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The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt

Part 7 out of 7

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whichttheChuaice
andherndocstiilsohearfalunn. Thiswhas thesore of pres iiigt
whichwhasn ea bariniigtGaleotthsMvautidroe trnstake,htade ntn hhin orrmrhpppi ,ePropeSixtousIV,fpperhapsput therequeetyoofLlorezodde'
Mentciy,savead hmy fomt theh ans,oofthheIiquiosai n.tGaleotths and vcentued rhoioiivh
tmtd thn ans wholroveduprlughaly, andaetvefaaccrdlinf roe trn natura,law borne
itiinhims,woouldgol to bavei,ywtateovusnatiiot thgbbloined rh..
Leteusr ake,hby,
alf ofexamopl,ntthfuruiigiues tsituid,oof ime ofthh maaleremvnt en the greaearmyy.Coduus Urceuiswhasffirst thntucoeroofthh lhat Or
diaefoy,PpiincroofForliy,handaafterwardsf orm aye yease profsesoad tfBrlogna. Agtaisnt
hh Chuaice
and the miksghhine
onuagdthis
e aiustivyae taut frtthfurscy.Hiid ond,ien generarhisorckelesy
ofthh lhat degfeh,e
andhen onrstatalfri aoduieuo hmtself inallrthineocuay hhiaorym
andgristp. Buthhe ndosnhooetod ppaodroe trnentfisnai ne of the
tuenGio-Maa,yJseuseChetisy, ae, os comenad hmtselfbyfleatten
ofthh prayhesyoofae taihllympirscy.Ony ime ccasion,eafaheoenumteatiing the rollics,oof the pgaa preligiia,ethnttusegohsmon: 'Ouartthrlogtaase, oos,
quarpredaabout" the uiila-pig'sr ai ,"daabout theImmaculanteConcvpttios,
Aetichetisy,Sacramlntsy,Pordestiietion,eannd other
tiina,e whichwWere
beattenlet hlnne, than alkedyoohppublily.'.Onnc,hwthnethe has ncteae hoom,htisduorom andm auecriptsh hereburety.Wthnethe baed tth news the
etoh soppoaicseadfigturoooftth Madonnahiintthes rlea,n and etedl oeih:e
'Ltisri rhoitautI tsellyou;tI ams nctmany,I ams aykineitautI mean.oIofI eovue alueopioyyousiintthehouarofdmyodeaot,yyousndeen not ea metfod
akeemhs mmongyouarnon,sf orIewiildgo andspenadpthenrilfi ith tey
dvil.'.Aafterwwhichspeeichhhefounl,it desirnibl tospenadsixe miinesaihhoeeitrspmengmtd thnhiime ofafwfh cuattee Wirthaal t s,ethe hassoh
ispernsitriue tautpaodlighse andomens ghvet hmyiicsesant frlugha,e lehvionghiimnoebeilhfttohspearg fr theimmportaiitlofd te soouy.Wthne hhin baevesequeetiioed, himoilthhemaatte,ethe aswvered tht noy imeknew itautbbecme ofafmany, oftiisscou fonwiisspieie,e(faheodeaoty, ae, th
alkdaaboutan otherllfmf asyoirlyfist ohfrlughentoldn
omrn. Butwthnethe aime oddie,dhen oomenaend inthiswillrthinscou fonwiisspieiedroe
Al MgghysGioe,exhtrtvefthiswenpiongpppi sy
offwar theLlo e, and e ppeciarlytoebwilhvrtintimmportaiitl and uctureeeiai buion,eanndhoeencrovadthheSacramlntf
irthmsuchfsrvorn.Wryhhavenoyguhaantevh
tmtd mrhe famoouemvnt en thesaome alukin,nhoowevefssgiificaiut their pini netmaly
bey,
were inspracsiuaylifmf aye oerecoaidsrwety.Int s,probbabsethat mste ofthhm,wwvleend irwarllybdtwweeniicreduaiitl andanprenaenfhfe the rairttinf
whichtthy wherebrrough up,eannd ouwharlly
euld orf rudvntciao pres isy
ofthh Chuaic..
Thorough theconnexi ne oforutiouaismfi ith teynewllybornesnceOnc ofy hhiaorsiuayfiveetiglai n, siimeetiindatr mpipsputbiubliram oiitcismfmaly
tvure(nnetthace havebween hdry.A,saykineofsPiusyIIrtasgbweenre cared, wwhichsu an fintndwe,ntoparpearl theways foe such oiitcism: 'Eovinifs
Chetistanity here nt onfirredsbly iarapls,die rough s iall otbhe aacepnredoinaaccuetf ofitsemooraityy'. Thslegeans,oofthheChuaic,y in oe rarl isthhyd on mingdaarbitrery vtrsi ns,oofthhebiubliram iarapls,dwWere
ffehrlyridticundd,
and tistarecnredoin th reliigiuesssense ofthhe peoply.WthrhnJudaizringheeeitiusaaer enntione,s
ms mustuindretanndhocchieldr toese
whoiwerind theDdviiiitlofdChetisy,
whichwhasprobbabldthhe olvincef or
whichGiorgio a Novhradihas brengmtdBrlognadaabout the yea
1500s. But gaintatdBrlognadiim the yea 1497d theDomtnicandIiquiosafod has frcend oelet the hysiecintGabarcel a Shlny,iwho andpowteiful pstoiu,te caped irthansimopleexprsesi ne of
enhthincy, l trougtthe has is the hbieyoofemin miniing tatdJseuse has nctGode, butsioe ofJoespch
ndsMvay,n and onncrovad is theusunaeway;g tatdbly hiscunekinethe hdy
dncrovadthhewoaldl oeihseruin;g tatdhcemayo haveiicadoin th croset in aaccuetf ofcrimeus whichthe hdy oomiattd;g tatdhisdureligin,woouldso in oome toaeeean;g tatdhisdbldyt has nctrrelrly on mingda is the sacramlnt,e(nd hanehheppe orrmedhiesmiarapls,d nt torough ayeddviie sowtee, but torough thnfifaurance frtthncehvenllybodivre.Thiaslhatten
etatepmeneiesmosnsccharaceetistcl frtthnetim: Fairttisegone,t but agic
isiild olasdistegpound..
ithresspetfto, the merarg everpmeng ofthhewoald,fthhehumhaiisstswlorom
gent eyoandancould andeesrgnedh onididorutionofd theeprewllntgvioltecte andmispubs..Ien tiesmoond the aint oarss'OnyFate,' or
wateovusnames
thytbbea, erewritthey. Thy ell of thectuekine of thewthell of Fortune,n(nd ofd thnfirstutlnitg ofelathnl,te ppeciarlypoliitcua,y
tiina.lPpooiiwencehis illybrrough aiebe caus thewritvrus coulds iild bdsasharmed ofundisndlsndyfatalrsm,m of theavowal of theirfgnor nie,
oeroofunseles oomlminas.hGiovcino Pon mnoeiageagiuealfrllus ratewotthe
nactur of tpthmyisergiuesscim tving
which mne alu Fortuneybdyahhuanred iniiwetsy,mmste of
whichbbloined rhshiisownrexmerceOnc.. Thssubjectthis
rreaend mrhehumoriuealfbdyAgenhasSylviou,t is the fome ofagvisi neswees isaedrremeeThhehime ofPoggtoy,oin th hotherh an,tiifarwworewritthenins
hhisouldigts,iid oeurppresecdthhewoaldlhasaeewll of earsd,
and offixe theh
ppinnesy ofvargiues claseuoaineow,asl oasiblre.Thias ond,bbecme is ucture theeprewllntgmomseDdistindlshend ensdrlwtupnadnebieyanndhocrent frtthnc
ppinnesyand,unh
ppinnesy of theirlilve,e and generalyo found hanetthnlhatten ouwehigvadthhe orrmrs.Thhefanteoof Itals ae, th Iitataos, sidfar sdrnt couldbet ldoiim the yea 1510,rtasgbween
decribrdl
irthdigniitl andalmosnsselgiacspeahosrblyTetisaeeCharacioloe.
Applyiing tiseggenerart ime offwelkine ofthhehumhaiissttthemselve,e
Piergi Vwllrcino aafterwardscompoaradtiis amiues pretismseSoime ofthhses
thmlsd,ssuch isthhefortunesy ofLeo X,dwWeremosnssuggeetioveeAall the goonetwatn andbhessida oftimypoliitcually
hsgbweenbrhieldr andpdmiorblyo summedhupnblyFeainceco Vetthoi;y the
icctur ofLeo'sypleeasurs tsggivmil by PaclohGiovcoeanndin,tth inonymiuesbio gaptt;t and thes hddosniwhich att nlenehhissposmercitl rhedrawan
withinnxor ibl turthbly thnscme Piergi Vwllrcino..
We an noy,oin th hotherh an,trrear withoutadklnld ofa
sehooemmil scimetimesboasnredoof theirfortunee inspublicfircripttioss.Giovaeni II Benntvogltoy,oulvrdoofBrlogna, vcentued rhocarvrtintst ime n,tth newlyo buhltftowterbly hispalwieg tatdhisd eeie andhiesfortunee and giventimy richalf ofaal tant couldbetdesired-- and tistaffewn yeasebbefor tias expulsgin.. Theaenilntsy, thne thyespoked in tiistone,t hdennevetthelesh asssense ofthheenvtlofd te godsn.Iim Italsrntwhasprobbabldthhe Coanottierg,iwhoffirstvcentued rhoboasn sidloudlydoof theirfortunes. But thewalyin,
whicheesusncteaendlntiqurilfaeffecndyureligin,mosns
powteifulls, ams nt torough ayedocstiilsoorf hilosophtcuaysy cpm,tbout torough eggenerart nleonye
whichits fstveen.. The te,nanndin,soomr resspetsd thnfirsitutsios,soofaetiqurilfiwereeprferreedtto tonse ofthhe MiddneeAgss, anndin,tth eanhe atr mpi tnehmcteaed andeepaoduiettthe,r
rliigii, amslrfadtto akee arcf ofitselfeeAallwhasabsorbgda is the pdmiorutionffonwiiaorsiuaygrreannes.. on tiistthe hilologtaasopddgda anyrsppecialrollics,oof thiarnon,sbyh
whichtthyebbecme the aoreffod generamatt nai n.tHnwnfar PafulIIlwhasjuisificad in alukin tias Abburviaaorre ae,ttheirfrfends thoaaccueto fon thiee pgaatsm,hias certaillyadmhatten of greae dubt,y sttiesbio gapters
andcchie,viccie,r Pliaina, haseehownra,maisdeldrekiallinn xmlminkin tiasvfindetkvhnnesy il hothergpoundu,t ande ppeciarlyaihmakionghiim lla,h lunderiues igture.
Thhhchtrgesn offifidlaityy, pgaatsm,hiweral ofimmportaiit,s andsoe oait, here nt mhdreagtaisnt
hh aacuseedtiall thechtrgea oftighs
rresiottadgbrokeenddon.tPafu, finene,sifnwWearh crirecblyiarorreds pabouthims,wasrblynon eaosytthn ansthojudgsn offitseleactuay
tiina.lIot hashse
whoexhtrtveftthnRomaasy
oft auch thieecchldrensn otving eyoand predlinf(nd rit igy.Hiidmpirsclyenarrdonnesy ofviews,remianreure of Savmoraoln,fi ith teyndifeorecsettantPafulmiugh faielye havebween ldo hanehhe andhieslikee
were in greae part so laomeifnculcturemhdremmil msrtlefto,reliigii.lIot an noy,nneverthelesy,betddubted hanehhenelnsad preamanxietldaabout the pgaa t nleonils whichsurrcundwe,himeeAnd wat,s is turt,emayonoct th humhaiisst hvetallnosdttthemselve theth ourtmoof
th profliglae pgaa,ySiigsmoano Maleaestn,fHnwnfar tthsermeos,
destituteg fr themosns partofdfixed piiniopl,dvcentued rhogos,
dep nlenelasueenlydoen thesore offifaurancshtthy where xmoarad o. Norn oulaheteystrreaeoofChetistanityr without pgaatzkingite.Int s, urgiue,d fr iiseaince, oe ntineehooefar Giovcino Pon mnoe aretedlthias onfusgin..He, ppeaasoofae taihd not illyhas'divus,'ebBut is'deus';s the pinelashse olasd otbheiiwetsiuayi ith teygeagisoofaetiquril;e andhies nttionofdimmportaiitlremianreure of th hlahkionorom of thes hdvre.Thias pieie ccasioniarlyaappeas is themosnssxtravpgaatdshapesn.Iim1526, wwmilSceOa,whasattackedybly thnexineen parl,ntthfwoaahysCinon Ttzko, wwo ellsyups
thsiaorys hmtsely,oose fomttiesbcadoin th 22nld ofJully, alundy oe ind watt s,writthenins thechirdhbooodofrMaeribiue,d chelbraeredMassd,
and thinspoaroncvefagtaisnt
hh hnnmly thncuast, ith wwhichtistaoinor hhdesuppilhdthims, illyhlaheiig 'Tellusdmhaher
equeh Jupiivesobaestor'yii oe'Tellusd
equehChetisr Deuisobaestor.'.Aafterhms hnddonsethiasf r tfehedhya,e
hh hnnmlyeeiaenced..Ointtheonsesidl,h
thus t igsdisrlketuisare admffaiee ofmhrse tyle andfashtionjdoin th hothe, hasassympirom ofreliigiuesdechdraney.
Iifaurance frAenilntnSspernsitrio.
Butienan otherwaye, and hanedogmnaicuaaly, atiqurilfexercirsndmercliues fifaurance.Int omarceedtto thsReOaissainesihe ownnormsoof spernsitrioy.Soime fagpmenns of tistthdesurvrovad in Itals all torough theMiddneeAgss, annd th resusncteationofd the hhoe,whas threbtymadnysoe msuch the meh easys.Thhe part llaedybly thnimaiginctiofian the pocsess deen notbetdwelnsopioe.Thias illy oulah have iltectnd the riitial
fitseleac,oofthheIItataoss.
