving the wife only: and in
this love there is no deficiency of ability; but insanity consists in
not loving the wife but the sex, and in this love there is a deficiency
of ability. You comprehend this." The SECOND CONCLUSION was; We women
are born into the love of the men's intelligence; therefore if the men
love their own intelligence, it cannot be united with its genuine love,
which belongs to the wife; and if the man's intelligence is not united
with its genuine love, which belongs to the wife, it becomes insanity
grounded in haughtiness, and conjugial love becomes cold. What woman in
such case can unite her love to what is cold; and what man can unite the
insanity of his haughtiness to the love of intelligence? But the men
said, "Whence has a man honor from his wife but by her magnifying his
intelligence?" The wives replied, "From love, because love honors; and
honor cannot be separated from love, but love maybe from honor."
Afterwards they came to this THIRD CONCLUSION; You seemed as if you
loved your wives; and you do not see that you are loved by them, and
thus that you re-love; and that your intelligence is a receptacle: if
therefore you love your intelligence in yourselves, it becomes the
receptacle of your love; and the love of _proprium_ (or self-hood),
since it cannot endure an equal, never becomes conjugial love; but so
long as it prevails, so long it remains adulterous. Hereupon the men
were silent; nevertheless they murmured, "What is conjugial love?" Some
husbands in heaven heard what passed, and confirmed thence the three
conclusions of the wives.

* * * * *


332. The reason why polygamical marriages are absolutely condemned by
the Christian world cannot be clearly seen by any one, whatever powers
of acute and ingenious investigation he may possess, unless he be
FELICITIES. Unless these knowledges precede, and as it were lay the
first stone, it is in vain for the mind to desire to draw from the
understanding any reasons for the condemnation of polygamy by the
Christian world, which should be satisfactory, and on which it may
firmly stand, as a house upon its stone or foundation. It is well known,
that the institution of monogamical marriage is founded on the Word of
the Lord, "_That whosoever putteth away his wife, except on account of
whoredom, and marrieth another, committeth adultery; and that from the
beginning, or from the first establishment of marriages, it was
(ordained), that two should become one flesh; and that man should not
separate what God hath joined together_," Matt. xix. 3-12. But although
the Lord spake these words from the divine law inscribed on marriages,
still if the understanding cannot support that law by some reason of its
own, it may so warp it by the turnings and windings to which it is
accustomed, and by sinister interpretations, as to render its principle
obscure and ambiguous, and at length affirmative negative;--affirmative,
because it is also grounded in the civil law; and negative, because it
is not grounded in a rational view of those words. Into this principle
the human mind will fall, unless it be previously instructed respecting
the above-mentioned knowledges, which may be serviceable to the
understanding as introductory to its reasons: these knowledges are, that
there exists a love truly conjugial; that this love can only possibly
exist between two; nor between two, except from the Lord alone; and that
into this love is inserted heaven with all its felicities. But these,
and several other particulars respecting the condemnation of polygamy by
the Christian world, we will demonstrate in the following order: I.
_Love truly conjugial can only exist with one wife, consequently neither
can friendship, confidence, ability truly conjugial, and such
conjunction of minds that two may be one flesh._ II. _Thus celestial
blessednesses, spiritual satisfactions, and natural delights, which from
the beginning were provided for those who are in love truly conjugial,
can only exist with one wife._ III. _All those things can only exist
from the Lord alone; and they do not exist with any but those who come
to him alone, and at the same time live according to his commandments._
IV. _Consequently, love truly conjugial, with its felicities, can only
exist with those who are of the Christian church._ V. _Therefore a
Christian is not allowed to marry more than one wife._ VI. _If a
Christian marries several wives, he commits not only natural but also
spiritual adultery._ VII. _The Israelitish nation was permitted to marry
several wives, because they had not the Christian church, and
consequently love truly conjugial could not exist with them._ VIII. _At
this day the Mahometans are permitted to marry several wives, because
they do not acknowledge the Lord Jesus Christ to be one with Jehovah the
Father, and thereby to be the God of heaven and earth; and hence they
cannot receive love truly conjugial._ IX. _The Mahometan heaven is out
of the Christian heaven and is divided into two heavens, the inferior
and the superior; and only those are elevated into their superior heaven
who renounce concubines and live with one wife, and acknowledge our Lord
as equal to God the Father, to whom is given dominion over heaven and
earth._ X. _Polygamy is lasciviousness._ XI. _Conjugial chastity,
purity, and sanctity, cannot exist with polygamists._ XII. _Polygamists,
so long as they remain such, cannot become spiritual._ XIII. _Polygamy
is not sin with those who live in it from a religious notion._ XIV.
_That polygamy is not sin with those who are in ignorance respecting the
Lord._ XV. _That of these, although polygamists, such are saved as
acknowledge God, and from a religious notion live according to the civil
laws of justice._ XVI. _But none either of the latter or of the former
can be associated with the angels in the Christian heavens._ We proceed
to an explanation of each article.

conjugial is at this day so rare as to be generally unknown, is a
subject which has been occasionally inquired into above; that
nevertheless such love actually exists, was demonstrated in its proper
chapter, and occasionally in following chapters. But apart from such
demonstration, who does not know that there is such a love, which, for
excellency and satisfaction, is paramount to all other loves, so that
all other loves in respect to it are of little account? That it exceeds
self-love, the love of the world, and even the love of life, experience
testifies in a variety of cases. Have there not been, and are there not
still, instances of men, who for a woman, the dear and desired object of
their wishes, prostrate themselves on their knees, adore her as a
goddess, and submit themselves as the vilest slaves to her will and
pleasure? a plain proof that this love exceeds the love of self. Have
there not been, and are there not still instances of men, who for such a
woman, make light of wealth, yea of treasures presented in prospect, and
are also prodigal of those which they possess? a plain proof that this
love exceeds the love of the world. Have there not been, and are there
not still, instances of men who for such a woman, account life itself as
worthless, and desire to die rather than be disappointed in their
wishes, as is evidenced by the many fatal combats between rival lovers
on such occasions? a plain proof that this love exceeds the love of
life. Lastly, have there not been, and are there not still, instances of
men, who for such a woman, have gone raving mad in consequence of being
denied a place in her favor? From such a commencement of this love in
several cases, who cannot rationally conclude, that, from its essence,
it holds supreme dominion over every other love; and that the man's soul
in such case is in it, and promises itself eternal blessedness with the
dear and desired object of its wishes? And who can discover, let him
make what inquiry he pleases, any other cause of this than that he has
devoted his soul and heart to one woman? for if the lover, while he is
in that state, had the offer made him of choosing out of the whole sex
the worthiest, the richest, and the most beautiful, would he not despise
the offer, and adhere to her whom he had already chosen, his heart being
riveted to her alone? These observations are made in order that you may
acknowledge, that conjugial love of such super-eminence exists, while
one of the sex alone is loved. What understanding which with quick
discernment attends to a chain of connected reasonings, cannot hence
conclude, that if a lover from his inmost soul constantly persisted in
love to that one, he would attain those eternal blessednesses which he
promised himself before consent, and promises in consent? That he also
does attain them if he comes to the Lord, and from him lives a life of
true religion, was shewn above. Who but the Lord enters the life of man
from a superior principle, and implants therein internal celestial joys,
and transfers them to the derivative principles which follow in order;
and the more so, while at the same time he also bestows an enduring
strength or ability? It is no proof that such love does not exist, or
cannot exist, to urge that it is not experienced in one's self, and in
this or that person.

334. Since love truly conjugial unites the souls and hearts of two
persons, therefore also it is united with friendship, and by friendship
with confidence, and makes each conjugial, and so exalts them above
other friendships and confidences, that as that love is the chief love,
so also that friendship and that confidence are the chief: that this is
the case also with ability, is plain from several reasons, some of which
are discovered in the SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION that follows this
chapter; and from this ability follows the endurance of that love. That
by love truly conjugial two consorts become one flesh, was shewn in a
separate chapter, from n. 156-183.

called celestial blessednesses, spiritual satisfactions, and natural
delights, because the human mind is distinguished into three regions, of
which the highest is called celestial, the second spiritual, and the
third natural; and those three regions, with such as are principled in
love truly conjugial, are open, and influx follows in order according to
the openings. And as the pleasantnesses of that love are most eminent in
the highest regions, they are perceived as blessednesses, and as in the
middle region they are less eminent, they are perceived as
satisfactions, and lastly, in the lowest region, as delights: that there
are such blessednesses, satisfactions, and delights, and that they are
perceived and felt, appears from the MEMORABLE RELATIONS in which they
are described. The reason why all those happinesses were from the
beginning provided for those who are principled in love truly conjugial,
is, because there is an infinity of all blessednesses in the Lord, and
he is divine love; and it is the essence of love to desire to
communicate all its goods to another whom it loves; therefore together
with man he created that love, and inserted in it the faculty of
receiving and perceiving those blessednesses. Who is of so dull and
doting an apprehension as not to be able to see, that there is some
particular love into which the Lord has collected all possible
blessings, satisfactions, and delights?

ACCORDING TO HIS COMMANDMENTS. This has been proved above in many
places; to which proofs it may be expedient to add, that all those
blessings, satisfactions, and delights can only be given by the Lord,
and therefore no other is to be approached. What other can be
approached, when by him all things were made which are made, John i. 3;
when he is the God of heaven and earth, Matt, xxviii. 18: when no
appearance of God the father was ever seen, or his voice heard, except
through him, John i. 18; chap. v. 37; chap. xiv. 6-11? From these and
very many other passages in the Word, it is evident that the marriage of
love and wisdom, or of good and truth, from which alone all marriages
derive their origin, proceeds from him alone. Hence it follows, that the
above love with its felicities exists with none but those who come to
him; and the reason why it exists with those who live according to his
commandments, is, because he is conjoined with them by love, John xiv.

conjugial love, such as was described in its proper chapter, n. 57-73,
and in the following chapters, thus such as it is in its essence, exists
only with those who are of the Christian church, is, because that love
is from the Lord alone, and the Lord is not so known elsewhere as that
he can be approached as God; also because that love is according to the
state of the church with every one, n. 130, and the genuine state of the
church is from no other source than from the Lord, and thus is with none
but those who receive it from him. That these two principles are the
beginnings, introductions, and establishments of that love, has been
already confirmed by such abundance of evident and conclusive reasons,
that it is altogether needless to say any thing more on the subject. The
reason why conjugial love is nevertheless rare in the Christian world,
n. 58-59, is, because few in that world approach the Lord, and among
those there are some who indeed believe the church, but do not live
accordingly; besides other circumstances which are unfolded in the
APOCALYPSE REVEALED, where the present state of the Christian church is
fully described. But nevertheless it is an established truth, that love
truly conjugial can only exist with those who are of the Christian
church; therefore also from this ground polygamy is in that church
altogether rejected and condemned: that this also is of the divine
providence of the Lord, appears very manifest to those who think justly
concerning providence.

