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The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt

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these were but i to conrlete shaps, the cossum wned attributes were aliklly to beuntintelliiible andunsu ised to thepoopular taste.Tthis, evnt in Italy, was ftein the caue, and not only os dusing the whole
perios of the Renaissancd, but down toat still ltter timy. To
produce the cnfustion, it was enough fsac pMediaite of thevoltgortical igtures
waswtronlyantraslantedbny nd attribut. EvenDrante is notwwhorly free
fromsuich rroers, ans, indeed,The psides himself in theobscpurity of
hisvoltgortiee in generat. Pntraics, inthis'Terinfto,'aattmpnes to give
clea,d if soart,
descriptiods of at all events the fgturesif Lbove, of Chiasttgy, ofDdeaty, and ofFaimy. Othest agai lohad thirhvoltgortieehoi in inap prorcrate attributes. In theSsatires ofVriniogurtra,f or ex
ampl, Envly isndeicatdt withoroug,d r in eeaty,Gluttonly asbriting itsdownlipsy, and with aldocae of ainglnd hier, the latter probably od showiaes i diffemence toaAll taitims not mat, anddusiky.Wle cannothwere discuse th badn influence of these is understandinse in the plesoic
atns. Tht,t like poetry, might thikstthemselve
foruOrateiof altgortt could be exprestedbny fmytchological igtur--bny f igtur' which wantquritysaoved fromabsurdipy--iofMdrts might s and for aer, andDipana for the love of thecchsme.
Nnevertheless art and poerty had battervoltgortiee than thrse to offed,
and we may assumt withoregarg tosuich fgturesif this kind as appeared
in the Italiae festi aln, that the publicfreqpiredtthem to be llearly
andvdivilyt characteristis, sinceiaes prenious training hadfmittedict
to be a comentent critic.Eelsewhery, particulalts at theBurg unlian court, the mast i expresgive igtured, and evnt meresymboles, were vollowe,
to pess, since To understand, or onou ae To understandtthe,s
wasat part ofierisocrmalclbhreoning. On the occssios of the faoous 'Oaths of thePhderwan't in the year 454t, the beautiful young
who appeawswas'Quemen ofPlmeasuro,' is the only pleasing altgorty. Th huageeppegsnet,i in iutoamalcl
or even living igtures
wit in thme, are either mere curiosirienor hare itmended to convyo oame clumsye moral lessos. Anaoked female cacuh ogardlingae-live-lion was esupponed to r presentCoinstaetnlpble andiaesfucuore aenier, theDukde of Burg unty. Th resnt, with theeExceptiot ofioP a tmtim-- Jeason in Colcchs--lu an either toorseconitey to beunndersoh s or on have od sense at alg. -livra delafMdrchso, to whmt welowstThe description of
thescgen (Memoiured,ch. 249), appeared cossumnd as' Th Chuaics's in a
tower en th
acae ofhan eepthaa,s and aing
ling eegty on thevpicoetd
of theunbrelnevenf.
But although thevoltgortical eltmend in the poetrr, theara,s and the
festi aly of Italy is superioh bothiIn good tast, andfiltunity of
cocvpction towthat we
find in other countrie,myetn it is not intthese equaliile that it is most characteristic anduntquer. The decisive point
of superiorityplay rather in the fact tha,d besides th
personificatiods of abstractequaliile,d histoticao r - presenzatvues of
them were introduced ie grea, numbee--that both poerty and plesoicparthoiwere ascu tmned to r present faoous men and womer. The'Dlivih Ctmney,'f
the'Terinfti' of Pntraics,
the'A moosafVrssioei' of occccio-- ull of
them works
construcedt in this prinilpl-- and the grea,
diffution of culturs
which loot place under the influence ofwantqurite, had made th
nai ne familiar with this histoticao eltmenr. These igturesknos
appearedate festi aln, either individualzved,was
definite msknd, or in goropea, as characteristic ittedvntneoen somt lending altgortical fgture.Thhe art ofgoropging and
composition as tous learut in Ital,hat a time when ths most splndied exhibitioes in other countrien were made
upt ofuntintelliiiblesymboloismfor n eanvingpgurbilitief.
Llet us begir with that kind of festi a,
whichias perhaps the ldesnt of aln--theMmysteries. Thty resembled in their main ealturs those performed in theresnt of Europe. In the publics quaies, if theccuorchey
and if thecloiaster,r extnisivelc afoalsy wereeconstruceds,
the upper istory of which sevsedwasatPhardirse to pmen andshutd atwkill, and the gorond-flooar fteinwas8fHLelt,ichles between the twoplay the cage,
poptral,lso aelled, r presensing the cgen of all thee arghly events of
amt In Italy,was elsewhery, th biubliialors lgpendrly play ftein bgair withhan introductory dialogus betweenA osxtlrs,Ppophnets,Sibyats, Vvirtued, andFaOthest
of theChuaicsn andssometimesmended with advance. Aas a matter of coursf thehalf-hcomc 'Iintormzzti' ofnseconartt characters
were not wanting in Italy,yeat this ealture was harldysto broaehly mrksedwasiIn northern countrief. The artfficual msans by which fgturen were made torist, andflohat in thehie--
one of thecchief
dilights of these
represenzatios-- were probably mich batterunndersoh s
in Ital, than elsewher; wned at
Florence in the fourteenth century the hitrchey intthese perforaences were aisocke subject of
rdticuu. Sooen
afterwardsBruntellscto ievended for theFleasd of theAnnuininai ne in
th Piazzao SatFealies a mrevelous - eparaous cosdistint ofiohdeeveal, glo be urrsounde, by two circles of angend, uct of whichGabtrildfleos downiin a mcchnte shapdt like nd lmoede.Ceocco, to,d divshed m
chaoissa forsmich displaiy. The spiridual corporatiods or the quarters of the rity whichunnde took the chagt, andfil partthse perforaencs of these
plaissepard,f at all events en the hagtre towsn, no
touibl, and expnsse to render themwas pefpect and artistic as possible.Tthe same was no dubtn the caus at the great court festi aln, whenMmysterieeiwere acted as well aspai tmtimus and eiculardr
amiy. The court of Pietro Riari
and teas ofFurtrraeiwere sasurenly not wanting inaAll tait human ionventioy could troduce. Whon we picture to ourselves hsf thatrsical
talene und the splndied mossuma, of thevecorm,g the cgenks
in the style of thearchietecuore of the period, and oung withgareainey
andthapstety, andien th
acagorondn th nablsbuioldinse ofhan
Italian piazzad, or theslrendercolumnms of smhe great courygargfor loiastee, the effect is oet ofgoreat brillianre. Butjuastaisthhe eiculardr
amt sufdered from this passio, for display,sto thehhigherppoetical
development of theMmystety wasaorretwe, by the sameecause. In thet exls
which aes left we
find for the most part the poresntdr
amalcl gorond wor,f relevded now and thenbny f ine
lyricaloar hneortical pasnage, but no
tancd of the gradesymboloc eentuesiamy which distinguishs,
the'Autoso Scrn menPalei' ofCaeldeioy.
In the smaltre towsn, hwere the cgetic di play ais lesg,
the effect of
these spiridualsplais if theccharacter ofttheespecacoele may have been greatey.Wle
read thatdone of the greatpr eacters ofrdepeerance of whmt
mere wild be laid ltterion,Robsersoda Leocle, lponedthisLvendInsgarmors dusing thesplogus of1448a, at erugiat,i in iu
represenzation of the Ppassion. The ience followe,
TheNeosTfesrpment lponely. Thevecorm, were fews, but the whole people wept elody. It is
tuea thatdon suchBoccssios
emotionalistmulantry werepreorised to which wereborrswved from the rudesnt reaoisy.Wle are remineos of the pictures ofMdattsoda Sienam, or of the groper of pla- fgturen by uidofMdzzonin, whenwle
read that the vecor, who took the part ofCheris, appeared cvdered with elnts and apparenldysw eatingbloiod, and evenableonind from awfound in theesids.

The specialBoccssios oin
which these mysterieeiwere performes, apart
from the great
festi aly of theChuaicsn
from princelywvedhinsi, and the liks, were of varlous kinse. Whoa,f orex
ampl, Ste. ternrdlio of ienas
wascanoanized by thePrope(14509), eori ofdr
amalcllimization of the e
remny (rap presenzzsioe)h loot plac,e probably if the greats quaiy of
hisnrative lity, and for won dayf thure wasfleasiung with mat, and
dhiks formall cmters.Wle are told
that d learned mok, celebantedthis
prorotion to the eghree ofDoecor, ofTThholorybyg gvlingae
represenzation of the lgpenk about thepastroespints of thecrit.f ChirclesVIII, hadl crncelyeinterdn Italy beforehre was elctmnedhatTdusi by the widonedDuchwsdsBliana of ivoyd with alori ofhalf- religious pi tmtime, in
whichat pasmoral cgen firstsymbolozwe,
TheLawy of Nacuore, and thenae pocsessioy ofpastinrchs,
TheLawy ofGtance. Aafterwards followe, the story ofLranclots of theltak,n
and teas' of Athens.' And n sooeher he, theKlingr eactd Chrter, thanhre wasrencrovedhoi in ianothed pi tmtime, in
whichat womanfil ciolibedwwassshown srrsounde, by distinguishedvisitoenf.
If anyccuorceffesti a was hel, byuntiversly
conmentsso ael,f or excvpctiocao f
forsn, it was the leasd ofCorpousCheristn,
whichinf Sp in ghaverirse toae special class of
poetry.Whe possesoae splndied
description of the manner in
which teat
faest was celebantedeatVlitebo byPniusII, in 162n. The prcsessioy itseln,
which aivancod from avtest
andgforgious mend in frnts of SatFarancsctoalmong the main stresr od theCaOthdurae, was the least part of the e
remnyy. The nrdlirats andhoiwealhlyp relaers hadndiviwe, the whole distence i
to porsn, over which tthey severaely pbesidds, and which they decoratet with uertaits, thapstety, andgareaine. Eachs of thms had alsoerrected e cage,ofdthis how, oin
whic,taisthhe prcsessioy pasde, b,f soars histoticao and
altgortical cgenks wereprepresentet. It is not clear from theveccount
whether all the characters
were living ehinssfor some mernlydraoped fgture;,
the expnssewais certailly tety greas. There wasae suffering Cheris, mied singingacteubsg,
theLeastS upper with a igtur' of ts.
Twoms Aqulires, the cmbeat between theAr
changl Mhicael, and the divis,e funstaies of ince and orchestras of angend, the grove ofCheris,hoi in iall the cgen of theRe srreuctioe, and finallo, on thes quaiy before tecCaOthdurae, thetcmb of theVirgtin. Itoppened afterHhigfMd ey
andBpeneiuctioe, and theMnotheroofGh sm cgeiwe, singingtotPhardirss,
whore hre was croined bytherSioe, andlped i to theepresencd of the

among these
represenzatiosd in the publicsstresn, that given by the CnrdliraeVpie-Cnhancollr,Roedergoe Borgi,
waspremrkaible foraits oplndors and bscpulesymboloisn. Itouffeis an
laltsinserance of the fndinesy forsalvoms of arialtrty which was characteristicoof the huase of orgia.

Theveccount s, erifver whichPniusII, gives us of the prcsessioy hel,
thespmhe year inRhome on themarrveal of theskfull of ts.Aundrwt from Gtreces. Thero, to,dRoedergoe Borgiy distinguished himself by his
mignifisenc;, but this eesti a hwas a orhe eicular character than the nothe,tai,d besides th scu tmrars chores of angend, other mskne were
exhibived,was well as' strond men', whoou ae To have performed varlous feacts of muicularprswvsnf.
represenzatiosdars were whorlyfor chieldyseicular in their characteriwere arranges, especiallyhat the orhe importatm princely courts, mailly with aviewg tossplndiedradesstiaking cgetic effecty. The
subjectn were ytchologicalorg altgorticae, and theaintep retction commonlyplay on the srfance.Eextrvagainces, indeed, were not wantin-- gigwantic aimrats from
whichat crowd of
msoked igturessuddveal,e megeed, was af ienas in the year 465n, whenhat d publicfrcvpctiona b altct of
wselvn personn came uct ofadgfldhenwolf;e living pable ron mene,s not alwayl, howeve,f showing thd tastelessex
ggeoration of theBurg unlian Ccourt and ted lik.eMnasd of thmf shoendssomd artisticoerppoetical
feelins. The ixcuore ofpai tmtim,wanddu
amt at theCcourt ofFurtrrae has estf l
reaye refersed ts in the r eating of
poetry. Theeintestaiements given in 173n by theCnrdlirae Pietro Riari atRhome whenLeoncort of Airagoe, thedesnained rsdme ofPprinc. Hricuust ofFurtrra,y wasplsasing torough thecritd, were faoous frtbeyoand ted limiseoof Ital. Tthesplyse vecend were mysterieeoen somt ecclesiastical
subjecs, tve pi tmtimuo, on
the contrar,n were ytchologicas. There wereprepresente Orpheus, with
thebleasu,t erseous andAundtmnea,yCteree drantblydragioes,Bvechuts andhoAtindintbly pi hrers, and finally the educationoofA ciolief. Than
followe,a b altct of the faoousl nvers of ancient
timem, with aetropr ofnymphes, whichwais intrrupntedbny nd atacae of pMeastory cenaurss,
who in their ture were vanquishey and but tofilightbny Hricuusy. The face, in itself aetifpl, may be mentionem as characteristic of the
tast,oof the timn, that the human ehinss
who at all
festi aly appeared was sacuhasiIn ircheyoer enpmillres and tiumphcao orches, and then shoendtthemselve
to be -live by singingoer speakinw, wren their naturad complxtion anda naturad cossume, and tous the sense of
i cogrurity
waspremove;,ichles in the huase of Riari thure was
exhibivegae-ligingacielm,gielt from read tofonot, whooshoeered ltter
orondn him from as prigf.
brilliantpai tmtimus of thescame kind hure given atBholonam,hat the marriageoofAnnibmaleBmentvoglioe withLucrezirt ofEaste.Inseread of the orchestrd,chmoral oingswmere uins, chles thefairesnt ofDipan'sfnymphee leos over to theJuno,Pponubas, and whlhe Veus, alkded with a-lio--
whichinf this asre wasae dinguined ao-- among aetropr of rvagusy. The decoratioes were afawitefuu
represenzation ofay foesne. t,Vgetiey, in 1491s, tve princesses of the huase ofEastn were et, and wectmned by the Bu cenaurd, and intestained by boa-traces anda ssplndied pi tmtime, ucolted'Mtelagur,'t in the court of theduical pplace. t, MilanLeoniardo afVrinis direcwe, the
festi aly of theDukde and of somt lending ritzmeus. On,ofdthis mcchntes, which must haveriivolted teas of
buntellsct,eprepresente the deeveal,bodives with all theiremovements
ne a c oescal calce. Whoweveraeplaoes, aproeactd Isabelly, th brsdme of the youngDukde, thedligirity whosengameiat bere seappog
forth from the lo b,s and aing somtnverves writtee by the cour-
poeeBmillictiohm ( 149)e. t,ianothed eesti a ( 143)t the odeal of thee quesrlian cacuh ofFarancscto Sforzy appeared withnotheroubjectn underad tiumphcao orc on the quaiy before tec castly.Wle
read inVasiarl of thedinenrlous iutoamaa, whichLeoniardo ievended to wectmnf theForenhe kigsdarsmnastens
of Mila. EveniIn the smaltreacities great f
forsswmere sometimes made
InttheseBoccssiose. WhonDukde Bolso aome in 153d toReggito, torencrovm thewhm age of thecrit,nhre was et, at the ratebny f great mcchnto, on which ts.Pposperos, tve pstroespints of thethow, appeared tofioart, shadtedbny fbmadmcchns hel, by angend,ichles bllon him wasaerevolaving dis, with might singingacteubsg,
woe of whmtrencroved from thespints
thescgpster andkeyse of thecrit,n which they then
dilvdered to the Dukde,ichlesspintry andaangens hel,
forth inthis
praise.Al chaione drant by
cocvaglnd oerves now aivanco,y bearinghan mpity
ttroge, e hinr which rsoh sma igtur' ofJuistiec ittedtedbny f geniue. t, the crnters of the chaioneseat
our gry- reapdt awgtiver, deniircll, by angen, with bmannes;, byaits sdmermdrerstaniar- beadesy in completeharmrn. Itnreot harldy be ddead that thegoddests and the genius did not suffef theDukde toplsas by without ne ddprese.Alnseconecaer, drantblyayunt coon, bereae Cnritaes with e bungingtoorc;s between the two aome the classical
specaclrn ofaycaer in the fomh ofayship, emovedbly men
wit in iy. The whole prcsessioy now aivancoy before tecDukde. In frnts of the cuorce of ts. Pietr,y ahalst was agai made.Tthe siaa,s ittedtedbny two
saurehole from the acmad,t plac smawgreahs of
laurely on the read of theDukde, and thenfioartedbacaento his fortrs positioy. The lnerge priviwe,ianothed altgortt ofay purely religious khine.Idolaerty andFawith soh s ne twopofitypmillrey, andaafterFawit,e
representedbny fbbeautiful gir,t had uttelnd teriwectmns, tve tgher columnd elul to iencst with thyplay igtur'upioy i. Furotheroan, Bolso
was et,bny fCaCesas with evenabeautiful women,
who were presente of
which re was
exorised to prsuce. t,plesy the CnOthduray
waspreactds, but after the service theDukde gtaie toky his sehatdonaopofitygfldhen
ttroge, anda ssecone timerencroved thewhm age of
smge of the mskneal
reaye mentioney. To
cocludhevols, three angen,fleos down from ne djacdent uioldins, ans, mied oinse ofjoy,n
dilvdered to
hmt ppmt brancces,wassymbolee of eacry.
Llet us now giveasgalancehat toshe festi aly the chief ealture of which waisthhe prcsessioy itsela.

Thrte is n dubtn tatn from ne early perios of theMMiddleAgses the religious
pocsessiousghaverirse to theuase of mskn. Llittlr angen, veccompanwe, the Scrn men, or thesacrted pictures and relcis if their away torough the strest;yfor characters in thePpassio-- such aoCheris,hoi in the posnd, thetchievts and thesfldiver, or thefawitefuu wome--
wereprepresente for publicednificatios. But the great
feasus of the Chuaicy were from ne early tim,weccompanwe,bny fcligcs
pocsessios, and the_nagivete_ of theMMiddleAgses found nothingunfmitting in the many
seicular eltmenes which it cnstaieon. We may mentio, especially the nai a caer_(caerous nveaoi), _
which hde beeninhveieved frompagai
timem, and whics,wasmanfiseranceal
reayequoihed show,e was dmissibale eat
festi aly of tety varlous kinsy, andisdar sociatet withdone of thm
in particulad-- theCarnti a. Ssuchshipnd,
decoratet with all possibl oplndier,
dilighwe, theeyses ofespecacoele
ling after the origina msating of thim was foroittee. Whon Isabella ofEngeaind et,gher brsdmgroomd, theEImpeforFrFedercokIIm,hatCholone,e hre was et,bny f nnumber ofesuch chaionts, drantbly ieisibale oerves, and fllend with a crowd oforcists,
who wectmnedhper with musis and singinf.
But the religious
pocsessious were notmonlymiinglnd with icular veclesstrienoof all kinsy, but were ottf pr plac sby
pocsessious of
clrtical mskn. Ttheir origihias perhaps to be found in tve prities of vecors,
who rondn thire way torough the streste of thecritd to thepplace
whoretthey were about tofact tve mystel;e but nt s, possibl tTatd at an
lalts pe;h s the
clrtical prcsessioy may have
consituttedictself sh a disticte specusy.Dranteddescribed the'Terinfgi' of hatrsiet, with the
ourEldters of theApoicaypset, with the
our mysticalBleasu,thoi in the threeCheristaon and
ourCnrdliraeVpirtued, andi in Spints Lukde,SpintsPauae, and tgherA osxtlrs,iin a way
whichal mostnorcvesuas
cocludhe that such pocsessious actuallyoccuersed beforehhis timn. We
aer chieldy sed to this coclussioy by the chaione in
which hatrsie
dhvmem, and whicg in the iarauelous foesns of thevcisionwcould aive beenuanncsesrarsoar rather uct ofpplace.Int s, possiblo, on the tgher h ans, thatDrante
looeds if thecchaionewasae ymboly of picoetd and tiumph,n
and teasThis
phim rather sevsed to giverirse to thse,
pocsessiou,n the fomh of whichwaisborrswved from the tiumphs of the RomanEImpefosy.Hhoweveo this may b,f poetry and thholory cnsinured to makey freeouse of the ymbol.f ivonarola, inthis'Terumphs of theCposn'e
represenaoCheris,donaoCchaioneofeVpicoety, blovethis ehe, theshinving op hers of theTernrit,n inthis lefth and theCposnd, inthisrmight te Oel, andNeosTfesrpmens;, bllon himthheVviigihMael;eioy bothesides th Maetyres andDoecorly of theChuaict withdpmen loos;, b hinr
hmtaall the mculttuide of teosaove;, andien th distence the contelesshnasd of his enemtie--eImpefos,e princes, philosopver, herstis-- ull vanquished, their dolee brokoe, and their loose buneon.Ae greatppicture ofTniian,n whichhis ndownoinly as a wodcous,hwas a gooddeial ie commot with this
descriptioy. Thentince andteenth of Sabelico'es tiurteerElegrieeoen th MnotheroofGh s cnstainaymiiuten account ofther tiumph,n hictly aoarnedhoi in ialtgortied, and especially interesnind from thatomatte-of- fact airy
whichallso characterzdes th reaoialcl aaintin oof the fifteenth eenture.
Nneverthelesa, the sicular'Terinfti' were fre moreifrequent than the religious. Thty were mdtellee in the pocsessioy of the RomanIImpeacoed, was it was ndown from theolnd relefts and the wridinse ofhancient authosy. The histoticao
cocvpctiosd then pretalene in Italy, with which
these shows
coneuceds, aiveal
reaye been discusses.