ThhebeilhftiifarDdviie g everpmeng ofthhewoald, has in anyrmianre
destroaedybly thnsspetrapld ofsohmuichiajuisine andmiseuyy.Oothes,e likeeDante,hsurrrindreed
t,aal evmensethhisllfmf od thd a picee of
chtaiv,g and oftthy,nnevettheleshre mingdaadsturdyhfa ity,rntwhas bd caus thly
euld hanetthntighheodeistitg ofmans couldbl aaccmpilshend is thellfmftto oom. Butwthnethhebeilhftiifimmportaiitlbegaon oewwvle,r thnyFatuaismfgoct th uppherh an,tfoe cimetimestthnlhattenecme ffirst andhaadthhe orrmrh isinsr onisqusecve.
Thhegapn tuesopwend has inthhe first lwiee flplnebly thea strlogy ofd lntiqurily, rg evnt ofthheArabs. Ffomt thfurulai nloof the lanrtss mmong
thmmselve nedtto thssrgnre of th zodiac.s uctureevmenseannd th couast, ofn hhoe,lilvee
were iferree, annd th mosns
eMgghys
deistiosg hrse akeen is onisqusecve.Iim hnascasrsh thellime ofacttion tues doptendput the sggeeti nlofd te staesdmayonoct havebween oors m merarthaee tane
which could othewist, havebweenrollnosd. But oohoothne hey
deistiodmusnt havebween hdr theth osnfhfehonourn and onsnceOncy.Int s,profoundlay n stuetkvhetohob ervrehooepowteeles ulcture andenllughenmlntf
Were
agtaisnt
hisl elusi n;dssincetwhnlhattenhaadinsrsuppore in,tth irdsect imaiginctiofoofthheppoopl,dian the passioantewisth topwen rateyanndhodetsrmincnthhe uttur. Antiqurily, oos, asyoio thssrid,oofa strlogye.
Atethhebeigiekine of the
tiarteenth centuysttis spernsitrioe uddtflly aappearef is the foegpound,ofhIItataonllfms.ThheEmppehofForderick II al
lawotravelund irthhista strlogtenThhodorus;g andEzzelkio a Romaaoe irthaee
rge,eweal- pidy ourtmoofssuchppoopl,d mmong thms the amiues
Guino Bioanto annd th loin-bbealeneSharaeos,PafuloofBaghdad..Iimaild immportastuindrtakionshtthy fixed ffonwimt thedals ae, th houay, ae, th gigaatic pstocirtlsrofs whichthe asyguhltyemayo havebweeniie part praacsiuayinfsrhincsy fomt thiar
aophecivre.Soioyaal scruoplasaabout oneuelring therstras casrd. Noot illy piincey,butd fehscirtls,h and thiaroegdulara strlogtes,s andpct th uolvereirtls,h fomt the ouarteenth roe trnsixnteenth centuy, profsesoans of tistpseudo-snceOnc
Were
ap oienee,s andleactarefsrid,byfsrid,i ith teya strnomvess.ThhePropas oom illymhdrenoliecrec,oof thiarrstrgazkin,n trougtPiusyIIy,iwhoplsoe ddspirsnd agic,domens,s andtthefitsrpre mctiofoofdrrems,hiasand onor ibl exncpttio.eEovinLeo Xs u an tohhvetttrough the liurlshings ondiatio,oofa strlogydancrent rhshiispiottfisnav,g andPafulIIIfnnevee
tvldlheConshiaorymtiall therstrgazvrushearfixed th houay.
Itemayofaielyebdsassurmld hanetthnbeattennaisursedidf nctellnof thiar acttioed otbhedetsrmincdybly thnsteasebbyoandanccertainpoaih,f and hane thace hasaeltmiu tvure onsnceOncd andeeeligin,madnytthmspcausn.Iim aet,d not illydidfpgiues andexnclllntg peoplsshaure the elusi n,tbout thy acttuablycaome frw rdyttoprofses,rntppublily..Oime ofthhseswhas MaestrosPpgclohoofFFloreney,in,
womtwWecsafdetsect heescme desiredroe
barinfa strlogyd oe meraraaccueto
which mrtssuas inthhelanteRomaaf FirmicuisMvthenus..Hhisllfmf asy taut frae taihlly scestc..He,athe almost n t ig, ddspirsnd all mpoerlngfh s,y
andoirlycoeleacedhbooos.s Arekialsndmhysiecin,dhen illy pracsivdd mmongtiisfffendsy, andm dceistas ondiatio,ooftiistrreapmengttmtd thyolhcoulr onfsesf thiarrioss.Hre
ffequseted th maal,butd amiuescircuny
whichlasembund is theMioaisdety oofthheAineli iround,
arnAmbrogtoeCamaldhoese..He,alsoesawhmuichofd CoaimodthheEldle,re ppeciarlyaihhiaslhst yeas; ffonCoaimodaacepnredanndhouseeda strlogy,n trougtprobbabldoirlyfor ubjecsdifdeleshen mmportaneys Aasaepubs,nhooweve,sPpgclohoirlyaitsrpre ed th teaserhshiismosns
onfidvntciaofffends. But evnt withoutethisseverita,ofd meraa,e
hh
estrlogteslmiugh bhntighrlyre spetvefaandshnof thmmselve evtry tvure.
Thhred hrseallsofar moereoofthhm, in Italsthaeeiim othes Europen ouunties, tvure thyo illyhappearefanetthn greae ourts,s andtthere nt al
laweeAall the greaetrose olaersd in Italy,wthnethhefashtion asyoicte erstublshed, kvpte admestrlogte,yiwh, ie mustbdsaddee,y ams nctel
lawo sre,ooftiisdgiemrs.Thorough thnlievrecturs of tistsnceOncy,
whichwhas indllydiifusend evntbbefor theinvtettioe of
arit ig, adddleataatism allsogrlwtupn
whichladfar sd oasiblrnrollnosdhiintthes eps,oof the
maisdesn.Tthewwosnscclas,oofa strlogvrus eor toese
whoused th tease eeithenare admieffonadcloaodroe agicrarartsy.
Yet h part fomt thelaatte,ea strlogydistafmiseu ibl wecturs is thellfmf oofthpthetimy.Wt
t,adfigturodonallethhsedtighrlygffntd,em ay-idide,
oeigaialtccharaceete lwly,wthnethheublandppassioyfor ndolinf(nd hodetsrminring the ucturedethtronsf thiarpowteifulwillr andeesolutsio!
Nnw,
and thiy,wthnethhe teaseseand thmt oohcruredah mssigts, thyom aagdt roebraiettthemselve up,eacto fon themselve,e andsalyboldly: 'Viar sapiens domtnhbieueslus ris',ntthfwist,manhiasmaisdelofd te staes-- and thny gainturulpsedri od thdhlah elusi ne.
Ienmall thebeattenfamiuirsh thehoroscropeofd te cchldrenswhas rawanaseas aatten ofcouast,g and te cimetimesh
pppogda t
t,ffonwhelfa llfm
timf ea hace hunrve,bly theidleo xspetmctiofoofevmense
which nevee
occurree!. Thsstease hacequeetiioed,wthnneveeae greaemanhhaadtto oomeroe
hnasimmportast
deistio,t andeovin oneuelrdl isto th houa ane
whichanye uindrtakionf asy otbhebeiun.. Thejouaneawsofr piincey, thfurcvpttioe of eforignl mbpasadoese, thelaykine of thefoundmctio-st imsyoohppublio buhldiina,edep nleneon,tth inswve..A isrlklinfiiseaince of thelhatten
occurss is thellfmf of theaefornarmedGuino Bioantoy,iwhobly hisppesionar acttviitl andbly his greaeiy cpmnaic wworeoio thssubjecttde ervrs sobe, alundy th resaorten ofa strlogydiid the
tiarteenth centuy..Iim rdten
of pungaeeeandroe trnstruggllf of theGurephes andGhibelliilsoatfForliy,hhe prsuadeen thein hbiehnas,to,rebuhldd te cityr allsy nedttobeigif the
oarssuindrgan onrsellnctiofiadisnavndbly hmselfeeIoftthnetwosmeos,onre
ffomt auch parl,nact heescme momrestpungatst imeri od thdfoundmctio,e thace oulah wencforotepnd ffonneveebheno moere parleddvistiosgins
Forli..A Gurephl andanGhibelliilt hrse eleacedhf or tisloofice;s the solemn momrestaretvrd,r auch
euld hetst imeriy his hndsy,tthewwokmmil stoh s
reayei ith teien mmlepmens. ioanto ghvettthesrgnaly, ae, th Ghibelliilt tfewnddonhhiusiaoime n,tod thdfoundmctio. But theGurephe
tvscteaen,s andpctlhst refusend oddoeanyotving
t,aaly,oin th gpound, hane ioanto hmtselfhaadthhereputmctiofoofanGhibelliilt andmiugh bhn
dvissingsoomrmyisergiuesmiscchie,agtaisnt
hh Gurephe. Uponf
whichtth
estrlogtesaddrsesead hm: 'Gioodamin thre(nnettheGurephe parlei ithyouar distrustifulmalice!.Thias onrsellnctiofwillr ncteappeasaabvbeouarcita, f or500n yeasetto oom.'.Iim aet Giooso nl afterwardsdidfdestroa, th GurephesoofForliy, but nw,ewritvas the htrolilersaabout1480y,tthetwos parteusaaerinorrougrlyre coniledy, ae, thienovraynarmusaaer baed aoe loinhee.
N otving hanedep nleneopioythhe tease ams oors mmportastthaee
deistiosg is timf ofrwa.. Thssaome ioanto poctaref fr the greaeGhibelliilt lehndrgGuino dpyMonrvnelnrtoaeserieshoofvicchoicey,baytelukin tim, th
aopitriue houa f orm ruckiny.WthneMonrvnelnrto ams nlloinhe aaccmpaerindbly hm heslosts the ouaagdtroe ain minftiisdeescctsm,y and entveendpyMinooiivhmioaisdet, tvureheolrovedaseas miksf orm aye yease tillrthindeaote.Ien thewaod irthPisadiim1362y,ttheFFloretiieas oomiassioee, thien
estrlogtes offixe th houa fr themaaic,y
andalmost aime ooelante torough uddtfllyeencrokine raersdtto akeeascircuitiues
oronte torough te city..Oin orrmrh ccasionshtthy haadmaaicend ouebly the Viaddde irgo Saati Apriscliy,hand te campaignltadgbweenuneuccsesfouy.Iot hascl eagttmtd thrhe hassomhdbandomendconneecedt irthtthnexit torough
tiasiarlea,agtaisntPisa,n and onisqusetbldthhearmyo ams nwelead ouebly thePport Roasas. But e th smenseiarlticend ouetwwrwg oddryhtade ntn bween akeenawaye, the lags-- a othesbandomen--haadttobeslowveen.. The fifaurancn ofa strlogydiidwaod as onfirredsblythhefaet that n earlyalle
th Coanottierg,bwilhvredintis. JacrooeCaldoeas hascceteiful is themosns ssrgiuesillnnes, ndolinf hanehhe has aceedttofalu aiebhatlcy,
whichiim aetsh
pppogds. parrlommeo Alvcino as onviectnd tatdhisdwoundu is the hrear hrseams uichaygffnlofd te staesd sttiesmiuiiaer command.sNiaccloh
Orssii-Pitrglcino askeen themhysiecist and
estrlogtesAlsesandroh
Bpogdetths offixeadfavouaaibl houa fr the conlusi n,ooftiisbtrgaiim irthVenicee.WthnettheFFloretiieas n,Junee1, 1498, solemnrlyaiveetend thiarnew Coanottiere PaclohViteluk irthhistooficee, theMlaehal's, staffh
whichtthye hnded, himwns, atdhisdowan
wsh,edecoraered ith
iccturs,oof the onrsellnctiosy.
Scimetimesint s,nntneasyn oe akeeoButwthothes}ns mmportastpoliitcua eovitsd te staesd hacequeetiioed,bbeforh an,tfoe
whethertth a strlogvrus weaersimopasimmelund afterwardsbyn urgisirys offinnd ouetwwt onesellnctiofwwhich
deidndy th resuele.WthneGiaegal ezzorVdi cati bdyah aisde- strkcn ofpolicyy oood pisioeonwiisuncunyBtentbo,fi ith tey lhatte'snfamiuy (1385),nwWearh ldobdyah on mpoerryd tatdJupiive,e Sectui andMeasestoh siintthehounse ofthheToliey,butdwWe an nodsalyifs
thdnend haseesolveneon, is onisqusecve.Intiasallsoprobbabsethat rhly ad ine of thea strlogvrus asg othnedetsrmincdyblypoliitcua cuaculaniiot nodelesy
thanblythhecouast,ofd tht lanrtse.
Alu Europ,e torough te lhatten partofd theMiddneeAgss, haadallnosdt fttself tobes trrlfrindbly ordicttioed ofplagues, arsd,flfh s,y
and elathquakea, anndin,ttiseorespetn Italswasrblynon eaosybehinnd other ouunties.. Theunluckye yea 1494,e
whichffonneveeoppogda the atewo of Italstoe trnstrpiner,y amsuindnibabldushleend isbly aye
aophecivro of miafortune-- illywWe an nodsaly
whetherssuchpaophecivro here nt
reaye f or auch andevvuys yea..
Thhis mid,oof trough ams xtrededt irthttorrougecoaidsrwecyeri od prgriosyiwhred holhcoulrhharlly xspetn oe eene irthite.Ifd the hhoe,
ouwhar andspieietuadllfmf of thefindivituaeiasnetsrmincdybly thn aetsd ooftiesbiait, heescme law allsog evertegpoupsn offindivituasy
and wiiaorsiuaypaoduitsd--that iid oeeaye,natiiosy andeeeligins;g andasetwwt onesellnctiof ofthhses t igsdchtagds, siddod the
tionshtthemselve.. The fdear taneeaicheeeligin,h isinsrdaye,ffirst aome i
odIItataon ulcturein onneectiofwiith tese strlogtcuaybeilhfe.. The onjuncctiof ofJupiives irthSectui brrough frit, hearh lde, the airttofhIsrael;g tatd of Jupiives andMease, theChaldean;fi ith teySuo,y thnEgypstan;fi ithVenue,d theMohammedao;fi ithMercurye, theChetistan;t and the onjuncctiof of Jupiivesi ith teyMoiofwillrmome alybrving frith
thnreliigiof of Aetichetis. Ceacc d'Asccli haadal
reayebla pthmiuealfcuaculanee, th ntovliitlofdChetisy,anedneduiend fomtitrthindeaoteopioythheCrose.fForh
tiashhe has brengmtd te staked in1327,datyFFlorene. Docstiilsooof tist sorntendcdyblysimopasdarkenringmen'se hhoe,percvpttiosmoofspieietuad
tiina..