WIFE. This follows as a conclusion from the confirmation of the
preceding articles; to which this is to be added, that the genuine
conjugial principle is more deeply inserted into the minds of
Christians, than of the Gentiles who have embraced polygamy; and that
hence the minds of Christians are more susceptible of that love than the
minds of polygamists; for that conjugial principle is inserted in the
interiors of the minds of Christians, because they acknowledge the Lord
and his divine principle, and in the exteriors of their minds by civil

several wives, commits natural adultery, is agreeable to the Lord's
words, "_That it is not lawful to put away a wife, because from the
beginning they were created to be one flesh; and that he who putteth
away a wife without just cause, and marrieth another, committeth
adultery_." Matt. xix. 3-12; thus still more does he commit adultery who
does not put away his wife, but, while retaining her, connects himself
with another. This law enacted by the Lord respecting marriages, has its
internal ground in spiritual marriage; for whatever the Lord spoke was
in itself spiritual; which is meant by this declaration, "_The words
that I speak unto you are spirit and are life_," John vi. 63. The
spiritual (sense) contained therein is this, that by polygamical
marriage in the Christian world, the marriage of the Lord and the Church
is profaned; in like manner the marriage of good and truth; and still
more the Word, and with the Word the church; and the profanation of
those things is spiritual adultery. That the profanation of the good and
truth of the church derived from the Word corresponds to adultery, and
hence is spiritual adultery; and that the falsification of good and
truth has alike correspondence, but in a less degree, may be seen
confirmed in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED, n. 134. The reason why by
polygamical marriages among Christians the marriage of the Lord and the
church is profaned, is, because there is a correspondence between that
divine marriage and the marriages of Christians; concerning which, see
above, n. 83-102; which correspondence entirely perishes, if one wife is
joined to another; and when it perishes, the married man is no longer a
Christian. The reason why by polygamical marriages among Christians the
marriage of good and truth is profaned, is because from this spiritual
marriage are derived marriages in the world; and the marriages of
Christians differ from those of other nations in this respect, that as
good loves truth, and truth good, and are a one, so it is with a wife
and a husband; therefore if a Christian should join one wife to another,
he would rend asunder in himself that spiritual marriage; consequently
he would profane the origin of his marriage, and would thereby commit
spiritual adultery. That marriages in the world are derived from the
marriage of good and truth, may be seen above, n. 116-131. The reason
why a Christian by polygamical marriage would profane the Word and the
church, is, because the Word considered in itself is the marriage of
good and truth, and the church in like manner, so far as this is derived
from the Word; see above, n. 128-131. Now since a Christian is
acquainted with the Lord, possesses the Word, and has also the church
from the Lord by the Word, it is evident that he, much more than one who
is not a Christian, has the faculty of being capable of being
regenerated, and thereby of becoming spiritual, and also of attaining to
love truly conjugial; for these things are connected together. Since
those Christians who marry several wives, commit not only natural but
also at the same time spiritual adultery, it follows that the
condemnation of Christian polygamists after death is more grievous than
that of those who commit only natural adultery. Upon inquiring into
their state after death, I received for answer, that heaven is
altogether closed in respect to them; that they appear in hell as lying
in warm water in the recess of a bath, and that they thus appear at a
distance, although they are standing on their feet, and walking, which
is in consequence of their intestine frenzy; and that some of them are
thrown into whirlpools in the borders of the worlds.

CONJUGIAL COULD NOT EXIST WITH THEM. There are some at this day who are
in doubt respecting the institution relative to monogamical marriages,
or those of one man with one wife, and who are distracted by opposite
reasonings on the subject; being led to suppose that because polygamical
marriages were openly permitted in the case of the Israelitish nation
and its kings, and in the case of David and Solomon, they are also in
themselves permissible to Christians; but such persons have no distinct
knowledge respecting the Israelitish nation and the Christian, or
respecting the externals and internals of the church, or respecting the
change of the church from external to internal by the Lord; consequently
they know nothing from interior judgment respecting marriages. In
general it is to be observed, that a man is born natural in order that
he may be made spiritual; and that so long as he remains natural, he is
in the night, and as it were asleep as to spiritual things; and that in
this case he does not even know the difference between the external
natural man and the internal spiritual. That the Christian church was
not with the Israelitish nation, is known from the Word; for they
expected the Messiah, as they still expect him, who was to exalt them
above all other nations and people in the world: if therefore they had
been told, and were still to be told, that the Messiah's kingdom is over
the heavens, and thence over all nations, they would have accounted it
an idle tale; hence they not only did not acknowledge Christ or the
Messiah, our Lord, when he came into the world, but also barbarously
took him away out of the world. From these considerations it is evident,
that the Christian church was not, with that nation, as neither is it at
this day; and those with whom the Christian church is not, are natural
men both externally and internally: to such persons polygamy is not
hurtful, since it is inherent in the natural man; for, in regard to love
in marriages, the natural man perceives nothing but what has relation to
lust. This is meant by these words of the Lord, "_That Moses, because of
the HARDNESS OF THEIR HEARTS, suffered them to put away their wives: but
that from the beginning it was not so_," Matt. xix. 8. He says that
Moses permitted it, in order that it may be known that it was not the
Lord (who permitted it). But that the Lord taught the internal spiritual
man, is known from his precepts, and from the abrogation of the rituals
which served only for the use of the natural man; from his precepts
respecting washing, as denoting the purification of the internal man,
Matt. xv. 1, 17-20; chap. xxiii. 25, 26; Mark vii. 14-23; respecting
adultery, as denoting cupidity of the will, Matt. v. 28; respecting the
putting away of wives, as being unlawful, and respecting polygamy, as
not being agreeable to the divine law, Matt. xix. 3-9. These and several
other things relating to the internal principle and the spiritual man,
the Lord taught, because he alone opens the internals of human minds,
and makes them spiritual, and implants these spiritual principles in the
natural, that these also may partake of a spiritual essence: and this
effect takes place if he is approached, and the life is formed according
to his command merits, which in a summary are, to believe on him, and to
shun evils because they are of and from the devil; also to do good
works, because they are of the Lord and from the Lord; and in each case
for the man to act as from himself, and at the same time to believe that
all is done by the Lord through him. The essential reason why the Lord
opens the internal spiritual man, and implants this in the external
natural man, is, because every man thinks and acts naturally, and
therefore could not perceive any thing spiritual, and receives it in his
natural principle, unless the Lord had assumed the human natural, and
had made this also divine. From these considerations now it appears a
truth that the Israelitish nation was permitted to marry several wives,
because the Christian church was not with them.

conformity to the religion which Mahomet gave them, acknowledge Jesus
Christ to be the Son of God and a grand prophet, and that he was sent
into the world by God the Father to teach mankind; but not that God the
Father and he are one, and that his divine and human (principle) are one
person, united as soul and body, agreeably to the faith of all
Christians as grounded in the Athanasian Creed; therefore the followers
of Mahomet could not acknowledge our Lord to be any God from eternity,
but only to be a perfect natural man; and this being the opinion
entertained by Mahomet, and thence by his disciples, and they knowing
that God is one, and that that God is he who created the universe,
therefore they could do no other than pass by our Lord in their worship;
and the more so, because they declare Mahomet also to be a grand
prophet; neither do they know what the Lord taught. It is owing to this
cause, that the interiors of their minds, which in themselves are
spiritual, could not be opened: that the interiors of the mind are
opened by the Lord alone, may be seen just above, n. 340. The genuine
cause why they are opened by the Lord, when he is acknowledged to be the
God of heaven and earth, and is approached, and with those who live
according to his commandments, is, because otherwise there is no
conjunction, and without conjunction there is no reception. Man is
receptible of the Lord's presence and of conjunction with him. To come
to him causes presence, and to live according to his commandments causes
conjunction; his presence alone is without reception, but presence and
conjunction together are with reception. On this subject I will impart
the following new information from the spiritual world. Every one in
that world, when he is thought of, is brought into view as present; but
no one is conjoined to another except from the affection of love; and
this is insinuated by doing what he requires, and what is pleasing to
him. This circumstance, which is common in the spiritual world, derives
its origin from the Lord, who, in this same manner, is present and is
conjoined. The above observations are made in order to shew, that the
Mahometans are permitted to marry several wives, because love truly
conjugial, which subsists only between one man and one wife, was not
communicable to them; since from their religious tenets they did not
acknowledge the Lord to be equal to God the Father, and so to be the God
of heaven and earth. That conjugial love with every one is according to
the state of the church, may be seen above, at n. 130, and in several
other places.

particularly to each of these points, it may be expedient to premise
somewhat concerning the divine providence of the Lord in regard to the
rise of Mahometanism. That this religion is received by more kingdoms
than the Christian religion, may possibly be a stumbling-block to those
who, while thinking of the divine providence, at the same time believe
that no one can be saved that is not born a Christian; whereas the
Mahometan religion is no stumbling-block to those who believe that all
things are of the divine providence. These inquire in what respect the
divine providence is manifested in the Mahometan religion; and they so
discover in it this, that the Mahometan religion acknowledges our Lord
to be the Son of God, the wisest of men, and a grand prophet, who came
into the world to instruct mankind; but since the Mahometans have made
the Koran the book of their religion, and consequently think much of
Mahomet who wrote it, and pay him a degree of worship, therefore they
think little respecting our Lord. In order to shew more fully that the
Mahometan religion was raised up by the Lord's divine providence to
destroy the idolatries of several nations, we will give a detail of the
subject, beginning with the origin of idolatries. Previous to the
Mahometan religion idolatrous worship prevailed throughout the whole
world; because the churches before the Lord's coming were all
representative; such also was the Israelitish church, in which the
tabernacle, the garments of Aaron, the sacrifices, all things belonging
to the temple at Jerusalem, and also the statutes, were representative.
The ancients likewise had the science of correspondences, which is also
the science of representations, the very essential science of the wise,
which was principally cultivated by the Egyptians, whence their
hieroglyphics were derived. From that science they knew what was
signified by animals and trees of every kind, likewise by mountains,
hills, rivers, fountains, and also by the sun, the moon, and the stars:
by means of this science also they had a knowledge of spiritual things;
since things represented, which were such as relate to the spiritual
wisdom of the angels, were the origins (of those which represent). Now
since all their worship was representative, consisting of mere
correspondences, therefore they celebrated it on mountains and hills,
and also in groves and gardens; and on this account they sanctified
fountains, and in their adorations turned their faces to the rising sun:
moreover they made graven horses, oxen, calves, and lambs; yea, birds,
fishes, and serpents; and these they set in their houses and other
places, in order, according to the spiritual things of the church to
which they corresponded, or which they represented. They also set
similar images in their temples, as a means of recalling to their
remembrance the holy things of worship which they signified. In process
of time, when the science of correspondences was forgotten, their
posterity began to worship the very graven images as holy in themselves,
not knowing that the ancients, their fathers, did not see anything holy
in them, but only that according to correspondences they represented and
thence signified holy things. Hence arose the idolatries which
overspread the whole globe, as well Asia with its islands, as Africa and
Europe. To the intent that all those idolatries might be eradicated, it
came to pass of the Lord's divine providence, that a new religion,
accommodated to the genius of the orientals, took its rise; in which
something from each testament of the Word was retained, and which taught
that the Lord had come into the world, and that he was a grand prophet,
the wisest of all, and the Son of God. This was effected by means of
Mahomet, from whom that religion took its name. From these
considerations it is manifest, that this religion was raised up of the
Lord's divine providence, and accommodated, as we have observed, to the
genius of the orientals, to the end that it might destroy the idolatries
of so many nations, and might give its professors some knowledge of the
Lord, before they came into the spiritual world, as is the case with
every one after death. This religion would not have been received by so
many nations, neither could it have eradicated their idolatries, unless
it had been made agreeable to their ideas; especially unless polygamy
had been permitted; since without such permission, the orientals would
have burned with the fire of filthy adultery more than the Europeans,
and would have perished.

343. The Mahometans also have their heaven; for all in the universe, who
acknowledge a God, and from a religious notion shuns evils as sins
against him, are saved. That the Mahometan heaven is distinguished into
two, the inferior and the superior, I have heard from themselves: and
that in the inferior heaven they live with several wives and concubines
as in the world; but that those who renounce concubines and live with
one wife, are elevated into the superior heaven. I have heard also that
it is impossible for them to think of our Lord as one with the Father;
but that it is possible for them to think of him as his equal, and that
he has dominion over heaven and earth, because he is his Son; therefore
such of them as are elevated by the Lord into their superior heaven,
hold this belief.

344. On a certain time I was led to perceive the quality of the heat of
conjugial love with polygamists. I was conversing with one who
personated Mahomet. Mahomet himself is never present, but some one is
substituted in his place, to the end that those who are lately deceased
may as it were see him. This substitute, after I had been talking with
him at a distance, sent me an ebony spoon and other things, which were
proofs that they came from him; at the same time a communication was
opened for the heat of their conjugial love in that place, which seemed
to me like the warm stench of a bath; whereupon I turned myself away,
and the communication was closed.

345. X. POLYGAMY IS LASCIVIOUSNESS. The reason of this is, because its
love is divided among several, and is the love of the sex, and the love
of the external or natural man, and thus is not conjugial love, which
alone is chaste. It is well known that polygamical love is divided among
several, and divided love is not conjugial love, which cannot be divided
from one of the sex; hence the former love is lascivious, and polygamy
is lasciviousness. Polygamical love is the love of the sex, differing
from it only in this respect, that it is limited to a number, which the
polygamist may determine, and that it is bound to the observance of
certain laws enacted for the public good; also that it is allowed to
take concubines at the same time as wives; and thus, as it is the love
of the sex, it is the love of lasciviousness. The reason why polygamical
love is the love of the external or natural man is, because it is
inherent in that man; and whatever the natural man does from himself is
evil, from which he cannot be released except by elevation into the
internal spiritual man, which is effected solely by the Lord; and evil
respecting the sex, by which the natural man is influenced, is whoredom;
but since whoredom is destructive of society, instead thereof was
induced its likeness, which is called polygamy. Every evil into which a
man is born from his parents, is implanted in his natural man, but not
any in his spiritual man; because into this he is born from the Lord.
From what has now been adduced, and also from several other reasons, it
may evidently be seen, that polygamy is lasciviousness.