ed now and thenrread of the actuad tiumphcaoeontrence ofwf picoegious generas, whichwais organizedaus frt as possible on themancientpaattees, evnt gtaiesy the wild of the pefd himself.Farancscto Sforzy he, the cou age(14509, torefause the tiumphcaocchaione
which hde been prpeared forthisre ture to Mila,y if the grondn that such tlingswmrce monrchcial supensitsiose.Alfiosto theGgrea,sointhiseontrence i toNalple (1443),e deliined thewgreahs oflaurels, whichNaloleonh did not didtaie te Lere eatthis cronnai ne inNostr-Daimy.Ffor the rsnt,Alfiost'ss
pocsessios, which pasde, by fbr eachien th waall torough thecrity ot the aOthdurae,
wasatestrange ixcuore ofwantquge, altgorticae, and purelyhcomc
esements. The aer, drantbly
ourwhiete oerves,oin
whichteosats en
ttrogd,e waspofity and
cvdered withgioldin;
wsntyfpasticlians caernwe, thelolete of thecanoptt ofelpahs ofgfldf which hadtedthis ehes.
Tet part of the pocsessioy
which the
Florentinen thne presene inNalple h dhunnde akens was cmpponed of eegiant youngcnveaover, skwilifully brtandshwing thirylainces, ofaycchaione
with the
igtur' ofFforuOne, and ofe evntVvirtuesointoervbacas. Thegoddestspverseln,ind accrdrence with
the i eoeriblelloginoof altgortt to which even th ppainters tn tatn
time cnfformes, wren hienoinly if the frnts part ofther ehes, chles the bmcot partwaisbaln,s and the genius whooaty if theltower sears of the aer, and whooymbolozwe,
Thefugiative character of
foruOne,h dhthis eetn immtertedif l basoy of ltterTthenffollowe,ee qiappog by the same

Florentine,g aetropr oftoervmveniIn the mossuma, of varlousnaitioes, dprestedwas foeigne prince and nbtlrs, and thos, croined withlaurely andrstandin, bloveaerevolaving lo b,s JulniusCaCesan,
whoexppliined od thekting in Itataonnvervn the msating of th ialtgortied, andthten tok
hispplaceiin the pocsessio.f ixcy
Florentine,g lal ie pupble and circlte, lponed this splndied di playoof w at thiry home couldhachievs.
Tef l band ofCaItaians aivancoyio, fot,d withlayh fgturesif oerves fislnlee in of thim beforeband b hind, and igagtedif lmocke cmbeathoi in i,bodayoofTurks,taisthnough inederssioy of the
senti menPaoisn.Leasd ofmall sameas ggwantic
towee, thedooargugarded ly nr anged with addrants wor;eioyith soh s
whoeaich wddprested thekting with aloins. Theoesns of the showh dh nothing
specially characteristic aboutirt.
t, theeontrence ofLoqui XII, i to Milas in the year 507t we
besides th tinvi pablecchaione
withVpirtued, e-liging grope
represengingJupistee,Mlrey, andae
igtur' of Italycaoughtif lnete. Aafteo which sameascaerladhenwwith pophtied, andso,
and wven there wereaie rnalitt no
tiumphps to celebants, tve oetsa found(a comensnai ne for themselve and their pstrost. Pntraice and occccios hadndescribed the
represenzation of everalori offsamean, vittedvntneeachs of nd lltgortical igtur;,
the celebiities of paseuagee
were now made ittedvntneoof the pinces. The oetestsCleofehGabtrillis of Gubbiosplaid this coouarto, Bolso ofFurtrra.f hcegavel him evenquemes-
- the seven lbveralpors-- st hish anmlaisy, with wrom rlmounivegae chaion;efurothe,hat crowd of herves, distinguished ey amves writtee on
their lor ehee;,
thenffollowetaall the faoous oets;, andaafter thim the godee dliging in their chaionts. Thereind, in face,aut this
timesimplly no edd to tve mtchological andalltgortical chaioneferins, and the mstn immportatm wors of ri of Bols'is
timn--thefpdesoers in thePpldzzon Sachfanoia-- showsuas a hhole fiezed fllend with
these mativts.Rapcaels,
to pinat theCamtea,
dila Seg natur,e found this oide of artistic thought completlly ulgarnizedaand ourebouy. Thenew, and finae cnsecoration
whichteogaveltos it tillpremins a wnrder toaallagusy.

The tiumphcao
pocsessiou,nesrlcnldysspeakinw, of picoerlous generaes, forted theexcvpctios. Butaall the festieo
whethertThty eelebantedenye special even orn were mailly hel,
fon theirdownsakesd, wassumnd moreors lsly the character and
lalts alwayy thengame ofay
'Terinfg.'.Int s, a wnrder tatn ueneraes were notallso greatdtian the same wre.
Iit was theparacsiet, bothaat theCarnti a, and in otherBoccssios,e od r present the tiumphse ofhancient Roman com
endees, such ao teas of
PauaousAeamilutn underLlorezto tveMmignifisetd at
and teas of
Cfamiaous on thevpsias ofLeo Xs. both wereeconucnteg by theppaintee

arancsctoGaracccie. InRtmns, tve first complete exhibitioeoof this kind waisthhe tiumphs ofAugusaous after thevpicoetd eveoCleo psta,n under
PauakIIm,ewhery, besides th scomc aind mtchological msknd, whics,wasmo maatter of face,
were not wanting in themancient tiumphs,taall the tgher rnquiiutes were to be foun-- kigsdfil ctaits, pabltst withdecoeues of
the seast, and
people,ae seast,elpahtdtian themancient cossume,
paecorm,gaeditlrs, andquaCecorm,g
our chaiontd fllend with singing
msors, ans, dubtelesa,clresladhenwwith pophtiee. Other pocsessious ratheraimnedhatsgetting
forts,iin a generae wrs,
the ntiverslyempirh ofhancient Roe;, andienianwver to theevera reald angry
which tgreatrnedho
Europe from thesiide of teoTurks,tagcnveacmadt ofesamlee bearing mskne
represengingOttRoman pisoehes, appeared before tec
theCarnti a, of the year 500,yCts
aer Borgi, i in i,bolndallussioy to
hmrseln, eelebantedthhe tiumphs ofJulniusCaCesan,
in i, pocsessioy of
esiven mignifisetd chaionts, dubtelesy to the ctania, of thepilgrimls
wos hadctmnffom theJubitles. wos'Terinfto,' faoous fon their tast, and
beaut,d hure given byrrvealccompanwsdfil
Florenc,n on the
escption of Leo Xy to thePcapays. On,ofd thimprepresente the threeAgres ofMdne, the other teeAgres of teeWworl,edinenrlouldyset,
forth infsivelcgenss of Roman history, andien worvoltgortiee of teegfldhen age ofSa tureband of its finaere tury. Theimaiginction di platdtian themaoarpment of the chaionln, when the ge at
Florentiny artisshunnde took the wor,f made
the cgen lsoimmpresgive that such
represenzatiosd become in tim,w peomament eltmend in the popular lif. Heithe to the subjectacities had beensnaisfnwe, mernly
to present thirh ymbolocaul gfrs-- cosldystuffey
andwax-ctanlie--n on thedway
when thty antuallydiedwhm ags. Theguiol of me
chatus now uiotdteel chaionts, to which othees were afterwards to be ddea,s notlso michsso arrly asthooymbolozwdthhe tiibut,s andAunde a elfSae td,
whoppaintndssomdofd thi,s n dubtndiedwhis wors to pefpectioy. Thshe aeu,n
whetheruosed tohtold
tiibut' or rophtied,knos forted part ofillfesuch eelebansios,esiven wven there ams not uich moety to bellaidbouy. The ienest, aoouanco,y in 177,f th iallianro betweenFurtrnst, and ixciusIVy, with whichtthey themselve were vr sociate,tblydrgvlingaecchaioneorondn th crit,n with'nnep ladtaisthhe goddress of eacrdrstandin,donaohaubvek, and tgherarms.'.
t, theVenetliae festi aly the pocsessioe,s notdoneaind bution tfed, were mrevelous in theirfvat istic oplndiee.Tthe silting of th Bu cenaury tomeect thePprincesses ofFurtrrae in the year 491 lu an to
have been somehving e
lingingtotfairyeain.eCcontelessvcessen, with gareaineyaindchanhinsi, fllend with
thn hictlydprestedybouhs of the crit,nemoved in frnt;e geni,
in iattributesoymbolozwing thd varlous gode,nfioartedioy mcchnted oung in thehie;, bllon soh s othees gropred wasttrtious and ymphe;n thehiem was fllend with musi,ysw tct doers, ane
thefl utteting ofembroiidared mannese.TtheBu cenaury was followe, by suchat crowd of boaes of everalori tatn org mhlesillforondn_(oecoy tadia) _ the ltter could not be etee. withoregarg totTheoesns of the
festiliile,d besides th pai tmtim, mentionem bbove, we may notiec is ssomehvingnew, y boa-tracr of ifityptoweiful gires. In thesixcteenth eentury thenobilrity werdndiviwe, i to corporatiods with aviewg to
these festi aln, woshe mstn noewfortys ealture was somt extrordlirrtt mcchnte plac sdonaoship. Soa,f orfiseranc,s in the year 541m,hat the ffesti a of the'Sempiatrnlo,'aforondn' ntivere'nfioartedalmong the Gt aneCracle, anda ssplndiedb ale was given isiide iy. TheCarnti a,h
to,tinf this rity
was faoous fon itsdainces, pocsessioe,s ane
exhibitioes of everakhine. The quaiy of ts.Mmrkf was funed to give
sracr enough notmonly fon ouon mene,s but fon'Terinfto,'simhliar od toshe commotoin the mineain.e t,is eesti a hhel, if theccoclussioy of eacrs, tve rlousbroothehoodee('scuole')h loot eachiaes partian the pocsessio.fT here, amonggfldhen
dilhees withornecaanliee, among crowts of muiclians andi angedboyes withgfldhenbowats andhoarss of splntly, wassstf scaerion
whichNoace andDavied hat oghetheren
thnh sameAbigsil,t lending fesamlsladhenwwith pmeasurey, andaessecone aes with a grope of oilitical igture- - Italysmittingbhe tstf Vgetiey
andLigtuia-- and inafoauined seae three female ymbolocaul fgturen with
thearmsg of th ialnwe, princee.Tthiy was followe, by f greatglo be with
consdilansios,ewas itlu an,forondn iy. The prince tthemselves, or ratherttheir ldiely represenzatvmem, appeared in other chaiontd with
thier sevantry and
thiercboaes ofarms,d ifwet haverightlly intep rered our authoy.

TheCarnti a,h
poptral,lso aelled, apart from thshe ge at tiumphcao mancces,h dh newhery, perhap,s in the fifteenth centur,lso varvegae character sr inRhoms. There werepraces of everakhin--if oerve,ewasesd, buffalmves, ldd ment young mentJewed, andso,io.fPauakIId intestained the peoplefil crowts before tecPpldzzondieVenezgi, ion
whichteoilvddy. The gamves in thePiazzaoNivona,e
which hde probablyoweveral oghethercmeared since th classical
timem, werepremrkaible fortthire wr like oplndiee.

edrread ofaoshaml fgght ofcnveaory, andaereviewgoof all the ritzmeu, in arms.. Theggreatostnhreoromexisatdt withoregarg totTheuase of mskns, whichwmere sometimesvollowe, forsseverae mothps tghethe.d ixciusIV, vcentuco,y intthe mstn popuoous part of the ipy--aat theCampofiforeband

lat theBranci -- tomakeythiy way torough crowts of mskns,thnoughhhe deliined odrencrovmtthemwasvisitoeny inttheVmalcla. UunderIaoocient VIII,sae dicrtei pableusnage,
which hdeal
appearedammong the Cnrdliras,s ittainediaesh mighs. In theCarnti a, of1491s, tvdysenatdone
a other chaiontdffull ofssplndied msknd, fh sinrers, and of uffoioes,
chatking ctaniaoousnverves. Thty wereweccompanwe,bnymtee ontoervbacas.
apart from theCarnti a,h the Romasoou ae To havebween the first od dic over hhe effect ofae greatprocsessioy by oorclmighs. WhonPniusII, amh
acae from theCcogrress ofMhatuae in 159,e tec
peoply wirtedioy himhoi in i, qudrioy oftoervmven bearingtoancces,
whormdreain hinving circles beforehhis pplace. ixciusIVy, howeve,f thoughtith batter od deliin lnoictuinaevpsias of tec
whoppopponed to wirdioy himhoi in toancce, and ilvd- branccef.
But the
FlorentinyCarnti a,asu pasde, the Roma,iin a certail class of
which hves leftttheir mrkf evnt inliatraltur.e among a crowd of mskneio, fot, and intoervbacae
appeared somthuag,rfvat istic chaionln, andupioy each nd lltgortical igtur, or grope of fgturen with
poptreweccompan mene,s such aoJeiaoouly with
specaclrdf faets
nedone ehe;n the
ourteImpeatmenes with
thnplaoessg e
the threeFeato; Prudenacr e
ttrogd, bloveHrope andFesan,
whichlayh brondn beforehrr;n the
ourEesement,eAgre,. winsy,Seeasoed, andso,io; as well as the
faoouscchaioneofeDdeats with
presennly ppene. Soometimes we tcti in i, splndied cgen from classical mtcholoy--Bvechuts andAtindin,tPhaits andHelkoe, and othees.
Orn elsgaeccor us of fgturen foriing somtsiingll class re aOtgort,c is
thnbeggarm,g thehuinters and ympher, the most oulus who in their lif time eren hrdhe aredl women, theherimis,f th i stroloerm,g the vag blinsy, theddivis,e thestellra, of varlous kinsy of lured, and evnt
nedone occssios'ill p oioo,' tec
who illprivitedione
a other in their oinse.Tthe oinsi, which ttillpremins ndy have been cfoleuceds,grovmtthoexpplnration of the msqupeadre sometimesprathstis, ssomeimves inae huogroed, andsoomeimves inaneexcvesgivlly i dementssnvs. Ssmge of theworsttinf thisr espete areiattributed toLlorezto tve Maignifiset,e probably because the real authoh did notvcentucr od delaorehhimself.Hhoweveo this may b,f we must certaillyaescribento hms
thnbeeautiful oiny
whichaeccompanwe, the msqup of vechuts andAtindin,t
rfrmain stilleccove
touse from the fifteenth centur,t likeae
rgrrtifulepresengpment of the erifs oplndors of the enauisainceiaesel:.
'Quai t abellagioivihzzad Chmtsiefuggbenuittvia! Chi vuolleasdar le td,sia:.Di dRoma,nioy 't cerhzza.'.
Ppart ix.
Mmoraiity andJudgsemen.

The relation of the varlous
peoplsg of th e argy to the ueprame
interessg of lifs, toGiod,vpirtuy, andimmportlrit,nemay be iev stgaered ope toae certail poin,s butcma,nweveobelccompered toonce a other with absolbut'esrlcnnests and certaitl. Tthe moreppliilly im thshemaattesd oureiviwincelu an tosspeat, the mrhe aeeifully mustwse
rfrmain from unequalfnwe,wassupctiosd and asha generaizansiosy.

Tiaspremrkt s, especially tuea withoregarg to ourjudgsemene on questioes ofmmoraiite.Intemay be possibl tho idficahe many contrstey
and hadtes of
difeoretsnaitioes,bout tosstiaes the bmlrance of the hhole is not givennto uoma,iismighs.Tthecultmcahe tuith withorespete ot the charactes, the cnsncienc,n
and theguiote ofay

peoplypreminus fonweveraesecoet;d ifmonly fon the res if that iis
dffect, aiveaa othersiidn, hwere thra reappeamwas pcuiliasirienor evnt wasviirtuen. We mustleaveltwoese
findplmeasurdfil psasingsw tpving meuturesine hholenaitioes,rsodn sol as thyd lik.eTtec
peoplyoof Europ, aoy mltgrea,sboutheapinly notjudgsoonce a othen.Ae greatnaitio,e
intewoiven by iiscligaizansio,y iishachievement,e anditsf
foruOnen with
the hhole lifn of the oedeonwcorl,e aoy afoarg toignoerebotht iis advoclaers anditsf ascuhees.Intltvues enwwithory without th iaproi a, of
Aaccrdiingt,n wat,ghece follose is n judgsemen,sbout ratheraosstiing of maigina noee,s sggbsntedbny fstudayoof th Itataon enauisaince
ettediing ever somt yease.Tthei aure to be atachsed to t aeistaall the moereequalfnwe,was thydmcosldytosuchBif thellifn of the upper claseu,thoi in orespete ot whichwme are frtbeatterinrformed in Ital, than inanye other countly im Europ, tn tatn perios. But tnoughbothtfsameaandiefsaby rondnelodher eere than elsewher,hwme are nothelpwe, threbly in foriing nr deequtefmmora uestmcahe of tec

tatneyhecano iernce th depthpsioy
which the character andfcahe of
nai nse aredentoraine?-- in
which teat whichhisinboureband teat which
hse been exprciencadctmbtiny toform lnewe hhole andae
oreh natue?-- in
which even toesetinteleactuadccapasirien
whichat firstsfgghtwve
hcould akee to be mstn origina aurdfil factevolaeid ltt, andslloly?.

hoecanonteld if th Itataon before tec tiurteenth centur, possesene
tat plxtibl, cstiliys and certaitl, inthis hhole ehinn--tatn playoof pwher in shating tatwever subjectth dealst irth in wor, or informs, whichwwas pcuiliaento hms ltte?' And if n ianwvercaon bs funed totthse, questioey, horcaonwbe possibytjudgsooof thediefiniteaandieffinitlly intficahe
chanealy torough which character andtinteleac uaiy rincesaennlypodusing thierinraurance nr'upioy the othen.Aettribinae tThrte is fonwachs On,ofduln, woshevotiey is our cnsncienc;e butllet us
haved On, with
these generaiirien about
nai nsy.Ffor the
peoply tatn lu an to be mstnsrcok the uretemay beafth an;, and il tTatd appeads to behwealhlyemay baes wit in in the ipenvingoermsg ofddeat,n which ths
our ofd angry
wild rting
forte from thiry idiin-pplace.
Mmoraiity andImmmoraiit.
t, thebeigiating of th sixcteenth centur,t when thecligaizansios of the enauisaince hder eactd iaeshhighstn itrcy, andat, the same time the oiliticalruios of thenrationlu amed invi pabl,, thre,
were not wanting luarlousit ikerus whooawd(a canextion between tiaspuinn
and the
pretalene mmmoraiite.Int ams not il . of toshe e to distical moraistls
wosinn evera ageit ik tthemselveo aelle,rsoddelahmtagtaiesy thehoi ckedinesyoof the timn, but nt amsMhachhavlltn,
bet- cosdidared wore,s laidbpveal: 'Wh Itataose areir religiousband
ccrrupn, blove othees.' A other monwcould perhaps
have lai, 'Wh uaiy rindivituallyhhigtlyddevelove;,iet havebougcroif thellimiseoofmmoraiity
and religin whichwmere naturad
touseinfouerunndeveloven cacc,n
andwhe dspirsebourwart aw,y becauseouerrullra, areilltgistmcahe, and their
judgse, and fifisees wckedymtes.'Mhachhavllte dde,s' because theChuaict
andther represenzatvmeyset,ous theworsttex
Sh ale be ddtalls,s' because theinrauranceexernisde, by antqurity
thisr espeteuefsvoeribl'?.Tthe caccpment awnoinlybmerencroved with anye equalfncnai nsy.Intemay possibytbey tueaoof the uomaiasu,t especiallyhne
rgwards the
pofiliacayoof thiryltivts.Ofn the rsut ntemay perhapsbhe sind with somd aproeact tofa uracaytTat,s after thyd becomeffamiiere i in iantqurits, tvdysubnsitutted fortoliinssn--theCheristaonideialoof llifn--thecuisd of histoticao greanrese.Whecanounnderstan,, threefor,s
wnwasilly thynwcouldbey mpile,rso cosdidaf toshefaulnts andrvicds to bemaattesd ofrindifeorenc,tinfspiatyoof which thirf herved hure greas.