Scs uich oorswoaahystthne ofrecogniitiofisn thewaof erewwhichtth cl eag Iitataosspieiedwagvefagtaisnt
hiasarmyooofdelusi ns. Noo itrstaniong the greaemonumtn ml gFlotfisnai ne ofa strlogy,nhas inthhe rcecoesgins
teyShlnne,antPaituy,hand tosedrie irso'sysummerspalwieg(Schifinoia)teae Ftrraray, no itrstaniong te sharmelesypraiseuoofreovin sichaym admes
teyelaeryBteoalduse, thrhe has ne heng ofthroughifulanndinndp nleot mlndsyttoprotssntagtaisntite.Herey, oos, thewayltadgbweenparpearndbly lntiqurily,butdrntwhastthiarnon oom isssense
andob ervnctiofwwhich
aough thm wattttosay.ePn raaic'es tsituid,torwards thea strlogvru, wwomthhe new bly pesionaraitsrcouast,ghismome ofbiatteneon mpt;t andaoe onsesawe torough teiarry cpm ifdeivro oerecl early
thanhms.Thhen evls,f fomt the
time
thne thyefiris begaon oeeappeas fomt the
timeoof the
'Cen oe nvelun, aticce,'earh almost el
lawo msrtlefto, thea strlogvrue.
ThhhFFloretiie htrolilersebravdllykenpftthemselvey feceffrom tey
diusriosyiwhic,nhas partofdwiiaorsiuay prdiatios, thyoarh cmmelund od pr cars.Giovaeni Villaeisslawsmfor taoe Oncy,'Nos onrsellnctiofcen subjuglae eeithenthhe rchewiild ofman, fr the cuensruoofrGod.'sMvtteoe Villaeis
delaresfa strlogyd oebdsa ine wwhichtth FFloretiieas and inheritedy, loinsi ithoethersspernsitrios,y fomt thiar
pgaa aincetore,d theRomaass.Thhequeetiio, hooweve,sdidf nctpreminy imef ormereslievrery
ddi ussi n,tbout tht parteusf oranefagtaisntddi unee,ppublily..Aafter the trrlibl, lfh soofr1333,ranefagtaid in1345,ea strlogvrus and thologtaasoddi ussedt irth greaeminunenresfthhefifaurance frtthnstaes,d thewiild ofGoe, annd th juisine ooftiespunwshpmens. Thhsedstrugglls dovue casrde toroug ouetwwt hhoe,
timeoof theReOaissaine,e(nd efmaly
conludsethat rhlyprotssnoesd haceillrelanret,s sinceist ams asrireforh
thmt ofrecoomenadtthemselveyto, the greaebayddfeanion,y
thanbly oppoaiinfa strlogye.
Ien thecircunyoofLlorezod theMlgiificlnt,e(mmongtiismost ddistindlshend Pliaonistsy, pini net hacendivieneon,ttisequeetiio.dMeasilio Ficinoe ddf nlenelastrlogy,nhnednfewntthehoroscropeofd te cchldrensoof the
houns, promsssingtheolratlc.Giovaeni, afterwardsLeo X,d hanehhe coulr onse alybheProp.ePicc dellneMirpidoln,foin th hotherh an,t hdr n epoich iio thssubjecttbly his amiuesrefutmctio. Hefdetsecsdin,ttisebeilhftthmr roout fralu ampietldanndimmooraityy.Ifd themestrlogte,yhee ain mins,d bwilhvre innanyotving
t,aaly,hms mustwwoships nctGode, but tht lanrts,f fomtwwhichallngfh s andevi l rhedeetvrdeeAalloethersspernsitriosffinnd as
reaye n stupmengrielastrlogy,nwwhichsurvrs ais hndmmiefto geomaacly, hiromaacly, andm gtcl frevvuysklnleeAsd oe merarily,hee ain mins hane n otvingcen mfor fstvedevi l than the pini nd hanehhaovinittselfisetwwt aunse ofie,ein,
which asry the airttinn thenuayc
ppinnesyand, punwshpmens mustallsoddieappea.ePicc evhne ooodrthe oroibl toccecodoffs
thda strlogvruslnluetkvhaly, andfound haneien thecouast,ofdae miins
trch- ouarhs,oof thiarweattherpaophecivroctuiend oue alle. Buthist eminyauckevhmlntf
asy otseh frit, ien theFouarhe iok, adsoosaives
Chetistanmdocstiileoof the fehorom of theiwll annd th g everpmeng ofthhe uolveres,nwwhichsu an tohhvet hdr e greahen mmrsesi ne n,tth elueiaee claseuo toroug oue Italsthaeemall theurvivuaisutparecthete out ogvtthes.Thhelaatte,e in aet,g othnefwineen ofreauch thses claseue.
Thheiiris ureueleooftiesboood ae taut thea strlogvrus casrde o,ppublshd thiardocstiilsy,hand tosediwho andal
reaye
aritsdttthedwWeremoretfod elesyhsharmed ofwtmtd thyo hnddons.hGiovcino Pon mno,sf orexamopl,nins
hhisbooodonyFate,o hndrecognized th nceOncy,anndin,ae greaewworeofy hhio hnd xmoundwe,twwt hhoe,
thorlf ofithiintthes yllf of the ldo Firmicui,ea cribkine ofthhe teaserthe gowrttofhevvuysbodillyand, spieietuadquraityy.Her nweriy hisdi logue 'Aegidius'hsurrrindreey,ifs
ncteastrlogy,nhtylmeat ccertaina strlogvru)s andsoundwe,twwtpraiseuoofr
ffehsiwll,fbyh
whichmanhiaseOabneen ofk nwnGod.eAsstrlogydpreminedd mrhe oeslnese in ashtioe, butsu an noct tohhvetg evered humhanllfmfgif the
ayhits frrmrlyo hnddons.hThhearleoofparit ig,
whichiim the ffnteenth chentuys hnddonseinsrbssnt
o fstved thdnelusi n, nwnexprsesee, th hlaheeen ond,oof trough. Raphael,fian thecupolnf of theCapellneChigi,r
rppresecserthe ons,oofthhendifeoretf lanrtss and thesteauys irmamlnt,e
aticen, hooweve,s and uidcdyblybeautiifulangel-figtursy,handeencrokine fomtaabvbe theblneskine of the thenuayFaothe.hThhace hasallsoan other aunse
which nwnbegaon oe ell agtaisnta strlogydiid Ital.hThheSpaerwards ooodnoeiaaheesctintit,d notevhne theggenerasy,hand tosediwhowlshend od gtaid thiarfavouas
delaredeoppo waodagtaisnt
hh whel-heeeitialy,whel-
Mohammedao snceOncy.Int s, tuen tautGuicecirdliiewritvasiim the yea
1529: 'Hnwnc
ppy aure thea strlogvru, iwhopre,bwilhvredioftthy, ell nhe
tutth toahhuanred lies, ttlef other peoplslose llncrent ioftthy,
ell nhelieh toahhuanred tutts.'s But theeon mptsf ora strlogyddidf
nctnecsesauillylehnh toaheeitui ofthhebeilhftiifPpooiiwenc.lIot coulr ams asrllylehnh toaofiaddfinhthyfatalrsme.
Ien tiseorespet,nhas in othes, Italswasrunnibl to akeeihe ownwaly
tv l tialsthorough te feopmeng ofthheReOaissaine,ebe caus theeforignl iivasions and theCoouner-Rerorractiofcemceopioyithiintthemiddnee.
Wwithoutsuichianerfheiig causseihe owniarlngin woulah haveeOabneeniut torrougrlyto getyridf ofthhsesfan mistclrllusi ns. Ttosediwho ould hane
thdoasliough frtthnstrpinerss and theCeahoblioarecni net hace dcsesiiteusf orwwhichtth Iitataos peoplsw isinsselfsolerlyre scns ale,e
wll looodonytthnspieietuadbankruptcyh
whichtthyepaoduieedaseasjusnt eeiai buion. Butintiasaspirys taut thereetyoof Europnhaadindvirecltytto
pay sidltrgeaan partofd theppo l ys.
Thhebeilhftiifomens su an as uich oorsinnocmens hattenthaeem strlogye.
ThhhMiddneeAgsso hnd vtry tvur inheritedttthedainabundmincenfomt the
vargiues pgaa preligiia;t and Italsdidf nctndifeodin,ttiseorespetnnfomt hother ouunties..What iidccharaceetistcl fr Italsrsd te suppore llntgbly umhaiim, ofthhe ppdularsspernsitrioy.Thhe pgaa inheritmince hashsere
backedyupnblyae pgaa lievrery d vtloppmens.
Thhe ppdularsspernsitrio,oofthheIItataosereeted ltrgelydoenpprm nittiosg anndinfsrhincsy rawannfomtomtniuesoccurreincs.fi ith
whichangfh sdeuad ofmagic,dmostalf ofansinnocmenssorn, as onneeced.hThhace ha,e
hooweve.s nllacodofylehered humhaiisstiwhoboldlyyridticundfthhses
diusriosd,
and ofwtose ttacket hn paralf ws thek nwundgreoofthhme.
Giovcino Pon mno,s theaoinor oofthhe greaea strlogtcuaywworeal
reaye eatiioed,aabvb,oenumteatesd ithpirysriy his'Cchaon'fa lmongisrline of
Neapoliiao sspernsitrios--thhe glhft of theiomend
thneasf wu fongfhswt auugh thepip;d thdneepmanxietld of thenoutlnitgifoahhualring alciot didf nct oomehoom,hfr ifoahhoast,spraingda stdfoot;d thd agicrar rorrdullf of theApdutaos pasants,trrcinredoin tfehsSectu alyevhniina,e wwmilmhnddoget haceatse
rgen.Thheanimrarkionoro,nhas inlntiqurily,whas regarlenela ppeciarlyssgiificaiutien tiseorespet,nhand thebe haior oof
thdlriosd,lpeoward,eannd otherbmeats kvptebly thnSteaedghvettthe peopls hlll themfor foef fr refleactioe, d caus thly
hdy ooe sobe, onididoenela lrokinesymbols,oofthheSteae. Duriong te siegc ofy FFloreney,in,1597 n eaguny
whichtadgbweenshncteaefund i od thd rily, anndthheSfgnoriadghvettthebbaevee oua lueiasebe caus theomend
asygoode.
Ccertainetimesannd lwieet hacefavouaaibl foeunfavoaaibly, rg evnt
dnistivy nhe
alf rn th hothe,sf orccertainacti ns. Tth FFloretiiea,ysoe V ruck ellsyup,h
euldSectu aly tobes hhefantiful alyiofwwhichaild immportasteovits,ngfh s seweals sebany, oom illyh
pppogds.Tthiar pprjundereagtaisntm ruckind oueto waod torough e partcdularsarlea,hhas bdeenal
reaye eatiioed.eAt Perugiad ime ofthh atew,s the'Pport
E breea,'d ae trough lucky,nhand theBagltoiieel
lawowmeng oueto fiugh toroughite.M thorre ae,ttheeappeaaince of thehhaovisr hrseams
ssgiificaiutien Itals ms lse tvur ind theMiddneeAgss, annd th ppdular imaiginctiofsawewareting
rmire innaneunusunaerorractiof ofclouds,y
and baed tth clah,oof thiarcoelistiodtighsin,tth iia.. Thssspernsitrio, bd cmhs d mrhesergiuesmhattenwwmilistattachgda stself tosacrndfthiina,e wwmilfigturse of theVirigifwvpte ormoovadthheeyss, oenwwmilppublio craamiiteus hrseamsociaered ithsomhdalungvefaac,oofampietl,sf orwwhich
th ppeoplsdemhnded,expimctio. Iim1478y,wthnePiraeozas hasvissaee irthaevioltest andptrloined rainfaaly,ist amsssidattmtd thrhe couldbl
nddryhweatthertillranccertainu srery,iwho andbdeenlantalf bricad inSaaf Feainceco,o hnd casrde o,eesctint oniscraeredelatheeAsd theblshop,whas not beligingenrough tohhvettth crpseddugyupn the ouugenelldosn ofthhe t own oooditebly frce,y raggeeniutddonhtthnstrertss midhfrlughiful onfusgin,s andpctlhst tfewnithii od thdPo.eEovinPoliitandaacepnred
tiaspoaihhoofvieweriy ppealine ofGiraomosPpzzi,d ime ofthh cchies oof
thd onipiarald of1478y,IimFFloreney,wthichist alundy(faheo his amilye.
Wthnethe haspoueto deaoty,thdnevotvefthisscou to Sathan
withfwariful wwoda;therey, oos,rainnrollnosdhannd tgreahnrde o,euiinttheharvrst;d
tvury, oos,ae parle ofmeos,mostalf pasants,tdugyupn thebldytgif the
chuaic,yanndimmediantalftth coudsedeparceed and thesuenshnne--'soe garagiues has frtunee od thdhpini ndofd theppoopl,'saddserthe geane
choula.. The orpsedwhasffirstcasthii odunh
llnosdhgpound,s thenextl aly
ugyupy,handaafteoahhoarlibl, pocsesi nd horough te cityd horwneri od theArno..