POLYGAMISTS. This follows from what has been just now proved, and
evidently from what was demonstrated in the chapter ON THE CHASTE
PRINCIPLE AND THE NON-CHASTE; especially from these articles of that
chapter, namely, that a chaste, pure, and holy principle is predicated
only of monogamical marriages, or of the marriage of one man with one
wife, n. 141; also, that love truly conjugial is essential chastity, and
that hence all the delights of that love, even the ultimate, are chaste,
n. 143, 144; and moreover from what was adduced in the chapter ON LOVE
TRULY CONJUGIAL, namely, that love truly conjugial, which is that of one
man with one wife, from its origin and correspondence, is celestial,
spiritual, holy, and clean above every other love, n. 64. Now since
chastity, purity, and sanctity exist only in love truly conjugial, it
follows, that it neither does nor can exist in polygamical love.

SPIRITUAL. To become spiritual is to be elevated out of the natural,
that is, out of the light and heat of the world, into the light and heat
of heaven. Respecting this elevation no one knows anything but he that
is elevated; nevertheless the natural man, although not elevated,
perceives no other than that he is; because he can elevate his
understanding into the light of heaven, and think and talk spiritually,
like the spiritual man; but if the will does not at the same time follow
the understanding to its altitude, he is still not elevated; for he does
not remain in that elevation, but in a short time lets himself down to
his will, and there fixes his station. It is said the will, but it is
the love that is meant at the same time; because the will is the
receptacle of the love; for what a man loves, that he wills. From these
few considerations it may appear, that a polygamist, so long as he
remains such, or what is the same, a natural man, so long as he remains
such, cannot be made spiritual.

RELIGIOUS NOTION. All that which is contrary to religion is believed to
be sin, because it is contrary to God; and on the other hand, all that
which agrees with religion, is believed not to be sin, because it agrees
with God; and as polygamy existed with the sons of Israel from a
principle of religion, and exists at this day with the Mahometans, it
could not, and cannot, be imputed to them as sin. Moreover, to prevent
its being sin to them, they remain natural, and do not become spiritual;
and the natural man cannot see that there is any sin in such things as
belong to the received religion: this is seen only by the spiritual man.
It is on this account, that although the Mahometans are taught by the
Koran to acknowledge our Lord as the Son of God, still they do not come
to him, but to Mahomet; and so long they remain natural, and
consequently do not know that there is in polygamy any evil, or indeed
any lasciviousness. The Lord also saith, "_If ye were blind ye would not
have sin; but now ye say, We see, therefore your sin remaineth_," John
ix. 41. Since polygamy cannot convict them of sin, therefore after death
they have their heavens, n. 342, 343; and their joys there according to

THE LORD. This is, because love truly conjugial is from the Lord alone,
and cannot be imparted by the Lord to any but those who know him,
acknowledge him, believe on him, and live the life which is from him;
and those to whom that love cannot be imparted know no other than that
the love of the sex and conjugial love are the same thing; consequently
also polygamy. Moreover, polygamists, who know nothing of the Lord,
remain natural: for a man (_homo_) is made spiritual only from the Lord;
and that is not imputed to the natural man as sin, which is according to
the laws of religion and at the same time of society: he also acts
according to his reason; and the reason of the natural man is in mere
darkness respecting love truly conjugial; and this love in excellence is
spiritual. Nevertheless the reason of polygamists is taught from
experience, that both public and private peace require that promiscuous
lust in general should be restrained, and be left to every one within
his own house: hence comes polygamy.

350. It is well known, that a man (_homo_) by birth is viler than the
beasts. All the beasts are born into the knowledges corresponding to the
love of their life; for as soon as they are born, or are hatched from
the egg, they see, hear, walk, know their food, their dam, their friends
and foes; and soon after this they show attention to the sex, and to the
affairs of love, and also to the rearing of their offspring. Man alone,
at his birth, knows nothing of this sort; for no knowledge is connate to
him; he has only the faculty and inclination of receiving those things
which relate to knowledge and love; and if he does not receive these
from others, he remains viler than a beast. That man is born in this
condition, to the end that he may attribute nothing to himself, but to
others, and at length every thing of wisdom and of the love thereof to
God alone, and may hence become an image of God, see the MEMORABLE
RELATION, n. 132-136. From these considerations it follows, that a man
who does not learn from others that the Lord has come into the world,
and that he is God, and has only acquired some knowledge respecting
religion and the laws of his country, is not in fault if he thinks no
more of conjugial love than of the love of the sex, and if he believes
polygamical love to be the only conjugial love. The Lord leads such
persons in their ignorance; and by his divine auspices providently
withdraws from the imputation of guilt those who, from a religious
notion, shun evils as sins, to the end that they may be saved; for every
man is born for heaven, and no one for hell; and every one comes into
heaven (by influence) from the Lord, and into hell (by influence) from

JUSTICE. All throughout the world who acknowledge a God and live
according to the civil laws of justice from a religious notion, are
saved. By the civil laws of justice we mean such precepts as are
contained in the Decalogue, which forbid murder, theft, adultery, and
false witness. These precepts are the civil laws of justice in all the
kingdoms of the earth; for without them no kingdom could subsist. But
some are influenced in the practice of them by fear of the penalties of
the law, some by civil obedience, and some also by religion; these last
are saved, because in such case God is in them; and every one, in whom
God is, is saved. Who does not see, that among the laws given to the
sons of Israel, after they had left Egypt, were those which forbid
murder, adultery, theft, and false witness, since without those laws
their communion or society could not subsist? and yet these laws were
promulgated by Jehovah God upon Mount Sinai with a stupendous miracle:
but the cause of their being so promulgated was, that they might be also
laws of religion, and thus that the people might practise them not only
for the sake of the good of society, but also for the sake of God, and
that when they practised them from a religious notion for the sake of
God, they might be saved. From these considerations it may appear, that
the pagans, who acknowledge a God, and live according to the civil laws
of justice, are saved; since it is not their fault that they know
nothing of the Lord, consequently nothing of the chastity of the
marriage with one wife. For it is contrary to the divine justice to
condemn those who acknowledge a God, and from their religion practise
the laws of justice, which consist in shunning evils because they are
contrary to God, and in doing what is good because it is agreeable to

is, because in the Christian heavens there are celestial light, which is
divine truth, and celestial heat, which is divine love; and these two
discover the quality of goods and truths, and also of evils and falses;
hence, there is no communication between the Christian and the Mahometan
heavens, and in like manner between the heavens of the Gentiles. If
there were a communication, none could have been saved but those who
were in celestial light and at the same time in celestial heat from the
Lord; yea neither would these be saved if there was a conjunction of the
heavens: for in consequence of conjunction all the heavens would so far
fall to decay that the angels would not be able to subsist; for an
unchaste and lascivious principle would flow from the Mahometans into
the Christian heaven, which in that heaven could not be endured; and a
chaste and pure principle would flow from the Christians into the
Mahometan heaven, which again could not be there endured. In such case,
in consequence of communication and thence of conjunction, the Christian
angels would become natural and thereby adulterers; or if they remained
spiritual, they would be continually sensible of a lascivious principle
about them, which would intercept all the blessedness of their life. The
case would be somewhat similar with the Mahometan heaven: for the
spiritual principles of the Christian heaven would continually encompass
and torment them, and would take away all the delight of their life, and
would moreover insinuate that polygamy is sin, whereby they would be
continually eluded. This is the reason why all the heavens are
altogether distinct from each other, so that there is no connection
between them, except by an influx of light and heat from the Lord out of
the sun, in the midst of which he is: and this influx enlightens and
vivifies everyone according to his reception; and reception is according
to religion. This communication is granted, but not a communication of
the heavens with each other.

* * * * *

353. To the above I shall add TWO MEMORABLE RELATIONS. FIRST. I was once
in the midst of the angels and heard their conversation. It was
respecting intelligence and wisdom; that a man perceives no other than
that each is in himself, and thus that whatever he thinks from his
understanding and intends from his will, is from himself; when
nevertheless not the least portion thereof is from the man, but only the
faculty of receiving the things of the understanding and the will from
God: and as every man (_homo_) is by birth inclined to love himself, it
was provided from creation, to prevent man's perishing by self-love and
the conceit of his own intelligence, that that love of the man (_vir_)
should be transferred into the wife, and that in her should be implanted
from her birth a love for the intelligence and wisdom of her husband,
and thereby a love for him; therefore the wife continually attracts to
herself her husband's conceit of his own intelligence, and extinguishes
it in him, and vivifies it in herself, and thus changes it into
conjugial love, and fills it with unbounded pleasantnesses. This is
provided by the Lord, lest the conceit of his own intelligence should so
far infatuate the man, as to lead him to believe that he has
understanding and wisdom from himself and not from the Lord, and thereby
make him willing to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil,
and thence to believe himself like unto God, and also a god, as the
serpent, which was the love of his own intelligence, said and persuaded
him: wherefore the man (_homo_) after eating was cast out of paradise,
and the way to the tree of life was guarded by a cherub. Paradise,
spiritually understood, denotes intelligence; to eat of the tree of
life, in a spiritual sense, is to be intelligent and wise from the Lord;
and to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, in a spiritual
sense, is to be intelligent and wise from self.

354. The angels having finished this conversation departed; and there
came two priests, together with a man who in the world had been an
ambassador of a kingdom, and to them I related what I had heard from the
angels. On hearing this they began to dispute with each other about
intelligence and wisdom, and the prudence thence derived, whether they
are from God or from man. The dispute grew warm. All three in heart
believed that they are from man because they are in man, and that the
perception and sensation of its being so confirm it; but the priests,
who on this occasion were influenced by theological zeal, said that
there is nothing of intelligence and wisdom, and thus nothing of
prudence from man; and when the ambassador retorted, that in such case
there is nothing of thought from man, they assented to it. But as it was
perceived in heaven, that all the three were in a similar belief, it was
said to the ambassador, "Put on the garments of a priest, and believe
that you are one, and then speak." He did so; and instantly he declared
aloud that nothing of intelligence and wisdom, and consequently nothing
of prudence, can possibly exist but from God; and he proved it with his
usual eloquence full of rational arguments. It is a peculiar
circumstance in the spiritual world, that a spirit thinks himself to be
such as is denoted by the garment he wears; because in that world the
understanding clothes every one. Afterwards, a voice from heaven said to
the two priests, "Put off your own garments, and put on those of
political ministers, and believe yourselves to be such." They did so;
and in this case they at the same time thought from their interior self,
and spoke from arguments which they had inwardly cherished in favor of
man's own intelligence. At that instant there appeared a tree near the
path; and it was said to them, "It is the tree of the knowledge of good
and evil; take heed to yourselves lest ye eat of it." Nevertheless all
the three, infatuated by their own intelligence, burned with a desire to
eat of it, and said to each other, "Why should not we? Is not the fruit
good?" And they went to it and eat of it. Immediately all the three, as
they were in a like faith, became bosom friends; and they entered
together into the way of self-intelligence, which led into hell:
nevertheless I saw them return thence, because they were not yet

355. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. On a time as I was looking into the
spiritual world, I saw in a certain green field some men, whose garments
were like those worn by men of this world; from which circumstance I
knew that they were lately deceased. I approached them and stood near
them, that I might hear what they were conversing about. Their
conversation was about heaven; and one of them who knew something
respecting it, said, "In heaven there are wonderful things, such as no
one can believe unless he has seen them: there are paradisiacal gardens,
magnificent palaces constructed according to the rules of architecture,
because the work of the art itself, resplendent with gold; in the front
of which are columns of silver; and on the columns heavenly forms made
of precious stones; also houses of jasper and sapphire, in the front of
which are stately porticos, through which the angels enter; and within
the houses handsome furniture, which no art or words can describe. The
angels themselves are of both sexes: there are youths and husbands, also
maidens and wives: maids so beautiful, that nothing in the world bears
any resemblance to their beauty; and wives still more beautiful, who are
genuine images of celestial love, and their husbands images of celestial
wisdom; and all these are ever approaching the full bloom of youth; and
what is more, they know no other love of the sex than conjugial love;
and, what you will be surprised to hear, the husbands there have a
perpetual faculty of enjoyment." When the novitiate spirits heard that
no other love of the sex prevailed in heaven than conjugial love, and
that they had a perpetual faculty of enjoyment, they smiled at each
other, and said, "What you tell us is incredible; there cannot be such a
faculty: possibly you are amusing us with idle tales." But at that
instant a certain angel from heaven unexpectedly stood in the midst of
them, and said, "Hear me, I beseech you; I am an angel of heaven, and
have lived now a thousand years with my wife, and during that time have
been in the same flower of my age in which you here see me. This is in
consequence of the conjugial love in which I have lived with my wife;
and I can affirm, that the above faculty has been and is perpetual with
me; and because I perceive that you believe this to be impossible, I
will talk with you on the subject from a ground of rational argument
according to the light of your understanding. You do not know anything
of the primeval state of man, which you call a state of integrity. In
that state all the interiors of the mind were open even to the Lord; and
hence they were in the marriage of love and wisdom, or of good and
truth; and as the good of love and the truth of wisdom perpetually love
each other, they also perpetually desire to be united; and when the
interiors of the mind are open, the conjugial spiritual love flows down
freely with its perpetual endeavour, and presents the above faculty. The
very soul of a man (_homo_), being in the marriage of good and truth, is
not only in the perpetual endeavour of that union, but also in the
perpetual endeavour of the fructification and production of its own
likeness; and since the interiors of a man even from the soul are open
by virtue of that marriage, and the interiors continually regard as an
end the effect in ultimates that they may exist, therefore that
perpetual endeavor for fructifying and producing its like, which is the
property of the soul, becomes also of the body: and since the ultimate
of the operation of the soul in the body with two conjugial partners is
into the ultimates of love therein, and these depend on the state of the
soul, it is evident whence they derive this perpetuality. Fructification
also is perpetual, because the universal sphere of generating and
propagating the celestial things which are of love, and the spiritual
things which are of wisdom, and thence the natural things which are of
offspring, proceeds from the Lord, and fills all heaven and all the
world; and that celestial sphere fills the souls of all men, and
descends through their minds into the body even to its ultimates, and
gives the power of generating. But this cannot be the case with any but
those with whom a passage is open from the soul through the superior and
inferior principles of the mind into the body to its ultimates, as is
the case with those who suffer themselves to be led back by the Lord
into the primeval state of creation. I can confirm that now for a
thousand years I have never wanted faculty, strength, or vigor, and that
I am altogether a stranger to any diminution of powers, which are
continually renewed by the influx of the above-mentioned sphere, and in
such case also cheer the mind (_animum_), and do not make it sad, as is
the case with those who suffer the loss of those powers. Moreover love
truly conjugial is just like the vernal heat, from the influx of which
all things tend to germination and fructification; nor is there any
other heat in our heaven: wherefore with conjugial partners in that
heaven there is spring in its perpetual _conatus_, and it is this
perpetual _conatus_ from which the above virtue is derived. But
fructifications with us in heaven are different from those with men on
earth. With us fructifications are spiritual, which are the
fructifications of love and wisdom, or of good and truth: the wife from
the husband's wisdom receives into herself the love thereof; and the
husband from the love thereof in the wife receives into himself wisdom;
yea the wife is actually formed into the love of the husband's wisdom,
which is effected by her receiving the propagations of his soul with the
delight arising therefrom, in that she desires to be the love of her
husband's wisdom: thus from a maiden she becomes a wife and a likeness.
Hence also love with its inmost friendship with the wife, and wisdom
with its happiness with the husband, are continually increasing, and
this to eternity. This is the state of the angels of heaven." When the
angel had thus spoken, he looked at those who had lately come from the
world, and said to them, "You know that, while you were in the vigor of
love, you loved your married partners; but when your appetite was
gratified, you regarded them with aversion; but you do not know that we
in heaven do not love our married partners in consequence of that vigor,
but that we have vigor in consequence of love and derived from it; and
that as we perpetually love our married partners, we have perpetual
vigor: if therefore you can invert the state, you may be able to
comprehend this. Does not he who perpetually loves a married partner,
love her with the whole mind and with the whole body? for love turns
every thing of the mind and of the body to that which it loves; and as
this is done reciprocally, it conjoins the objects so that they become a
one." He further said, "I will not speak to you of the conjugial love
implanted from the creation in males and females, and of their
inclination to legitimate conjunction, or of the faculty of
prolification in the males, which makes one with the faculty of
multiplying wisdom from the love of truth; and that so far as a man
loves wisdom from the love thereof, or truth from good, so far he is in
love truly conjugial and in its attendant vigor."

356. When he had spoken these words, the angel was silent; and from the
spirit of his discourse the novitiates comprehended that a perpetual
faculty of enjoyment is communicable; and as this consideration rejoiced
their minds, they exclaimed, "O how happy is the state of angels! We
perceive that you in the heavens remain for ever in a state of youth,
and thence in the vigor of that age; but tell us how we also may enjoy
that vigor." The angel replied, "Shun adulteries as internal, and
approach the Lord, and you will possess it." They said, "We will do so."
But the angel replied, "You cannot shun adulteries as infernal evils,
unless you in like manner shun all other evils, because adulteries are
the complex of all; and unless you shun them, you cannot approach the
Lord; for the Lord receives no others." After this the angel took his
leave, and the novitiate spirits departed sorrowful.

* * * * *


357. The subject of jealousy is here treated of, because it also has
relation to conjugial love. There is a just jealousy and an unjust;--a
just jealousy with married partners who mutually love each other, with
whom it is a just and prudent zeal lest their conjugial love should be
violated, and thence a just grief if it is violated; and an unjust
jealousy with those who are naturally suspicious, and whose minds are
sickly in consequence of viscous and bilious blood. Moreover, all
jealousy is by some accounted a vice; which is particularly the case
with whoremongers, who censure even a just jealousy. The term JEALOUSY
(_zelotypia_) is derived from ZELI TYPUS (the type of zeal), and there
is a type or image of just and also of unjust zeal; but we will explain
these distinctions in the following series of articles: I. _Zeal,
considered in itself, is like the ardent fire, of love._ II. _The
burning or flame of that love, which is zeal, is a spiritual burning or
flame, arising from an infestation and assault of the love._ III. _The
quality of a man's (homo) zeal is according to the quality of his love;
thus it differs according as the love is good or evil._ IV. _The zeal of
a good love and the zeal of an evil love are alike in externals, but
altogether unlike in internals._ V. _The zeal of a good love in its
internals contains a hidden store of love and friendship; but the zeal
of an evil love in its internals contains a hidden store of hatred and
revenge._ VI. _The zeal of conjugial love is called jealousy._ VII.
_Jealousy is like an ardent fire against those who infest love exercised
towards a married partner, and like a terrible fear for the loss of that
love._ VIII. _There is spiritual jealousy with monogamists, and natural
with polygamists._ IX. _Jealousy with those married partners who
tenderly love each other, is a just grief grounded in sound reason lest
conjugial love should be divided, and should thereby perish._ X.
_Jealousy with married partners who do not love each other, is grounded
in several causes: arising in some instances from various mental
weaknesses._ XI. _In some instances there is not any jealousy; and this
also from various causes._ XII. _There is a jealousy also in regard to
concubines, but not such as in regard to wives._ XIII. _Jealousy
likewise exists among beasts and birds._ XIV. _The jealousy of men and
husbands is different from that of women and wives._ We proceed to an
explanation of the above articles.

What jealousy is cannot be known, unless it be known what zeal is; for
jealousy is the zeal of conjugial love. The reason why zeal is like the
ardent fire of love is, because zeal is of love, which is spiritual
heat, and this in its origin is like fire. In regard to the first
position, it is well known that zeal is of love: nothing else is meant
by being zealous, and acting from zeal, than acting from the force of
love: but since when it exists, it appears not as love, but as
unfriendly and hostile, offended at and fighting against him who hurts
the love, therefore it may also be called the defender and protector of
love; for all love is of such a nature that it bursts into indignation
and anger, yea into fury, whenever it is disturbed in its delights:
therefore if a love, especially the ruling love, be touched, there
ensues an emotion of the mind; and if it be hurt, there ensues wrath.
From these considerations it may be seen, that zeal is not the highest
degree of the love, but that it is ardent love. The love of one, and the
correspondent love of another, are like two confederates; but when the
love of one rises up against the love of another, they become like
enemies; because love is the _esse_ of a man's life; therefore he that
assaults the love, assaults the life itself; and in such case there
ensues a state of wrath against the assailant, like the state of every
man whose life is attempted by another. Such wrath is attendant on every
love, even that which is most pacific, as is very manifest in the case
of hens, geese, and birds of every kind; which, without any fear, rise
against and fly at those who injure their young, or rob them of their
meat. That some beasts are seized with anger, and wild beasts with fury,
if their young are attacked, or their prey taken from them, is well
known. The reason why love is said to burn like fire is, because love is
spiritual heat, originating in the fire of the angelic sun, which is
pure love. That love is heat as it were from fire, evidently appears
from the heat of living bodies, which is from no other source than from
their love; also from the circumstance that men grow warm and are
inflamed according to the exaltation of their love. From these
considerations it is manifest, that zeal is like the ardent fire of

THE LOVE. That zeal is a spiritual burning or flame, is evident from
what has been said above. As love in the spiritual world is heat arising
from the sun of that world, therefore also love at a distance appears
there as flame: it is thus that celestial love appears with the angels
of heaven; and thus also infernal love appears with the spirits of hell:
but it is to be observed, that that flame does not burn like the flame
of the natural world. The reason why zeal arises from an assault of the
love is, because love is the heat of every one's life; wherefore when
the life's love is assaulted, the life's heat kindles itself, resists,
and bursts forth against the assailant, and acts as an enemy by virtue
of its own strength and ability, which is like flame bursting from a
fire upon him who stirs it: that it is like fire, appears from the
sparkling of the eyes from the face being inflamed, also from the tone
of the voice and the gestures. This is the effect of love, as being the
heat of life, to prevent its extinction, and with it the extinction of
all cheerfulness, vivacity, and perceptibility of delight, grounded in
its own love.

360. It may be expedient here to show how the love by being assaulted is
inflamed and kindled into zeal, like fire into flame. Love resides in a
man's will; nevertheless it is not inflamed in the will itself, but in
the understanding; for in the will it is like fire, and in the
understanding like flame. Love in the will knows nothing about itself,
because there it is not sensible of anything relating to itself, neither
does it there act from itself; but this is done in the understanding and
its thought: when therefore the will is assaulted, it provokes itself to
anger in the understanding, which is effected by various reasonings.
These reasonings are like pieces of wood, which the fire inflames, and
which thence burn: they are therefore like so much fuel, or so many
combustible matters which give occasion to that spiritual flame, which
is very variable.