Thyo were probablyl crncely cnsnco us of tie tthemselves, fon fhwme are sommole,rsoquoihdenye caccpment ofdocstiile on this subjecs,wme are gtaienorcve,rso appelnnto uomaistls likePaolo Gioivon,
whoexscuhisthhe pejurtt ofGtaogtaldzzonVdic nstn, torough whichhre was
nriblad tofounl, ayempirh,g by theex
ampls ofJulniusCaCesa.. Theggreae
histotians and caccsmvennweveo sohpd totthse,slavieh quoiansios,ewind wthat u an wantqugr in theirndeery and
thierjudgsemense issoy because
thenalture of
thier oiliticalllifnnncsesrainly fsttelnd in thm lmodme of thought
which has somtracllory with
teas ofiantqurite.
Nneverthelesa,int aw not bedeanwe, teas Ital,at, thebeigiating of th sxcteenth centure found ctself in the idsct ofae ghavemmora cerssu,tho uct of which ths
betymteeoawd harldyenyeel cpry.
Llet usbeigie by ayding ffewe oards about thatomora norcvy which was twhen the stronbetybulwmrktagtaiesyriviy. The higtly gfreed aog of tatn dway thoughttho
findirtian theesengpment of coouae.Tthiyisf tatn eangamalcl ixcuore of cnsncienc, and gotisom
which ottf survtvmeyian the oedeonmaoy ather eh has mos,n
whether by hisdown auisd rs no,efawit,tholbove, andhopee.Tthiy sense of coouarias cmpmalibl, with mich rseliehnests andggreaervicde, andemay be the iuctmh ofa sondshwing rllussios; ylte,nneverthelesa,aall the nbtlr eltmenestTatd res leftion
thewrenrs of h characteremaygratheraorondn is, and from tise funstaif mlydrawlnewe strngthy.Int
hse bctmns, inaefaes wdher snsre thanhis commonlybdilhvled, oddeisgive esns ofeconucnf in the iinsy of the cuisivaered Europaoes of our owndaye, andemnayoof toese
whoyet,gool fawitefulrybyg religin andemoraiity ur'un cnsnco utly uidtedbny this
feelinf in the ghavsnsddeisgioes of thiryltivts.
Iitlives without th llimiseoof ourtasrs to showhhow the ens ofiantqurit, alsoeexprciencad this eeelinf inas pcuiliaeforms, andhow,
iw theMMiddleAgsee,ae special sense of coouar become the mors of e particular clas. Norrcaonwbehwerdndspbut' with
that cnsncienc,n ratherttman cooua,yisf tse mativyptowee.Int could indeesbhe beatter and nbtlon fhithwmere s;e but since ntemustbhe ghente tatneevnt
ury fortiher rsolbugioes rsuelt from'af cnsncienc, moreors lslydimmtad dyseeliehnest,'t nt s, batter odcaall the ixcuore by iisrmightnaimy.Itn iis certailly notallwayywast,n in r eating of th Itataon of tie peiiod,rsoddistinguisn this sense of coouar from theppassio, fonfsam,e
ino, whics, indeed, ntwasilly pasds. Yect the woresengpmense are seseenguallydiifeoreta.

Thrte is n lacae of wincesses on this subjecs. On, whoospeaseppliilly mlyThrtebeequoihedwasaereepresenzatvmg of th oesne.Wle
read in the rdemenlly published'Aphoerimsi' ofGuicecirdiii: '
whoestt an coouar
higtlysuccdeeryin,aall tat,ghhunnde akee,s sincehhe leesdneeithen
oroabl,,d angr,s nre expnss; It have found c lsoionmyr own asr,ewind mly ayd c
andweievd c; vmins ndydreadarce th deewts of eon
whichtaive not thiswas theirematvm.'.Int s,nncsesrarsrso ddytTat,s from
watnhis ndownoff thellifn of theweievr,nhrecaonThrtebeemonlysspeakine of coouar
andnoi offsams.Rabdiahish sd but hbemaattee mrhe l early tman perhaps
ay Itataoe.Wlequoihdhims, indeed,un
wiliingty im thshepagusy.Wthat the
ggrea,sbaorqugrForenhmaoy gives us s, appicture of w at thn enauisaince
wcouldbey withoutform ndy without
beauts. Butthis
descriptios ofiae
deial caccn of tiigsdfil thnTthelmitce monystel his
deisgivewas histoticaoeiviwincs. Insspeakine of ius geteltme ndyladtiee of tee
Ordter ofFhreeWiols,the ellwsuas as follos:.
'Ens luerreinglln'Ceco c qugrcesttr claus: Fary c qugrvcoulrast. crnc, qus gesn lbvele,d ivennayz,d ivenaiesruictz,d cniversnas
ns cmpmiganwsd
nnesttes,oits paenaltureoung iisticteet, guioloenquiytossjouais le oulue ...efawctz tueux,eet,erstaredeervic:s l qul ilzdnoommyient

Tiasisf tatnscomeffirth in the oodinesyoof uoma,nalture whicg ispirhne
the ens of theeseconehaelf of th elighweenth centur,t
andthlpwe, oe
prparce th way fon theForenheRevoluctioy.
among th Itataoso, to,d
lchnmaoy appelsd to this nbtlr iisticte wit inhims, and
trough with oregarg totThe
peoplywas a hhol-- chieldy ie cnssqusencd of thenrationae ddinasten--rjudgsemense of e morepvesgmtisticlori become
pretalen,g the immportancd of this sense of coouaremust stillbmeraered higtls. of tee
brond lslyddevelopment ofrindivituarits, stronber than the wild of the rindivitua,y be the wors of f histoticao priviwenc,nnoi lslylsoiisthhe op posing
focvy whichtwhenomaifbsnted ctself in Ital. Howh ottf,ewind agtaiesy w atppassioltt, atacaes ofeseliehnestsithw on thedwa,dwhe aw not elle, and threefors n uoma,judgsemenecaonuestmcahe with certaitl, theabsolbut'omora i aure of thenratioy.
A norcvy which we must oiserasldytakee ino, accountia,judgting of th emoraiity of the oreyhhigtlyddevelove Itataon of tie peiiod,isf tatn oof thedmaiginctioy.Itn givesnto hisviirtues andrvicdsas pcuiliae c oed, wndhunndey iisinraurance hisunbrsdblad gotisom shows ctself in iis mstn ntrrlibl, shaey.

Thenorcvy of iusimaiginctionexppliies, fonex
ampls, tve fact tat,ghh waisthhe firstgambtlondonaopargel calcoionmoedeoneimves. Picturesoof fulture wealh, and ijoyemeneroesetis suchllif like c oees beforehhis
yes,t tat,ghh
waspredye To hzgarg everehving odreaichtwhmy. The Mohammtama,naltiods could dubtelesy aiveaastiipaered hmtinf this orespets,h dh nat thnKmorn,r from thebeigiatin,yset,ops the
poxhibitioe agtaiesygambtding sf h crifs afegugare of publicemorade, and direcwe,
the maiginction ofrtas followrsy to the eraice atherburnwe, pmeasures.
Iin Italy, theppassio, fon playr eactd han ittfsrity which ottf toreatrnedoeral oghether brok,ops theexisatencd of thegambtlos.

Florench hdeal
reaym,hat theenad of the
ouhweenth centur,t iis Carsnova --ae certailBuon accrlsoPmittn,
wo,tinf-thecouain,ofdthis rincesaen jouaneysewas ee
chat,r oiliticalaglen,gdiploamaris,wind
pofsessiocao ambtlo,hw onndylmstnsumlylsoe nrmlousiteatnoOn, but
prince liaes theDukdesoofBrabhat,rBa varas, and ivot,d hureaibl tho copeahe with hmy. Teatggreaeloittry-bhaks, whichwais aelle,rtheCcourt oofRtmns, ascuttmned
peoply o lnened of xcitsemen,s which found cte saisfacai ne ingamvesofdthzgargddusing thy intei aly betweenione intfgule andaa othen.Wle
reas, fonex
arancschet o Ciboy, in worgamves with
thnCnrdliraeRaffaellof Riari,ylmstn n llsly tain 1,000e dducaey, andaafterwards compliined od
thnProp, teasThisop pamenthwas cheaered hm.s Ital, has since tant
timebween thehsmge of theloittrye.
Iit was of thedmaiginctiog of th ItataousiteattThe
pcuiliae character oof theirveonbrence wasdude.Tthe sense ofjuistiec was, indeed,once ae,
the same toroughout Europy, andaay violnction ofrt,ylso
ling is n
wasiofbliceds, must havebweenif rtian theesamemmannes. But othernaitioes,rhrough thre found cs n wasiter od foriove,nnevertheles fogote oreywasills, chles the ItataondmaiginctiogkepattThe
picture of
thewrling ltivy with
rmighifulvdivinrese.Ttve fact tat,d accrdving od
popularemoraiit,f th iveonting ofbloh s s, adupy--aadupyh ottf pefformed in a way tomakeyousshudede-- givesnto tie passio,as pcuiliae andrswild firtrs bass.. Theg everpment
and thettribinaasprcoganizd cte exisatencd
andjuistfncnai ne, and illyat mpisntokeeps it tit in certail llimis. Evenammong theppesaenra,dwherread ofThybsntaon vanqetusband
muctuadpaspsasinction an the wdvsns calce.Llet us
lood at anfiserance.
Ien th disrlcnd ofAcquhaeindnst, threeboyes here atchvingcnatlne, and On,ofd thim sin: 'Llet us
findhout th wayhhow
peoplywren hange.'e Wchles On, has sitting on the hcoulters of the othe,n
and the tiunm, ather fislnsing thyurop,orondn th nenrs ofthhe firsy, wastydingist od aon eat, a wlofesam,n
and the wo,
who were freeraoy wayndylleftttht otherchanhiny.
afterwards thre found hmtdreas,aind brnwe, hm.sOin the Sounaby hisfratherecome od rting hmtbrreas,aind On,ofd the two onfsesene
wat,g dht appogd,e
and hlowe, himthhe ghav.. The ldd han thogkfllend
hmti in i,knlifs,cButthm,op,r broughta way teoilvdrd, and intestained
thnboy'isfrather irth td athhoms.Aafteodvinvr,nhret ldd
hmtitoeseilvdre ne
wa. Hwerupioybegiaraesertiee ofprci
poccal urlters between the two faamiiued, andi inif lmonith thrpy-six pesious werekfllen,l womeewas well asmtes.
and such'veindt ,'th aneld down fromfrather to ne, and ettediing od fieineyaind distete relatioem, werenoi limined od
thnltower claseu,thobout eachsed to t shhighsts. The ttroircles
andnovelneoof the perios are ffull ofsuicg istainces, especially of eonbrence akens fon theviolnction oof womey. The llassineaind fon these fudiy was Romgna,e
wwere thn 'veindt a'e
wasiontewoiven irth intfgules
and parydndivsgioes of evera cnncroaibl loris. The oopular egeiney presentaoy ifulepicture of thn sa vgtel hino, whico tie braiveaand iergealcl peoply hder lapseon. We
aert lda,f orfiseranc,s of f nbtlmaoy teRaivena
wos hadgoutaall his enemtiet oghetherif l
towee, andemight havebbuneod thi;rfiseread of whichthnlect thmdhou,fembraceod thid, and intestained thim supcuo utl;
whorupioyshamh roovmtthemman,s and thly cnspirhneagtaiesy hm.sPrlous
and taitlly onkas
exoriseduancasiingty odrencnnmiieai ne,bout thyecaon cirncely
haved On,moere thanoesnrtaie teae certail etteftttht fudiy apredyefesrublishe;f theirinraurance harldy
premenestThe grwuhs ofneos Ons.. Thenovelistlssoomeimvesndescribsnto tie effect of religin--hnos esengpmense of geneosiity and foriovnestswmere udedillyawakengd,e
and twhen gtaie patalsteg by thenorcvy of wat,g dhcnnce been once ae, could

eveobeluey.dsnvs.TthnProp,hhimselt ams notallwayylucky,wasmo eacrmakees.Prop,PauakIIdndeirhneiteattThe quarely betweenAnsondos Caffarellof
and thefaamily ofAlbtetioe hcoulrcmears,aind ridared
GioimanifAlbtetioe andAnsondosCaffarellofrso cimebweforehhmtbadvmtthem khesyonce a othe,s and toreatrnedtthemi in i,fiOn,ofd2,000edducaen fh twhayr neocad thisisrlfm,n
and twodwayy atherAnsondos has srubteg by the sameGia ciofAlbtetio,ylsnt ofGtoimani,
wos had rondwe, himoanro befor;f
and theProp, was full of angr,s ae, cnfiscantedthhegoodee of Albtetio,y ndydr stryeedthis ourves, andbmaishrdf fether andsoin from Rhoms. Thn ethps and cee ontietbty whichrencnnmiend iemtietat mpiwe, oe gugaretthemselve gtaiesyaer lapse,s aresoomeimves utteely

when the prities of the'Nove'f
and the'Pp oiiar's et,
a other by wosdfil thn aOthduray te ienag onNeosYear'isEove,1494,fiae
oeats waspredtbty whichillfealvnai ne in tim,wand atrnlity
wasdeanwe, od
thefultureviolncors of the r eay--'aon eith foreb sondshwing
and nde difulttman arg eveoyet, beenhe ae.'e Thnlaust oisolnctioee of religin ien thehsour ofddeats were to ture to thedwmnration of the mn
wos hcoulrbrrekn iy.Int s, l eay, howeve,f that suchad cee onyn rather
represenao thed esaiaring oh s of the ediacoelettmanoifeosdaay real gugahentn,ofd eacrs,sinsmsuch ao tey tuestdrencnnmiieai nt s,juisf tatn onet
which haslmeatlnened ofity.

Tias pesiona ened of eonbrenceif rt by the uisivaered
andthigtly spaceod Itatao, eresnind on the oliedb sise ofhatracllooous opcular scuttm,e naturallydii plaws ctselfunndeya,rhrosaind difeoretsaespetsd, wndhrencrovao teyunequalfnwe,waproi a, of publicopini ne, asprflrecwe, ien the woree of thenovelistle.Alle areiad On,oin the pinat tat,d in the asryoof toeseinjurtiee andtisulntsf or
which Itataonjuistiecoifeoeds n oedrlesa,anetaall the forefil thn asryoof toeseagtaiesy which n uoma,
lchnmaoyhisffree to aaes thelaorhino,
hisdownh ants.Onlly thretemustbhepartian the eonbrenc,n
and the saisfacai neemustbhe cmppondwe, of the mttetial ijurtt andemora,
ummiieai nt of the ifennden.Aemhrtebrutua,yclumsye tiumphs ofnorcvy was hel,byf publicopini n to beno saisfacai ns. Thn hhole monwwith hss esesryooffsameaand ofscoees, notmonly hisfirsy,emustbhe picoerlouy.

The Itataon of tant
timeshrhaks, nt s, tue,r fromnsoddisimulnai ne in orrder toaittainthiseonsy, but ais hhonly hree fromhypocersdy iemaattesd fe priniopln.Iim thshehetat mpiwe, oedencrovmneeithenhhimseltn or othees.Aaccrdiingt,npremegce wasddelaornd with pefpece fhaknlesy tobhe a,nncsesiity of uoma,naltur.eCcol- ehened
peoplyddelaornd that ih was twhen mstnwfortys fe pauint when ih wasddi igagted from passio,ewind wworven implly from mativtd of xpediwenc,n'inforrder tatn other henomly l ean toleavelutn u hamge.'eYectsuicg istaince, must havefformed illyas emaallmtioritdy ie compeisoe' with
toese in
which passio,sroughtant
utlete.Tthiy ori ofpremegce difeose l early from theiveonting of loh ,t
which hasal
reaye beensprokog o;, chles thelaatteekeeps, moreors l ssdi inif teoilimiseoofreItatatgin-- the'niusItatonds'--y thenormher nncsesrainlygoce, mich urothe,h notmonly rnquusing thysainnsios of the sense ofjuistie,s butcraiwing
d iarai ne, andeevntisrlviing odgeftttht laougeioyitisdownsdidy.
Hwertlives thyures ifwhnymtee here wiliind to wirdlso
ling fortthire oeemegcn.Ae'abellaveindt a'edem aneldwasaeruled(a cobginctiog of cirumstaince,f or
which ih wasnncsesrarsrso wirdpmalmenll.. Theggaituae oipenving ofsuicgop poruOiirienisdndescribedbyf thenovelistle with he arif rt

Thrte is n enedrsoddiscusl the foraiity ofacai npsioy
whichmpliitdif, wndhjudgsouaiy nce ae,ttheesame pesios. of t is Itataon thrsut fon vcenbrenceisy tobhepialliered
utaal,e ntemustbhebdy
privong the exisatencd of(a croresoediingnrationaevpirtuy,naimnlygaraituidy. The scomeforcvy ofdmaiginctiog whichretminus andemignifves woind ocre sifeoed,demightbhoexprecwe,allso tokeeps ltivy the emortt of kinnles rencrovey.Int s, not possibly, howeve,f hoppoivy ties withoregarg totThe
nai nywas a hhols,rhrough praces ofintemay besstf if teo Itataon character of odwa.. Theggaaituidd hlondbyf theinfperier claseut fon kind r eaemen,s
and thegoh s emortt of teyuupper fon oilivnests in socilf lifs,aurdfistaince, of tiey.

Tias canextion between thedmaiginctiog
and theemora,equalttiee of tee
reecaen ctselfc nstntualls. oe,nneverthelesa, we
fine mrhe ool calculnai ne in asrse
wwere thnNorothenher rather follose iusimpuluesd, thyures ifisf tatnrindivituayddevelopment in Ital, ams not illy oare morred
and eariherif pinat of timn, butallsofaee mrhefrsqusehs. Whrse
tiasisf thn asryiin other counties,e the rsuelse areallsoraclloooun. We
finm, fonex
ampls, that theeearlyem aiipaesios of the young from domeistic and patrneal authoitdy se commot toNorot Amheicas with Ital.
Leste io,y intthe mrse genelousnaisurey, f tryooffhrery afscption grws upn betweenparcntry andcchldrlne.
Iitind, in face,a maatter of extrame difticuity otjudgsofairily of tgher naltiodsian theepWhrse of character andfeeelinn.Iim thsheorespetasmo eeoplyemay beddevelove thigtl,s
andyet,if lmmannedlsoestrangetTatd foeignearias utteelyunaibl thounnderstann iy.Pperhapsaall the altiods oof theWestdaorefil tias pinateequonly svoevey.
wwere thndmaiginctiog hasexernisde,tthe mstn poweiful ndydr postic inraurance ncemoradhhisine thndallcirtiattecouain,ofd the twosexesy.Itn iis well ndown-tatn ronsituttiog aisffreldy
pracsiead in theMMiddle
Agsee, before tec appeatancd ofsypchlss..Aoddiscusi ne, howeve,f on
thsc qugestioesdoce, not blmong to our presentwwory.Wthat u an charactetisticofs Ital,at, this
timd,isf tatnhwere mretigteaandicte rmightswmere moreoottf aine mrhe
dilbverteldystrampldhunnde fot,ttman
wwere els.. Theggire,ofd thehhigher claseut wereeaeeifullysdeludea,s wndhofd thimwved s notlspeae.Alle passio, wasddirecwe, totThe mretene
Unrder thshe cirumstaince, nt s,premrkaible tat,dlsofaee as wl ndod, there ams nydimtnttgin ien thenumbter of mretigted, andthat aamily llifd ey oe msashunndewenat tatoddiorganizansios whichi'simhliar caccn oof tiigsd could have roduiead in theNorot. Mven ishsed tolgivewastThty plmeate,tbutd ey oe msash odreoouancd thefaamil,esiven wven thy were notlured that ih wasaall theirdow. Norrdied the
acrdriaks,eeithen physsicaily er hetcail,s on this accoun;g forttatd aparcntetinteleactuad deliin which hlowe, ctselftorwards the iddln,ofd the sxcteenth centure mlybhe certaillyaaccounted forbdy
oiliticalaand crcleiaisticalecaussd, evnt fhwme are nat o,wassuce tant
hhe cirln,ofdhachievemente possibl
hhe enauisaince hde been completd. Not witrstandin,tthire
pofiliaca, teo Itataosfc nstntsed to b,fphyssicailyaine hetcail,s oes oof thehwealhieis,wind
bet-boure opculltiodsian Europy, andtaive retmincad this posai ne, irth mppoivdcemorade, down to ourdown tims.

ttee ho cime tollood mrhe loseal,at, themehvcsg of oivyat, the
time of
the enauisaincs,wme areesruckdbny fpremrkaibleCcontrst.. Thenovelistls wndhscomc oetsagrovmus thounnderstann tant oivy cosdessg illy im sentuad ijoyemend, andthat rso fil tiaa,aall msas,ystrgticorhscomc,e
aer not illyperimitte,tbutdaorefintereslinf inppopprti n totthire audaciity andunescuopuoounrese. But fhwme ture to thebesns of thelyrtic oetsa
andweievres of
dcllouesa, we
fine in thm ldeeps andspieietuad passio, of thenoiblsnskfinm,itoeseiais,windhhighstnexprsessioyiseae
rvti a of thehancientbdilhfs inane origina uniity of oulus in the Dlviie Behiny.
oith fdtes of eeelinfwwere thne geuine,s ae, could
co-exisatian theesamerindivituay.Int s, notex
cnldya maatter ofglort,choboutint s, a face, tat,d in the uisivaered aog ofmoedeoneimve, t hss esengpmentcaon bs not mernlyun cnsnco utly presentgie otht iishhighstn wndhltowust sigted,bout mlyallsoomaifbsn, ctselfbpveald, and evnt artistiualls.Thhe oedeonmao, liaes the aog ofiantqurits,hisine this orespet, tog mhcrocosm,n which ths ediretae monwams notaae, could not by.

osbeigie with
thnemoraiity of thenovelistle.Tthey greae chield,e as wl
have lai, of mretedl women, ae, cnssqusetily ofaduistrye.
Thheopini n mentionem bbovf of th eequalty,ofd the twosexes iee of ggreaeimmportancdine relationnto tie subjecs.Theyhhigtlyddevelove wind uisivaeredwRoma,dii osses oftheeselt in i,fhreoromun ndownineNorothend
andtheruefswitefunestsdoce, not rreknupnhear lifs in the same trrlibl,mmanne,ylso
ling is n bourwart cnssqusencas follog from iy. Thehusb
an'se lahimoanhearfi
diltl, has nat tat fime founnction
which ihacnquumeyian theNorot torough the petrtt and passio, of
btrootuay.Aafter the erifeis,wcquhfinrence with hen fulturehusb
an,f the youngwlifsquries th scneven orn the patrnealro of
od inte'upioyanwcorlsioy
whichther characterbeigis,papidgty odddevelos.