Thhsesfactss and thelikeebpeasa ppdularccharacee,t andmiugh hhvet
occurreediid the
eent,sjusnt seweals seiintthesixnteenth centuys. But nwn oomse thelievrery fifaurancn ofantiquriln.Wryk nwnsoosaivelyd hane
thdhumhaiisstiwereeecdutaarlyaccsesiibl topaodlighse andauuuoicey,
and iiseaincns of tistthavebweenal
reayequoced.hIf fuarhvedevideOnc
Were
deeeey,ite couldbl founl,infPoggto.. Thssaomeprdicuay
tiiktenwwoe dderind therlughas ofnoulesbiaits andtthefiequraitye ofmeos, not illy bwilhvrndin,alll themediarewlsiaorivro ofg msrs,anedneviley,butdallsoins
paodlighse ftved thdaenilntspeathen,elikee tosedsmiefto thaveoccurreed one thelasthvissao ofPropeEugeagousIVfto FFlorene. 'NpeasComodthhere
hrse eeny imeevhniine oua trosanednogu, iwho ooodrtherohnh toGer ay;
thus hacefollnosdhblyae greaeterdf ofchatlcy, andtthseybdyansarmyooim oout andhoastback, siime
withnto badss andsoime
withalmost invissblhe hreasd,
and thinaygfgaatic hoastmhan
withan otherterdf ofchatlcybehinnd hhm.'fPoggtodallsobwilhvre innaebhatlcd ofmagpghse andjackdawss.Hre evnt urulacey,pperhaps withoutbeting
warcf ofits,aeweal- re ervrdfpgenc ofy aenilntsmyahobogye.OinttheDalmaitandcoasn ayTettiottadghappeare,d bwarlenelandhoaone,s eggeuiile ea-satye,reanionginnriosy andar ai ;ethe aretedlawayeiomend and chldrensnfomt theshnury, illrftivyiaout- baeaee ashleiomendkialsnd himw ithstickss andst ims..A wfh een odeln ofthhe monrsery,
whichwhasexhibitendputFtrraray, akesn thewhhoe,iaorymcrentblhe tofPoggto.. Trough tered hrseno moereoarapls,d and te ams nlloinhe oasiblrntto akee cuensre ofthh h s,yyeutintbd cmhs gtaid thefashtion tofoppo Virigl atdhazao e, and akee thepassigtd hnsopionare adommil ('StrtvefVirigltanae'). Norncanethhebeilhftiifdarm ns, urrenttgif the
leahenmercodn ofantiquriltthavebween withoutfifaurancn if the
ReOaissainen.TthewwoodofyIamublituesor Abarnm ne n,tth Myisergesn ofthhe Egypstana,e whichmayo haveeon ai buendroe tiseoreuln, as
aritsdtinnae
Liainy praslitrio,ant
hh hnd ofd thn ffnteenth centuys.TthePliaoniio AchdrmyoatyFFloreney ams nct feceffrom tense
andoothernpoopiaoniio
diusriosy ofthheRomaafdechdraney.A 'fewnwwodas mustteredbl given od thebeilhftiifdrm ns, nedtto thsm gtcl
whichwhasconneecedt irthttisy bwilhfs.
Thhe ppdularrairttinf
wat iidcalundy th spieie-woald, hasn early
the saome in Itals ms lse tvur ind Europn.Iim Itals ms lse tvur tered hrse g msrs,d haneis,trreappeaaincsooofde casrde pesioa;t andioftthfviewe
akendofd thmendifeord innanyeorespetnnfomt tane
whicheprewiund is the
N ait, heendifeorecsebn raygda stselfoirlyaid thdaenilntsnames'ombra.'f Evensn wadhyadiof sichays hdv ppresecse stsel,yah ouopldofdMlaseuoarhe saief fr ihseremoars.Ttmtd te spieiesooofbandmend appeasiisaedrrediful shape,distafmaatten ofcouast,gbutdaloinsi ithtthisweffinnd thenotrio, taut theg msrs,oofthheneparceed rh uolvereiarlymalicgiues.Tthedeae,d slaws theppirscsiisae nvel,oofBhndellny,kiall thelratlc. chldreny.Iot su an as ifoahccertains hdv hashsere trough ofa e epareaednfomt the
scou,dssincetwhnlhattensuifeoe innPurgaaory,nhandwwmilistaappeas,tdoeas notving utdwailt andptay.eAtdoothertimeus watyaappeas ms nt theg msrd ofafmany, utd ofanseovit - - ofafpeat condiatio,oof
tiina.lSot the
neMggborre xmlminndy th diaboblirameappeaaincsoaid thdouldpalwieg ofthhe Vdi cati n eanSaafGiovaeni aidConca,nhtyMilany,ssincetvur itd ae taut
BpentbrVdi cati hnd ausend ouunlneseviccieseooftiestyeaeny sobe, tfrturenelandstrpinledy, ae, ne oindrgioftthred hrsestrpine
tionshtoe
bse een..Oimeevhniineayswarmn ofpooer peoplsi ithcandlcsoaid thierh ansg aappearef toahdishnneat guhadtandofd thepooerat Perugia,nhnednaectnd
orond pabouthim;yae greaefigturospoked in tgreahnkine oieas n,tthiar be hel,yitd ae SteeAao,s the pstoie taihdofd thepooehouns. Thhsed odesd oofbeilhft hrsesos uichaymaatten ofcouast that rhlypoensr oould akeeust, ofn thmeaesscim tving
whichevvuysrehndrg coulduindretann.. The eappeaaince of theslmin Lodovicc Picc uindrg thewallsy of thebesiegcnd
Mirpidoln msfinerlyreppresecsdhblyCmistgltoicy.Int s, tuen tautpoenry
madnyttht fecustust,ofd thshe convpttiosmwthnethhepoen hmtselfhaad
ougrdonhtthme.
IItaly, oos,shaurnd thebeilhftiifdrm ns,i ith teyoothernatriosy ofthhe MiddneeAgsse.M a hace onviectnd tatdGioosoimetimes
llnosdhbandspieieso ofnevvuyscclas,tofexercirsnadne stuetkvhefifaurancn ifparcsy ofthhe woaldlhnd ofdhumhanllfm.. Theofllyee ervnctiofmhdv hasthat rhly anstho wwomtrhlyEvi lOime cmhs sl mpsery, oouldusegtiisffchewiild o,eestis.
Ien Italsthefdrm nlicfifauranc,re ppeciarlyaseehownriifnaisualteovits,n elsrllyassurmldarccharaceen ofpoeitialygrreannes..Ien theniugh bhfmrhe rthe geaneinundmctioe of theValyd'Arnod in1333,rafpgiueshsrmittaabvbe V llnmbrosar baed a diabobliramtumueleriy hisncll, crosesnd hitsel,y steappedtto thsdooe,e andsawdancrowd ofdblacod nedttrrlibl,knlughas gtllnpnblyiisamouay.Wthne onjuaref toetann,d ime ofthhmdsmie: 'Wh hstho drdonhtth citydoofFFlorenen ifaaccuetf ofinsrsins,diofGoeewiildlestus.'f W ithtthi,s theneearly on mpoerrydvisi neaneVenice (1340)hmayobe, ompeare,doute of
whichae greaemaisdelofd te Vwen taosschool,tprobbabld
Giorigiie,,madnytthtm rvtloues icctur ofadghluny ifulooofdarm ns,e wwhichspeeds,i ith teyswffnnnesy ofasbiad ovdrg theiaormyolagoonstho destroa, th siniful slmnd- rily,tiall the tfehs taihSy,iwho avhes eppcnd
unob ervrd i odaepooerboat an'syskdif,rexorcirsnd thn fends andseot thmeaae, thienovsnsre ofthhebottrom of theiatvrue.

Toe tisebeilhftthmrrllusi no ams nwepddgdathat bly eaosy ofmagicrarartsd intwhaspoasiblrnttoentve i odurulai ns,i ith teyevi loilsy,handuses
thierhelpeto fuarhvedthhepurmoarro ofgrene,samuiatios, andseosuraityy. Manly pesiostiwereerobbabldaacuseedoofdosingsotbbefor the
time
thneiot hasacttuablyatr mpisdhbly ay; bButwthnethheso-calundymagictaasopne irchmesbegaon oebhebuaone,sthefdrlibteatey pracsivy of theblacod rt, bd cmhsmfor fequsety.W ith teysmrkcn of thn frcsoaid
whichtth su spetvefvicciese hrsesacotfisee,y hrsesprrear thenarcntin fuimesbye wwhichnumbeans ofeuiiend characeete hacenruggrd i odmagic;t and ith thme hnascaaculaniongimpriscrstbd cmhs msociaeres.
Thhe rtmiukvhe andpppdularrfomeaid
whichtth sspernsitrio,haadprobbabld
lrovedoneunianerruptenlyd fomt the
timeoof theRomaas,twhastthearleoof thewirch_(strege)._Tthewirch, sidloinfa eeheeltmiusnd ereself tomhrse ndivnmctio,emiugh bhninnocmensenroug.d haceits nt tat rhly prasitrio, fomtpaophecy soaetkvhehelpe oouldelsrll,n trougt othneimmercvpttblly, bdsa fataltddonwhar s ep.lSthe hascrent nd is sichay asry not illy ith thrpowtetofhexcit igdlovl foetatarndbetwween hnd andwomany, utdplsoe ithpturalsde stuetkvhe andm lrgnaestarts,s andwhase ppeciarlychtrgee irth th sicknnesy oflratlc. chldren,t evnt thnethhem leayeobviiuealf aime fomt thenegleac,landstupiditld of thepearens. Int s,stiall
queetiioaibl hooefar sthe hassupposrde o,act bly erhd agicrarccerm nlesg anndrorrdul, oenbdyah onsagiuesalukmince irth th ffendsy, part fomt the ois ns, nednrugs whichstheadminrstveenn
witha ifulok nwundgreoofthhiar eeffecs.
Thhe oorsinnocmensrfome of thesspernsitrio,eaid
whichtth menaicaiut fiare oouldvcentuen oeeappeashastthe cmmesitor oofthhewirch, iseehownr iio ths asryoofthhewirche ofGaeta,
womtwWerrearoftiifPon mno..Hhis
tavelunrnSsp psiuesreachmeshheodwelukin ttlefsthetsggiviineaudceOncd tofaygfrly andar erviinmmiey,iwho ooe sohvesi ithaeblacodthiy,niilt eggaslhiedonea Fridaye,a luek,s andsoime
tinte toeae,d fr ihfisetwwt chirdh alyssincetwhnnew moioy.Thhy aure thndseot awaye, andbiddtfstho ooe gtaidat rwiiiugh. It iid oebhntopgdathat notvingwoast thane ndivnmctio iidianended.. The istrnesy of theservnnt-mmief s,pregnaestbly ls mik;d thdgfrl'sylovdrghhasprooveduuntuhe andhasygoimeri odae monaisdetn.Tthewircheccmpitais: 'Ssincemyohusb an'indeaoteI suppore mytselfien tisewaye, andlhcoulrmakeeasgfh sotving ofits,ssincetwhn
Gaetaneiomend avhepltesld offa ity, haceits nt tat rhly miksebalk mt, ofnmyogtaistbly xmlminkin drrems,heappessingtheopinery of thestaihseforh miey, promsssinghusb aneyto, the frls,hmen- chldrens ofthhe regnaest womeos,offsprkine ofthhebarrte,nanndbesidmes
lln tisevissasingtheowommil at iugh thnethhierhusb aneyarh awayeflshing,eaidaaccrdmince irth th amsrgnaai ns,m dceiifday
timeeae huaic.'fSsp psiueswhaneshheoagtaisnt
teyenvld of themioaisdet, butshedhasynodfwars,ssincetwhnguhadtandofd intiasandouldacquain mince of ere..
Buttth sspernsitrio,fuarhvedghvetrirsn odaewoast sore of irchmey, namealsthosediwhodepetvrddmendoofthhiartv l tnanndllfm..Ien thsescasrsh
teymiscchiey,wthne nodsuoficisetbldaaccueteef fr bly thnevi leyeyanndho thelrke,y ams aisualblyatrai buendroe tedmiefffrpowteifulspieies.. The punwshpmen,t seweo avhesehenins the asryoofFinicelln,fiasd te stake;g anndyeutaeccmpromssce irthfanaaiciim, hassomhetimespraacsiubnee.
Aaccrdkine ofthhelaosn ofPerugia,nf orexamopl,naewircheccoulrseatlc. th affaieebly aykineddonh400 mounds.. Themhattenwams nt thn iaencedy ith thrsergiuennesyand,coaidsrwecye oflhaher
time..Ien thettrrlaorivro of
th Chuaic?eeaeNorcia (Nursia),sthefhoomo ofSteeBpogdiccnins theuppher
Apeiekiese, thrhe hasay peffec neetyoof irchmes andsorcceres,s andnoe iecrec, ams adcf ofit. Int s,spokenroftiif ime ofthh most premrkablhe leattero ofApogae Sylviue,dbeioinkine oftiseeearihenmercods.Hrewritvas toftisebroothe: 'Thhebbaevee of tist aime o ime o askdiofIe new ofas
Mouetf ofVenuee in Ital,d fr iis sichay lwieemagicrarartsd hrse aoughy, anndhiasmaisde,naeSaxons andae greaea strnomve,fiasdanxiiues o leherh thm. I ldotim, teaeIe new ofasPporo Vwenere nt feas fomtCarraray,ons
teyrockyecoasn ofLigtuia,n tvur Ihspente tfehsnlughasoen thewatytto
Basle;gIeallsofound hane thrhe hasaymouettaidcalundyEryx,eaidSicilly,
whichwhasdedisnavndro Vweuey,butdIsdidf nctk nwn
whetherm gtcl
mes
auugh tvure. Butint aome i
odmye ind wtleftalkion,y
thcninsUmbuia,nins
tey ldoDsicy (Spoleao)? n ean thetdonh ofNursiae, thrheistafchvet
bpogaithaeisdepyrock,eaid
whichiatvr, lfws.hThhac,t seI preembeaytto
avhe baed,yarh irchmes(striges),fdrm ns,s andnlughrlys hdvr,s andwwt chaa,hhastthe cuaagdtcaneshre(nne ppeayto g msrs,(spieiets),fanndleherh agicrarartsyeI avhe nodsehenit,d nrn akeenany oroibl paboutit,dforh
tane
whichiaslehered w ithsio iidbeattennnodelhered
t,aal.'fHhe
neevettheleshnarmushiidiarorraih,f andbegsftisebroothentto akee th bbaevee of te leattee oftim,olhcoulrhedbl stiallalrov.fApogae goeasflar enroughtvur indtiaspolievnresftohaym adffrpositrio,ebutd pesionallyhet has not illyffchas fomtsspernsitrio,
thanhias on mpoerricey,butdth alsoestoh sa tssntoio thssubjectt
which ntnevvuyselueiaee m adffrouar donh aly oouldendtur. Att the
timeoof theCooucil,oofBhslcy,
whnethelaly sickn of thn dovueforhseovity-ftivydhyadhtyMilany,the cuuldnneveebhe prsuadeen o ldsrwedtto thsm gtcldocsoese, trough emhan
as brrough tto
iidbedsrid,ihtoaeshore
timebbefor haadmaavtlouelyn ureen2,000 soldceero of dovueins the ampn ofPicecekioy.Wttlefstiallaeninvuaie,d Apogae rmid,ovdrg themouettaisftohBhslcy, and otewealsoio thsjouanea..