361. We will here unfold the true reason why a man becomes inflamed in
consequence of an assault of his love. The human form in its inmost
principles is from creation a form of love and wisdom. In man there are
all the affections of love, and thence all the perceptions of wisdom,
compounded in the most perfect order, so as to make together what is
unanimous, and thereby a one. Those affections and perceptions are
rendered substantial; for substances are their subjects. Since therefore
the human form is compounded of these, it is evident that, if the love
is assaulted, this universal form also, with everything therein, is
assaulted at the same instant, or together with it. And as the desire to
continue in its form is implanted from creation in all living things,
therefore this principle operates in every general compound by
derivation from the singulars of which it is compounded, and in the
singulars by derivation from the general compound: hence when the love
is assaulted, it defends itself by its understanding, and the
understanding (defends itself) by rational and imaginative principles,
whereby it represents to itself the event; especially by such as act in
unity with the love which is assaulted: and unless this was the case the
above form would wholly fall to pieces, in consequence of the privation
of that love. Hence then it is that love, in order to resist assaults,
hardens the substance of its form, and sets them erect, as it were in
crests, like so many sharp prickles, that is, crisps itself; such is the
provoking of love which is called zeal: wherefore if there is no
opportunity of resistance, there arise anxiety and grief, because it
foresees the extinction of interior life with its delights. But on the
other hand, if the love is favored and cherished, the above form
unbends, softens, and dilates itself; and the substances of the form
become gentle, mild, meek, and alluring.

is of love, it follows that its quality is such as the quality of the
love is; and as there are in general two loves, the love of what is good
and thence of what is true, and the love of what is evil and thence of
what is false, hence in general there is a zeal in favor of what is good
and thence of what is true, and in favor of what is evil and thence of
what is false. But it is to be noted, that of each love there is an
infinite variety. This is very manifest from the angels of heaven and
the spirits of hell; both of whom in the spiritual world are the forms
of their respective love; and yet there is not one angel of heaven
absolutely like another as to face, speech, gait, gesture, and manner;
nor any spirit of hell; yea neither can there be to eternity, howsoever
they be multiplied into myriads of myriads. Hence it is evident, that
there is an infinite variety of loves, because there is of their forms.
The case is the same with zeal, as being of the love; the zeal of one
cannot be absolutely like or the same with the zeal of another. In
general there are the zeal of a good and the zeal of an evil love.

with every one, appears like anger and wrath; for it is love enkindled
and inflamed to defend itself against a violator, and to remove him. The
reason why the zeal of a good love and the zeal of an evil love appear
alike in externals is, because in both cases love while it is in zeal,
burns; but with a good man only in externals, whereas with an evil man
it burns in both externals and internals; and when internals are not
regarded, the zeals appear alike in externals; but that they are
altogether different in internals will be seen in the next article. That
zeal appears in externals like anger and wrath, may be seen and heard
from all those who speak and act from zeal; as for example, from a
priest while he is preaching from zeal, the tone of whose voice is high,
vehement, sharp, and harsh; his face is heated and perspires; he exerts
himself, beats the pulpit, and calls forth fire from hell against those
who do evil: and so in many other cases.

364. In order that a distinct idea may be formed of zeal as influencing
the good, and of zeal as influencing the wicked, and of their
dissimilitude, it is necessary that some idea be previously formed of
men's internals and externals. For this purpose, let us take a common
idea on the subject, as being adapted to general apprehension, and let
it be exhibited by the case of a nut or an almond, and their kernels.
With the good, the internals are like the kernels within as to their
soundness and goodness, encompassed with their usual and natural husk;
with the wicked, the case is altogether different, their internals are
like kernels which are either not eatable from their bitterness, or
rotten, or worm-eaten; whereas their externals are like the shells or
husks of those kernels, either like the natural shells or husks, or
shining bright like shell-fish, or speckled like the stones called
irises, Such is the appearance of their externals, within which the
above-mentioned internals lie concealed. The case is the same with their

that zeal in externals appears like anger and wrath, as well with those
who are in a good love, as with those who are in an evil love: but
whereas the internals are different, the anger and wrath in each case
differs from that of the other, and the difference is as follows: 1. The
zeal of a good love is like a heavenly flame, which in one case bursts
out upon another, but only defends itself, and that against a wicked
person, as when he rushes into the fire and is burnt: but the zeal of an
evil love is like an infernal flame, which of itself bursts forth and
rushes on, and is desirous to consume another. 2. The zeal of a good
love instantly burns away and is allayed when the assailant ceases to
assault; but the zeal of an evil love continues and is not extinguished.
3. This is because the internal of him who is in the love of good is in
itself mild, soft, friendly, and benevolent; wherefore when his
external, with a view of defending itself, is fierce, harsh, and
haughty, and thereby acts with rigor, still it is tempered by the good
in which he is internally: it is otherwise with the wicked; with such
the internal is unfriendly, without pity, harsh, breathing hatred and
revenge, and feeding itself with their delights; and although it is
reconciled, still those evils lie concealed as fires in wood underneath
the embers; and these fires burst forth after death, if not in this

366. Since zeal in externals appears alike both in the good and the
wicked, and since the ultimate sense of the Word consists of
correspondence and appearances, therefore in the Word, it is very often
said of Jehovah that he is angry and wrathful, that he revenges,
punishes, casts into hell, with many other things which are appearances
of zeal in externals; hence also it is that he is called zealous:
whereas there is not the least of anger, wrath, and revenge in him; for
he is essential mercy, grace and clemency, thus essential good, in whom
it is impossible such evil passions can exist. But on this subject see
more particulars in the treatise on HEAVEN AND HELL, n. 545-550; and in
the APOCALYPSE REVEALED, n. 494, 498, 525, 714, 806.

truly conjugial love is the chief of zeals; because that love is the
chief of loves, and its delights, in favor of which also zeal operates,
are the chief delights; for, as was shewn above, that love is the head
of all loves. The reason of this is, because that love induces in a wife
the form of love, and in a husband the form of wisdom; and from these
forms united into one, nothing can proceed but what savors of wisdom and
at the same time of love. As the zeal of conjugial love is the chief of
zeals, therefore it is called by a new name, JEALOUSY, which is the very
type of zeal.

LOSS OF THAT LOVE. The subject here treated of is jealousy of those who
are in spiritual love with a married partner; in the following article
we shall treat of the jealousy of those who are in natural love; and
afterwards of the jealousy of those who are in love truly conjugial.
With those who are in spiritual love the jealousy is various, because
their love is various; for one love, whether spiritual or natural, is
never altogether alike with two persons, still less with several. The
reason why spiritual jealousy, or jealousy with the spiritual, is like
an ardent fire raging against those who infest their conjugial love, is,
because with them the first principle of love is in the internals of
each party, and their love from its first principle follows its
principiates, even to its ultimates, by virtue of which ultimates and at
the same time of first principles, the intermediates which are of the
mind and body, are kept in lovely connection. These, being spiritual, in
their marriage regard union as an end, and in union spiritual rest and
the pleasantness thereof: now, as they have rejected disunion from their
minds, therefore their jealousy is like a fire stirred up and darting
forth against those who infest them. The reason why it is also like a
terrible fear is, because their spiritual love intends that they be one;
if therefore there exists a chance, or happens an appearance of
separation, a fear ensues as terrible as when two united parts are torn
asunder. This description of jealousy was given me from heaven by those
who are in spiritual conjugial love; for there are a natural, a
spiritual, and a celestial conjugial love; concerning the natural and
the celestial conjugial love, and their jealousy, we shall take occasion
to speak in the two following articles.

WITH POLYGAMISTS. The reason why spiritual jealousy exists with
monogamists is, because they alone can receive spiritual conjugial love,
as has been abundantly shewn above. It is said that it exists; but the
meaning is that it is capable of existing. That it exists only with a
very few in the Christian world, where there are monogamical marriages,
but that still it is capable of existing there, has also been confirmed
above. That with polygamists conjugial love is natural, may be seen in
the chapter on Polygamy, n. 345, 347; in like manner jealousy is natural
in the same case, because this follows love. What the quality of
jealousy is among polygamists, we are taught from the relations of those
who have been eyewitnesses of its effects among the orientals: these
effects are, that wives and concubines are guarded as prisoners in
work-houses, and are withheld from and prohibited all communication with
men; that into the women's apartments, or the closets of their
confinement, no man is allowed to enter unless attended by a eunuch; and
that the strictest watch it set to observe whether any of the women look
with a lascivious eye or countenance at a man as he passes; and that if
this be observed, the woman is sentenced to the whip; and in case she
indulges her lasciviousness with any man, whether introduced secretly
into her apartment, or from home, she is punished with death.

370. From these considerations it is plainly seen what is the quality of
the fire of jealousy into which polygamical conjugial love enkindles
itself,--that it is into anger and revenge; into anger with the meek,
and into revenge with the fierce. The reason of this effect is, because
their love is natural, and does not partake of anything spiritual. This
is a consequence of what is demonstrated in the chapter on
Polygamy,--that polygamy is lasciviousness, n. 345; and that a
polygamist, so long as he remains such, is natural, and cannot become
spiritual, n. 347. But the fire of jealousy is different with natural
monogamists, whose love is inflamed not so much against the women as
against those who do violence, becoming anger against the latter, and
cold against the former: it is otherwise with polygamists, whose fire of
jealousy burns also with the rage of revenge: this likewise is one of
the reasons why, after the death of polygamists, their concubines and
wives are for the most part set free, and are sent to seraglios not
guarded, to employ themselves in the various elegant arts proper to

fear and grief; fear lest it should perish, and grief in case it
perishes: it is the same with conjugial love; but the fear and grief
attending this love is called zeal or jealousy. The reason why this
zeal, with married partners who tenderly love each other, is just and
grounded in sound reason, is, because it is at the same time a fear for
the loss of eternal happiness, not only of its own but also of its
married partner's, and because also it is a defence against adultery. In
respect to the first consideration,--that it is a just fear for the loss
of its own eternal happiness and of that of its married partner, it
follows from every thing which has been heretofore adduced concerning
love truly conjugial; and also from this consideration, that married
partners derive from that love the blessedness of their souls, the
satisfaction of their minds, the delight of their bosoms, and the
pleasure of their bodies; and since these remain with them to eternity,
each party has a fear for eternal happiness. That the above zeal is a
just defence against adulteries, is evident: hence it is like a fire
raging against violation, and defending itself against it. From these
considerations it is evident, that whoever loves a married partner
tenderly, is also jealous, but is just and discreet according to the
man's wisdom.

372. It was said, that in conjugial love there is implanted a fear lest
it should be divided, and a grief lest it should perish, and that its
zeal is like a fire raging against violation. Some time ago, when
meditating on this subject, I asked the zealous angels concerning the
seat of jealousy? They said, that it is in the understanding of the man
who receives the love of a married partner and returns it; and that its
quality there is according to his wisdom: they said further, that
jealousy has in it somewhat in common with honor, which also resides in
conjugial love; for he that loves his wife, also honors her. In regard
to zeal's residing with a man in his understanding, they assigned this
reason; because conjugial love defends itself by the understanding, as
good does by truth; so the wife defends those things which are common
with the man, by her husband; and that on this account zeal is implanted
in the men, and by them, and for their sake, in the women. To the
question as to the region of the mind in which jealousy resides with the
men, they replied, in their souls, because it is also a defence against
adulteries; and because adulteries principally destroy conjugial love,
that when there is danger of the violation of that love, the man's
understanding grows hard, and becomes like a horn, with which he strikes
the adulterer.

MENTAL WEAKNESSES. The causes why married partners who do not mutually
love each other, are yet jealous, are principally the honor resulting
from power, the fear of defamation with respect both to the man himself
and also to his wife, and the dread lest domestic affairs should fall
into confusion. It is well known that the men have honor resulting from
power, that is, that they are desirous of being respected in consequence
thereof; for so long as they have this honor, they are as it were of an
elevated mind, and not dejected when in the company of men and women: to
this honor also is attached the name of bravery; wherefore military
officers have it more than others. That the fear of defamation, with
respect both to the man himself and also to his wife, is a cause of
jealousy that agrees with the foregoing: to which may be added, that
living with a harlot, and debauched practices in a house, are accounted
infamous. The reason why some are jealous through a dread lest their
domestic affairs should fall into confusion, is because, so far as this
is the case, the husband is made light of, and mutual services and aids
are withdrawn; but with some in process of time this jealousy ceases and
is annihilated, and with some it is changed into the mere semblance of

374. That jealousy in certain cases arises from various mental
weaknesses, is not unknown in the world; for there are jealous persons,
who are continually thinking that their wives are unfaithful, and
believe them to be harlots, merely because they hear or see them talk in
a friendly manner with or about men. There are several vitiated
affections of the mind which induce this weakness; the principal of
which is a suspicious fancy, which if it be long cherished, introduces
the mind into societies of similar spirits, from whence it cannot
without difficulty be rescued; it also confirms itself in the body, by
rendering the serum, and consequently the blood, viscous, tenacious,
thick, slow, and acrid, a defect of strength also increases it; for the
consequence of such defect is, that the mind cannot be elevated from its
suspicious fancies; for the presence of strength elevates, and its
absence depresses, the latter causing the mind to sink, give way, and
become feeble; in which case it immerses itself more and more in the
above fancy, till it grows delirious, and thence takes delight in
quarrelling, and, so far as is allowable, in abuse.