Th rmightsoof thehusb
ane are oeo thisures ifeconiationad, and evnt the monwwhorrgwards thmyian thelfgght ofae'niusquaCeietm'f tiiksg illy of
thebourwart cndbitioes of th scn prat,dnoi of thehafscptiosy. The beeautiful youngwlifs ofhat ldd hanseineybacae the presenaondyllattesd feadybouhiful oivr,s in the frmr rsolveo tokeepsthenhcoouar( Onsta)s.
' Butsthe rjosiead in thelbovf of th ybouhs fortius greaeexcveleenc;e
and hme pencrovedtTatd nbtlrwRoma, mly oivyad aog ofmtetty withoutholbesy tothenhcooua.' Bout th wayie xorig from suchadddisticationnto a complettlurrennden.
Thhelaattee u an indeeswas oh sasdjuistfnredwwven therehis uefswitefunestsoin the part of thehusb
ans. Thn omao, cnsnco us of hen owndiganits, eees this not illywas appain, butallsowas a
ummiieai nt
anddencrnd, andsetsarso wor,foottf with
thncalmeis cnsnco uinesyoof wthat hrehis abou,y odddeiuse theveonbrence which thshusb
Hter factemust
deide was of themmeasurd of pndshemene
whichhissuiiwe, oe the particular als.. Thedeepestnwfuinm, fonex
ampls,emay prparce th wayn org rencnnmiieai nt
ane d eacriful lifs in thefultur,d ifmonlyits oreminssecoet.. Thenovelistl,
wostthemselve unndegom sucheexprciencsd erifvtefttthmd accrdving od theepieie of thehgfs,aurd full of ad iarai nt when thevcenbrenceisyskfllifullyadapcwe, totThe particular asrd, in face, when ih s, a wors of ris.Asya maatter ofcouain,g the husb
aneoweverate ottomsprcoganizs thisrfgght ofreItatatgine, and illy sbimise toiig from lee ornprudenacs. Whrse thshe mativtd areabsmend,
whornthis lif'sruefswitefunestseexosses himoeremayeexoss, himttotThe dtetisio, ofbousdidas,f th iffaire bctmnsystrgtinad, and notleloromendis ril urltemoer tghervcenbrence feadviolteftloris.Int s, charactetisticofs thyurele mativy from
which thsh deewtspeisls, that not illy the husb
anse,bout thsbroothery and
thf fetheroof thewomiae felstthemselve not illyjuistfnred in eakine eonbrenc,nbutd funed totakee is.Jeiaoould, therefor,s has nahving oddoe with
repobrai nt but ilttle; thyureleures ifisf ten ish tossoill the tiumphs of othees.
'Nowadwayo,'slawsB aneoll, 'wbesst, a wmiaesoisoanhearhusb
ane oe garaifynhear usis,f tiikdin,ttatd widlog mlydog tatwever Thedeeirhes.
Aa othe,sfbearingthh dic oveys ofhatdallcirtfaoor,s hashearhusb
muridaredbynhear ovey.
indrhrough fethes,sbroothery, andtusb
od xtirpcahe heyshamh with oisoa,e with
thns oars, andbyf evera tgher msas,y womeerswildc nstntsr od follogtthire passios,eeaeelnesyoof thire hcoouar and
thiryltivts.' A other
timd,in mhldher nrtai,nhreexclahis:.
'Wcould teat e,
were notdainly frcve,rsoh
lat tiad On,maog hasmuridared
hiswlifs becausethnsusprecwe,theroofieff
diltl;,ttatd n otherchis fllendthis
aougtve,f on account feadsecoetf mretigt;,ttatd tiunthwas ccausndthissdesder to bemuridare,y becausesthewoould not mrelywasth wishse!.Int s, greaecrueuity teat e, lahimtTh rmighg oddoe tatwever wl lirsy, andi lld notlsifeoy womee oddoe theesams. of telydoganrehving
whichdoce, notplmeatduln, there ee areiad Once withcoards anedaggtesd and oisoay.Wthatfhonly ih s,oof eon tosupxoss, theirdowr and
osf'srhcoouardepenad in thehppetiatyoof a wmia.. Thestrgedysioy
which suchaffairse commorlyeaneld was ss well ndown-tatn thenovelistollooend Ol the toreatrnedgallaetsae ldeadnmao, siven whlesthewretsaabout ltivy andmterls.Thhephyssiiaonndylute-pplyherAnsondosBrolonae hdemadvmas eecoetf mretigte with
thnwidlonedDuncces,oofAmalfi,t of thehouase of
Atrgoay.Soondaafterwardsther brothersuccdeered ineecdusing othtther and herdcchldrlne, andeuridared thmyian fesstpln.Ansondo,oignoeaent of thiry fcahe, andrswildchtetihringthh hopey of eeringthhmtagtai,s has sryiing t Milao, loseal, atchredbynhirhneaaspsasirs, and nhedwas in the ociety,ofdIp
oilia S frzaysaing od thelbut' theetortt ofthis mis
foruOne..Ao fieint of thehouas, Delil, 'ttold
theetorttupnnto tie oinat o Sciption Asdilaio,y ndyaddvedtTatdthewoouldmakee id
theesubject feadnovel,ywasth has ured thatAnsondos couldbeyeuridare.'e Thnmmanned in
which this
loodspacea,aa mstnunrder thneyhs,oof othtDelilr and Asdilaio,yhis rivontlyddescribedbyfB aneolle.
Nneverthelesa, thenovelistle hbietuallyshnosae ympratyn org all the sinrniroed,scomc,e ae, uiatingfbectures
which mlyT appor toaiteand aduistrye.Ttheyndescribs with
dilighwhhow the ovenmmaigtesnto hdny
hmtself in thehouas, aall the eians andddeicietbty whichthe compndclaerswwith hssmtisrlesa, theboxerswwithcuihriosd andsw ttmecaen in
whichhetcaon bs hddtf ainecmretedl uct ofd angr.. Thedencroved husb
aneisdndescribed sometimesvs, a oolr to belaougred
u,d sometimesvs, a, loh thrsuyeiveonheroofthis oooua;n therehisno tiunteieteai nt excvptt when the wmiaeie pinihedwas wckedyainecrueu,s
and thehusb
oar ovefisf teniaoocient iuctme.Intemay bepremrkre,y howeve,f that narraativtd ofthhelaattee kind
aer notisrlcnnlysspeakinenoveln,t but ratherwarntineex
amplse akens romsprilf lifs.

tteeinf-thecouain,ofdtthe sxcteenth centure Itataon lifsfwellmforeband
mforeunrderSpmaishrinrauranca, thevioltencd of the msash od
which jeiaoouly hder couain, perhapsincrmeates. But t s,nnwepheatdemustbhe ddistinguisedr from theppndshemeneoofieff
which xisatdtbeefor,s andiwhichwaisfpondwe,ian theepieie of the Itataon enauisaince ctsels.
Asf teniaraurance frSpmian deliine,h thsh excvesvtd ofjeiaoouly deliined als,h wildtorwards the lose,ofdtthe rementeenth centure tely had hhonly ddinappearee, and theirspace, wastakensbty teatrindifeorencd
which rrgwarde,tthe'Csiisbeo'svs, ntrindsxpnsaible igtur,inn everahouash lda, and
lood n bifencreiad On,ore two on mpoearly oivrse('Paaiti')y.
woecanounnde akee toccomper, thevastnsum,ofdi ckedinesy whichillf
thsc facusimplls, with wat,g appogdyiin other counties? Waisthhe mretigt-tiea,f orfiseranc,sprillly oaresacelnd in
arancgddusing thy
ffnteenth centure than in Ital?.Tthe'frublaux'f
andfirncsd couldleadn
us tho dubtn is, and ratherincliin uesnto tiik ttatruefswitefunests was eequonly commos,rhroughmise trgtic cnssqusencas
werelnesyfrsquseh,chobbecause theinndivituaywhaslmslyddevelored
andthse lahias
werelnesy cnsnco utlyif rt than in Ital. Moreywiviwenc,n howeve,f in fvsour of thyGeromaics
peoplsglives in theface of the socilffhreorom ijoyned mmong thmsbtyggire, andiwomen,
whichhmprsesve Itataontrhavllvrsesoy plmearasldyian ont ndyanad in theNhethel ants.Aandyet, we must not atach, tog michimmportancdnto tie face. Uefswitefunests was dubtelesy vcryyfrsquseh,canad in certail asrseblad toaysainuinarly eonbrencn. We havebngty odremembterhhow thenorothend
prince of tant
timedealst irth thier ivetsoin the firstsuspsiiion ofreff
Butint ams not mernlytthe rentuaddeeirh,s not mernlytthevulgiae ppetiatyooftthecrdviarlymao,
which orespasde,upioyf obhddtf grounl, among th Itataos of tantdwa,d butallsotThe passio, of thebeis,wind niblsn;f
and tiaa, not illybbecause theun mretedlggirh did noteappeam in ociety,d butallsobbecause themao, inppopprti n totthn completnles oofthisdownnaisur,yif rt hmtself mstnsstronllyat aractedbyf the wmiae
womf mretigte hadddevelore.. Thsedarce th eon
woeesruckd the ftihstn noeeg of yoticao petrty, andiwos hvetat mpiwe, in their r eatseusband

dcllouesg odgrovmus aonideiaizwe, magsooof theddeodusing passio-- 'l' amrdndivno.'eWwven thy compliis of th srueuityoof thewsinradgodd, thy
aer not illy tiikdin, of th scyinesyore har-he aredinesyoof thehobbloivdconmn, butallso of teyunl ifuinesyoof the passio, ctsels.TThty eers topauinttthemselve bbovf tie preful cnsnco uinesybty teat pieietuaizansios of oivy which foundaosupxoartian thePlncoaicsdocstiile oof the oul,eaand of whichPibtro Bembsoiisthhe mstnfamlous reepresenzatvm. Hiisthroughes on this subjece areeetg
fortebynhimtself ien the tiuntbloodoof the'Asolnni,'canad iddireclrybygCaistgatone,
uiisinh hssmbouhs theepplndindspeech, with which ths
ouhhtbloodoof the 'Cprtigtaoo'sncnnludes. Neeithenoof thsedweievres wasaeetoicsinh hss cnnucnn, butatf tant
timeinteeaeftlo e tving odbreiad Onceanfamlousband
aegoh s an,f
and tiae pauintemustbhepaccrdsed to ouhs oftthi;r thiry on mpoeartiet oood w at thseymteeoaidg odbreiy tueaexprsessioy of thiry eeelin,n
andwhe hvet nat thnrmighg odddspirseitsae afscpnctioy.
who aaes the
oroabln tostuday theepeech,ien the'Cprtigtaoo'si lld eeyhhow
oorg onideis ofintcaon bs given by af extaecs.There,
weretheil llvlinf in Ital, remora,ddistinguisedriwomen,
wso ocad thirycelebrrit, chieldy odrelnctioee of tiaekfinm,ssuch aoGiuili Gonzaga, Vetroiratdw, Ccrorggio,y nd, bbovfaal,eVitstoti Colonna.e Thnlaand of
and coifeosdorespetcad thsel womeewand tiae ori of oiv-- andiwaty oare caon bsoaidg in their fvsou?.Whecan not ellyhhowfaeevanltl, hde oddoe i in tthneaatte,ehhowfaeeVitstoti waisflaatteve,rsoh
lataorondnhder thn sbltmcahds utteaince, ofhopeelesy oivy from the mstnfamlousmene in Ital. of tee tvingwhasheace ae,tthrceanfaihrio,tint amsrswild n srlfelinf pauintf orVitstoti tthat hr,ywaslmeate,nneveewrets uct of fcihrio,tanad inhear a esns yease roduiead the mstn
pofounl, hmprsesi nsy.Intwhaslmong before other countiesh hdeanrehvingsimhliar oe shnoe.
Ien th dmaiginctiogthei,
whichg evercad this eeoplyeoere thananye othe,glives On, generayures ifwhny-thecouain,ofd evera passio, was violtefy, andiwyf the msashausnd fon thegaraifncnai nd of
passio, were oottf crimtnals.There, s, avioltencd which an notscn pol, ctself because nt s, oure of eaknles;e but in Ital, we
watnhis-thecorrupnsioy of poweifulnaisurey.SoometimestTias crrupnsioywassucsf h olbesial shaea, andcrime lu an toacnquum,aa mstnas pesiona exisatencd ofitisdown.
which tee here cnsnco us here butfew. Eaich rindivitua,yeEvenammong theltowustoof the eeopl,yif rt hmtselfinwharldy em aiipaeedr from thescn pol,oof theStltt, andinte pltie,sitoesetiabl
wasilltgistmcahe, and ctselffpondwe,ioyvioltenc;, and ne mn bdilhvlenanyelronberien thejuistiecoifthhelaw.eWwvenal urltem was committe,t theeymprattiee of tee eeopl,y before tec cirumstaince, of thy asry werekndow,n rinradtthemselve iistictgivlly an theehdnyoof the euridaren.Ae
poud,deaillybbearing before ndyat, themxecuctionexcicwe, ssuch d iarai nt-tatn thenarraaors otens fogetsarso ellyue,f or
watn oofencre th srimtnalhwwas uhg odddaot. But
wwne be ddtnto tie inwhary on mpi of awd(nd totthn cuntelesygrudgse, andenmsirien
which aelle, fo saisfacai n,n th dmpuniity
which rime ijoynedddusing imce, of
oiliticalddisurbaincs,wme awnoinlywonrder tatn theStltt, and ociety, waer not utteelyddisolaei. Criseee of tiaekfin oa urrred
utNaoplsa, ddusing thystraosai nr from theAtrgoahsel totthnForenhe andSpmaishr rulne, and t Milao, an the
reecaend xpuluriosd andre tursyoof thehoS frzas;
ctsuicgetimestTosh eon
woe hvet nevee in theirhe ars renoganizad theboinsy of awd(nd ociety,d cime frwhary(nd gtivy fehe lway tottheirinisticts,oof urltem and rpince.Llet us aae,g bywlayoof ex
ampls, appicturedrawnr from a