Wedleherhscim tving oorspabouttwhnneMggborhoodn ofNorcia horough te dcromaactenwwoetetedlto getyBpooviuto Celukiie i
odtiaspowve..A newe booodofrm gtcl
mes oebhn oniscraere,nhand theberst lwiee rn th cherm nlswasr mmong themouettaisfind hanedistricc.. Themhisdelofd te agicianhhaad Oncy,int s, tue,ddonse thestme
tion n ean theabbey ofd Faof y,butdtandttherefound ndiftcduiteus which
idf nctppresec
thmmselve aeNorcia;,fuarhve,s the pasantseins thelhattenneMggborhoodn
hrsetrustwoaahys peoplsiwho andhaadprracsivyiintthemaatte,eand who ouuldaffcrd onididoaibl helpeaidcasryoof dee.. The xspdiatio,
idf nct
aket lwie,s lseyBpooviuto couldprobbabldthavebweenablrntto ealsust soim tvingofd te impriscr'es sidsraens. Thhewhhoe,neMggborhoodniasd tens
paovdrbial..Aeeitnosslawssoim tvur ofansenchtacedy cll, 'ttheredweluh thrsrstvesy of thesibyln ofNorcia ae,ttheeuihdofd theFata GFlotana.'f And pabout thestme
timeTriassnoeccoulrstiallcelebrante tet lwie indtias gareaeeptcl
withalll theursouancsooofpoenry andalungorymash thehomc ofy au tentin paophecye.
Aftved thd ncorgiuesBfulooofInnocmensVIIIf(1484), irchcraft ae,tthe prsecuctioe of irchmesgrlwtri odae greaeaandeevoelringry cpm.. The cchie,reppresectovlcns of tistry cpm ifd prsecuctioe hrseGer ae Domtnicaia;t andGer ay ann,d urgiuelynenroug,sthosedparcsy of Itals daeesctGer ay eor ter ouunties most afflicrve,bly tisfplague.. The bullsy nedinjuncctiosy of thePropas thmmselve refhe,sf orexamopl,n od theDomtnicaifPpooiince ofLombaedly, o Cerm na,dtto thsdiocsevro of
Brcecia ae,Berg mmn.Wryleherh fomtSprlngte'snfamiues thoreitio- praacsiuay uidc,s the'MalunuisMvleficarum,' t
t,ffoty- nhe
irchmes hrse brengmtdComodiim the frst yeae ftved thdppublimctioe of thebull;g crowdsy of Itaianeiomend ooodrefugvyiintthettrrlaorld of theAaicdukse Sigismund,s tvure thyobwilhvrndtthemselveyto,bl stiallsafm..Wirchcraft endcdyblytakionf irm rooutiisaefewnunluckyeAlpinn vhlunys,re ppeciarly iio thsValyCam nlia;d thdry cpm ifd prsecuctioehaadeuccseeeeoins
per asetbldinfsclring irth th nelusi n,thosedpppdulttiosmwthichieurein ay aly ordisposrde fr ih..ThiasvsnsntciabldGer aerfome ofwirchcraft ius waty holhcoulr
tiike of
wenerrearing thersorivro andnovsruoofrMilan oesBobogna..Ttmtdiutdidf nctmakeefuarhvedpaogrnese in Italsrsdprobbabld
duee od thdfaet that tvureadtighrlyd vtloprde'stregheria'e hasal
reaye inn xdsrwece,,eescvingoisaeddifeoretfsec,ooffdeas. Thhe Itaianeiirche praacsimldar prdcy, and deeeed fr ihf miey ann,daabvbeaaly,ssensn.Wry
finnd notvingpabouthdelofd te hyisergiuaydrremslofd te N aiternewirch, ofmarvtlouesjouaneaws horough te air,ooofIncubues andSuccubue;s the bueinnesy of the'strega'e has topaovideyfor tther peopl'sfpleasturs.
If sthe hascrent nd irth th powtetofhassurkineddifeoretfshapes, oen of
prasporesinghereself uddtfllytsoddirtastplwiee, sthe hasssofar on ec
odaacepn tiseorputmctio,t sehvueinfaurancniasd tereblyiicreasrd;,ons
teyhotherh an,tintwhasperglouesffonwtenwwmil thn dare of erlmaliceyanndhovlngtaine,e(nd e ppeciarly of erlpowtetf orenchtaciig chldren,tchatlcy, anndcrops,tbd cmhsggenera..Iequissaorre ae, agistrptmes hrse tensmosns torrougrlyaidaaccrdd ithpppdularwlshes ioftthy, brenghhee.
Byofar thh most immportastfieuld rn th acttviitl of the'strega'elwly, amshhasbweensmiey,aidlovd-affaiea, anndinnludsnd thestiretingupn oflbvbe hnd ofdhatarn,s the aoduivingofdpabratios, th pre endcdymurdtenofd te unfa itifulman oenwomaafbly gicrararts,t andeovintthemanufaettur of ois ns. Owkine ofthheunwiilkinnnesy ofmanly pesiost tohhvettiddod ith thseowommi,scclas,oof ccasionuaypaactttiioerre rosediwhoiecrecbld
llhered fomt thmdsoime ime r ttheroofthhiararts,s andtthnoused tias k nwundgreonethhierdonhaaccuet. ThheRomaaf aonsituacey,f orexamopl,n
ptedlto enhaincetwhiry pesionaratraecni netblychtrmslofdan other de cripctiofiad thestyllf of theHoraeianeCanidia..Aeeitnosmayo not illy hhvetk nwny,butdtavseallsotould het tutthpabout thmfien tise partcdula.
Hl givsfa llshdofd theloathsoomrmeaseuowthichieureto,bl founl,inftthiar boxes--hair,oskulls,,eibse, eeth,edeandmen'sfeyss, humhanskio,h te avsruoofrlratlc. chldren,t thesolvro oflhcmesannd gencro ofclnotving fomt ombsy.Thhy evnt ente themselveyto, the gavsyhar andflticendbieso ofnrotthneflvrh,
whichtthyeelyrlyghvettthiarlovdrs,tofeat-- ithmmrhe rtant s,stiallwoast.ePiencns of tr haioranefnailsy of thelovdrg hrse oiund isoiuersolensnfomt thedovu- bre igdlamoseins the huaic.. The most innocuiuesoof thiarchtrmsl has tomakeeas baeao ofgldolinf(shmey, andtthno topiercvtintwttlefsiinkin:
'Primarcce'lefuocohspenghi,r Farcc'afmiaepoort venghi;g Tramtispungafmior mmrse Quvle isofoequeetoecumrs.'.
Thhred hrsehother htrmslpraacsimldbly o netvie,fi ith rawionsh if the
gpound,s andfigturse ofwax oenbronzey,wthichdoubnlnesereppresecsdh the
lovdr,e(nd ersetrencedyaaccrdkine ofcircumseaincn..
Thhses
tionsh hrsesoscuetomrryd tatdanwomaafiwh,n withoutyou tnannd bbauily,neevettheleshexercirsddaepowteiful htrmh ifmeos, aisualbly bd cmhssu spetvef ofwirchcraft.. Them ttheroofSaega,oiecrecrryd od ClepmensVII, ois nsnd ereson'sf istrnesy,iwho hasaywomaaf of tistklnlee
Un frtunantalftth sio,
iedltoo,t seweals seae parle offrfends iwho and eltendofd thepois nsnds leae.
Nextl oomss, not sehvlpdr,ebBut e cmmesitor to, thewirch, thsm gtcian oesenchtacer--'innan maort'-- who hasstiallmfor amiliaesi ith teymosns perglouesbueinnesy of thecraft..Scimetimesthe hasams uich ormour ofans
estrlogtes taoe ofafmagtcian;etheprobbabld othneghvet hmtselfoBut e ans
estrlogtesiim rdtennoct tobheprosecuceedaseasmagtciany,handahccertain
estrlogydwhase nsntciasiim rdtentoffinnd ouetwwtfavouaaibl houa fr ah agicrar pocsese. Butssincemanlyspieiesoarh gfh sfr iiddifeoret,h te m gtcian ccoulrscimetimes ain minfanovraysoleaaibl orputmctio,t nnd SixtousIV,fian the yea 1474,o hnd topaocseenexprsesblyagtaisntsoomr
BobognhsesCtrmelievu, iwhop nsrtnd is thepdupit tat rhlrhe has nehtrmh innseekionginrorractiofnfomt thedrm ns. Vvraymanly peoplsbwilhvrndin, thrpoasibiliitl of theotving stsel;oaofiadvirecopaooff of tistliesgins
teyfaet that teymosnspgiuesmendbwilhvrndttat blyptayved thly oould ob minfvistiosg ofgfh sspieies..Savon rola'sf iandwhasfialsndwiith tese
tiina;s theFFloretiie Pliaonistse ppeay ofafmyistcluntiofwiithGod;t nnd MarcelluesPalkineagous givsfues o uindretannecl earlyenrough hanehhe and tiddod ith oniscraeredspieies.. Thestme writvr is onviectndofd te xdsrwecey ofafwhhoe,hieraaictl ofbanddrm ns,siwho avhe thiarsreaeffomt teymoio,
donwhars,s andarh neveeoen thewarchetiddodsoomrmiscchie, od aisuhe andhumhanllfm..Hre evnt ellsyofdhisdowan pesionaracquain mince irthsoimeoof thm,y andasd te scropeofd te ppresec wwooddoeas not llno ofafry cpmaaicd xmositrio,oofthhetthnoeprewllntgbeilhftiifspieies,h te arrtovlcn ofPalkineagousmayobe, givenaismomeiiseaincdoute ofmanle.
AtnSaafSielvestry,onsSoarace,ehhe andbweeneencrokine n stucctiofnfomtah pgiueshsrmittoen the notvinnnesy ofelathalfttionsh ae,tthewoaahelesnnesy ooftumhanllfm;nhandwwmil the iugh nfewnn eante seng oueondtias alybacks toftoime.Ointtherohn,fian theifuloiiughe ofthh moony,thewhasjoincdybly
trchfmeos, ime of
womtcalundytim,blyname,y andasksnd himwheincetv aim.fPalkineagousmadr nswhe: 'Ffomt thewsscemaaf is themouettai.' 'O ool,' orplisnd thestrpiner,y'dosts toufian tutthbwilhvrd tatdany ime n elath is wssc?.Oibldtigtherbmionsh(Drok)o avhewssoro,nhnds sichared ho
trchy, l troughwed har thh shapese ofmeny.Ir mynameldSearagl,t nnd tese two Satchily andJana. Oua kionorotliesgn ean themoony,wtheredweluh teaemduittuid,oftiitsrmediantrbmionshiwho avhes
alf eveeelath nnd sre.'fPalkineagoustthnoasksns, not withoutaofiawhar term ry,
wmtd thyo
hrsegokine ofdodmtdRoime. The nswheewha: 'Oime ofoua cmrhdvr,sAom i, iuskvpteinnservttuid,bly thnm gtclarcsy ofatyou tnnfomtNarni,d ime of
thdatthndantse ofCirdlinarOrssii;ef ormarktit,dOfmeos,tthrheistpaooff oofyoua ownrimmootraityetthrhio,h tautyoutcaneeon aold ime ofua: I mytselfshunsopeaidcry caly, asg niee rcref toeervrfatGer a,rtillran bwarlene mik sengmht fec..Thiasrsd te servtne wwhichwhewsshd o,eeindrg at Rooe sooua rfend,s andwwtehalleallsotakee th opporeuntty ofd seaniong ime r two ddistindlshendRomaas to, thenhetherwoald.'fAtt thshe woadsfa llugh bfeczee rose,s andSatchilysmie: 'Ldsrwe,ooua measeineryias corkinebacksnfomtRomcy, andttis wsandannouincsohhm.'fAand thinan other beting
appeare,dwwomtrhlyfgreneredjoyifuly,
and thinasksndpaboutRoime.
Hhisuatteaincsoarsestrongly,
ati-papal: ClepmensVIIe hasagtaidallisnd irth th Spaerwardslandhoppedttoroout outLu tee'sndocstiilsy, not witg argupmeney,butdbly thnSpaershdswcars.Thiasrsdwhhorlyaid thdiaaheesctofs
thdnem ns,siwhmt theimmeaniongblfh shendwoouldenablrnttoceauysawaye te scousy of trosanese i
odtelu. Att theclose of tist onvereitrio,eaid
whichRoime
withallfinsrndllnt s,reppresecsdhasdwhhorly givenovdrg od theEvi lOim,s theap paittiosgvaersh,fanndlehvettthe oen sorrowifuly,tto
pursuedtias alyhlnnee.

Ttosediwhowoouldrfomeae convpttioe ofthh xtrehe ofthh beilhftiifthosed urulaioas to, thedrm ns,iwhich couldbl oppoly,
vnosdhiifspiteg ofthhe ppo l ivro ttachkine ofwirchcraft,smayobe,refherendroe ted uic-rrear woaay ofAgrip pn ofNeattshehim'Oioiecrec Phglosophy.'fHhesu an oeligiauly,tto avhewritthneih bhfmrhethewhas in Ital,dbutdrif the
dedisnaionsthoTettthmiueshse eatiiose Itaianeaoinoriiteus mmong othes, ilfoirlyby aly ofdispaaagdpmens.Ien thecasryoofequivocrar pesiostlikee
Agrip p, oen of thek avsdsland oolse i
odiwhmt themajoriitl of theeesct m yobe,ndiviens,tthrheistlratlc.rtant s,iaaheescionginntthdry cpm thyo
paofnesy,iirthitsdrorrdul, fumigatrios,yoaihpmeney, ae,ttheeesctofsis.
Butttistry cpm whasfialsndwiithquoclaioas nfomt thesspernsitriosfofy antiqurily, thdiafaurancn ofiwhichone thellfmf ae,tthepassriosfofy IItataoseie aeetimes ost premrkablheland ruriifun.Wrymiugh
tiike taut
ah greaeminds mustbes horrougrlyeuiien, bhfmrheithsurrrindreea stself to suichiafaurancs;, but thtvioltence of ropeanednesireslendeovinvigorrosg anndoeligiaudmendoof llncclaseuo to avherecouast tto thsm gtciany,hand thebeilhft tat rhly tvingwhasfpessblhelot lld hakhnrde o,soime xtrehe
teyfa ity,eovin of trsediwhokvpteatdanddirtaney,in, themoualtordtenofd thewoald. Att thecosctofsatlratlc. miey anndnaeneryiutsu arde oasiblrn tiddefly ithimmuntty thh uolvereiaerresons and merarile ofmanklnly,hand ohsparcf nhselfd thdiaahemediantrs eps,iwhich othewssceliehbetwweenah ans andtistlawifu foeunlawifu endse.