375. There are also several countries, which more than others labor
under this weakness of jealousy: in these the wives are imprisoned, are
tyrannically shut out from conversation with men, are prevented from
even looking at them through the windows, by blinds drawn down, and are
terrified by threats of death if the cherished suspicion shall appear
well grounded; not to mention other hardships which the wives in those
countries suffer from their jealous husbands. There are two causes of
this jealousy; one is, an imprisonment and suffocation of the thoughts
in the spiritual things of the church; the other is, an inward desire of
revenge. As to the first cause,--the imprisonment and suffocation of the
thoughts in the spiritual things of the church, its operation and effect
may be concluded from what has been proved above,--that everyone has
conjugial love according to the state of the church with him, and as the
church is from the Lord, that that love is solely from the Lord, n. 130,
131; when therefore, instead of the Lord, living and deceased men are
approached and invoked, it follows, that the state of the church is such
that conjugial love cannot act in unity with it; and the less so while
the mind is terrified into that worship by the threats of a dreadful
prison: hence it comes to pass, that the thoughts, together with the
expressions of them in conversation, are violently seized and
suffocated; and when they are suffocated, there is an influx of such
things as are either contrary to the church, or imaginary in favor of
it; the consequence of which is, heat in favor of harlots and cold
towards a married partner; from which two principles prevailing together
in one subject, such an unconquerable fire of jealousy flows forth. As
to the second cause,--the inward desire of revenge, this altogether
checks the influx of conjugial love, and swallows it up, and changes the
delight thereof, which is celestial, into the delight of revenge, which
is infernal; and the proximate determination of this latter is to the
wife. There is also an appearance, that the unhealthiness of the
atmosphere, which in those regions is impregnated with the poisonous
exhalations of the surrounding country, is an additional cause.

VARIOUS CAUSES. There are several causes of there being no jealousy, and
of its ceasing. The absence of jealousy is principally with those who
make no more account of conjugial than of adulterous love, and at the
same time are so void of honorable feeling as to slight the reputation
of a name: they are not unlike married pimps. There is no jealousy
likewise with those who have rejected it from a confirmed persuasion
that it infests the mind, and that it is useless to watch a wife, and
that to do so serves only to incite her, and that therefore it is better
to shut the eyes, and not even to look through the key-hole, lest any
thing should be discovered. Some have rejected jealousy on account of
the reproach attached to the name, and under the idea that any one who
is a real man, is afraid of nothing: some have been driven to reject it
lest their domestic affairs should suffer, and also lest they should
incur public censure in case the wife was convicted of the disorderly
passion of which she is accused. Moreover jealousy passes off into no
jealousy with those who grant license to their wives, either from a want
of ability, or with a view to the procreation of children for the sake
of inheritance, also in some cases with a view to gain, and so forth.
There are also disorderly marriages, in which, by mutual consent, the
licence of unlimited amour is allowed to each party, and yet they are
civil and complaisant to each other when they meet.

AS IN REGARD TO WIVES. Jealousy in regard to wives originates in a man's
inmost principles; but jealousy in regard to concubines originates in
external principles; they therefore differ in kind. The reason why
jealousy in regard to wives originates in inmost principles is, because
conjugial love resides in them: the reason why it resides there is,
because marriage from the eternity of its compact established by
covenant, and also from an equality of right, the right of each party
being transferred to the other, unites souls, and lays a superior
obligation on minds: this obligation and that union, once impressed,
remain inseparable, whatever be the quality of the love afterwards,
whether it be warm or cold. Hence it is that an invitation to love
coming from a wife chills the whole man from the inmost principles to
the outermost; whereas an invitation to love coining from a concubine
has not the same effect upon the object of her love. To jealousy in
regard to a wife is added the earnest desire of reputation with a view
to honor; and there is no such addition to jealousy in regard to a
concubine. Nevertheless both kinds of jealousy vary according to the
seat of the love received by the wife and by the concubine; and at the
same time according to the state of the judgment of the man receiving

exists among wild beasts, as lions, tigers, bears, and several others,
while they have whelps, is well known; and also among bulls, although
they have not calves: it is most conspicuous among dung-hill cocks, who
in favor of their hens fight with their rivals even to death: the reason
why the latter have such jealousy is, because they are vain-glorious
lovers, and the glory of that love cannot endure an equal; that they are
vain-glorious lovers, above every genus and species of birds, is
manifest from their gestures, nods, gait, and tone of voice. That the
glory of honor with men, whether lovers or not, excites, increases, and
sharpens jealousy, has been confirmed above.

WOMEN AND WIVES. The differences cannot however be distinctly pointed
out, since the jealousy of married partners who love each other
spiritually, differs from that of married partners who love each other
merely naturally, and differs again with those who disagree in minds,
and also with those who have subjected their consorts to the yoke of
obedience. The jealousies of men and of women considered in themselves
are different, because from different origins: the origin of the
jealousies of men is in the understanding, whereas of women it is in the
will applied to the understanding of the husband: the jealousy of a man
therefore, is like a flame of wrath and anger; whereas that of a woman
is like a fire variously restrained, by fear, by regard to the husband,
by respect to her own love, and by her prudence in not revealing this
love to her husband by jealousy: they differ also because wives are
loves, and men recipients thereof; and wives are unwilling to squander
their love upon the men, but the case is not so with the recipients
towards the wives. With the spiritual, however, it is otherwise; with
these the jealousy of the man is transferred into the wife, as the love
of the wife is transferred into the husband; therefore with each party
it appears like itself against the attempts of a violator; but the
jealousy of the wife is inspired into the husband against the attempts
of the violating harlot, which is like grief weeping, and moving the

* * * * *

380. To the above I shall add two MEMORABLE RELATIONS. I was once in
much amazement at the great multitude of men who ascribe creation, and
consequently whatever is under the sun and above it, to nature;
expressing the real sentiments of their hearts as to the visible things
of the world, by this question, "What are these but the works of
nature?" And when they are asked why they ascribe them to nature and not
to God, when nevertheless they occasionally join in the general
confession, that God has created nature, and therefore they might as
well ascribe creation to God as to nature, they return for answer, with
an internal tone of voice, which is scarcely audible, "What is God but
nature?" From this persuasion concerning nature as the creator of the
universe, and from this folly which has to them the semblance of wisdom,
all such persons appear so full of their own importance, that they
regard all those who acknowledge the creation of the universe to be from
God, as so many ants which creep along the ground and tread in a beaten
path, and in some cases as butterflies which fly in the air; ridiculing
their opinions as dreams because they see what they do not see, and
deciding all by the question, "Who has seen God, and who has not seen
nature?" While I was thus amazed at the great multitude of such persons,
there stood near me an angel, who asked me, "What is the subject of your
meditation?" I replied, "It is concerning the great multitude of such as
believe that nature created the universe." The angel then said to me,
"All hell consists of such persons, who are there called satans and
devils; satans, if they have confirmed themselves in favor of nature to
the denial of God, and devils, if they have lived wickedly, and thereby
rejected all acknowledgement of God from their hearts; but I will lead
you to the _gymnasia_, which are in the south-west, where such persons
dwell, having not yet departed to their infernal abodes." He took me by
the hand and led me there. I saw some small houses, in which were
apartments for the studious, and in the midst of them one which served
as a principal hall to the rest. It was constructed of a pitchy kind of
stone, covered with a sort of glazed plates, that seemed to sparkle with
gold and silver, like the stones called _Glades Mariae_; and here and
there were interspersed shells which glittered in like manner. We
approached and knocked at the door, which was presently opened by one
who bade us welcome. He then went to the table, and fetched four books,
and said, "These books are the wisdom which is at this day the
admiration of many kingdoms: this book or wisdom is the admiration of
many in France, this of many in Germany, this of some in Holland, and
this of some in England:" He further said, "If you wish to see it, I
will cause these four books to shine brightly before your eyes:" he then
poured forth and spread around them the glory of his own reputation, and
the books presently shone as with light; but this light instantly
vanished from our sight. We then asked him what he was now writing? He
replied, that he was now about to bring forth from his treasures, and
publish to the world, things of inmost wisdom, which would be comprised
under these general heads: I. Whether nature be derived from life, or
life from nature. II. Whether the centre be derived from the expanse, or
the expanse from the centre. III. On the centre and the expanse of
nature and of life. Having said this, he reclined on a couch at the
table; but we walked about in his spacious study. He had a candle on the
table, because the light of the sun never shone in that room, but only
the nocturnal light of the moon; and what surprised me, the candle
seemed to be carried all round the room, and to illuminate it; but, for
want of being snuffed, it gave but little light. While he was writing,
we saw images in various forms flying from the table towards the walls,
which in that nocturnal moon-light appeared like beautiful Indian birds;
but on opening the door, lo! in the light of the sun they appeared like
birds of the evening, with wings like network; for they were semblances
of truth made fallacies by being confirmed, which he had ingeniously
connected together into series. After attending some time to this sight,
we approached the table, and asked him what he was then writing? He
replied, "On the first general head, WHETHER NATURE BE DERIVED FROM
LIFE, OR LIFE FROM NATURE;" and on this question he said, that he could
confirm either side, and cause it to be true; but as something lay
concealed within which excited his fears, therefore he durst only
confirm this side, that nature is of life, that is, from life, but not
that life is of nature, that is, from it. We then civilly requested him
to tell us, what lay concealed within, which excited his fears? He
replied, he was afraid lest he should be called a naturalist, and so an
atheist, by the clergy, and a man of unsound reason by the laity; as
they both either believe from a blind credulity, or see from the sight
of those who confirm that credulity. But just then, being impelled by a
kind of indignant zeal for the truth, we addressed him in saying,
"Friend, you are much deceived; your wisdom, which is only an ingenious
talent for writing, has seduced you, and the glory of reputation has led
you to confirm what you do not believe. Do you know that the human mind
is capable of being elevated above sensual things, which are derived
into the thoughts from the bodily senses, and that when it is so
elevated, it sees the things that are of life above, and those that are
of nature beneath? What is life but love and wisdom? and what is nature
but their recipient, whereby they may produce their effects or uses? Can
these possibly be one in any other sense than as principal and
instrumental are one? Can light be one with the eye, or sound with the
ear? Whence are the senses of these organs but from life, and their
forms but from nature? What is the human body but an organ of life? Are
not all things therein organically formed to produce the things which
the love wills and the understanding thinks? Are not the organs of the
body from nature, and love and thought from life? And are not those
things entirely distinct from each other? Raise the penetration of your
ingenuity a little, and you will see that it is the property of life to
be affected and to think, and that to be affected is from love, and to
think is from wisdom, and each is from life; for, as we have said, love
and wisdom are life: if you elevate your faculty of understanding a
little higher, you will see that no love and wisdom exists, unless its
origin be somewhere or other, and that its origin is wisdom itself, and
thence life itself, and these are God from whom is nature." Afterwards
we conversed with him about his second question, WHETHER THE CENTRE BE
discussed this question? He replied, "With a view to conclude concerning
the centre and the expanse of nature and of life, thus concerning the
origin of each." And when we asked him what were his sentiments on the
subject, he answered, as in the former case, that he could confirm
either side, but for fear of suffering in his reputation, he would
confirm that the expanse is of the centre, that is, from the centre;
although I know, said he, that something existed before the sun, and
this in the universe throughout, and that these things flowed together
of themselves into order, thus into centres. But here again we addressed
him from the overflowing of an indignant zeal, and said, "Friend, you
are insane." On hearing these words, he drew his couch aside from the
table, and looked timidly at us, and then listened to our conversation,
but with a smile upon his countenance, while we thus proceeded: "What is
a surer proof of insanity, than to say that the centre is from the
expanse? By your centre we understand the sun, and by your expanse the
universe; and thus, according to you, the universe existed without the
sun: but does not the sun make nature, and all its properties, which
depend solely on the heat and light proceeding from the sun by the
atmospheres? Where were those things previous to the sun's existence?
But whence they originated we will shew presently. Are not the
atmospheres and all things which exist on the earth, as surfaces, and
the sun their centre? What are they all without the sun; or how could
they subsist a single moment in the sun's absence? Consequently what
were they all before the sun, or how could they subsist? Is not
subsistence perpetual existence? Since therefore all the parts of nature
derive their subsistence from the sun, they must of consequence derive
also their existence from the same origin: every one sees and is
convinced of this truth by the testimony of his own eyes. Does not that
which is posterior subsist from what is prior, as it exists from what is
prior? Supposing the surface to be the prior and the centre the
posterior, would not the prior in such case subsist from the posterior,
which yet is contrary to the laws of order? How can posterior things
produce prior, or exterior things produce interior, or grosser things
produce purer? consequently, how can surfaces, which constitute the
expanse, produce centres? Who does not see that this is contrary to the
laws of nature? We have adduced these arguments from a rational
analysis, to prove that the expanse exists from the centre, and not the
centre from the expanse; nevertheless every one who sees aright, sees it
to be so without the help of such arguments. You have asserted, that the
expanse flowed together of itself into a centre; did it thus flow by
chance into so wonderful and stupendous an order, where one thing exists
for the sake of another, and everything for the sake of man, and with a
view to his eternal life? Is it possible that nature from any principle
of love, by any principle of wisdom, should provide such things? And can
nature make angels of men, and heaven of angels? Ponder and consider
these things: and your idea of nature existing from nature will fall to
the ground." Afterwards we questioned him as to his former and present
sentiments concerning his third inquiry, relating to the CENTRE AND
EXPANSE OF NATURE AND OF LIKE; whether he was of opinion that the centre
and expanse of life are the same with the centre and expanse of nature?
He replied, that he was in doubt about it, and that he formerly thought
that the interior activity of nature is life; and that love and wisdom,
which essentially constitute the life of man, are thence derived; and
that the sun's fire, by the instrumentality of heat and light, through
the mediums of the atmospheres, produce those principles; but that now,
from what he had heard concerning the eternal life of men, he began to
waver in his sentiments, and that in consequence of such wavering, his
mind was sometimes carried upwards, sometimes downwards; and that when
it was carried upwards, he acknowledged a centre of which he had before
no idea; but when downwards, he saw a centre which he believed to be the
only one that existed; and that life is from the centre which before was
unknown to him; and nature is from the centre which he before believed
to be the only one existing; and that each centre has an expanse around
it. To this we said, Well, if he would only respect the centre and
expanse of nature from the centre and expanse of life, and not
contrariwise; and we informed him, that above the angelic heaven there
is a sun which is pure love, in appearance very like the sun of the
world; and that from the heat which proceeds from that sun, angels and
men derive will and love, and from its light they derive understanding
and wisdom; and that the things which are of life, are called spiritual
and that those which proceed from the sun of the world, are what contain
life, and are called natural; also that the expanse of the centre of
life is called the SPIRITUAL WORLD, which subsists from its sun, and
that the expanse of nature is called the NATURAL WORLD, which subsists
from its sun. Now, since of love and wisdom there cannot be predicated
spaces and times, but instead thereof states, it follows, that the
expanse around the sun of the angelic heaven is not extended, but still
is in the extense of the natural sun, and present with all living
subjects therein according to their receptions, which are according to
forms. But he then asked, "Whence comes the fire of the sun of the
world, or of nature?" We replied, that it is derived from the sun of the
angelic heaven, which is not fire, but divine love proximately
proceeding from God, who is love itself. As he was surprised at this, we
thus proved it: "Love in its essence is spiritual fire; hence fire in
the Word, in its spiritual sense, signifies love: it is on this account
that priests, when officiating in the temple, pray that heavenly fire
may fill their hearts, by which they mean heavenly love: the fire of the
altar and of the candlestick in the tabernacle amongst the Israelites,
represented divine love: the heat of the blood, or the vital heat of men
and animals in general is from no other source than love, which
constitutes their life: hence it is that a man is enkindled, grows warm,
and becomes on fire, while his love is exalted into zeal, anger, and
wrath; wherefore from the circumstance, that spiritual heat, which is
love, produces natural heat with men, even to the kindling and inflaming
of their faces and limbs, it may appear, that the fire of the natural
sun has existed from no other source than the fire of the spiritual sun,
which is divine love. Now, since the expanse originates from the centre,
and not the centre from the expanse, as we said above, and the centre of
life, which is the sun of the angelic heaven, is divine love proximately
proceeding from God, who is in the midst of that sun; and since the
expanse of that centre, which is called the spiritual world, is hence
derived; and since from that sun existed the sun of the world, and from
the latter its expanse, which is called the natural world; it is
evident, that the universe was created by one God." With these words we
took our leave, and he attended us out of the court of his study, and
conversed with us respecting heaven and hell, and the divine government,
from a new acuteness of genius.

381. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. On a time as I was looking around
into the world of spirits, I saw at a distance a palace surrounded and
as it were besieged by a crowd; I also saw many running towards it.
Wondering what this could mean, I speedily left the house, and asked one
of those who were running, what was the matter at the palace? He
replied, that three new comers from the world had been taken up into
heaven, and had there seen magnificent things, also maidens and wives of
astonishing beauty; and that being let down from heaven they had entered
into that palace, and were relating what they had seen; especially that
they had beheld such beauties as their eyes had never before seen, or
can see, unless illustrated by the light of heavenly _aura_. Respecting
themselves they said, that in the world they had been orators, from the
kingdom of France, and had applied themselves to the study of eloquence,
and that now they were seized with a desire of making an oration on the
origin of beauty. When this was made known in the neighbourhood, the
multitude flocked together to hear them. Upon receiving this
information, I hastened also myself, and entered the palace, and saw the
three men standing in the midst, dressed in long robes of a sapphire
color, which, having threads of gold in their texture at every change of
posture shone as if they had been golden. They stood ready to speak
behind a kind of stage; and presently one of them rose on a step behind
the stage, and delivered his sentiments concerning the origin of the
beauty of the female sex, in the following words.

382. "What is the origin of beauty but love, which, when it flows into
the eyes of youths, and sets them on becomes beauty? therefore love and
beauty are the same thing; for love, from an inmost principle, tinges
the face of a marriageable maiden with a kind of flame, from the
transparence of which is derived the dawn and bloom of her life. Who
does not know that the flame emits rays into her eyes, and spreads from
these as centres into the countenance, and also descends into the
breast, and sets the heart on fire, and thereby affects (a youth), just
as a fire with its heat and light affects a person standing near it?
That heat is love, and that light is the beauty of love. The whole world
is agreed, and firm in the opinion, that every one is lovely and
beautiful according to his love: nevertheless the love of the male sex
differs from that of the female. Male love is the love of growing wise,
and female love is that of loving the love of growing wise in the male;
so far therefore as a youth is the love of growing wise, so far he is
lovely and beautiful to a maiden; and so far as a maiden is the love of
a youth's wisdom, so far she is lovely and beautiful to a youth;
wherefore as love meets and kisses the love of another, so also do
beauties. I conclude therefore, that love forms beauty into a
resemblance of itself."

383. After him arose a second, with a view of discovering, in a neat and
elegant speech, the origin of beauty. He expressed himself thus: "I have
heard that love is the origin of beauty; but I cannot agree with this
opinion. What human being knows what love is? Who has ever contemplated
it with any idea of thought? Who has ever seen it with the eye? Let such
a one tell me where it is to be found. But I assert that wisdom is the
origin of beauty; in women a wisdom which lies concealed and stored up
in the inmost principles of the mind, in men a wisdom which manifests
itself, and is apparent. Whence is a man (_homo_) a man but from wisdom?
Were it not so, a man would be a statue or a picture. What does a maiden
attend to in a youth, but the quality of his wisdom; and what does a
youth attend to in a maiden, but the quality of her affection of his
wisdom? By wisdom I mean genuine morality; because this is the wisdom of
life. Hence it is, that when wisdom which lies concealed, approaches and
embraces wisdom which is manifest, as is the case interiorly in the
spirit of each, they mutually kiss and unite, and this is called love;
and in such case each of the parties appears beautiful to the other. In
a word, wisdom is like the light or brightness of fire, which impresses
itself on the eyes, and thereby forms beauty."

384. After him the third arose, and spoke to this effect: "It is neither
love alone nor wisdom alone, which is the origin of beauty; but it is
the union of love and wisdom; the union of love with wisdom in a youth,
and the union of wisdom with its love in a maiden: for a maiden does not
love wisdom in herself but in a youth, and hence sees him as beauty, and
when a youth sees this in a maiden, he then sees her as beauty;
therefore love by wisdom forms beauty, and wisdom grounded in love
receives it. That this is the case, appears manifestly in Heaven. I have
there seen maidens and wives, and have attentively considered their
beauties, and have observed, that beauty in maidens differs from beauty
in wives; in maidens being only the brightness, but in wives the
splendor of beauty. The difference appeared like that of a diamond
sparkling from light, and of a ruby shining from fire together with
light. What is beauty but the delight of the sight? and in what does
this delight originate but in the sport of love and wisdom? This sport
gives brilliancy to the sight, and this brilliancy vibrates from eye to
eye, and presents an exhibition of beauty. What constitutes beauty of
countenance, but red and white, and the lovely mixture thereof with each
other? and is not the red derived from love, and the white from wisdom?
love being red from its fire, and wisdom, white from its light. Both
these I have clearly seen in the faces of two married partners in
heaven; the redness of white in the wife, and the whiteness of red in
the husband; and I observed that they shone in consequence of mutually
looking at each other." When the third had thus concluded, the assembly
applauded and cried out, "He has gained the victory." Then on a sudden,
a flaming light, which is the light of conjugial love, filled the house
with its splendor, and the hearts of the company with satisfaction.

* * * * *


385. There are evident signs that conjugial love and the love of
infants, which is called _storge_, are connected; and there are also
signs which may induce a belief that they are not connected; for there
is the love of infants with married partners who tenderly love each
other, and also with married partners who disagree entirely, and
likewise with those who are separated from each other, and in some cases
it is more tender and stronger with the latter than the former; but that
still the love of infants is always connected with conjugial love, may
appear from the origin from which it flows in; for although this origin
varies with the recipients, still those loves remain inseparable, just
as the first end in the last, which is the effect. The first end of
conjugial love is the procreation of offspring, and the last, or the
effect, is the offspring procreated. That the first end enters into the
effect, and is therein as in its origin, and does not withdraw from it,
may be seen from a rational view of the orderly progression of ends and
causes to effects. But as the reasonings of the generality commence
merely from effects, and from them proceed to some consequences thence
resulting, and do not commence from causes, and from them proceed
analytically to effects, and so forth; therefore the rational principles
of light must needs become the obscure principles of cloud; whence come
derivations from truth, arising from appearances and fallacies. But that
it may be seen that conjugial love and the love of infants are
interiorly connected, although exteriorly disjointed, we will proceed to
demonstrate it in the following order. I. _Two universal spheres proceed
from the Lord to preserve the universe in its created State; of which
the one is the sphere of procreating, and the other the sphere of
protecting the things procreated._ II. _These two universal spheres make
a one with the sphere of conjugial love and the sphere of the love of
infants._ III. _These two spheres universally and singularly flow into
all things of heaven, and all things of the world from first to last._
IV. _The sphere of the love of infants is a sphere of protection and
support of those who cannot protect and support themselves._ V. _This
sphere affects both the evil and the good, and disposes every one to
love, protect, and support his offspring from his own love._ VI. _This
sphere principally affects the female sex, thus mothers, and the male
sex, or fathers, by derivation from them._ VII. _This sphere is also a
sphere of innocence and peace from the Lord._ VIII. _The sphere of
innocence flows into infants, and through them into the parents, and
affects them._ IX, _It also flows into the souls of the parents, and
unites with the same sphere (as operative) with the infants; and it is
principally insinuated by means of the touch._ X. _In the degree in
which innocence retires from infants, affection and conjunction also
abate, and this successively even to separation._ XI. _A state of
rational innocence and peace with parents towards infants is grounded on
the circumstance, that they know nothing and can do nothing from
themselves, but from others, especially from the father and mother; and
that this state also successively retires, in proportion as they know
and have ability from themselves, and not from others._ XII. _The above
sphere advances in order from the end through causes into effects and
makes periods; whereby creation is preserved in the state foreseen and
provided for._ XIII. _The love of infants descends and does not ascend._
XIV. _Wives have one state of love before conception and another after,
even to the birth._ XV. _With parents conjugial love is conjoined with
the love of infants by spiritual causes, and thence by natural._ XVI.
_The love of infants and children is different with spiritual married
partners from what it is with natural._ XVII. _With spiritual married
partners that love is from what is interior or prior, but with natural
from what is exterior or posterior._ XVIII. _In consequence hereof that
love prevails with married partners who mutually love each other, and
also with those who do not at all love each other._ XIX. _The love of
infants remains after death, especially with women._ XX. _Infants are
educated under the Lord's auspices by such women, and grow in stature
and intelligence as in the world._ XXI. _It is there provided by the
Lord, that with those infants the innocence of infancy becomes the
innocence of wisdom, and thus the infants become angels._ We now proceed
to an explanation of each article.