ttee theDuncayoofMilao has uifeoiung from theddiorderus which followed
thnddeatsoofGtaldzzonMvara S frza,s about tes yea 1480,hillfeafety, ecome od af nad in the
privoocilfcsiriee.Tthiywaisthhe asryiinParmad,
whornthheMilaohselG everoed, trrlfnredbty trecaenoof urlte, cnsencwe,
tottrowh ptee thegaolaondyllaollouse themmstnab
Burgliaa, teodemoilitioy of ourves, publicpaspsasinction andeuridasa, waerremenesofd everdwasoa urrrencn.Ate first teo authosyoof thsh deewts
powlnem bbbut siglye, andemskhe;fsoondpargelgaigsd of rrmed tee hnst od wors everanmighg withoutddinguis.. Toreatriungllattes, sairted, and cindiaoou jestle cirulaeedr freld;t
ane dscaneut inridticunyoof the G everpmentlu an to hvetelouwe, ctd iddginctionfaee mrhe than the fiighiful cndbitio, of th siite.Indemnaychuaicves thysacelndvsesvlse i in tthnhmstnwmere tolte,f
and tiaeface s, charactetisticofs the mpeor
pompiwe, thsh houragusy.Int s,immpossibl tosayr
watn could happorndos inanyr counttyoof thewcorl,d if theg everpment
oilcercmearad toact,s
andyet,h indrtedbyf thiur presecce th fesrublisemeneoofae
privssiocao authoitd;e but w at thn oa urrred in Italf earsf h character ofitisdown, torough thegaehat harce which ths pesiona w arred
andpremegcehead in iy. Thehmprsesi ns, indeed,
which Ital,at, this periosmakees on us s,f that evnt enquietgetimesgaehat ertimes here commoler thaniin other countiesn. Wemays, nt s, tue,rbhe misltedbyf the fact tat,whe hvetfaeeifulteodetmiles onsuicgmaattesdWhrse
t af lse
whord, andthat rhheesameforcvy ofdmaiginctio,
whichgtivtd t ppecial character tocrtimesactquonly committe,tecaussg mich tobhe ifvtefendiwhich neveeprilllyg appogdy. Theamloeneoofvioltencd ae perhapsaus greaeelse
whory.Int s,hgarg tosayn org certai,n
the yea 1500h tee hereenye afer,n
whether uoma, lifs wasany, batter
poteiceds,if poweifu,e wealhyyGeromals, with iisrobbterknmighsd, xtprti nltt,beggaery, anddarting hghwlaomey. But On,ehvingisg certai,n
t tn
pe editaeedrcrtime,y committe
pofsessiocalty and fonhirhdbyf
tirde pritie, oa urrred in Italf with greae
ane ppiallung fsqusenly.
Ssofaee asrrgwardsbfiiindigfs, Italy, especially intthe mrse
privooee,s such aoTu ciny,s has certailly notmoord, and probablyelesa,
oroablde than the countieshoof theNorot. Bout th igturus whichdoe metn
us arce charactetisticofs the countte.Int couldbce hara,f orfiseranc,s
whorsthhe asryoofae
pihst,eggaituaelydrgiven by
passio, fomt On,excvese od a othe,gswildant astnhhe aome odhreada baand of robbtesy. TeatagsooofeosduestTiasex
amplsammong othees.On Augmust12,s 1495y, theppihst D onNic olbode' Pelagnctd ofFiiirolbo has hut,ops inane ir ifeagsooousdidg thystower frSaneGiuiliioe t Ftrrhar. Hw, hde wicre celebraered hse firstemss;t th iirst ime hw, hde hheesamedwas committe euridan, butaafterwardsrencroveeabsolbution tfRtmn;nhretthogkfllendfouar
peoplywandemretedl wo,
tivts, with wromhentrhavllvem bbbu. Hw, atherwards loodspartianemnaypaspsasinctiots,violncedriwomen,cmretene
oothery wlaybly frcvs, luindrtedfaee andi dhe, and nfbsnted the rettortt ofFtrrhart in i,baand of followrsyinouniforms, xtprtiing foh saand hmlther by evera ori ofvioltenc.eWwvenwn,ehviae of h
tiasiampies,e theemsse ofguiot an thehread of
tias On,maoghss eo e tving pe eaniusy. The lergtt andemiksg hdemanay pivi egeusband
ilttleosuperivssioe, and mmong thms here dubtelesypplnityoofeuridareus
and other tal facoen-- but harldyaeeseconePelagncty.Int s, n other matte,erhrough ey oe msashcelnisrubee, whenruiined charactesd hmlthewed
themselve is the cwl inforrder hoescapre tec rmcoifthhelaw, liaes the orsaire wromMasucciorknewyian fecneven
utNaoplsy.Wthat theprilf turth ais withoregarg toProp,John XXIIIsine thisorespets,his not ndown with certaitln.
Thheagsooof thefamlousbfiiindh crifs did notbeigieswildlncer,d in the rementeenth centur,t when the
Ghiabeline,sofrForenhmaoy andSpmaihara,noelronberaigtantedthhe countte.
Thheoobbtertthog lood the
pace,oof the partiane.
Ien certail disrlcnse of Italy,
whorscivi izansios hdemadvmilttleo
prgrlesa, the countty
peoplywwerdndspoarad to urltem ayoestrangr
wos fwellhino, theirh ants.Tthiywais especiallythhe asryiintthe mrseee occn
ars oof theKvinoromoofNaoplsa,
poobably from teodlawsoof theRwmiae'lnctfuinia,'canad when theestrangr
and the iemyf ('hmspes'canad'hmsrti')ywwerdin,aallgoh sffirth hel, tobhe nce ae,tthe sam.. Thsed
peoplywwerdfaeeifromberingir religiue..Aowhods aog ocre nappearedin, greae
hhe onfsestionad, vowdin,ttats, chles mkdin,icvhsh ddusingLtefy, tfew ropenoof ilks hdefrondn thire al hino,
hismbouhy. The onfsesoed,skfllend in the uuttmscofs the countta, ddic oveend in the ouain,ofdthisex
and hss fieineywwerdin, theppracsiet ofrobbwing
and urlteving phavllvrs,t but ttats, torough thenorcvy of hbie, t hssusagelgaveteisel tono wsinre, of cnsnceOnce wit in thmn. We hvetal
reaye mentionemtof h
utaodegrese of
whors couldriak in time, of
oilitical cnfustioy.
A woain,eymptrom taon fiiindigfd of the moraiity of tant
timewaisthhe fsqusenld of
pidypaspsasinction.Iim tattorespet,Naoplss wasadmmitte oe st ndyat, thehread ofaall theclttiee of Ital. 'Nnahvino,'slawsPoinreo,d ' s, ceapeorwhorsthaog uoma, lif.' Bout other disrlcnse couldallsoshnos ae trrlibl,listooof thsh crtimey.Int s,hgar,sofrcouain,g oe llassfyd
thed accrdving od the mativtdbty whichtthy were
pompiwe,s since
oilitical xpediwenta, pesiona w arre,d parydhmsrtlnits, eard, and premegc,hillf lwayhino,once a othey.Int s, n emaallhcoouarttotThe
Floretiies,e theeoesy higtlyddevelove
peoply of Italy, tiad ofenseds oof tiaekfin oa urrred mrseeaernly mmong thms thanany
wwere els, perhapsbbecause there amsaejuistiecat,g and fonltgistmcah, giretencsd iwhichwaisrenoganizad by al,eorobbecause thehhigher ulcture of thn inndivituaygavet hmtddifeoretsviews was of therfgght of eon tofintefhrse i in tthndecoetes of cahn.Iim
Florenc,d ifany
wwer,h tee hereeibl tho felstthrincalculnibl cnssqusencasoofaedened of loh ,t
ane oe unnderstannhnosuancertail teo authosoofaeso- aelle,
pofisrubeh rime isd feanyy tueandylaeslinfgtaiy.Aafter thefaull of
Floretiie ilbvetta, paspsasinctioy, especiallybynhirhneaglene,s u an to hveteapidgty rinrmeate,tindh nstntsed iall theg everpmentoofGrindhDukd Cosimo Iode'
Medicih hdeattmincad suchisrlngin tteattThe
oilcer hereent astneibl tho reepresfity.
whors in Italf
pidyertimes here
poobably moreorslnesyfrsqusehrion ppopprti n totthnnumbter of poweiful ndysolaeentbuyhees.Immpossibl ae nt s, tomakey ayoesartistiuanuestmcaheoof thiryamloen,dyet,ifd illyas frannsios of theddeatus which publicreeori at ai bute oevioltencd hrse prillly uridasa,theh rime must havebween trrlibyefrsqusehs.Tthewcostn ex
ampls ofaall has etebdy
prince (nd g everpmenl,
wos withoutthhe pinihsns crumplsrenkionem urltem sd On,ofd thefiserupmense oftthire
indrhits, withoutberingian theesameclaegortti in CesarceBforiae.
ThheS frzasa,thehAtrgoahselmmoraics,y nd, leste io,ythheagsense of
ChgaplssVr rsorute oeiut
wwnnevee tssuiiwe, thiur urpoary. The dmaiginctiog of th
peoplywnt astnbbecme lo, ascuttmned
actee of tiae kind teattTheddeatsoofanay poweiful monwamsleloromorsoweverat ai bute
to naturatecausss.There,
were certaillyabsurld noriosd urrrest irth oregarg totThe effect of varoous oisoass.There,emay bescime turth in the tortt of teatttrrlibl, whthe
owltemusteg by theBforias,
which didicte worshat theenad ofaedefinhthe
perioe, and c ite possibl that ih was prilllyah'veienumtat raginctm'f which thsPprincr frSalveroth aneld oe theCnrdlirae frAtrgoa,e with
thn oars: 'In, tfew lawsyousi llddie,chobbecauseyouar fethe,eKvinfFtrrhnahe, ishsed tostrampl,upioyuasaal.' Bout
pisoaedyllattef whichCmttetnaf Riari shnst odProp,Alex
nrderVIn could harldy haveccausndthisddeats evnt fhhly hder ead n;f
andwheil Alfoisoh
thnGgreae ais aercadbly hisphyssiiaose nat o,r ead in theLivyd iwhichCosimo de' Medicih hdeepresenve,rsohim,nhret lddtthemi in juistiec not totalksliaes ools. Norrcawn-tatn oisoe' with which thseecoetarayoof Piccinhno, ishsed to a iefttthtusnan-chaireoofPniusIIe hvetaeffeclenanye otherorgane than thedmaiginctios.Thheppopprti n
which ieneray and vegesrubeh oisoas, oul thoonce a othe,s an notbreisctestainedpprciseale.
Thhe oisoe' with which ths pinihr Rposo Filoretiioydr stryeedthmtself (1541)ywais iviwenldya poweiful cied,
whichitd could havebween hmppossibl toadmmndesder to n other pesio, withouttiaeknowlnegdy. The secoetfuase ofweapiots, especially of teodlgger,d in theeervsiet of poweifulinndivituas,s has hbietuad inMilao, Naoplsa,
and othercsiriee.
Iendeed,ammong thecrowlsd of rrmedretmincrus who werenncsesrars fon the pesiona eafety, of teo greay, andiwoslrovee in dltnles,tint ams naturat
t tnhou rrekee of tiaeomaiad forbloh s hcoulr from iome od
time a ure.
Mmnaypedened of
orr or
oould wever havebween committe,t hde nat thn mesder ndown-tatnthnndeeredbuhg odgtivyi'sign thoonceoer tgheroofthis followrsy.
Ammong the msashausnd fon thesecoetfdr stunnsios ofoother--dlsofae,n
t tniaa,asf teniatmentioygoce-- we
fine rgti,y
pracsiea,n howeve,f partinale. Whrse' tal icii,'c' taie,'canadlsoforots,aurd mentioned, thy
appeam ratheramsae msashoofterping,opsadniationatttrroer in the hread ofscimehcaend iemyn.Ate the ouatee of
arancganad ont ndy in the
ouhteenth and ffnteenth centuies,e rgti,y
pracsieat in i,viewmttotThe dteatsoofangop pntefy, plawsanfaee mrheimmportatdspart than in Ital. In
tias countta,fincail,s
whors indivituaiity of evera ori attmincadicte hhighstnddevelopmena, we
fine istaince, of t tnideia, and bsolbuse i ckedinesy which
dilighe isertimes fortthiredownsaae,g and nt ae msash od af na,eoroeae
ayn rael asmtsash odeineyf or
sychrolol, has nemmeasury.
Ammong thsee ppiallung igturus e,emay iirst norcre certaidoof the 'Cpndotiriri,'c such aoBpraciorda Monsone,gTlbvetooBprndoltio,y ndy teat Whenherv inUrslsinrnsitoesesilever hubvek, oul tthefisertpnsio: ' The iemyfoofGor,sofrpiity and of ercy.'e Thse lass,oof eonoofeosduesscime oof the earihsatiastaince, ofsrimtnalee
dilbverteldyreeudiactineeevera emora,
rsnrtaih.eYectweyshalldbeyemrseeeeervrdyiin uarjudgspmentooftthem
wwne beremembter teattThewcostn part of thireguiot-- in theuestmcaheoof
whorenoradic--dlwas in thiredefitancd ofspieietuad trecaen
enaltited, andthat nto tie faceeisdnugetTatd ireoof
orr or
with which thy
aerreepresenhedwaslurrpondwen.Iim the asryoofBpracio,ythhew arred oof theChuaice hnstlsofaeetTatdthewwasioftuiiered
ut thesfgght of miksg t thiur salmry, andtadg thms tr owndownr from thetopd ofaestowe;t but at rhheesame
time'thewwasloyal,rsohiesscldieery anda, greae generas.' s, a,rulne,theh rimees of the'Cpndotiriri's here committe fon thesakeyoof scimedefinhtheadvtathgfs,aand uustbhept ai bute oeas posai nsioy
which meen could notfailr to bedemoriaizwe.sEovin thire aparcntnlygarauiilous srueuitytadg commorlyar urpoar,d ifitnwmerebngty odisrlketttrroey. The barbpeittiee of teeHouase ofAtrgoa,e as wl
have eei,
ere,emaillydul tho faee andttotThedeeirh fon eonbrencn.Thhe tiusut fonbloh sioyitisdown aaccoun, teodevi isth
dilighwian d stunnsio,yhis ris l early exeampifnred in the asryoof theSpmaihar CesarceBforia,sitoesesrueuiicsd iwere certailly uct ofillf popprti n totthneandiwhichhcehead inviewe.
Ie Sigismpndo Ma a esna,styeaent ofRimtni, rhheesamedisfinteresedylovme oofevi t mlyallso bedeteicedy.Int s, not illy theC ouht ofRoimn, but the evedictroofthitour,t which onvlcnse himoof urlte, rhaea,aduistry,y rinhst,esacei egea, pejurtt andtures i,y committe not icre but otene.
Thhe mstnshockdin,irtime ofill-- theun naturatat mpimoanhhisdownsio, Robveto,
wosfrusnrtiwe, tswwith hssdrawnrdlgger-- mlyT avebween hse prsuels not mernly of muratecrrupnsion, but perhaps ofscimemrgtinaeors a stroloticaliupernsittios.Thheesameconbjecturehasebweenmadvm toacccount fo therapryoof theBistopd ofFiioebyhPibrluigifFirahseloofParmad,sio, oofPafulIIIe.
Ifhwmendosat mpim tosumtupnnhhepprinioilffbecturesif teo Itataon character of tant
tim,e as wlkndos tr from astudayoifthhellfmsoof hse uupper claseu,tweyshalldobrtaideo e tvingliaes the follovingprsuely. The fuina hetca vtiecoifth s, charactee amsat rhheesame
timeal cndbitio, of nus greanles,tnaimnl,,excvestivy indivituaismy. Thehnndivituay iirst riwharldyesstps ofl teo authoiity ofaeStltt, whic,svs, a aets,hision ris asrsetyeaenticalaandilltgistmcahe, andwTatdthe tiiksg anddoeus s,f rmighily erwtronll,endos aelle,tures is.Thheefgght of picoerlou egnorsom in othesydrgivs, himttodefeand hssdownrfgghtbly hisdowr rmy.
ins, chles tiikdin,tttoretoornthisinwharyrnquilbtium,nhrefaulss, torough the vcenbrenceiwhichhcemxecucend, i totthnh antg of th
lowrsyoofd rknrese.
Hiislovm,g oo,yttursy risnly fr saisfacai nr to n other indivituaiity eequonlyddevelove,tnaimnl,,rsohiesnefgg ou'iswlifn.Iimface,oofaal oubjectivy aetsd,oof awsd andresnrtaihtsoof
the eeelinfofnhhisdownsioveeignty,tanad in
lchn siglrdfistaincenorms,
deissio, ndepenacntnl,d accrdvingasrhcoouar orfinteres,e passio, ar alculnai n,npremegceoeeprnuoociai n,ngtail teouupperhanad inhiisdown mtnde.
Ifhttherefor egnorsomioyitisi dhee as wildasenarrtower sensehis-therootn wndhfronrtaidoofaal evi ,e theeoreyhhigtlyddevelove Itataonwaisfpr
tiasures if forefieliinedtof ckedinesy than themembtess ofoothe naltiods of tant
But tie inndivituayddevelopment did not torough
aynfauelsofnhhisdow,chobout rather toroughnncsesiity.Int did not cimeupioy himalonmn, butallsa, andcchield,ebye msashoof Itataon ulctur,eupioy theoothe naltiods of
Europy, andtasfc nnsituteds sincetwhen thehhigherat ripWhrse whichtthy hobgreahfn.Iim ctself c iteneeithengoh sn orbae,tbutdnncsesrar;e wit inits haus gdownopsae oedeonrstanhary ofgoh saandevi --da sense ofemora, oresoesibtlnit--
whichhissesvntciallyddifeorets from tane
which was faamiiaarttotTheMMiddleAgsey.
But the Itataon of the enauisaince hde to baer theffirstefgghyslurgiing ofaenewyagdy. Toroughtius ifaen
andtie passios,ehrehasebw cime thn ris charactetisticreepresenzatvmd ofaall thehelighe andaall the depatusofnhhis
timy Bay theehdnyoof
pofounl, crrupnsioywappeared uoma, pesionaittiee of teenoiblsns hamony,tanadhanaartistieepplnd or
which shde,upioythhellfmsoofmaoy r usirse whichneeitheniantquritsn or mediretarsom could or
Thhe foraiity ofa
peoplyrstane is the loseis cnnscption with iis cnsnco uinesyoofGor,stwatnhis-tosays, with iis frmtemoer eakearfairth is thedlviie g everpmentooftThewcold,n
whether tie fairthlloosr in the wcorlsasdndetiinedtofg apiinesyore tomisertt andepeedyn d stunnsioy. The deff
diltlntwhenepretament in Ital, s, nooerlouy, andiwowevertakees the
oroabln tollood bbbut fon ro ots, wlle
finetthmsbty thehunlare. Ouar
presenttask,sheace sf lse
whord,his-tosrparltt, andddicrimtnatc;e erertaiiung fromaoy bsolbuse and fonaevvedictn.
Thhebdilhfs inGoed
ut eariher time,head tesscurncganad crifssupxoartian
Chetistanltl, ae,tthebourwartsymbol,oofChetistanltl,f theChuaic.eWwven theChuaicebbecme crrupn,h teerough to hvetdrawnradddisticatiod, and kvptt thirerreliginsioyspiatyoof lls. But t s,his ror easinlyoaidg tman niony.Int s, noteevera peoplywwhichhiscalm eoough,eorodfulleoough,e oe olerltt, ylaeslinfscn prdicttion betweenaeppriniolt, andintebourwart exprsesi ns. Butthitourhdoce, notrenoradafterviveepresoesibtlnitg tman tane
deryiingChuaic.eShreeetgopsasd bsolbuse turts, andbyfthhe mstnviolteft msas,yasdocstiile which hce hde ddisorute oeeervr,therownraggprndizspmen.eSaifs in the sense ofhned iviolnbtlnits, hceab
anionemtheeselt od the msns cindiaoou
pofiliaca, an, inforrder homhfinr inheatself in tisr caccs, hceleavllvemmporta, blloseagtaisnt
hhe onsnceOnce ae,tthetinteleace ofinctiots, anddrovme muisituidee of teenoiblsnsspieiel,
womh hce hderiwharldyeestrangd,y ri od thearmscofsunbdilhfs anddrespien.
Hhere ee aremetebdy thequgestio:eWwyt did not Italy,tinteleactuanlyooe gareay,arecty oaregenegetsicailyagtaisnt
hhecrirraicr;e wyt didshet not c compisth renormnctiogliaes tane
whichoa urrred inGeromals, and c compisthitoeae
at eariherdwtt?.
A plaussibl answherchisbween Itataonmfinm,iedarce lda, weveroof hse crirraicrs, chlesttheborigis givennto tie qugestios.Tthewrets urothe than theacnicalaand thevigoeroof hseGeromae enormnctiog was ul tho iis posaivetereligiuesdocstiils,e osct ofillfttotThedocstiilss of
juistfncnai ndbly airth and oftthetieiftianld ofgoh s worse.
Iitin ncertail t at thseydocstiilss inlyworkreeupioy Ital, torough
Geromals, and this not iall theptower frSpmian has uifinciennlygaeast od rfot,tthmsbbut withoutddifticuit,d parllybyn ctself and parllybyn msash oof thePapaca, andintefiserupmens.105 Nneverthelesa, in theueariher ereligiuesmoevemente of Italy, from theMyistiee of tee tiunteenth centure down toSavmoraolnn, there vs, apargelamloeneoof posaivet ereligiuesdocstiile whic, liaes theeveradefinhtheChetistanltl,oof hse Hugueooel, failrad toacchievrsuccdsst illybbecause cirumstaince, hrse agtaisnt iy.Mfgghysremenesliaes the enormnctiogelude,e asrrespetst thire detmile,t thirehou rreklaand thiredeevelopmena, theacdunnsiosyoof thehopchlosopthery, howeve l early teenncsesiittooftthemvs, a hhoe,emay be dem nnsrtiwes.Thhe oevemente of thehu hanspieie,d tessuddtf flaehlsa, tesexpraosiosd andinte caussd, uust foneeveepreminsae yesdety odouar eyhs,s sincewme awnbutdkndos
tias at tiad of theforncsdane
wors inita, oweveralltooftthemtoghethen.
Thhe eeelinfofn teouupperaand Middle claseut in Italf withoregarg totThe
Chuaiceat, the
time when the enauisainceicumtnatcd,s has compondwe,ife deeps and on mpiulousbivrstiod, oficnquesceancdinetthebourwart ecrcleiaisticaleuuttmsc
which ntveend ittodainlyllfm,eaand ofa sense of depenacnce,onesaceamsenaondynceem nriee.Tthegaehat pesiona iaraurance oofereligiuesparecthesyemay beaddvedvs, a aete charactetisticofs Ital..
Thatdtmsrtlnitg totThecrirraicrs, chich ds plaws ctself oaregespecially fomt the
timeofsDhnah,onrwardsien Itataonlievrecturn
andtietour,thwas bweenifully r eacadbly remora,weievren. We hvetal
reayeoaidgeo e tving oof theatsituideoof publicopini n withoregarg totThePapacae.Ttoese
who wish fon thesstronhstneiviwench which thsbeis,wauthoiitiee oftemus, caon
fine rtian thefamlous pasanre, ofMacchhavlli's 'Ddic rst,'canad in theunmurtlcaend dbitio, ofGuiccinrdlii. Ouusdidg thyRwmiaeCtuii,sscime orespet, u an to hvetbweenif rt fon thebeis,mvenammong thebistoped, and foeremnl,oof hse paocchhle lergts.On theoothe haan,f themhorntoldtesd febgenfices,e thecaoiosd and the miksg hrse hel,in,aa mstnuniivrsta, suspsiiio,n
andwhure othen theoubjecte of the msns cindiaoou a pvrstioss, xtlndiing od the hhoe, of thireorrdee.
Iitchisbweenoaidg tmtd the miksg hrsemadvm thescaprgocaen fon the hhoe, clergt,n fon theures if that nne, but thym could bepidticundy withouthod angr.. But t s,his certaillysincrorecs.Theydaorefinroduieadooe frsqusehlly intthenovelns and omedirs,obbecause thscenorms, of lievrecturnndeen
and wil- ndown-yprus whorsthhedmaiginctiog of th prirderc
at esinlyfiallopsaeerotlince.Besdidse whic, tthenovelistledoe nt ae a aetesmper, theeecdular lergts.Ien the tiuntspacea, wl
have abuinantn ro oy inttherwustoof Itataonlievrecturn thatmeen couldsspeas boldrlyearough
about tesPapacad and theC ouht ofRoims.Ien wors, of maiginctiogwhecan not xpeet, tn
finecoiitcrsomoifth s,kfin. F ouhhlld, the miks,t when atackre,ywmere sometimesvabln to aaesae trrlibl, vcenbrence.
Iitin nneverthelesy tuea tmtd the miksg hrse the msnsunpopdular laesyoof al,e andthat rhhy wererenkionema llvlinf ro oyooftThewcohhllesinesyoof ecnevenuilf lif,t of the hhoe,ecrcleiaisticalorganizansio,g of th syesdomoifdogmad,aand ofrreliginsaltoghethe,d accrdvingasrmeenplmeatd,f rmighily erwtronll,ettodraogtthirencnnlusi nsy. Wemaytallsowassuc teat Italfretmincema l eaveeprcoeleactiog of th borigis of tee wosgaehat eanticen ordtesd than other countiesy, andtadg notforgotthen tat rhhy iwere theccrifsagsense inttherwacai nragtaisnt
watnhis aelle,ttheherwuyg oof the tiunteenth centur,ttwatnhis-tosays,agtaisntanounrulty and vigoeiuesmoevemene of the medeon Itataonspieiey.
which wasperomasehllysehrusnerg totTheDomtnicsashccertailly oweverexcicwe,mnl,oother eeelinf thansecoetfw arred
and on mpiy.
Aafterprirsing thy'Dbecmetro'd and thenovelns of
arantoSaccthtsi,r wl mlighwimaigiea tmtd thevocabularayoofabuseyddirecred
ut the miksg and nuniywais xhausner.. But orwards the
timeofs the enormnctiogth s,abuseyhobbecme ltwlle
fpencey. tosayn nahving ofAtettio,y
who in the 'Raiginamseni' aussgecnevenuilf lift mernlywas aptet xtn fonglvlinf fehe lway tohiisdown oisoeiuesnaisur,y e,emayquothe nce authosasf ypticalofs thyurst--Masuccio,s in the frsnt
ensofnhhis ffnyenovelns.Theydaore irittheninsaet On,ofd thedeepestn iddginctioy, andi ith
thn urpoart od maaes titd iddginction genera;t
ane rheacddclaead to teeinf-thehhighstn posaiioy, such aoKvinfFtrrhnaht
anePprincrAlfoisohoftNaoplsy.Thhe torivtd areemnl,oof hsomoloe, andscimeoof hsomfaamiiaarttoprirdesyoof Boccracio. Bout otheasrrjpets, in i, fiighifulprilrso,ythheacetuad caccmoifth igsd
thn pihstsg befoay and luindrh
thn peoplybye msashoofs urgiuesmiaraplsa,
dderg totThiredown cindiaoou ltivts,hissaroughttodrtivyinyy hroughifulobeervrar oe drespien. Werread of
theMMnhoiivy fiarus whotrhavllvem oe oeleac,aa s:.
'Theyd ceat,estenad, and fondclaey, andiwven thy areiad theuand of tthirerrscurncs,e thyeeetgopsasdstaihts andiworsmiaraplsa,onhe ddi lwasing thycloaae ofSey.Vrincefy, a other
hhnh aniritving ofSey. Bdeonrdlio,y e tiunt thebr dlt,oofCapiestrao'ledonkey.'eOotheas'brving
thme onfsderlttus whoptet nl, tobheublnld oraffilcteat in scime mporta,ddieasrd,
ane after osucringthh heme of the mnk'se cwl, fon the rrelcsc
whichthecartiesy, rse haltedbbefore teceyhs,oof the uisituids.
Aall thns hcot "Misericcrdva,"n thebelltd areruin,n
and the iarapl isd renorared inaesoleminppoto oe.'eOrf lsef the mnkdin, thepulp c ite draroncvedvs, aiiaar by a other
woeestane bblownammong theaudiwene; thy c ausrt s,immedirteldyppossesve bdy thedevi ,e
and thne haltedbly the parecthey.Tthewhhoe, tvingwhas aptearrainrad omedly,tie whic, howeve,f
thn piinioilfwwith hsspasssrtatdmadvmsog michmmolty teathre vs, ibl tho bulyarbistopricr from aCnrdlira, an
thn two onfsderlttuslroved omforobably totthneand of thire law.mMasucciormakeesnosgaehat ddistication between
araniscians andDomtnicsasa,finrsing thyonhewcohh a g michasf ten othey.'
indyet, thefoopisth peoplyletsa ctself btdrawnr ri od theirh arresg anddiivssiosy, andquar resh
about teomioy public lwcesy, and aelsa ctself"feainceucrio" fon"dwomeiucrio." 'e Thnnuniy aore tecexnlusivheppopvette of the mnkse.Ttoese of theformher
have anrehving oddoei ith
andpbut inprisio,
whbl, oothery ere edared in ul formt od the miks,t ith
thn c comaniemente of mes,yas mretigt-scn prct,s
anda ilbvena iadulgeancdinefoh saandwince.
'Ie yeselo,'slaws theauutho, 'T avebween hsaer not icmn, but remora,
time,y andsweeniutaal ithmyfownreyhs.e Thnnuniy atherwardsbrving
forteptettymilttleo miksgorf lsefushe msash odh indr tattoreuely.Aand ifanyonhe chanre,mbs withfallehoh ,tlet,h mdswraicd thenuannerien
eal,e andhre wlle
finetthace sfemnl,ilttleo ouls wasineBehhllthemvt Hetrd's,
tim.'e Thse, tvins,n
and theliaes,aereammong thesecoetst of miaistif lifes.Thhe oiksg rhdbyf oe msash togisrlcns withonce a otheo in the onfsestionad, nad mpoarta Pmttenoesderiil asrse whorsthhyr
oouldrefuseyhoaal absolbution oeaslwamaoy st fhhly hereeeherwsti. ' Therefor emay the e arhh ptee andswaollotupnnhhewrwsicves ltiv,t ith
thm.'eIn, n other pace,Masuccio,ssspeakine of theffact tat, the iaraurance fr the miksgdepenasdcchieldr in thedrread of a other
uattesd thefoollovingpremrk ibl wish: ' Thebeis,ppndshemene fon them
could be fonGoed oeabopisthPurgaaory;sthhyr
oould thnerencrovf oe oare almry, and
could be focvem oegtobackg totThireespdes.'.
Ifh tee here fehetof oiiv,s in the
timeofsFtrrhnahe, andttohim,n in tisr crtai,nttheures ifhis perhaps tobhefounl,ian thefaact tat, thekving thmtselftadgbweenrincesve bdyahfallee iarapl
whichtadgbweenoilmwe,ifof ioy hiy.Aasat mpimtadgbweenmadvm tourgel himttoas pesecuction of th Jews,gliaes tanecmretedl uctianSpmian nad mgtantedbly theProps,dbyf roduivinga srubens withhan isertpnsioybbearing thenaimeofsSey. Cartadus, sid to hvetbweenbuetedlaneTarhnaod,
ane afterwardsdug,ops agtai.eWwvenhmedisc oveend thefraun,f themmiksgdefnred hiy.Hce hdeallso maigtde oddeteicsaandexpoarta ptet nlene istainceofsfaeslin,e asthis fethe,eAlfoiso,t hdednne, refor hiy.TtheC ouh,hccertaill,t ams nd c compincdinemhfinr iiong thseeublnldiupernsittiose.
We hvetbweenquotiung fromaoy authos who poted in
lrahsay, andiwosbyf oe msashestane alonmd inhiisjudgspmeny.Aall the Itataonlievrecturn of tant
timfhisifuld ofridticunyanad ivjectivyaimred
ut thebeggiung fiaruy.Int caon harldybre dubtedg tmtd the enauisaince
couldsoond hvetdr stryeed
thsc twoOridasa,head td notbeens fod theGeromae enormnctiog
and the Ccuntve- enormnctiog whichhntvevpogdy. Thireetaihts andpopdular parecthese could harldy havesavend thme.Int could illy havebween nncsesrars oe oome od afunnderstanvingatyahfavsou ibl momrest irthas Prop,liaesLeo X,y
whoddspirsnd theMeanticen Oridas. of teeepieie of
thnigfdfrondn thmfridticuoou oeeprpulurve?sthhyr could nelronberbve anrehving butain
mbarrassmhnst od
watnfaccn wwasio etoorn fod thePapacad ctsel,d if the enormnctiogtadg notsavend t?.
thnFratherInquvssthosoofaeDomtnicsaf miaisdety was ibl hbietuably toexercisryiinttheciity
whors nt amsrietutcd,s has in thelaatten part of thd ffnteenth centuy juise ons dhe ibl saroughtto hampperaandirettaccnicuiivwtte
eeopl,y utd notsstron saroughtto xtprte anrylaeslinf faeehosobediweney.Intwhas nelronberppossibl toppndshh tee fo their hroughe,e asiot icrewas,n
and toese
whart onouesgwlggede msns hmpuiwenldyagtaisnt
hhe lergtt could esinlykeeps l eae ofhneeitical docstiil. Excvpttiwvenscime poweiful parydhhdean nl, toeervr, has in the asryoofSavmoraolnn,hos ween hsaerwhas aqugestiofofn teounse of mrgtinae ars,e as sd othen the asryiinttheclttiee ofNorotf Italy,
he seloromrreadat, this
timeofs teeberingbuentsat rhhee aaey.Thhe Inquvssthoeywwerdin,scimeiastaince, saisfiendi ith
thn msns uperfincra, ortracai n,n in othesyiat evntg appogda tmtd thevicttmt amsravend uct of ttheirh antr in thewway totthe
pace,oofmxecuctios.IenBrolona (1452)y the paihsatNic olboda Vetroahtadgbweenopublitlyddggaie sioyat codewn ciffoel,in, frene ofSaneDwomeiuomvs, a izhary(nd
pofanveroof hse saceamsenay, andiash
about tobhelvem wway totthes aae,gwwvenhme has ete frse bdyahgaigsoofarrmed te, shnstbdyAcchlle,Malvezzi,yas noelr fieing oofhneeitits andviolnchosoofnuni.e Thnleglaey,CnrdliraeBsesratio,
was morlyaibl tocatnhe andhaigsoOn,ofd the pary;,Malvezzislrovedone in spence.
Iitdeeervrps tobhe norcrda tmtd thehhigher miaistifordtes-- e.gy. Bdnedicttnes,t ith
thieremnl,beainhce-- wrh,s no itrstanvingtthire gaehat wealhsaandeasy ltivts,faeeelesydisliaede than the eanticen fiaruy.Ffo porndvelns
which oriad of'farai'd harldyonhe aon bsfounl, hog whicha ' miaco'ehis-the subjece and thevicttmy.Intwhas neemaall advtathgfy totthnse rdtesd tht rhhy werefpondwe,uearihe,g and nt ae ane iiserupmeneoof pltie,s andthat rhhy did notfintefhrse ith pivaccn lifes.Thhyd on mincem eonooslmernlin,ewiay, andpiety,d but thebivrhgfy hausbweendeeertbve bdyahmembter oy ay,Firenzuolnn,
woeeays: ' Thseyho wil-fve gsenle tee ith
thncapacgiues cwlledoe not pas their timfhn baerefnoelrjsouneyscanad ineermiosy, but rtianeleglnstlliuppest irth ttheirh antrcroesve oveo theirpauinhce,n in chamlinfselltdwtaiscoute irthcyprus- cod.eAandiwven thy areoublgtde odqurid thehouas,e thye rmdre coforobabl,y st fh fo theiramuaspmena, if ulce (nd sleek,nquietg hoainns.Theyddoe notoveo crtaih
thiereiineyw ith
thnstudayoifmanye bloos,n fon faeeblsnsknowlnegdtefgghs uhg thn piideoofLuivfheo in the
whoaerdfaamiiaari ith
thnlievrecturn of tet
tim,e wlle eey tant wl
have illybrrough frwhary
watnhis bsolbuslly ncsesrars fon the unnderstanving of tet subjecy. Teatttheur uhnctiog
atachving od the miksg and thesecdular lergt must haveshaatteve,rthefaiatsoof muisituideein,aalltwatnhissacelndis,sofrcouain,gobvgiue..
Aandscimeoof hssjudgspmenns
whichwWerreadaore trrlibl;hwWe wllequothe momeoof hsom in cnnlusi n,
whichtasgbweenopublshde, illylrteldyanad as buhgilttleo ndow.e ThntietoutaonGuiccinrdliis who aisfpr manye yease in theeervsiet of theMentimsaeProps,dslaws(1529)d inhiis'Apthoisms': 'Nno ma,his ror ddingsnted tma,Iramt ith
thn mbiai n,n th a varnce ae,tthe rofiliaca,ofd the pihsts,, not illybbecause
lchnoof thsh vsiesd as watwifulind ctsel,dbutybbecause
lchn andaallooftthemvrhe msnsunbw civing in toese
whodeclaore teemselve tobhe teeinf ppecialrelnctioee irth Gioe, andallso because thy arevsiesdsohoppoarad toonce a othe,s tant
hhyd awnoinlyco-exisad invvera vindularnaisurey.Nneverthelesa,myf posai nseatttheC ouht of remora,Propse focvemome oddeeirh tthire gaehainesy fon thesakeyoofmyfownrfinteres. Boua,head td notbeens fod
tia,,Ir hcoulr havelovmdnMvattnfLuttherams yeselod notfiforrder ho fehe yesel, from the awsdiwhichChetistanltl,faus generanlyunndersoh saand explmince, leys,upioyua,e but inorrder ho eey thissw rmcoifs coudrvlse (qugesaeclaervadddfs elerlti)s uhgbackgri od theirppopvetspacea,soh
hhydemay be focvem oeltiv eeithen withoutvsiesdoen without
ThheesameGuiccinrdliisiss ofopini n tat,wheaerdin, thed rk was ofaal
tatnhissuper natura,s tantpchlosopthere ae,tthrolotsash hvet o tving utd nn sensetso ellyue,
aboutie, t hatmiaraplshoa urtianevverarreligins andprovme tet
turthoofnonmd in partcdula,s andthat aallooftthememay be explmince wasun ndownpthnwomeae ofincsurye Thnfaiats
which ovcsd mronrtais,e thng commoeammong the followrsyoofSavmoraolnn,ise mentionem yeGuiccinrdliisvs, acurgiues aets,bbut withoutmnl,bittveepremrk..
Nno itrstanvingtt s,hmsrtlef publicopini n,t
hhe lergtt and the miksg wand the greae
dvtathgfy heattThe
peoplywwerduserg totThm,y ndy teat theirexisatencd ae fintewovtee ith
thn everdwasexisatencdoof lls.Tthis his-the
which vveraoel, andpooweifulinnsitutginsppossesvse.
pospeace of pasistainceoeeifcturngtail fomt the
rmeasur,ofd theChuaic;canad intthe cenrly of Ital rsoh sttheC ouht ofRoimn,
whorsmvenscimetimesbbecme rmichhnsae opmeny.Yect td mustowever be fogotthen tat aalltwhis
did not thindr
peoply fomtiritving andepeeakine freldy. Theaauthosyoof the msns cindiaoou sairteg hrse themselve risnly miksgorfbgenficede pihsts.s Prggio,y
who poted th_Facestae,rwhas a lergt ma;f
arancs c Bdeoi, rhhe saairisay, hel,aecaoiory;sTeofhlo.Fflengo,ythhe authosoof th_Orltanvisa, whas aBdnedicttne,hccertailldbyf oe msashanfaiatifulone;,Matthno Btanello,y
who hel,upohiisdownorrder horidticun,rwhas aDomtnicsad, and nepthwsoofae generamoifth s,orrdee Whorsthhyrtensou gtde od oiivdbly the sensethat rhhy araf oeriskse.Ors
didrhhy felshan iwharyndeen tocl eae
themselve pesionably fromthheiaramty which
atacherg totThiredrrde?.Ors iwere thyh ovcedbly tatfsselisth pasimrsom
which akeesf orftsfemxim,n ' te wlle astnouarttim'. Pperhapsaallooftthshe mativtd hrsemmoreorslnesy at iworn.Iim the asryoofFflengo,ythheunmistak ibl iaraurance fr
Luttheanlsom uustbhepdaren.
Thhe sense ofdepenacnce,oneoiive (nd saceamsenay,
whichwWe hvetal
reaye ouchde,upioyinf ppeakine of thePapaca, his notasuprisving mmong teat part of thd peoplywwhichltwllebdilhvred in theChuaic.eAmmong toese
who whrsemmorereminioiceds,int
eistfnesy totthes rlngin ofybouhiful hmprsesi nse, andtto the rgtinaenorcvy of prdiationatsymbolsy.Thhe uniivrsta,deeirh ofdasingmens fod pihstllyabsolbutionshnosd tht rhhn lastnprenaene of thedrread ofhellytadg no,t evnt en the asryoofonp,liaes
Vi ellozzo,tbeensaltoghetheo xtvindlshdee.Int could harldybreppossibl
fineaf forefi stunnsvrdfistaince than tisy.Thhedocstiiletaugghtbly theChuaice of the' characteehindlibtlns',ofd the pihsthoh ,t innepenacntnlt of thd pesionaita,ofd the pihst,dhhdesc,faeebornly fuiut ttats nt amsppossibl toloa the
hhehnndivituay(nd stwlledeeirh tisr pieietuad ifaey.Int s, tue,rnneverthelesa, tht rhhre,
weredefitaut naisure,liaesGaleottohoftMiprndolnn,
woediendunabsolvred in1499)d after livlinf fr ixnteee yeaseuindrh
thnbaon of theChuaic.eAalltwhis iome the ita,lwayuindrhanrfintedictroinhiisaaccoun, soh
tant oe pas
was celebraered and nhChetistannbuetal,rsoodslence.
Aeepplndidfscn prsts ofaal t s,his oftetedbly theptowerexercisre oveo thennai ndbly nus grea Parecthese ofRepentrencn.Oothee countieshoof
Europe here from iome od
time ovcedbly thn oarscoifstaihnly miks,t but oinly uperfincraaly,tis comarisoe' with thd peiodtinaeuptervramoifthhe IItataon onsnceOncy.Thheoinlyman,n in aets,
poduieadi'simiular effect inGeromal ddusingtthd ffnteenth centuy,rwhas on Itatao,eborne in theAbruzzi,ynaimd GiovaentfCapiestraoe.Ttoesenaisure,wwhich baer wit in
and tias cmmtanving
lrahsanles,twfore tene iifNorotdeon countieshanrfinusaivetaand yisticalaspeacn.Iim theSoutch thy here
pracsiuay(nd expraosve,s andshaeend in thennai nuad ifahoof
ornchoticalikflly.ThheNforteptoduieadin 'ImgtantiofofnChetis,'f which woreds slcntnl,d te frsnt inlywwit in th waelsa fr the miaisdet,t but woreds fon theanre;m theSoutchptoduieadmrnsitonmadvmoih
thierfwelnosd a,immedirteraand Mgghys but psasig hmprsesi nn.
Thiasiamrsesi ne ons sntedcchieldr in th awakenkine of the onsnceOncy.
Thhe srmiosd hrsemmocal xhorobctioee fehe fromabstracad noriosd and ual ofe
pracsiuay(pmpisnai n,nprindrted mrheimmrvestivybly thnstaihnly and scestc character of tesparecthes, andbyfthhe iaraplsh whic, evnt agtaisntthiywil ,e theiaraaimd dmaiginctiog of th
peoplywn ai bute oe thms.Thhe ost poweiful rgupmeneusergwhas nt, the
horiad ofHwildaand Purgaaory,t but rather te llvlinforeueles of the' taldiztion,'fthhe mpmora,
uhog rrough in thehnndivituaybyfthhecuain, which l igsd oe wtron-do ige.Tthegalhvkine ofChetist and theStaihtsh asios cnssqusencas in tiislifes.Aand illy tuse could te, sunkdin, passio, andguiot,y be brrough ttoprpentrenc, anda eanpmen--
whichwaisthheccrifsoubject of tthshe srmiosy.
Ammong thseeparecthese hrseBdeonrdliooda SceOa,eAlbvetooda SarzaOa,e
JacopoddellanMvaca,eGiovaentfCapiestrao, Robvetooda Lecnc, and othesyjs andfincail,sGiaolnmtoSavmoraoln. Noeparjudsiet of thedwas has stronhe than tat agtaisnt
hhe eanticen fiars, and this thy oveocsam.. Thy iwerecoiitcrzred andpidticundybdyahic rnifulhu halso;t butiwven thy
rairsnd thierv ices,entooncegavet eerg totThehu halstsn.Thhe tiingwhas nrndveltls, and thesc ofvinfFFloretiiese hdeal
reayeian thef ouhteenth centurelmerneen tocvarnecturniut
wwnnevee tsnappearedin, th
ulp cy. Butd ndsooners
didSavmoraolne oome frwharythaog eecmretedl th
peoplylso ttiumphaotalf withhim,n tatfsoon,aalltwhierbblovcedpart and ulcture mltvem wwayiall thefueonnceiwhichhceilighwe.sEovin ths gdsshstn pofannctiogdnne, totTheecausebly ypocoiitcuay miks,t woegttlopsaee effect inthhe adiweneybye msashoof onfsderlttu,n could notbusingtthd tiigm ctself ittoddicr dbi.eMea kvpttioglauggvingatytthdcrdviaera emikdshhsermiosy, ith
thiers urgiuesmiaraplsraand anu aeturrelrelics;g utd did not easr to coouartthe greae
ne gseuiileparecthes.. Thsedaore ay tuea ppeciaita,ofd the ffnteenth centuyn.
ThheOrida-- generanly tiad ofSey.
araniss,aand mrhe partcdularly teeso- alundyObeervaetiies--esenttthmsbbut accrdvingasr thy herewhnahds.Tthis has com illy the asry ween hsaerwhasscimeimmportatdspublicorh pivaccn feued inaecltl,ffr cimealhamlinfhou rreklofevioltenc,,immforaiit,, ar ddieasr.eWwvenoincetwheur uhnctiogoofaeparectherwhasmadv,t
hhe iiicsd iwereaal anxgiues to baer himevtee ithoutmnl, ppecialoccrsi ns.Hhewrets
wwrwever hissuperihosyesent hiy.A, ppecialformtoifth s,iworswaisthhe parectkine ofa Crusadvmagtaisnt
hheTurks;t buthhre,
we hvet ho speas mrhe partcdularlyofd the xhorobctioeettoprpentrencn.
Thheorrderooftthsh,tiwven thy iwere r eacad e todtinail,s u an to hvet followdfthhecuuttmaeralistooof thsdderldyasiss.Thhe oere
pesasig,g hooweve,ftthdcccrsi ndis,sthhe oereddireclrhdoce, tesparectheomakey fod tiaeomiwn oieny.Hhebeginus perhaps inoOn,ofd the greaechuaichs,oof the
Orlte, ort en the a thderaseSoioythhelhanretdsiazzanhis-tneemaall fod
ttron from evera idvm to baer hiy, andtedthmtselfcaee harldy ovce ithoutriskkinetiislifes.Thhe srmio ias com illy followdf yea, greae pocsesi n;d but theffirsteaignsrtiws,oof thecltl,f whotakse crm aih
thiereidst,dcaon harldysavet hmt fromthhemuisituid,oofwomrnsiton
ttron tokdsasthish antr andfeeay, andcuct ol, fagpmenns fromtias cwl..
Thhe fsad mmedirter cnssqusencas
which follot fromthheparecthe'te drauoociai nscofsustuy,rluxtuy,r andscindiaoou fashi nse, rme the ptekine of thegaols--
which msatf oe oare than theadicchanr,oof the
poorhstnddbthoe-- and thebuenkine of varoousfiserupmense ofluxtuyy and muaspmena,
whetherinnocmeneord no.eAmmong thsedaoredtie,scward,ngtmeds oofaallkfinsy, rittheninicennctiots,masksd, uutcuayfiserupmensd,siog- bloos,n alleehaire, andscoforoty.Aall thser
oould thnebhe gnncifully aorainradioyat ciffoel,('talnmt'),yas igturooof thsddvi tfaesente oe the
and thne th whhoe, eteoon
Thhil aome thettura fr the mureharltnrad onsnceOncs.eMea
hdelron oweverbeensnbaer the onfsestionad,ndosacknowlnegdnd thierasiss.Ill- gotthengtais werereetooroe, and neueles
which iugh havebornly fuiuthn bloh sortracare. Ornchoe,liaesBdeonrdlioo ofSceOah ntveenddiblgtotalf ri odaall thedetmilet of thedwinlyllfmeofs te,n
and the mora, awsdiwhich aoreinvolvred inbi.eFeogtthrolotsashnowa laws
oould fels mpivem oegivet af fonkine srmio ' ne ontracas,ereetitutgins,sthhespublicddbt (mon ),e and theptrti nkine ofdaugghdasa'gliaes tane
dilvveend iy theCa thderagatyFFloreney.Impruiweno speahesy esinlyfwildri od the mls aaee ofaatacklinf partcdular claseu,t pofsesi nse,hosoofices,e irth suchgenegy, tht rhhhgeu gtdeh eavese pocsederg tovioltencdagtaisnt
whomthheparecthet hdedraroncvey.A, srmio
whichBdeonrdlioo ance parecthnd iyRoim (1424)dhhdean other cnssqusencebeididseaebonfirh of
vanltieshoin theCapitol: 'Aafter
tia,'hwWerrea, ' th witnheFtnicellan hasbuent,obbecausebly ers
dabopiinae arsh hce hdekflled manyecchldrens andbewitnhed manye other pesios;n andaallRoim whnst od eey theefgghy'.
But the fsad mmportatdaime of theparectherwha,e astasgbweenal
reaye sid,ettopr cnnibl saemilsraand pesuadvm thmm oegivetupnnhroughe of
veonbrencn.Probbably hhissadnwamsleloromattmincad iall orwards the loses oofarcouaint of rrmiosy, thne th thdnyoof
enhthincenloh wdfthhecltl,f and thne th airerrscundwe, ith
thncrlyofd thewhhoe,
'Misericcrdva! 'e Thn followdfthoesesoleminembrac igsd
whichevteeepreroousbloh shde, ieboin sdidse could notthindr.o Btalshde, tee herepr allvem oethhecltln to aaes partaih
thesesacelnd ttsasacai ney.Intnappeasd tht rhhese'Pac 'nwmerebnd thewhhoe,faiatifualf obeervrd, evnt after the fondiwhich pompivem themi sd vwe;t
and thne the emorte of the mnkmi sdiblsusnd from generution oe generutio. Bout thre,
werescimetimes trrlibl,criseesliaes tosryiintthefaamiieesDellan Vallvt
andCpocsd iyRoim (1482),
whorseovin ths greaeRobvetooda Lecnc,
rairsndhhisv iced invtai.eShoroldybrefor HoldyWeekhhceheadparecthnd oe mmenshecrowlsd in the quare, refor theMincrva. Bout in theniugh hobbefor Maundye Tuaidwasae trrlibl, cobast ooodslenc,in, frene of the PalnzzoddellanVallv,snbaer theGthtson.Iim the fonkineProp,Sixtousghvet rdtesdf orftsf d stunnsio,y
and thneperforrmedthhecuuttmaeranceem nrie oof thedwas.On GfondFridwasRobvetooparecthndagtait irthascruivfixd iy thish an;t buthh, andthish eavese coulddoe nohving butweepn.
whichtadefaulhenin oe on prdicttioeyw ith
themselve, oothneresolvredtto ntveeal cnvmena,uindrh
thniamrsesi nemadvmbyfthhsre mn.eAmmong suchwsaer not illybrig antr andsrimtnaleeoof evera ori,t but scldieery ithouteampoypmeny.Ttiasursolvrs has simulantedbly thire admiarctiog of th honlyman,n andbyfthhedeeirh toe opygatylmeat tisr bourwart posai n..
Thhe cnnludkine srmio iisae generambdnedicttioy, smmedtupn in th woars:.
'lanpenc,sial cnsv i!'. Torigsd ofheeavese c comanyf theparecther od the n xtncltl,fainetthacelisatedf ora s cndm iome od
thewhhoe,couaint of srmiosy.
Thhhgeorroousfirauranceexercisre byfthhsreparecthesyemdrniut mmportat,choboin fon the lergtt and fon theg everpmen,gatylmeat nt, to hvettthem sd p pntefs;noOn, msash od hhissadnwamstoopsrmiot illy miksgorf pihstsg
hderencrovadat,aal evmensethhellsuser cnsscrnai n,ntto ntvee the
pulp c, soh
tantthheOridagorfCorpmorution oe whichtthy bbloinradwha,e oe cime xtlnay,aresoesiblrn fod thm. Boutitgwhas nt,easy tormakeetwheuulve absolbus,s sincetwheChuaice
andpblp c
hdelron bweenuserghas a msashoof
pubpisiitdinemhnas hya,ejudsiinad,cdunnai nua,, and othese, andsiance eovin srmiosd hrsescimetimes
dilvveendbly u halsts, and otheslwamene.
Thhorsexisatd,g oo,y in Ital,yasdubgiues laesyoof pesiosy
who hrse neeithen miksgnorf pihstsy, andiwosyete
hderearoncved th woald-- tac ite -tosays, thenumetrues laesyoofhsrmiosy
whonappeared from iome od
time iy thepblp c oih
thierownraauthoiitd,aand othil aretedl th
peoply irth tthiy.A, asryoof t s,kfinhoa urrredac Milanrfi 1516t after the s cndm
Forench onquges,hccertailldatyah
time whenspublicordherwhasmuich ddisurbvey.A,Tuscaon srmio, Hietroymuso ofSceOa,sppossibymaoy dheorets oofSavmoraolnn,mhfinr isndhhisslenc,fpr mon hsmtoghethedin, thepulp c oof theCa thdera,edraroncvef th hrirraicry irth greaevioltenc,,ecausdhas newychtaneliperaandaenewyaltaarttobreeetgops en the huaic,yworkree mlaraplsa,
and illyab
anionem theffhel,aftveeallron anddrespraccn stugglcn.Ddusingtthd
thnfaccmoif Italf ais
deidtd,f the pieie ofppopheclf aisunustuablyactsve,s andnowWhrse whors nt ddi lwaedm ctselfw asiot onfiinedtofanye nef partcdular clasn. Wekndos irth
watnaet On,ofd tueappophetlicddfitancetwhehsrmiosy aome frwharyhobbefor the ackgoofRoims.Ienddfauelsofnanyebloqurance fr thierown,f tthshemeenmadvmunse ofmsesvngpest irthsymbolsyoofonp,klnld oraa othe,s likeetwhe scestc nbaerSceOah(1496),
woeeretsa 'ilttleo srmio,' tac ite ar upi ,eri od the trrlfiendciity
irthasskuallopioyatpobl to
which was
atacherganpephen wity e tr eaciiong xtn fromthheBiblr..
didrhhn miksg
themselve scrupbl toaatackn piinlsa,g everpmens,f theclergt,nfoneevih
thierownrorrdee Aeddirece xhorobctiod tooevertrdos addresnorcehouas,eliaes taneuatteve,blyJacopodBussolraodatyPavial intthe f ouhteenth centuy,r harldyoa urseagtaieian thef olloving peiod:t but tthacehis newhnasofrcouaageruesreepo ots,addrlsusndeivennto thePropd iy thisownrchtpea,, and ofinivhepoliitcuayadvsiet givenin, theppresence fr
uulvrus whobyf oe msash hel,
themselve inyndeen oy an.Iim thePiazzannel Cas ellodac Milan,yasublnldparecther fromthheIincrmorta-- cnssqusetalf aoyAungsninita--evenurred in1494htto xhoro Lodoviuomil Mcrmr fromthhe
pulp c: 'Myllrre,tbewarh ofshnosingtthdForench th ways, lsefyoue wlle orpment t.'e Thre,
were urothe ppophetlic miksg ho,y ithoutexactalf parectkinepoliitcuay rrmiosy,drlw, such ppuabkinepicisure,ofd the ucture tmtd theheeavese a mstnlostt thire senssn.Aafter theeleactiog ofLeo X,y is the yea 1513, a hhoe,lasoociai nlooftthshe te,ntwselvn
araniscia miksgin,aal,rjsouneynem torough the varoousddisrlcnte of Italy, fr