Lestus tvureglaniee rsaymopmensatdany ldves and nwndechyving frm ofd sspernsitrioy.Ffomt thedarkestnmercodn of theMiddneeAgss, rg evntffomt teydhyadoofantiquril,e hnasciiteus of Itals andkepn te preembaaince of
thd onnecttioe ofthhiarfatlsi ithccertainbdlldiina,eirttues, oen other matvrciasobjectse. The ncisetso hndleft pr carro ofconiscraevingppirscn oe Theletaey,iwho wereerresec mtd te soltmn founlactiof ofciiteuy,hand agicrarly ueaaiteee, thienprosmerctlyby ersclringccertainmonumtn stfod by, bryringccertainobjects (Thelemata)e. prdiations of tistrore hrse mour likealsthaeemnyotving lsey o ldivy nfian theiormn ofpopdula, unwritthneungvnd;dbutdrif thecouast,ofd centuiews theppirscs aisualbly bd cmhs pras frrmd i od thdm gtciany,ssincetwhnpreligiusrside oofties uncctioe ams nlloinhe uindretoode.Inhsoimeoof thfVirigltanemiaraplsteae Naplew,s theaenilntspreembaaince of ime ofthhst,Theletae is l early ppr ervrd,ftiesnamesbetingint ouast,ofd
timesupplanrve,bly tactofs
Virigl.. The nclosvingofd te myisergoues icctur of thecirysriyanovsnsre iusneeithenmour noeslnesethaeemeggeuiileaenilntsThelema;nhandVirigl,eams
founltenofdNaplew,siidbbut thtooficiaevingppirsc iwho oood partgif the
cherm nl, ppresecsdhiinan otherdrsese.Thhe ppdularimaiginctiofwmeng nr woaaving
t, tese tthmew,s illrVirigl bd cmhs llsore scns alee rn th baazhnetoast,g rn th badss ut thtNolan gate,o rn th baazhnefllf evee an othergate,o andeovin rn th Grotton ofPosilippo--alre ofthhmfttionsh
whichiif imeorespetnoen other ervrd topoutad agicrarconrsrtaihdopion
fate,o and theifrst two ofiwhichsu ardetiddeaheminse thewhhoe, frtunee ofn thecirye.M direwlsRomhs llso re ervrdf onfusendrecolleactiosy ofthhe stme klnleeAtt thechuaicroofSaet'fAmbrogtodatyMilany,tthrhe hasan anilntsmaraleeHericuns;,sidloiny,ist amsssid,dasd t s,stfh siinitty plwie,ssidloinfwcoulr
theEmpireslast..Ttmtd ofthheGer assrsdprobbabld
eaot,shastthe cronattioe ofthhiaremmerorre tyMilano oood lwie ind tias huaic.. TheFFloretiiea hace onviectnd tatdrhly emopldofdMles, afterwards pras frrmd i od thdBapttisdet, wcoulrst nedtto thshnd ofd
imcy, accrdkine ofthheconrsellnttioeunlten
whichite andbweenbdllt;
thls an,shasChetistans,trrmoovadffomtit rhly araleeequeetrtaossrttue;
bButssince thedr stucctiof of thelhattenwoulah havebrrough soime geane
craamiiyhone theciry--also, accrdkine ofaeconrsellnttio--thhy sengiot opionaetdoer bly thnArno..WthneTo ilaeconquereeaFFloreney, thestttuen
feluh i od thdetvrr,e(nd ams nct lshendhoutagtaid illrCchaltmagned urfoundwe,twwtcirye.Itniasd tens lwieedonea pillar,ant
hh hntaaince od thePon e Vwcchko,eannd nd tias sct Buoindlmcati amsslmin in1215.. The oeligif of the greaefeundbetwweenGuelph nndGhibelukicniasd tosg amsociaered ith thedrehndd dol. Duriong te inundmctioe of1333fthhe stttuenvaersheed fr weve..
Buttth stme Thelematrreappeams lse tvur.tGuido Bonatto,eal
reaye eatiioed, ams ncteitrsfire,nhn te prfoundvingofd te wallsy ofFoali,d irthfequirringccertainsymboltclactse ofrecouciliactiofnfomt thetwo
parties..By, bryringanbronzenoenst imeequeetrtaossrttuey,wthichhhe and paoduieedbdya strlogtcuayory gicrararts,thedbwilhvrndttat hhe and defendwe,twwtciryfnfomteuii,o andeovin romtcapisuhe andplunlte..Wthne
CirdlinarAlbornozd
asygoeveroen ofRomagna soimesixnye yeasflhahe,fthhe stttuen hasaccideOtalblydugyupn
and thinehownr ofthhe poopl,dprobbabld
bly thnordtenofd te Cirdlina,y
thcnitemiugh bhnk nwnfbyh
weaemeaosy the
cruel Mon efelstrs hnddefendwe, hmtselfagtaisnt
hh RomaafChuaic..Aand agtaiy,wheldahccentuyslhahe,f
thneanyatr mpie o,surprirsnFoalie and fwinee,smendbwgaon oe alk afre h,oof th virtuenof, thestttuey,wthichhand pperhapsbweensmvenelandre bricae.Itniasd tetlhst imt that rhlly oould dodso;e rsay yea lhaherFoalieiasd
reuly,takhn.. Thefounlactiof of
bBlldiinahalll torough te fffnteenth centuye hasamsociaered not illy
withaestrlogyd utdplsoe ithm gics.Thhelargeanumbeag ofgfldlhnd sielver medpls,wthichPafu IIf bricad intThefounlactiof of iidbBlldiinahwhas noisee,yhnd Planioas hasblynoemeaosydisplcasrde o,eecognizesandould
pagaonThelemataid thefacc..NeeithenPafu roen iidbiographdrg hrseinnanye
ayh onsagiuesofd te mediarewlspreligiusrsigiificaince of sichan offheiig..
Butttisdooficialfmagic,d
whichiif hnascaevro fllyee hasoen baesaly,whas ompeaaaivelydunimmportastba, th sidenof, thesecrec arcsypraacsimldforh pesionarendse.
Ttheiormn
whichtthseymosns othne ooodinh arllyllfmfgseehownrba,Argos od riy hisnoimdld of thendcromaactes..Hhishdrofgse ime ofthh mhnasJewsshd xdplst fomtSptaiy, l troughhhs llso givsf hmtselfoBut rsayGreek,s a Egypstan,y andan Afrgiun,y andist onirtasrlychtinkinetiesnameshand coscumm..Hrepre endasthat hiidianan matiosycanedarkent thedayshand llughent thedarknnes,dttat hhecanembvbe theelathy, akef hmtself iivis ale,eannechpine meneri odbmeats;, but thsenvaunesoarh fllyan devetirspmens.H s, tuenobject iid oe akef hsfaaccuetf ute ofunh
ppy andtoroibladmaartagss, annd th raeceuowthichhedlehvesybehinnd himaid hisnouast,aur like, thesltimeoofa snail, oen othneuike, theeuiin
rrough bdyahhailsaorms.Too ttariy hisendashhecane prsuadey peopls hane
thdboxeaid
whichaelovdrghishiddtfsiisffulooofg msrs,d rn tat hhecane akeeas orpsed alk. Int s,lot lldeovitseasgfh ssigi tautpoensopne novsristse oouldeeck ne n, ppdularapplausesriy oldiinyupn tis llas,oof eae o,eidticun.fBhndellnd not illytrencsd t s,sorccelf ofafLombaede monkdaseasmirsaaibly,anndinnittyconisqurancsdttrrlibl,fpgenc ofy k avset, buthhs llsode cribesd ithunaeffeceadindvgnaai ny the
disastvesy
which nevee casr toporsuedtwwtcreeulouesffol. 'Aemaafhropas
with"Srlomon'sfKey'eannd ttherm gtcuadbooosntoffinnd th raeastursd hddtfsinethhebosrom of theelathy,tofforccdtistladye ofdodtis wsaly, od finnd ouetwwtsecrec ofprsincsd,
and of prasporef hmtselfgif the
twinklvingofdpnleyey fomtMilano odRoime. Themour othnetheisfde civre,d tThemour stvadfastalfhedbwilhvrs.... Dotyoutpreembeaythe
tim,eSfgnore
Cirao,s
thneasfrfende ofouas,siim rdtentofwiisaefavouaf of iidbelovde,d fialsnd he rmoimw ithskullsy nedboieasuike,aechuaicyhar?'. Themosct loathsoomrtaskso wereerrecribed--toh raw trchf eethfnfomtah orpsedfr ah naildffomtitmsfingrr,e(nd tetlikm;nhandwwilc. th hocus-pocusy ofthhe ianan matiod
asygoiong i, thh uoh
ppy partcipantsescimetimes
iedlofd
trroe..
pooviuto Celukiiedidf nctndedduriong te weal-k nwnfianan matiod(1532) iio thsCrlosseumdmtdRoimy, l troughb ttthhs andtist ompeni ns,i innesee no crdkirrydhoarora;s theSiciltaos pirscy,iwhoprobbabld xspcavndro finnd hhm ahuseiful oadjutoueins thefuisuh,fpmieftim, the cmmltimntshastthyo
henghoimeoofshyvingttat hhe and neveemethaym adffrsoesturddyah ouaagd.
Evvuysrehndrg iallmakef hsfnwnfrefleactiosh if thepaocseeionsh tthemselvee. Thenarcntin fuimes and theiaet that teyimaiginctioro of
th espetaaorre wereerrdisposrde fr lldpoasiblrnttrroes, aure th cchie ointse tobhe noisee,yhnd xmlmin,iwyd tetlhd who frrmd ime ofthh
party,eannd ndwwomtrhlyfmadr most immrsesi n,dsawd uichmfor taif the
othes.dbutdrtsmayobe,infserendrhat pooviuto hmtselfiasd tet nhe
homt ist amswrsheedto immrsesy,ssincetwhnnaenerouesbeiginvingofd te ianan matiodcand avhe and od ttheraim, teno odaroueed urgisirye.Fore
pooviuto androe tinkdbbefor thefaieeAeneblimeoccurreedto hm;t nnd tthdm gtcian ldotim, afterwards hat lovd-makionf has farlycompeare irth th finnvingofd reasturs. Fuarhve,srtsmmust nctbl forgotthne hane
iaefuhattesnd he vaerty sobe,ablrnttosaly,'Thhedrm ns,hhvetkepn teiar wcar,eanndAeneblime aome i
odmyeh ans,shastthyopromsscd,sjusnt nmonitg lhahe' (I,tchp. 68).eEovinoio thssupmositrio,rhat pooviuto gradualbly lisnd hmtselfgitsobwilhviong te whhoe,iaoryy,ite couldstiallbhe pr asetbldewluablhelsdevideOnc ofthh modenof, trough tthnoeprewllnte.
Aseasrubl,fhowevhe,fthhe Itaianeaetirrs,deovin' tet dd,tchpricgiuey, andec cenric'r mmong thm,o hndlratlc.riddod ithm gics.Oime ofthhm,maid hisanaaomscwlsiaudces,hmayo haveeuef hmtselfadjacketf ute of thsskin oftah orpse,ebBut t tey desivy oftist onfnesfonwtopoutiutagtaidri od the gavse.Indesnd thn fequsetsiaudlf ofanaaomyoprobbablddidfmfor taif ayotving lsey o destroa, th beilhftiiftheemagicrariafaurancn ofvargoues
partsy of thebodly,wwilc.auttth stme imt the ianessaiot b ervnctiof nnd reppresectoviof of thetumhaniormnmadnytthtaetirr amiliaesi ithad agic oftahwhhorlyddifeoretfsoree.
Insggeneray, noi itst neiong te inseaincnswthichhaavebweenquoced,d agic su an to avhebween hrkenlydoio thsde ukicnauttth beiginvingofd te sixnteenth centuy--that iid oesaly,atdan
time
thneiotifrst bwgaon oe floursshdvigorroslydoute of Ital;s and toustthn oursy of Itaiane scrcceresy andasstrlogteseins theN aithsu annoct to avhebwguid illr
thiercrent atdhoime
hasttorrougrlyampeireds.Ien the ouanteenth centuye ist ams trough nenessauyscarefuuly,ttowarchettetlhkvy nfMouetfPilatuey, n eanScargotto,eto hindrg themagictaasonfomt threfconiscraevingtthiar boooss.Ien the ffnteenth centuye h finn,sf orexamopl,n hat teyoffhe hasmadnytoe aoduiehaeisormn ofrtaiy,iim rdtentoffrlughentawayean bwsiegcndarmy;t andeovintthif thecommandtenofd te bwsiegcndtnwny,
Niccrlo Viselli aidCratanddyCmisellndtandtthsgfh sssensytsoddimsssy the
scrcceresy sygodlnese pesioss.Ien thesixnteenth centuyeno moere iiseaincns of tistooficialfksandaappeay, l troughios pivatlsllfmf the
magictaaso hrsestillraetkvhs.Too tist
timebbloinastthe llasin figturo of
Ger aesorccel, Dr. Jotain Faust;dthhe Itaianefdeal,doio thshotherh an,t
Guido Bonatto,edptmesbacks ofthhechirnteenth centuys.
IIsmmust eevettheleshbe,addgdathat thsde reasre ofthh beilhftiif agic ams nctnenessauibldaaccmpenieedbdyanyiicreasre ofthh beilhftiifaemoualt oeddr,ebBut
thcnins hnascaevr,euike, thedechyving airttinfaestrlogy,d tThenelusi n,left behinndit notvingbBut dstupid fataldims.
Oime r two minoreiormns of tistrspernsitrio,epyromaacy,dcchromaacyf nnd othes, iwhich b minendsoimecrent asfthh beilhftiifsorccelf nnd
estrlogydwhasde ukiion,ymayobe,threfpassed ovdr,t andeovintthepseudo- scirancn ofphysi gnomyeh asblynoemeaosy te inaheesct
whichtth names
miugh lrearus,tofexspete.Foreiutdidf ncteappeashastthesrstve andaluy oftaraeaandpsychrlogy,dbBut e a neweiormn offatalditin rspernsitrio,e any,
wmtdrtsmayothavebweenammong theArabs,shastthdetvalooof
estrlogy.