PROCREATED. The divine which proceeds from the Lord is called a sphere,
because it goes forth from him, surrounds him, fills both the spiritual
and the natural world, and produces the effects of the ends which the
Lord predestinated in creation, and provides since creation. All that
which flows from a subject, and surrounds and environs it, is named a
sphere; as in the case of the sphere of light from the sun around it, of
the sphere of life from man around him, of the sphere of odor from a
plant around it, of the sphere of attraction from the magnet around it,
and so forth: but the universal spheres of which we are here treating,
are from the Lord around him; and they proceed from the sun of the
spiritual world, in the midst of which he is. From the Lord by means of
that sun, proceeds a sphere of heat and light, or what is the same, a
sphere of love and wisdom, to produce ends, which are uses; but that
sphere according to uses, is distinguished by various names: the divine
sphere which looks to the preservation of the universe in its created
state by successive generations, is called the sphere of procreating;
and the divine sphere which looks to the preservation of generations in
their beginnings, and afterwards in their progressions, is called the
sphere of protecting the things procreated: besides these two, there are
several other divine spheres which are named according to their uses,
consequently variously, as may be seen above, n. 222. The operations of
uses by these spheres are the divine providence.

conjugial love makes a one with the sphere of procreating, is evident;
for procreation is the end, and conjugial love the mediate cause by
which (the end is promoted), and the end and the cause in what is to be
effected and in effects, act in unity, because they act together. That
the sphere of the love of infants makes a one with the sphere of
protecting the things procreated, is also evident, because it is the end
proceeding from the foregoing end, which was procreation, and the love
of infants is its mediate cause by which it is promoted: for ends
advance in a series, one after another, and in their progress the last
end becomes the first, and thereby advances further, even to the
boundary, in which they subsist or cease. But on this subject more will
be seen in the explanation of article XII.

said universally and singularly, because when mention is made of a
universal, the singulars of which it is composed are meant at the same
time; for a universal exists from and consists of singulars; thus it
takes its name from them, as a whole exists from, consists of, and takes
its name from its parts; therefore, if you take away singulars, a
universal is only a name, and is like a mere surface which contains
nothing: consequently to attribute to God universal government, and to
take away singulars, is vain talk and empty preaching: nor is it to the
purpose, in this case, to urge a comparison with the universal
government of the kings of the earth. From this ground then it is said,
that those two spheres flow in universally and singularly.

389. The reason why the spheres of procreating and of protecting the
things procreated, or the spheres of conjugial love and the love of
infants, flow into all thing of heaven and all things of the world, from
first (principles) to last, is because all things which proceed from the
Lord, or from the sun which is from him and in which he is, pervade the
created universe even to the last of all its principles: the reason of
this is, because divine things, which in progression are called
celestial and spiritual, have no relation to space and time. That
extension cannot be predicated of things spiritual, in consequence of
their not having any relation to space and time, is well known: hence
whatever proceeds from the Lord, is in an instant from first
(principles) in last. That the sphere of conjugial love is thus
universal may be seen above, n. 222-225. That in like manner the sphere
of the love of infants is universal, is evident from that love's
prevailing in heaven, where there are infants from the earths; and from
that love's prevailing in the world with men, beasts and birds, serpents
and insects. Something resembling this love prevails also in the
vegetable and mineral kingdoms; in the vegetable, in that seeds are
guarded by shells or husks as by swaddling clothes, and moreover are in
the fruit as in a house, and are nourished with juice as with milk; that
there is something similar in minerals, is plain from the matrixes and
external covering, in which noble gems and metals are concealed and

390. The reason why the sphere of procreating, and the sphere of
protecting the things procreated, make a one in a continual series, is,
because the love of procreating is continued into the love of what is
procreated. The quality of the love of procreating is known from its
delight, which is supereminent and transcendent. This love influences
the state of procreating with men, and in a remarkable manner the state
of reception with women; and this very exalted delight with its love
continues even to the birth, and there attains its fulness.

operations of uses from the Lord by spheres proceeding from him, are the
divine providence, was said above, n. 386; this divine providence
therefore is meant by the sphere of protection and support of those who
cannot protect and support themselves: for it is a law of creation that
the things created are to be preserved, guarded, protected, and
supported; otherwise the universe would fall to decay: but as this
cannot be done immediately from the Lord with living creatures, who are
left to their own choice, it is done mediately by his love implanted in
fathers, mothers, and nurses. That their love is from the Lord
influencing them, is not known to themselves, because they do not
perceive the influx, and still less the Lord's omnipresence: but who
does not see, that this principle is not of nature, but of the divine
providence operating in and by nature; and that such a universal
principle cannot exist except from God, by a certain spiritual sun,
which is in the centre of the universe, and whose operation, being
without space and time, is instant and present from first principles in
last? But in what manner that divine operation, which is the Lord's
divine providence, is received by animate subjects, will be shewn in
what follows. That mothers and fathers protect and support infants,
because they cannot protect and support themselves, is not the cause of
that love, but is a rational cause derived from that love's falling into
the understanding; for a man, from this cause alone, without love
inspired and inspiring it, or without law and punishment compelling him,
would no more than a statue provide for infants.

Experience testifies that the love of infants prevails equally with the
evil and the good, and in like manner with tame and wild beasts; yea,
that in some cases it is stronger and more ardent in its influence on
evil men, and also on wild beasts. The reason of this is, because all
love proceeding from the Lord and flowing into subjects, is changed in
the subject into the love of its life; for every animate subject has no
other sensation than that its love originates in itself, as it does not
perceive the influx; and while also it actually loves itself, it makes
the love of infants proper to itself; for it sees as it were itself in
them, and them in itself, and itself thus united with them. Hence also
this love is fiercer with wild beasts, as with lions and lionesses, he
and she bears, leopards and leopardesses, he and she wolves, and others
of a like nature, than with horses, deer, goats, and sheep; because
those wild beasts have dominion over the tame, and hence self-love is
predominant, and this loves itself in its offspring; therefore as we
said, the influent love is turned into self-love. Such an inversion of
the influent love into self-love, and the consequent protection and
support of the young offspring by evil parents, is of the Lord's divine
providence; for otherwise there would remain but few of the human race,
and none of the savage beasts, which, nevertheless, are of use. From
these considerations it is evident, that every one is disposed to love,
protect, and support his offspring, from his own love.

what was said above, in regard to the origin of conjugial love,--that
the sphere of conjugial love is received by the women, and through them
is transferred to the men: because women are born loves of the
understanding of the men, and the understanding is a recipient. The case
is the same with the love of infants, because this originates in
conjugial love. It is well known that mothers are influenced by a most
tender love of infants, and fathers by a love less tender. That the love
of infants is inherent in conjugial love, into which women are born, is
evident from the amiable and endearing love of girls towards infants,
and towards their dolls, which they carry, dress, kiss, and press to
their bosoms: boys are not influenced by any such affection. It appears
as if mothers derived the love of infants from nourishing them in the
womb out of their own blood, and from the consequent appropriation of
their life, and thus from sympathetic union: but still this is not the
origin of that love; for if another infant, without the mother's
knowledge, were to be put after the birth in the place of the genuine
infant, the mother would love it with equal tenderness as if it were her
own: moreover infants are sometimes loved by their nurses more than by
their mothers. From these considerations it follows, that this love is
from no other source than from the conjugial love implanted in every
woman, to which is joined the love of conceiving; from the delight of
which the wife is prepared for reception. This is the first of the above
love, which with its delight after the birth passes fully to the

LORD). Innocence and peace are the two inmost principles of heaven; they
are called inmost principles, because they proceed immediately from the
Lord: for the Lord is innocence itself and peace itself. From innocence
the Lord is called a Lamb, and from peace he saith, "_Peace I leave you;
my peace I give you_," John xiv. 27; and he is also meant by the peace
with which the disciples were to salute a city or house which they
entered; and of which it is said, that if it was worthy, peace would
come upon it, and if not worthy, peace would return, Matt. x. 11-15.
Hence also the Lord is called the Prince of peace, Isaiah ix. 5, 6. A
further reason why innocence and peace are the inmost principles of
heaven, is, because innocence is the _esse_ of every good, and peace is
the blessed principle of every delight which is of good. See the work on
HEAVEN AND HELL, as to the state of innocence of the angels of heaven,
n. 276-283; and as to peace in heaven, n. 284-290.

INTO THE PARENTS, AND AFFECTS THEM. It is well known that infants are
innocences; but it is not known that their innocence flows in from the
Lord. It flows in from the Lord, because, as was said just above, he is
innocence itself; neither can any thing flow in, since it cannot exist
except from its first principle, which is IT itself. But we will briefly
describe the nature and quality of the innocence of infants, which
affects parents: it shines forth from their face, from some of their
gestures, and from their first speech, and affects them. They have
innocence, because they do not think from any interior principle; for
they do not as yet know what is good and evil, and what is true and
false, as the ground of their thoughts; in consequence of which they
have not a prudence originating in selfhood, nor any deliberate purpose;
of course they do not regard any evil as an end. They are free from
selfhood acquired from self-love and the love of the world; they do not
attribute any thing to themselves; they refer to their parents whatever
they receive; content with the trifles which are given them as presents,
they have no care about food and raiment, or about the future; they do
not look to the world, and immerse themselves thereby in the desire of
many things; they love their parents, their nurses, and their infant
companions, with whom they play in innocence; they suffer themselves to
be guided, they harken and obey. This is the innocence of infancy, which
is the cause of the love called _storge_.

INSINUATED BY MEANS OF THE TOUCH. The Lord's innocence flows into the
angels of the third heaven, where all are in the innocence of wisdom,
and passes through the inferior heavens, but only through the innocences
of the angels therein, and thus immediately and mediately flows into
infants. These differ but little from graven forms; but still they are
receptible of life from the Lord through the heavens. Yet, unless the
parents also received that influx in their souls, and in the inmost
principles of their minds, they would in vain be affected by the
innocence of the infants. There must be something adequate and similar
in another, whereby communication may be effected, and which may cause
reception, affection, and thence conjunction; otherwise it would be like
soft seed falling upon a stone, or a lamb exposed to a wolf. From this
ground then it is, that innocence flowing into the souls of the parents,
unites with the innocence of the infants. Experience may shew that, with
the parents, this conjunction is effected by the mediation of the bodily
senses, but especially by the touch: as that the sight is intimately
delighted by seeing them, the hearing by their speech, the smelling by
their odor. That the communication and therefore the conjunction of
innocence is principally effected by the touch, is evident from the
satisfaction of carrying them in the arms, from fondling and kissing
them, especially in the case of mothers, who are delighted in laying
their mouth and face upon their bosoms, and at the same time in touching
the same with the palms of their hands, in general, in giving them milk
by suckling them at the breasts, moreover, in stroking their naked body,
and the unwearied pains they take in washing and dressing them on their
laps. That the communications of love and its delights between married
partners are effected by the sense of the touch has been occasionally
proved above. The reason why communications of the mind are also
effected by the same sense is, because the hands are a man's ultimates,
and his first principles are together in the ultimates, whereby also all
things of the body and of the mind are kept together in an inseparable
connection. Hence it is, that Jesus touched infants, Matt, xviii. 2-6;
Mark x. 13-16; and that he healed the sick by the touch: and that those
who touched him were healed: hence also it is, that inaugurations into
the priesthood are at this day effected by the laying on of hands. From
these considerations it is evident, that the innocence of parents and
the innocence of infants meet each other by the touch, especially of the
hands, and thereby join themselves together as by kisses.

397. That innocence produces similar effects with beasts and birds as
with men, and that by contact, is well known: the reason of this is,
because all that proceeds from the Lord, in an instant pervades the
universe, as may be seen above, n. 388-390; and as it proceeds by
degrees, and by continual mediations, therefore it passes not only to

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