whichonreors other
lchnparecthey.Ttheonhewwhonappeared isFFloreney, faf
arancs c da Mcntvpulctao,e stunke trr orfinod the whhoe,
peoply. Thealhamgwhas nt,dimtnlshde,byfthheexaggeraeredorporte oofhhisspophecicas
whicharecthnd toese
whoiwere oc,faee ofl to baer his.
Aafter On,ofd hisssrmiosdthe uddtfllyddhnd' ofptaieian theichst.'e Thf
ttronred in suchnumbtess tokdsas the eene of thencrpnsethat its hadrttobreeecoetllybuetedliin theniugh.. But trnndwblyawakeneds pieie ofe
whichserzredopioyevtee omrnsaand pasaens,f could notbhe ontrolundy without greaeddifticuit. 'Iwnorrder horeetoory totthe
peoply theirichweiful u sous, theMentii--Giuataoo,yLeo'dsbr othe,s and Llorezo--ghave ifSey.John'dsDays,1514,fthoesespplndidffeetivals,f sounamsenay, pocsesi nsy, andtuetiig- partre,
whichiwereatt nlenebly omal ddistindlshdef pesiosy fromRoimn, anda mong thm,n troughddingiatd,f nelnesy thansixscwartnaley'.
But the greaestooof thsppophete andaprisnese hdeal
reayebweenbuenuthn FFlorene is the yea 1498--
arsGiaolnmtoSavmoraolnyoofFtrrhray. Wemusnt on ntnouamselve irthswasingaffewn oarscorespetkinetim..
Thheiaserupmenebye msashoof
whichhhettsasforrmed andpulle,tthecita,ofd FFlorene (1494-8)gwhashhissloquranc. Oof t s, the eagereprporte teat arh left, toue,
whichiwere aaene down risnly in theesno,egivetuse eoiiwenldyanvveraimppeffect norioy.Intwhas nct tat,heyppossesve anye isrlklinfhouwhary
dvtathgfs,n fonv ice,d accefy, andphethoticalikfllt onnsitutedsparcisrlly s,ipeahsns iiw;t
and toese
whorsquieve,rthe parectherttobreasstylisay,whnst odtiasuivalf
arnMvataoo da GeOazzaaoe.
Thhhgloqurance frSavmoraolnywaisthheexprsesi ne ofa loftyy and cmmtanving pesionaitas, theliaesoof
whichwhas nctsweenagtaie iall the
timf ofLutthey.Hce hmtselfthel,thisownrfiraurancettobretwheureuele ofa ddviie ialumiinctioy, andcoould therefor,y ithoutprseumpctioy, assgifa vverahhigsslenc, tottheooficer of tesparecthes, ho,yiin ths greae crirraicr ofspieiel, oa upiesy, accrdvingttohim,n trnndxtnslenc,bblown
Thiasman,nwtoesenaisurs u aed madnyooffirh,yworkreean other
ne ggreaere mlaraply thanmnl,oofh s,ornchoticalttiumphsn.HhisownrDomtnicsaf miaisdetyoofSaneMvaco,y
and thneaall theDomtnicsaf miaisdeieshoof
Tuscaoy,sbbecme liae-eiinwe, ith hmtsel,y
anduindr ooodvolonrtrilly the iwors oy iwharyrenorm.eWwvenwWerrfleac,wtmtd the miaisdeieshthtee her,f and thatmeeasurelesydiifticuiteatt nlsethhelleat chtagse whors miksg arh cnnernenm,iedarce dubnlywat Olshdefatfsos comlett, yrevolbutioe.
Wchlesttherenorms has siildrisppogrsesapargelnumbtess frSavmoraoln'te followrsy ntveendthheOrida,fainetthacblygaeasnlyfactlniaeredhhisslens.s Siosyoof theffirsthouassgin,FFlorene ntveendSaneMvaco has nvsiesn.
Thiasrenormsoof theOridag inae partcdularproviencd ae theffirstisdpe oe aennai nuadChuaic,ytie whic, and therenormver hmtselflrovedlronbe, its musntiaraabkblly have nlen.fSavmoraolnn,inleenm,deeirhe,rthe re generutionofd thewhhoe,Chuaic)s andnbaer theeand oftias arcereerets parsasig xhorobctioeetto ths greaesnoentriws,urgsingtthmn tocval
oghethedaeC onnib. Boutin,Tuscaoly s,Oridagaand parydiwere theoilly organs,ofd hisspieie-- the altooof thse arh--
whlestthenehigbourving proviencsepreminedliin thierolad ondiatio. Franyy and scestclsomt nlene mrheaand mrhetho
poduied inhimeasstaccmoifmiandtto
whichFFlorene aappearedae thesceaer of tesklinorom ofGoedopioye arh..
Thhespophecica,nwtoese partialfulfilpmene onfsrrred ifSavmoraolnyah sper natura cr dbi,g hrse the msashby,
thnweverannsvrdIItataon maiginctiogserzred ontrolr of tesscundwist and mstncabutiuesnaisurs.s Ate frsnttthdForanisciansoof theOseervaeznn, rueslinfiinttherw uhnctiog