Thheaoinorf ofafphysi gnomliramtrencise,eBararlommeosCrcley,iwhostyllnd hhmtselfad'metomoscopdit,'eand whst scirancy, accrdkine ofGiovko,e su aedeuike, ime ofthh most prespetabllf of theffchearts,t ams nct con ec irth th paophecieuowthichhedmadnytoethh mhnas peoplsiwho arlly coneulnsnd hm,dbButwroces llsoa most sergiue 'cataloguce of sich
homt greaenaeneres o llfmf hrseawasasin.'fGiovko,e l troughgrdonh ldogif the
ffche trough ofRomhs'riy ac luiehromaaa'--is,oof pinrio,rhat thh
prgdicctiosycontminndy thrhiohhaad Oly,ttos uich tutthgif thm.Wryleherh fomt th stme souanc hooe th ppeoplsaimed
t,ien thseshnd simillar paophecieuo ooodvlngtainedonea su r. Giovaeni Beativogltod ausendLuchas Gaurscuse tobheftivyetimesswuine ofaand rofagtaisnt
hh waaly,onea uropd htinkinenfomtahlofty,ewinnvingseaircaev,tbd cueedLuchashaadefortould od hhm ttetlossyofdhisdaoinoriiy. ErimesBeativogltodesec mnfaeslasine ftved
Crcley,bd cueedthh uoluckyemetomOscopditshaadunwiilkinly paophestedlto hhm ttat hhe couldndedann xdlesriybhatlce. Themurdteher e an to avhe deridwe,twwtdyvingmanyiidtistlastymopmensy,shyvingttat Crclef hmtself haadefortouldhhm hhe couldshorerlycommittanyiifamiuesmurdte.. The preivten ofcchromaacy,dAectico Tibteton ofCresea,e aomebdyanyequaluy mirsaaiblshnd at thh h ansg ofPaidolfosMvlptmetpn ofRimtni,eto
homthef haadpaophestedlthhe crst ttatdantyeaetdcandimaigie, nameal,ndeaotein xdlesanl,inftth most grievoues ovdriy. Tibteton hasaymandofd inselligrancy, who hassupposrde o,gkvhehhisanswhesslnese accrdkine of ay im todicrarcchromaacyf taifbly eaosy oftistrhrewdok nwundgreoof anksan;s andtisttigt cduiturowoin rnhhm ttetorespetnoof trsedscholeasf wwoe trough lratlc. oftistndivnmctioe.
Alcthmy,gint onnlusi n,d
whichias nctmeatiioedeinnantiqurild illrqurieg lhaheunltenDirclestan,yplaygda fllyanovraysubcrdkirtedparcnauttth besns pergodn of theRseaissaiccy.Intals ente torough te ddieasreeearihe,s
thne
Pn rarcheins thefouanteenth centuye onfnesen,fiantiaspolemtclagtaisnt
it,n hat gfld-makionf hasasggeneraypraacsim. Ssincetwhi tautppartcdulay kinde offa ity,devoctio,t nndisolnttioe
whichtth pracsivy ofalcthmye prquireedbd cmhsmfor and meetoarme in Ital,sjusnt
thne Itaianeannd othe,adeptesbegaon oemakee thiarffulopaofitf ute of ths greaelcarroins
teyN ait. UnltenLeosXs thefeweIItataosewwoebueirndtthemselveyiirthit
hrsecalundy'kineagad urgisa,'eand AturatodAugturlli,diwhodedisnavndro
LeosX,f ths greaedresirsag ofgfld,ftistnddracsitpoemf is themakionf of
th im al,dimsssido to avhereccivreoinsorturnea bbauiiifulbBut mpily pursce. Themyistclscirancn
whichbesidmesgfldlsrough rn th omnipotrehe
phglosophee'snst im,eistaflhahen aiternegrdothy,wthichhanditmsrirsnins
teytthorteus ofPearaelsues and othes..
GgeneraySpieies ofDoubn.
Wiith tese sspernsitrios,t sew ithaanilntsmodesdof, trough ggeneraly,d tThene ukicninethhebeilhftofsimmootraityest neseins the losesct connecttios.ThiasqueetiOn,hhastthewidmeteanedneepest prulai ns,i ith tey wwoleyd vtlopmrehe ofthh moderifspieies.
Oime greaesouanc ofhdoubndinnimmootraityeiasd tetiawhar wsshd o,be undtennoh bligatriosytoethh hnavndChuaic..Weo avhesehenrhat thh Chuaic baandwe,twrsediwho tousfelst seEpi ureaoss.Ien thehouaf ofdeaotemanye
doubnlnesecalundy rn th sacoapmeney,butdmduittuidsdduriong teir whhoe,
lrovs,t ande ppeciarlyduriong teir most vigorrosg yeas, lroved andacavnd il the egtovlcnsupmositrio..Ttmtdunbeilhftoen tise partcdula ointf usns othne avheleef toahggenerayskepniciim,eistevideOtf ofinssel,yannd s,lotmeteedbdyabundantftissoricrar poof. Thhsedaure th mendoof
homt Argos odslaw: 'Thhiarfa ithgoeas ndtigther taif thepoof.'.Ien Ital,sannd e ppeciarlyinnFFloreney,intwhaspoasiblrnttoldivyhasan oppoopne nocorgiuesunbeilhvdr,tifsaymandofllyeefrminndynfomtdvirecoactse of honsiaityeagtaisnt
hh Chuaic.. The onfnesfo,d fr iiirtaney, who hass ec
odprgparcfaspolietcuayoffeindrg fr deaot,sbegaonblyiiquirring
whether thrpris nsrf hasasbeilhvdr,t' rn thrhe hasayfalseyrgpore
tat hhe and noebeilhft
t,aal.'.
Ttheuoh
ppy prasgrnesfonwtee,refherendro--thh stme Piheparlo Boscolif wwoehhasbweenal
reayemeatiioed-- who in1513o oood partgifanyatr mpie agtaisuttwhnnewllyee horend amilld of theM dici,eistaffa itifulmirroe ofn thepreligiusr onfusi ny thnoeprewllntesBeiginving seae parisandofd Savon rola,thedbw cmhs afterwardspoasnesee w ithaa hnttouiasme rn th aanilntsfdealuoofrlrbtetl,sannd rnpagaoiim,insggenera; bButwthnehe,whas ios pisondtias earlyfrfends regainndy theeon aold oftistmlnly,hand securndy rn himwhat rhlly onididosddaepgiusreanion.. Theteindrgi innes, and arrtooaf of iidlastyhoursygse ime ofthh aetirrin familld of the
Delln Robbiae, thdelhered phglologtstdLuch. 'Ah,'esigts Boscoli,t'gety
Brutousoute ofmy badef orml,n hat IsmayogodmyewayeaseaeChetistan.' 'Ifd youtwsaly'sanswhessLuch, 'tth otving sf nctndiftcdui;e rsyoutk nwn hane
thseyd edsy of theRomaas aere nt handwe,downr ofusshastthyowhac,tbBut idealizwe,(coneaeth accrceciute).'. Theppoitrehe nwnforccsfties uindretannkine ofbeilhvd,f andbewailsyhiidiaabiliitl ofbeilhvds voluettuibls.If,the cuuldofllyldivy rsaymoenth ithpgiuesmmiksetey wcoulr
rurlybe ooe spieietiarlymlnlcae.Itn oomsd ouetw
t, tese
partisaosy ofSavon rolae new teir Biblrnovrayimmerffecal;sBoscolifcane ofllysaye te Phahenostve andAivyMauia,n andeherestalfbegsfLuchdro
exhoref hsyfrfends tosiaudlf th sacoee wrsasiney,f or illy tatdan ae hhaselhered ianllfmddoeashespoasnesdinh eaot.fLuchdrwenerreasopne xmlminsdto hmf th saorld of thePassrio, accrdkine ofthheGosmeld ofSs.
John;dthhepooesldsrwedr,tstrpined oesaly,cane prccivr l early the
GodhrearoftChetis,dbutdrse peplexed
t,Hiasmanhood;ethewlshes to getyams
fiomeae oldf ofin 'as iofChetist aime o imeef hmsoute ofaywood.'fHhis
frfende thrhopionexhores hmf oebhntumibl,fssincetwis, asg nllyandoubnd seatytim,bly theDevi ..Scone ftvedies ccursytoethh ppoitrehe
tat hhe aas norffufialsnda vnwnm dceiifwis,you tnto goe n, ilgrimagnytoethh
Imprunm a;f hsyfrfendopromsscs.riddoditeiifwis,stvade.M antimmf the
onfnesfo--ls mik,t sewhasdesiren,sffomtSavon rola'sf ioaisdet-- arrrovs,t and ftvedgiviine hmf th xmlmnaai nyquoceddaabvbe of the
pinrio, ofSs. ThomhasAquinash if yeaenicidc,sexhores hmf oebhar deaotf anfuuly.sBoscolifmakeisanswhe: 'Fathve,fiasahen e
timeoen tis;s the phglosophees,hhvet auugh ingmhtal
reay; helpemef oebhar deaotfoute of
lovdf oeChetis.'fWt
t,ffllnow,s thecommuntioe, thdelhve-takionf and the xecuctio--is,ovraysouchkinalsde cribed;e ime ointfde ervrse ppcialf eatiio..WthneBoscoliflmieftis bade il theblock,eth beigend the xecuctiotentofdelaye te estrkee rsaymopmen: 'Duriong te whhoe,
time siincetwhnannouincmrehe ofthh esecsincetv andbweenetrtviineaftvedan close untiofwiithGod,n without ttariving st sehvswrshee,s andnownins
tistrsppreeymopmenshhe trough ttat blyaestrong effcrt,the cuuldgkvhe hhmtselfwhhorly ofGod.'fInt s, l earlysoimewhel-uindretoodnexprsesion oftSavon rolae
whichwhastoroibiine hms.
Ifeweo and meet onfnestions of tist htracavrn th spieietias icctur of
teyttime
couldbl richer blymanyeimmportastfeaisuhsy
which otpoemf er renciseghhaspre ervrdf rsus..Weolhcoulrshre meet l earlyhooestrong
teyinbornepreligiusraisuiinntwha,yhooesubjectdivyhandhowfvargablrnthed urulaioagofd te iandivitias o,eeeligin,eand wautpowteifulwedmivro and ompesitors,eeeligino an..Ttmtdmend whst iawhar ondiatio,ins of tist aisuh, aere nt th mendtsofound a newechuaic,eistevideOt;, but tht hiaorld of theWmeterifspieiee
couldbl immerffecn without view of hane
fhemeaciig pergodnammong theIItataosy,wwilc. othe,natrios,yiwho avhe and noesharme in th voluaioagofd tooughy,mayobe,passed ovdrn withoutloss.
Butwesmmustorturnetoethh queetioagofdimmootraitys.
Ifeunbeilhftind tiasorespetnm dce sichpaogrnese mmong themorhetighrly duitvaered aisuhs,n thepresonslayepartrlyaid thdiaet that tey geane
elathalftaskdoofdiscovdrsingtheoworlnelandreppresecving stin,ioar and
foro,nhbsfobene mshdofd thetigtherspieietiasiaeduiteu..Weo avheal
reaye spokenroft te iaevitabllfworlnlinnesy of theRseaissaiccy. Butttisd iiveetignctiof nndttisdare hrsenenessauibldaaccmpenieedbdyahggeneray spieies ofdoubndanl,inquirls.If, tias sieiesehowsa stself butlratlc.ins
lievraisuh, ife h finn,sf orexamopl,n nllyisolnted iaseaincns of th bbiginvinns ofbiubliml crsasciim,ewe aere nt thrbefor o,infse
thcnite haadnon xdsrwece.. Thesound ofin asg nllyovdrpowteve,bly ted dee of
reppresectoviofannecrenci nfian llddgparhpmene--
thcniey,bly the
aetirrin aisuiinn;s andin asgfuarhvedcheckre,dwwe neveeit rrtedlto exprsesa stself thoreitiraly,dbly theal
reaye xdsrkinede sctiim, of th Chuaic.. Tias sieies ofdoubndmmus,sf orpresonuo oo obviiues o dee
discuesi n,d avheiaevitablyeannechlhfalfbueirnd stselfi ith teyqueetioag ofn thestttr of ans ftved eaot..
Aandwwrsecamme in th iafaurancn ofantiquril,eand orkentiifaetwofould
fashioinoio thsargupmens.Ien the frrst lwieemendsengtthemselveyto, astved thdpsychrlogye ofthh ancisetsd,
and orturend theleattee of
Aetisotlee rsaydpcisdivyhaswve..Iif ime ofthh Luctaotcldialogucs of
teyttim,rCchaont ellsyMericrlyhooeteyqueetioaendAetisotleeondtias beilhftindimmootraity,dwwmil thephglosopheedcrossed in th Stygiane boat;, but thtprudeOtfsagn,e l troughdeandinethhebodyeanne eevetthelesh
lroiong i, ne ukicdlto ccmpromsscf hmtselfbdyahdefinrieghaswve--land centuiewslhaherhooewhas t likealstsofarefi ith teyinahepre actiof of
wis, rsasine? Alll themorheeagnrblddidfmenydisputrspabouttistopinrio, andttmtd of othesnoio ths tuen aisuheofn thescou,ditmsoeligi,nitty pre- xdsrwece,,ittyuntty ian lldmeos,iesoabsflutrseahenttY,deovinitty pras frratrios;s and thred hrsemend whetrencedyoofthhst,ttionshgif the
pdupit.. Thedisputrs amswarmlyscarrtedlionevtfsinethhe ffnteenth centuy;ysoimepaovdndttmtdAetisotlee auugh tThenocstiilgofdpnlimmootra scou;f othesn cmmlainndyofd thetharnnesy ofmen'sf baeasy,iwho cuuldnnct bwilhvrd tatd thrhe hasayscout
t,aal,s illrtthyosawdieseratkineddonh o, t htirdbbefor thm; Filclfo,fiantiasfuenerayoraeioinoioFeaincsco, Sefoz y,brionshefowhar adloinfllshdofdopinrioadoofannilnts andeovin of
Aeab phglosophees,ianfavouaf ofimmootraity,danneclosesl themixtorl,n
iwhich cvdrs,a,fflionpagvyhanda,wheld ofprsit,fi ith teywoads, 'Besidmes alletwis, eo avhe th OlnelandNew Tmetppmeney,
whichaorspabvbeaaly puot.'. Thnt aime hheFFloretiie Pliaonistsei ith teir mastve'se
docstiilgofd thescou,dsupplcmrehed
t,etime,t seins the asre ofPico,ybly
Chetistant eachkiny. Buttth oppositeg pinrio,eprewiund is the
n stuccendwoald. Att thebeiginvingofd te sixnteenth centuye the
scumibiin-blockn
whichiteputdrif the aly of
hh Chuaice hasssosergiue teaeLeosXssengf aitha Conirituaviofatt theLatteai Couucilo in1513,maid defennc ofthh immootraityeanl,inndivitiaiitl of thescou,d thelhatten agtaisuttwrsediwhop nsrtnd tatd thrhe hasboueonhescou ian lldmeo..A
fhwe yeasflhaheg
appeareh teywoakdoofPcmmon zzo,fian
whichtth
mpoasibiliitl ofa phglosophicrar pooftofsimmootraityeies ain mined;e andtth on stt ams noewhgnd inessaiolly ithorplisro and'apologtme,'f illrist amssiltence,bly tedCaotoltclrencttios.Threerr- xdsrwecey of the
scou ianGod,n convrovedmour eslneseio, accrdained ithPliao'es thory oftfdeas,dloinfpreminndyaecommondbwilhl,yanndpaovdnd of ervtne eovintod thepoens.. The onisqurancsd
whichffllnovadffomtit asytoethh modenof,
th ecou'sycontinuendexdsrwecey ftved eaot hrsennctmmeet lrselly conedidosd..
Thhred hasaysecoude alyian
whichtth iafaurancn ofantiqurilnm dceittself fels,echlhfalfbly eaosy of tatdpremrkablhefragmrehe ofthh eixnhdbooonof,
Ctnero'es'Reppubli,'fk nwnfbyh ted aimeoofScipio'esDrrem..Wirhobut tht commsectrld ofMacrobiuesiee
couldprobbabld avhepergsheeduike, theeesct ofthh escoudepaeao of teywoak;rist ams nwndiffusendint ountelesh
manu cripc copdvs,t an,e ftved thddiscovdrtl of ypography,gintafprsitend
foros andent nd afre h,byfvargouescommsecttOes.dInt s, thdde cripctiof oftah pras igturndwwrs ftved rs greaemeos,pervndce,bly tedhtrmonynof,
th epheevee. Tise pgaonhlhven,sf or
whichmanye othe, stim nlmes hrse gradualblyexraecned fomt th, rsasinee ofthh ancisetsd, cmhsstepybly
stepy o,supplanrf
hh Chetistanthlhvenhios popbratioshastthdidealnof,
fameshandtissoricrar greannesethfewn i od thdshadnytthtidealnof, th Chetistantllfm,n withouy,neevettheless, th ppubli feebiinebetingtterebly offhndwe,has t hasblytThenocstiilgofd pesionarainvhiulaioag ftved
eaot.fEovinPn rarchefoundsyhiid ropechlhfalfoen tiseDrremeoofScipio, io thsde uarlaioas nounl,inf othe,Ctneronianeiorks,eannd ndPliao'es
'Phaedo,'f withoutmakionf ayemeatiionof, th Biblr. 'Why,'thhs skso
lse tvur, 'lhcoulrnnctIeaseaeCaotoltclsharmead rope
whichwhas
emonrsrtbrlychergsheedbly tedheaoten?'.Scone ftverwardsCfluccio, Salutmcttwrocestise'Lpabree ofHericuns' (stillr xdsrkineins hnu cripc),s ios
whichitersdproved,ant
hh hndathat thsvalorrosg a,rwwoehhasweluh hndurend the greaelpabree ofelathalfllfm,nrsdjusnrlyenritleef toah
welukige mmong theetpes.dIf Danrvestillrfiomrlymain mined rhat thh
greae pgaos,siwhmthenwoulah havegladals elnoimdeinsPeardise,e n evettheleshmmust nct ooe beyoandtth Limbo,ant
hh hntaaince odHeal,s thepoenelf ofaflhahegttimeaacepneedjoyifuly, ted dwrlrbterarideasf ofaf uisuhellfm..Cosimod thdElddr,e accrdkine ofBhenwaro Pulci'sfpoemf is
wis,deaot,siasd
rccivreoinshlhvenhblyCtnero,rwwoehhds llsobweencalundy the'fathvef of iid ountry,'tbly tedFabii,yblyCuriuey,Fabricguro and manye othes;si ith temthenwoulahadornetth hoir wherh fllyblamealesh
spieiesosiig..
Butrif theouldwritvrsd thrhe hasan otheranndlessfpleasiig picctur of
teyworlneto ccme--thh shhdowysrehlmns ofHcmeeranndoof trsedpoensowwoe haadnoesewenernved andtumhaizwe,tth onnvpttioe. Tisemadr n immrsesi n ioccertaintemmerppmene. GiovianoePon anoesoimwherh atraibuacentod Sainazarod thdsaorld ofafvistioowthichhedbeheld imemmenving earlywwilc. haelfawakm..Hresu ardetidshreaddgparhed ffend,sFeraanduroJhnuariuey, irthiwhmthenhaad othnediscourscde il theimmootraitye of thescou,d and iwhmthen nwnasksnd
whetherist ams rurd tatd thfpminee ofHelld hred uriarlyd
reaiful andeahenal.. Theshhdoweghvetaneanswheeuike, tactofs
A chllcsd
whneOdysseusyqueetioaend hms 'Sos uichIt ellyhandavdrg od thl,n hat wediwhopredparced fomtelathalfllfmo avhe th strongesct nesires o,eeturnetoeiutagtai.'fHhetthinealutsnd he frfendo and disaappeares.
IIscannot,butdbe,eecognized rhat sichviewee ofthh stttr of ans ftved
eaotepartrlymrseupposryanndpartrlymromoces thddissoluaioagofd themosct e nsntciasdogmasf ofChetistaniiy. Thhe noioagofdsine nndoofealvnctiof usns avhealmosctsntcrellyevaporaeren.Wrymmust nctbl misleedbly ted eeffecee ofthh greae rencthesnoofrepen minceor bly thnepidemic preivpls,wthichthavebweende cribedspabvbe.Foreeovingeaetvingttat the
nndivitiaalsdevtlopedncclaseuohaadsharmd is thmduike, theeesc,fthhe cueedoofthhiar partcipaatiod
asyrathveftted dee ofemoatiora excitvmret,h te rebound ofpassriohahenaisuhs,n thehoarorsfelst ty geane
natrioml craamiiihs,n thecryd odhlhvenh rn elpe. The wakmnvingofd te onsagsincetadsblynoemeaosynenessauibldthh esneedoofsine nndthhe elst n endoofealvnctiofhas ttyconisqurancs andeovinanovrays evecdoutwaede ppo ancsdidf nctmerforccdinvolvetanyfrepen minceiio thsChetistant
eaovingofd te wcars.Wwmil thepowteifulnaisuhsy of theRseaissaicct elly
usgttat thienprincioplsiid oerepen y of notvin,rtthyomayothaveiio thiar mlnlsg nllymhattesgttat predmoualrlyaiddifeoret,hfaulcee ofunpresons er immrudeOnc;dbutdrif the aisuheofn the asre tist onr mpief orprpen mince usns xtreedtto thsepheev of oualsy,bd cueeditmsoeligi,nnameald te onsagrosnnesy ofiandivitiasforcc,dist ommond oeb tttsidmesooftumhan aisuhs.Threeassrivyhand onr mpltovlcniormn ofChetistaniiyy,iirthitsd onsrtastrefheeince odaetigtherworlnebeyoandtth gavs,e cuuld nlloinhe con aoldtthseymeo..Machkavslli vcentueldstiallfuarhve,s and ain mined teaeite cuuld nctbl ervtneablrnttotth State,
and of themain po ancsofs
ppubli fr enome.
Ttheiormnassumeedbly tedstrong preligiusraisuiinntwthic,e nnoi itst neiongaal,ssurvivreoinsmanyenaisuhs,n
asyTthiim, r Deiim,ehas
wesmayeplcasr tocallfins.Thhelaatten aimemayobe,appltedlto teaemoden ofthrough iwhichsimmlly pednawaye te Chetistantelepmensoute of
eeeligin,e withouteeithenseekiongorsfinnvinganye othe,subirituaedforh thhe eebiinid oereshdopio.yTthiim,mayobe, onididosdd teaedefinrieg helughenwe,devoctiod of the imeSsppreeyBering
whichtth MiddneeAgssd hred nctecquain ee w ite. Tisemodenof,fa ithdoeas notexcluid,Chetistaniiyy, andcaneeeithenalrlyastselfi ith teyChetistantdocstiilsdoofsin,f
eed mpitio,t nndimmootraity,doreelsey xdsrsannd lour;she without thme.
Scimetimest iidbellhftppresecsyastselfi ith chldish_eaivetcs andeovin
withaewhel- pgaonaie,sGondaappeaving sethh almiughyrffufialsrsooftumhan wlshes.eAgnrlo Paidolfkiie ellsyus tow,e ftvedwis, eddvin,rTheshBut hmtselfgif
withtis wsfd,f andknelstddonhbbefor thefamilldaltaesi ith thepicctur of theMhdonna,yanndpaaygd,nnoct to dr,ebBut
onGod,n teaeHey wcoulrvouchsafrnttotthm ttetoiugh ueedoofthhiar uropetl,sadloinfllfc.ins
joyyannduntty i ithoileaeorhve,s and aayemalhdde chndants: 'F ormytself Idpaaygdsf or
e l t,yhonour,sannd rfends;h rn eryblamealesnnes,d horesty,e(nd tat heemiugh bhnasgfh strosekeeper.'fWtmil thelanguagvy
ussnd hasaystrong antiqueefuhvoe,srtsias not lwhyadcasyd odkeepdaaaeao theppgaonstylle nndthhethhirrin bellhfe.
Ttiid emmerescimetimesmhaife hasastselfaid imese ofmis frtunee
withae
strikiongsiincriiy. Somhs ddrsescentodGondareslefstus fomt th,lhatten pergodn ofFcrenzuola,t
whne rsyyeasfth,lhlyauloooffhvdr,tintwthic,e troughhhsexprsesalsde uarvsf hmtselfasbeilhviongChetistan,rTheshowsa teaetiasoreligiusr onsagrosnnesyiste nsntciaald teirrins.H he
suffheiigshsu anto hmfneeithen sethh muntshmrehe ofsin,fnoreaty preparlaioae rsaytigtherworln;rtthyoarmeans fftirdbbtwweentim, nndGond ofll,rwwoehhaspouetwwtstrong lbvbe ofllfc.bbtwween ans andtistde stir.
'Id urse,ebBut nlly urse Naisuh, siinceThyr greannese rbilsgmce od uatteeThyr aim.... Gvlcnme,deaot,sLcar,eIhbeseeichTthl,ngkvheingmht nw!'.
Instthseyuatteaincsoand tetlikmy,ite couldbhsvaiod oflooonffr ah onsagiueshand onsrstvntsTthiim;o thsephakhrsdpartrlybwilhvrnd tthemselvef oebhns illrCcetistans,tannd rnvargoues othe,presonuo
eesspcavndrhee xdsrkinedocstiilsdoofthh Chuaic..BBut t teytimey of the
Re frratrio,t
whnemend heredriovintodcooe soa ddistictt onnlusi nf is
sichpoints,st iidmodenof, trough hasaccepneed
withaeifulhe consagrosnnes; a numbeag of the ItaianeProcesrtass, cmhsefowhar auo
Aect-TrinriarganeshandSocintans,tanndeovinas xdplstinnddirtact countrieasmadnytheemrm rablheltr mpie o,found a chuaicronstthsey princioplsy.Ffomt theeforgoiongexpositrio,ite iallbhe l ea tat,daaaeao fomttumhairrin ratriomliim,e othe,spieieso hrseatywoakdind tiasfields.
Oimecchie cenredoofthhirrin modesdof, trough lalyaid thdPliaonics
A adnmyeatyFFloreney, ande ppeciarlyaidLlorezoyaueMhgiifico hmtsel.
Thhetthoreitiraeiorkst andeovinttheleattesdoofthhseemendshooeust illy haelfthhiar aisuhs.Int s, rurd tatdLlorezo,sffomtwis,you tntiallhhe
digd,nexprsessnd hmtselfdogmaitiralyeaseaeChetistan,e(nd tat Picohwhas
rawnfbyhSavon rola'sfiafaurancntosaccepnl thepoiehe ofview ofah onksshda chrins. Butrif thehymnee ofLlorezo,s
whichwedaure mpiedlto regaar auo thehigthrst aoduihe ofthh esieies of tias chool,s a unpr ervrdfTthiim,ias engf aitha Tthiim,iwhichstrrovsd of peat the
worlnelasasggreaemoualtanndphysiiraeCosmos..
Wwilc. th menroft te MiddneeAgssdlooon il theworlnelasasewllroft eles, wthichPropeanedEmmerordauresengtoy ueadeagtaisnt
hh cooionf of
Aectchetis;dwwilc. th fatalditsy of theRseaissaicctosagllhahebbtwween seesonuooftovdr lowiongenergyyanndseesonuooftsspernsitrio oen ofstupid
eesvgnaai n) tvur, ind tiascircllroftctrseifspieies,n thenocstiilgies upheld that thsvis aleeworlnewhascrencedybyhGh siinlbvb,y
thcniteish tth coptl ofa phatteneerr- xdsrkineinsHhm,d(nd tat Hee iallneveepreminr itsyeahenalembvbrelandre horer.. Thesoul of anscaonblyeecognizkineGond raw Hhimaitoeiusd arrooeboundarihs,n utdplsoeblylbvbe ofHhimexpannd ttselfgitso the nfinrie--land tiasiidblsessnnnesy ntelath..
Ectrese ofm direwlsmyistciim,heev lowfgitsooilecurreec irthPliaonics
docstiilsdand withae htracavrirriniarlymoderifspieies.Oime ofthhemosct erragiues rurisy of thek nwundgreoof theworlnelnd ofmaafhhrefcomveyto, antuity,dond whst aaccuetfalonse the ItaianeRseaissaicct mustbescalundy thelehndrg of oderifagss..

End ofProject Gutvnbeag Etext Civilizlaioagofd te Rseaissaicct in Ital

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