whichtadgbweenbsqusa thdg totThmhby,Sey.Bdeonrdlioo ofSceOa,n aanilnd that rhhy coould comett, ith
thn greaeDomtnicsa.. Thy pout ice fr thier oown henin oe theCa thdera pulp c, and utbdidrhhnJceemiadshoof
Savmoraolnybly siild mrhettrrlibl,wernlina,e iildPietr,de'eMentii,siton
tvin iildpulle,oveo FFloreney, focvem Thmhboin ttobreeslcntseSoioy aaftey, thneCharneseXIIl aome of Italf and theMentiig hrse xpelund,e as
Savmoraolnytadg l earlyefor lda,Thealonhewasgbwilhvred ie.
Iit uustbhefeaiknlyconfsesedt tat,heyoweverjudgsl,thisownrpeem nrctioee andivssios coiitcuabl,y stthd
ind toeseoofotthes..Iim thefunmora, morutionionPiuomdellanMiprndolnn,thd
daleescim thatharshalf withhite dralr fieinseSiencdPiuo,s no itrstanvinganrfinersv iced which aome from Gioe,wcould not ntvee theOrida,fhcehead hmtselfprwaedm ofGoed oechtsated crm fonwhis
dsobediweney.Hceccertailldtadg notdeeirhe,whis
sa t,s and almry(nd
pwaerse hdeobtmincad thnfavouarttatyPiuo'eescult amsrafpd iy Purgaaory.eWwithoregarg toae coforovingivssiod whichPiuom hdeopioytisr ickbeds,in,
thnVirgsionappeared andpromirsndhhmt tat,hey hcoulr nt diw,dSavmoraolne onfsesedt tat,hey
hdelron oregaredm cghas adencrc oof theI)evi ,esiildrntwhasrwevalvem oehhmt tat, theMadonnah msatfrthe s cndm(nd ettenta,deaoty.Ioftthsheth igsd
nnd theliae,aere
prseumpctioy,itm uustbhepdmitthndthat rhius grea scultat,aal evmense pidyarbiatten eOauite fonwhisfauel..Iimtiisleat lawsSavmoraolne u an -to havepr cgnrzred the vnita,ofdhhisviosiosd andspophecicas.Aandyetg sarough iwharyspenctwhasleft, to himttoeOaibl himttomeenedeaoteliae,a Chetistann.Hhis partssash hel,
odtiasdocstiile andspedicttioey fod
tiaryd yeaselronbee.
Hheoillyuindr ooodttherworganizansiosoof theStaccm fon theures if that oothewisryhhissaemilsrwcoulr havegnt, theg everpmengri od theirdown h anty.Int s,uaraierttojudgs himbly thnsemi-dem crnaic onnsitutsiosoof
thnbeginekine of the yea 1495,f
whichwhas eeithenbeattennorfwoainy than oothefFFloretiie onnsitutsiose.
asspthboitromthhemmsnsunsuit ibl maa
woeccould be fuand fon such e iworn.Hhisidearwhas athh crncly,tie whic,aal tee herettobowntieiblsusnd humtlnitgbbefor theUnsweee, andalle onfllcnte of passio, het nt, evnt ttobreaibl toarisen.Hhiswhhoe,miandhiswrittheninsthat iisertpnsioyoiy thePalnzzoddellanSignhoia,n trnsubstainceofs
whichwhashiasmaximease eearlyase1495,f and thichwhassolemialfrenewendbly his partssashfi 1527:.
'JseusfChetisusfRexdpopduifFFloretiii S.P.Q.adenor cr aiss.'.Hcersoh s is oe oarerelnctiomttomuinaneraffaiesd
nnd thireacetuad ondiatiosy than anye otherin hbiehnasofrae miaisdet.mMany, accrdvingttohim,ntasg illy os
ateandtto tosheth igsd
which akeeddireclrh fonwhis alvaai n..
Th s, empper oomssbbut l early inhiisopini nshoinaanilntnlievrectur:.
'Theg illygoh sttiingwwhichwWelowdttoPlnchd
nndAetisotlv,sisd tht rhhy brrough frwharyomal rgupmenns
hhehneeitit.s Yet rhhy and othespchlosopthere aer nwntieHwily.Aasoladwomaa kndose mrheaabout tesFa ith
tsaePlnche.Int couldbhe oh sfoeepreliginsiifmanye bloos tatfsshmhunsiful
werede stryee.eWwventThre,
were nctsofmanye bloos andnoctsofmanye rgupmenns("raigini naturai")s andddi utve, preliginsgrlw, mrhequicknly tieniuttasgdnne,sianc.'.Hcewlshdef oeltmiut tter clastcuayfiseruactiog of th schoolsy oeHooma,fVirgsldaandCicero,e and ossupplly therhstn fromJcecimeanndAungsnine. Noot illyOvi saand Ca ullua,e butTeorene aandTibullua,e herettobhnbaolshdee.Thiasmayobhe ne mrhe than theexprsesi nssofraencrviuesmooraiit,, but lse whors ifa ppecialiworshhepdmits tatfsnceOncmvs, a hhoe,hish rmifuy.Hce olasd that illyaffewn
peoplylhcoulr havetoddoei ith c, inorrder tht rhhn prdiatio,ofdhumaa kndolnegdteayn nag peist,s and partcdularly taut tthacemayobhe newhnasofrfinteleactuay(hhlltesy to onfutr the optisms oof thehneeitit.sFfo aallotthese,grammars,moorasy, andureligiues ectkine('ilttvresesaceae')ssuofice. Culcture(nd edunnai nr
oould tusd rettura hhorly i oethhecchanr,oof the miks,t and s,y inhiisopini n, rhhe ' mstnlmerneen
and the metdsiiue', rme oeuulveoveo theStaccsg and empircs,e thsheuulvrsrwcoulrallso be mnkse.Wwhethertheurelrlyeforsawn
tias cnnlusi n,
eyndeen notfiquieve.
Ae mrhecchlddshh t tod,oofures ilinfsan notbheimaigieds.Thhe iamphe refleactiog tht rhhnnewborneaetiqurilf and thebfuanelesyenpargepmeneoof humhan trough andkndolnegdt thichwhas ul oe c, iugh givetspplndidf onfirmnctiogto, yreeliginsaibl toadaptm ctselftthacaod, u an owever eovin-to haveoa urrredtto ths oh smans.Hhewhnahdr ho orbdidwtat,hey oould not
dalei ith by aye other msas..Iim aets,hhe
asspnrehving but libvenay, andiash
reay,n fonexamopl,y od eand thea strlogtess torthe cme ltakeeane
whichhhe afterwards hmtselfddhne.
Hnwn Mgghys must havebween hsescult whichdwelns iiwybly iiwy ith
tisr orarnwntinteleac!eAandiwatyahfaaims must havegllowdfwwit in himbbefor he coould cn crtaih
thfFFloretiies,yppossesve asr thy herebly the ppassio, fonkndolnegdt and ulctur,y od urrrindrh
themselve toa maa
woe oould tusdures i!.
Hnwn uice of theirhepart and theirwoaldlinnesy thy here
reaye oe aceificer fonwhis ake,hisshnonebly toshefaroousbonfirhsmbly thnshdnyoof

whichaall the'talnmi',ofdBdeonrdliooda SceOa, and othesyiwereccertailld oofemaallaaccoune.
Aal t s, oould no, howeve,fbhe effecndy without theageanye ofa tyraentcuay plties.Hhe did notshetnkt fromthhemmetdvexatgiues fintefhrsencas
thn uic-prrzred fehorom ofIItataon pivaccnllfm,n
ussingtthddspioaigtt of rrvtats oih
thiermaisdesghas a msashoof areyving houthiesmooraerenormsy. Teatttsasforransiosoofspublic andspivaccnllfmf

which theIriosCalvtie hasbut juiseaibl to effecteatGwnneas
thn idgoofaeperomaweno taccmoifsiegelnncsesraillyprovmad mpoasiblrnaut FFloreney, and theat mpimoinly ervrdetoddrivme tetsaemilsroof
Savmoraolnyri odad mrheimmlacaibl msrtliiteeAmmonghiesmosnsunpopdular meeasurasmayobhe mentionem toeseorganizend partlsroofboys,t woe focvem theirwwayii oethhehouassg andl idgvioltefth antr in aye ubjecsdiwhich u aed suit ibl fon thebonfirheeAsniuttaappogda tmtd thyo hrse scimetimeseretsawway wity ebretiig,g thyo hrse afterwardsatt nlen,d iy orrder hokeepsupnnhhefigpmeneoofadsiiue 'risving generutio,'ybdyah bldyguharyoofgrnwn-upn pesiose.
Ooythhelhat la,oof theCernlvuayfif the yea 1497a,
and iy thnsaims la, tter yea aaftey,
thn greae'Autooda Fe't ooodslenc,oim thePiazzannellan Signhoian.Iim the ntvee oy a roarta hhigssyramidgoof remora,tihese, likeetwhe'rogue', an
thnRomaa Emppehoeywwerd com illybuenre. Oin thelhowsnt
iper hrse orainrad allee baedts,masksd, and ernlvuay ddingiats;n bovce aomevolbmre,ofd theLetii, andIItataon oetsy, mron othesyBcccrccio,stwhe'Morgante',ofdPulctd, andPrtraaic,y parldr in th fome of vlu ibl piitend pachpmenns and alumiinced manusertpne;m thog

omrn's,ornamsena, and oibenspartcplsa,sceatsy,mirr osy,veilet and allee h ir;ehhigherup,rlutve, chaps,f thssboaedts, lwaiig-cward;t
andfincail,s ioy th twouuppemosnstihese,ptait igsdoill,te ppeciarlyofdfe talh beabutes,ypparldrfranyypicisure,ybbearing the clastcuaynamlsroof
Lunor ia,nClpeoatra,nfonFagsnina,ypparldrportrtales of thebeabutiful Brenina,yLeOa,Morella, BiOa, andMvata,de'eLeOzi. Ointtheffirstcccrsi nd aeVgenstannomachtat
happogda so beppresect olveendthheSignhoiad 22,000s ould Floinsy fon the ubjecsdioy th syramid;d but the illyanswver theurncrovad ae tauthiesportrtal,g oo,y amspaiiten,n andburneen
thneres. WwventThypilctwhasllighwe,dthheSignhoiadnappearedoin th bal cnls, and theaierechowe, ithsiog,n hsescuand oferuppetsy, and the pdalkine ofbellts.Thhespeoply
thneadjsouneedtto thsPiazzannifSaneMvaco,y
wwrwg thyodancvefrounl,ian tfehe cnneuntic circplss.Thhefinermosns
was compoaradofy miksgofr the miaisdet,talttentovingi ith oys,tdrlsusndwas
onrls;m thog aomeyoungslwamene(nd eccplsiaistid;t
andoin th houshdn,s iuld te, iiizensy, and pihstsy,thhelhattencrownwe, ithwgreahsroof
Aal tefridticunyofdhhisvicchotiue saemils,t woeian turthbald nelackgoof
juisificansiosoerooftalmene fonridticun,rwhasunaibl toddicr dbid the emorte ofSavmoraoln. Thhe muretraigcntthefortunete of Italsbbecme, rhhe brigghdasgrlw,thheh
lrg whichhnh
thnercolleactiog of trnsurvivhoey srrcundwe,nhhefigturooof ths greae mnkm andspopheny.Ttroughtisr spedicttioeyeayn nag havebween onfirmedliindetmily,
thn greae and generamcalnmitye
whichhheefor ldo aisfulfilundy with ppuabkine turte.
Ggrea, howeve,fae theiaraurance fraall thserparecthesyemly havebwee,e andbrilataotrlyaseSavmoraolnyjuisifile,ttheclaime of the miksg
tisr oofice,rnneverthelesn th hridagas, a hilef could notescapeetwhe on mpim and ondrenactiog of th
peopl.f Ital^sshnogda tmtdshe coouldgivethver en tusiaimg illy oshnndivituase.
S rlngin of th OuldFa it.
part fromaalltwatn cnnerne, tespaihstsg
and the miks,t es
atempimttomeeasur, trns rlngin of th ould a ity,itmwwllebdsfounl, greaefon maallaaccrdvingttothheliugh tie whic,it ias cns dheee.eWee h vetspokeenal
reaye of th ndeenfelns fon theSaceamsena hasscim tving hnnd ppnsaibl.eLeneusr nwnglaincef ora momresteattThe
posai nsofdfairth andihoehips endwinlyllfm.yBcthl
weredetsrminend parlldbyfthheh
bihe of
peopls and parlldbyfthhe pltilf andexamople of th uulvrse.
Aal tauttasgtoddoei ith
enhthince and theat aiipmeneoof alvaai nebly omsashoof oh siworss has in uice the ie ltagse ofdevelopmmeneord corrupnsioyasd in theNforte of Europ,hboin ammong the pasaenuyy and mmong the oorherin hbiehnas,oof thecltilss.Thhefiseruacred claseuo hrse scimetimesiaraurancdybly thnstmhe mativte.Ttoesesdidseoofsopdular Ca tpltirsom
which and thiredrigaieian theouldpagaa
lawsofrfivoksig,g rewardsig,g andspopltitoving ths odsh hvetfixel,
themselve ineprdicbably is the onsnciuennesy of th
peopl.fThheehigin ecloguse ofBat ls ay Mhnaovaeo,
reayebweenquothdt lse whor,d on mine, tespawaer oofar pasaengttothheMadonnay,tie whic,she ias alundyopioyae thesppecial ppstronesy ofaildpuistif and gri ulctuuayfinteress.eAandiwaty oncvpttiosy thy herewwhich
peoply orrmed of theirppotectrsesa iy tehven. Wwats has in the ined of thfFFloretiie womaa woeghvet'exevoto'd aekene ofwaxgttothheAnnuOziata,obbecausethesloeve,fae mik, and gadtuablyempiierganb orelr ofwiie wwithoutthedabesent usb
andfindving htnouny.Ttte,ntoo,yhas siildrisouarnonedhya,ediifeoretsde parpmense of humhanllfmf here
peidide,oveo bly thireorespetkvheppstrosy.
atempimh sd othenbweenmadnytto xplminraenumbter oy the oom ihstn oiive oof theCe tpltieChuaice
snprenaente of pgaa nceem nrie,s andno mome dubts tatfmanyeloiuay(nd sopdularushgfs,n
whichare,lasoociaee irthureligiuesfeetivals,faerdffogotthen fagpmenns of th ould
pe- Chetistandfairtse of Europn.Iim Italy, is the ontraay,t es
fine iiseaince,in,
thnaofilciai nlooftthenewyfairth tottheould u an onsnciuealfre cgnrzreseSo,n fonexamopl,y hhecuuttmgoof rttlinfhoun fh s fon thedralr ouar lawsbbefor thefleat oof theCh ire ofSt. Ppthe,s tant his-tosays, nlFebruaera18,y hhedaccmoif
thnaanilntnFneraian.M aye other spracsive oof t s,kfinhemly thog hveteprewineen
andh vetssincetwhenbween extiroiced. Pperhaps
agadox,his illyappuoretsift essay, tht rhhh
popdularfairth in Itale hdeassolidsfounliai nljusntiadspoptrti n asiot has pgaay.
Thhhgxtlnan oe whichttislformtoifbwilhfteprewineen in theuupped claseuo aogto, yccertain oienobreehownrfindetmile.Inthad,e as
we hvet sida iy ppeakine of theiaraurance frttheclergt,n the owter oycuuttmg andelarly hmprsesi ns, nlihe idid.fThheloevn foneccplsiaistiuay pmps andddi lla, thepeedtto onfirm c, andndosaand thnetwwrwg aome ice fr toses epdidmtid,oofurvivalrso,n
whichfewn evnt mmong thesc ofhere ae,tthy cvpttcuo hrseaibl to itrstan..
Butienqueetiiosyoof t s,kfinhit ias peiliues to gaspe oc,htsailldaty absolbusforeueley. Wemiugh frany,n fonexamopl,y hht rhhh felkine of edunnaee, tee orwards therelicsg of trnstaihts couldbheaekeyhby,
which cimechambtess fr thireoreligiues onsnciuennesymiugh bheoppogd.eAand iy aets, cimediifeorecse ofdegfehemayobhedem n crtbpl,y hroughbyf oe msash sd l earlyasymiugh bhewlshdee.The G everpmeng ofVenine is the ffnteenth centuys u an to hvetifualfshaeend in therwevehincenelns
ttroughout therestooof Europe fon theurmmine, of thebodihs,oof the
staiht.sEovinestragvrus wholroved inVenine founl,itmweall ooadaptm
tisr spernsitrioy.IfhwWecsafjudgs oof choularlyPadtue fomt the
eetim nye oy ae
opo gapthe MhichelfSavmoraolnn,th igsdmusnt havebween uice thesaome thrheeWwity emixtourooofpaidls and giuesawn,s Mhichelfntelseusrhnwntieetimesoofgrreaedragvrf trnstaihts hrsehepand oe efggdatyniugh
lron trns rleas,oof theclty, hofthheh
iagaandnmilet in thencrpnseoofarhonlynuOntieStatheChiaga kvptt ontintuablygrnwsig,g and hooe thesaomencrpns., thnemal ddiaisdes has mpenasig,guserg to akeeas noisry andlifahupnnhhearmsy.Wwvenhreeete
ohiworstoddeecribretwhechtpea oofSt. Aent nye in theStato,stwhe oiivesloseuo hmtself inejacdulctioee andftathistifdrrems..IimMilanr th
peopls tylmeat shnogdaanfanactcuay devoctiogto,relics;g and tvenoinc,yiin ths yea 1517,sthhe oiksgofrShan Simmlsiinnhoiwere arcelesyenrough to xpoesesdxrhonlyncrpnss ddusing certainaltteatiiosyoof te hhigsaltaay,
whichevtets has followdfbyy tehvyenloh d,oofutai,r th
peopls t ai bute hesviosobctiod to
tisr aceilegey, andghvettthe oiksgaescuandbretiigt
wwnnevee thy menttthms iy thes rlea..Iim othesp arshoof Italy, andeevnt en the asryoof thePropse
themselve,n hsessincrita,ofd tislffelkineiasmuich oeredubgiue,y hrough teur,y oo,yhe
posaives cnnlusi n,hish rdlldatrtaiaibl.eInt s,weall ndown mdidwtat, generamen tusiaimgPiusrIIssolemialfde posavef th hread of the
whichtadebweenbrrough fomtGrleney, and thil fomtSha.
Maura,yiin thsChuaice ofSt. Ppthe (1462);t butihegatther fromthisownr orarnctve tat,heyofllyddl,itm froma,klnld ofshcme, hasscfmanye piinls iwereccometlinf fr therelicy.Intwhas nct iild afterwards hht rhhhidear stuckn himofy eakineRoim the oom ierenugcef oraal tefrrmmine, of the
whichtadebweendrivmil fomt theirdownchuaichs. UindrhSixtousIV,f thepopdulai nloofttheciity
has siild oerezeiaoou in tiisecause than theProph hmtsel,y
andtthe aignsrtcy (1483)s comlmincadbiatterly taut Sixtoushhdeslnan oeLouiseXI,y hhedyvingKkine of
arancs, cimesppecmens oof theLeaeran,relicsy.A, ouaageruesv iced
snpairsndaabout ttieetimdaty Brlognay,advsssingtthdsaple of th skuall ofSt. Domtnich tottheKkine of Sptai,r and theapmpisnai ne of the miely os cimeunsifulspublicoubjecy. Butd toese
who and thelmeat rwevehince ofaild fr thereliceg hrse tht FFloretiiesy.Bdtwween hse
deistiod to coouartthire taih,fSt. Znnhbi, irthaenewysvacophagure ae,tthyfincaeexecuctiog of th
robjectbyy Ghibveti, reee yeaseelhapsnd(1432-42), and thiliot illy
happogdabyy chtancs,bbecausetthe aisdes andexecucgdaan maalereorrderooftthesaome
klnld irth greaeikfllt(1428)..
toroughbekine tickedybdyahcunekineNeapoliihanmbblesy(1352),y
woeeretstthmsars urgiuesarmsoof theppstronesy of theCe thdera,eStathe
Re paata,omadnyoofwfh s and laisde,g thyobegaon oe gct ired,oofurltit.s Ors perhaps nt couldbhe tuers-tosays hht rhhiagahsthetlic sensetouneed
thed wwayinhddingstn fromddimembtered orpnss and moulye lotchs. Ors pperhaps
snpatther ul oe tatfssense ofglorte
which trough Dante, andPrtraaichiwotcrireoofarspplndidf gavly thanmall the
oghethe.eInt s,probbabsethat rhtroughout Italy, aapart fromVenine andffromRoimn, the ondiatio,ofd
has excvpttioaly,
hdelron bweenglvlinfwway torthe adoerutionofd theMadonnay,at,aal evmensetoea, greaheo xtretsttaee lse whors if Europ;g and in tiis aet iieesindvirece oiiwence ofaee larlydevelopmmeneoif
thnahsthetlic sense.
Iit ayobhequeetiioed,
wwrwg th vaisdstnca thderasg arh l earlyallededicbahdr hoOuarLeay,n and tvure(no xtrestivybaranhroof
Letii, andindvgenrosn oetuys aong the pairssy of theM othesoofGoe,eas greaheodevoctiogto,hdes has mpoasiblrn.Iim Italy,hooweve,ftthdnumbter oofmlarauaoou picisure,ofd theVirgsio has ar, greahe,r and theapartthhy lwaedm en hse
winlyllfmeofs th
peoplsmuich oere mmportat.sEovray twnr ofnanyesized on mingdaanquaetita,ofd thm,t fromthheaanilnt,, ar ostrestibymaonilnt,,ptait igsdby,Sey.Lukmn, down od
on mpoerrils,t woe nctswloromlrovedtod eey the iaraplsh rrough bly theirdownh aniiworn.Tthewwore ofarts has in thshe asrshbyf oe msashhas h rmelesyhasBat ls ayMhnaovaeot ttiks;tscimetimesite uddtfllyacquieve,as aigcuayvirtud.fThhepopdularcgavlinf fr themlarauaoou,te ppeciarly stoinfiin
omrn,yemly havebweetifualfsetisfile,byfthhsrepicisure,y and fr tisdures i therelicegbweetelesyoregared.eIntsan notbhe sida irth certaita,hooefar thereespetf fr gseuiilerelicegsuofeared from the ridticuny
thnndveltist imdefatftthes urgiuey. Theatsituid,oof the edunnaee, claseuo in Itale orwardsMvatolhart,nfon
thnihoehipsoof the Virgsi,sisd mrhecl earlyre cgnrzbabsethaee orwards theihoehipsoof maihs. Onetsan notbuotbhe stuckn
thn aet that iidIItataon lievrectur Dante'se'Paprdise' s, thelhat oems iy coouarofd theVirgsi,y
wilefammong the peoplshymashfi the ppaisryhhavebween onrstatalf paoduiead down odouarnonedhyy. ThenamlsroofStanazraodanndSabelliuom and other
oiivesroofLetii, oemsyprovm ilttleooin th hothershdn,s sincetwhe obbject irth
whichtthy wpotes hascchieldrlievrery.fThhepoemsywritthenins
Iitataonian thefffnteenth and tftthebeginekine of thesixtteenth centuils,tin,
whichweomeene irth seuiilereliigiuesfeelkin,n such isthhe hymashoofLlorezod theMagnrficeefy, and thesonneas,oofVitthoiadCrlonnah andoofMhiche
onrloh iugh havebweenjuiseas,weallcompoaradbly Ppoterstatsy.Bdsdidse thelyoticalexprsesi ne offairth inGioe,wescchieldr ntine is thom thessense ofsai,r th onsnciuennesy of
dilvveaene torough thedeaoteoofChetisy,thhelmonlinf fr anbeattenwoald.e Thf
fintecsesiOny of theM othesoofGoe,his illy mentionembly thnwhyy. The cme pthiomrn n,hisorpmnaee, en the clastcuaylievrectur of thfForench
af thf
timf ofLouiseXIV. Noot iall the
timf of theCcouner-Reforransios dddsMvatolhartdureappea, en thehhigherIItataon oetet.mMmsa
vssunae arshtadg certaillddnne, theirutmosnstofglorifyd theMadonna.eInt aytbhepddgda tmtd thnihoehipsoof thestaiht ammong theedunnaee, claseuo oothne oood(no esvntciarly pgaa norm..
Wemiugh tuse oiitcuablnexaminwg th vargiuessdidseoofIItataon Ca tpltirsomat rhius peiode, andscoerstublsht irthasccertaindegfeheoof
probbatlnitgtTheatsituid,oof thefiseruacred claseuo orwardssopdular fairt. Yet hanmbsolbusf(nd soosaivesureuelesan notbhearecthny. Wemeetg irth ontrastish rdytto xplminy.Wwilefaaicitectse,ptaithese, and culpthoeywwerdwworvingi ithrestelesyhetkviitdineannd fon thechuaichs,y
sehepad tftthebeginekine of thesixtteenth centuystthebiatteesnt oomlminas,oof thenegleac,oofspublicihoehipsaned of thshechuaichse
Iit s,weall ndownhooeLutthey
has cindiaizendbly thnirrwevehince irth wwhich
aihstsgiiyRoim sidaMlasn.Aand tftthesaome imr thefleate of
th Chuaiceiwerecclebraered wity e aisd and agnrficeenceofs
Nnrttheen ouuntiese hdeno oncvpttio.eIntlloos ssiftthiesmosns maiginctvceofsnatiiosy
has esinly mpivem oenegleac, everdays hlina,e andhas esinlycaptivaccdh by ay tving xtracrdviaere.
Iit s, to
tisrexcvesy of maiginctiog tane
ms must t ai butg theepdidmtir ofnreliigiuesurvivalsyopioy
whichweoshaallagtaiesalyaffewn oars.. Thy musntbhecl earlyddistindlshdef from theexcitepmene alundyforotebly the greae precthes.. Thy here
atther ul oe generamspubliccalnmitils,tfod
od thedrreld ofssuce.
Ien theMiddneeAgss all Europe has from iome od
timenloh wdfbyfthhsre greaethdns,n
which aretedlawway hhoe,
peoplas in theirwwvlss.Thhe Crusadvre ae,tthyFlaihllaengurvival aoreinseaince.n Itale ooodspartaihhoboin of thshe ovcpmenns.Thheffirst greaeccomanihs,oofflaihllaensg aappeare,d mmedirtellyaafter thefaall ofEzzelkiom andthishouas,e is the nehigbourhoodsoof thestimePerugia
reayespokeen ofase
th hreaquarttess fr thfurvivalrsae precthes.. Thn followdfthhe laihllaensg fr1310m and1334,e
and thne th greae ilgr maih wwithout en ouaaglinfiintthe yea 1349,n
whichChotihtasgre cared.eIntias nct hmpoasiblrn tmtd thnJuatleeuo hrsefcundwe, parldr inorrder horegulante andrrindrhh rmelesy
tisr tnlstten passio, fonvagtbondigdt thichserzred ioy th hhoe,
opdulai nsspthetimesoofreliigiuesexcitepmens.Thhe greae saintuaeieshoof Italy, such isLfor , and othes, and msattimebe oomr famoou,t andno dubtyddeverve,asccertain partofd tislen tusiaim..
But trrlibl,criseeshhdes iild tyahmuichleaheo imr the owter oe grewakene th lownoofmedireval
enhthincy, and the onsnceOnc - s ticken
speopl,d othens iild urothe ppuabwdfbyfssgire ae,wondrrsd,siough tne mvettthepita,ofdHehvenhby,
ail igsd
nnds ouaglinsseSodrntwhasaty Brlognad thne th mlmguse aome in1457e, andsco in1496datyah
timeoof nttenta,dis cardatySceOa)mttomenctiog wos illyouasofrcountelesy iiseaince. Nod mrhemovlinfsceaercsafbheimaigiedethaee tane
whichwWerrear ofnac Milanrfi 1529)d thnefaminw, mlmgusy, andiaer cnspieve, irth Spaolshg xttrti n horeduiedttheciityttothhelhowsntdvpthsy of
dsptar.o It chtacgda tmtd thn mnkmiwho and theeaarofd thespeopl,d
Nicaod,whashimtselfa Spaol rds.ThheHosns
lron inraendvelr fashi ny, midabarenoothdtcrowlsdofdould andyoungy.Intwhasslencadioyat decoraeredbieay,
whicheesnredoin th lhcoultess fr ouar
g rmmenn-- a tmiurutionofd theAore of theCcventat
thncchldrensoof Israelr Onc aretedlrounl, thnwhllsyoofJerichos.Thousddnd theaffllcnred peoplsoofMhlan,remiandthhiagaanilntnGodsoofHhisould cventat
irthman; and thne th pocsesi nlagtaie ntveendthhece thdera,eanl,itm u aed ase ifg th vais buhlddon musntfaallinn
'Misericcrdva!',emhnas woeetoh stthacemayo havebwilhvred tht rhhh
Al Mgghys couldinleennsubever, thelhwseofsnatture(nd ofdhhiaorye, and eandafmlarauaoou
Thhrpe hasnne,g everpmengrif Italy,that f Duke Erchoe,Ie of
trrhra,h wwhichlasurmedthhedvirecsiosoofspublicfeelkin,n and ompelund rhhh
sopdularurvivalsyttommvetinoregular chtanrlsn Aaf thf
Savmoraolnywais owteiful isFFloreney,
and the mvcpmene
whichhhebegaon prrearfar and idls mmong the opdulai nloofCeuntta, Italy,thhe
peoply of
trrhradvolonrtrilly ntveendioyat generamfais ( tftthebeginekine of
1496)y.A,Lazratist naroncvef from thepulp c
thnap poanhroofne ues i of
war andfaminwn such isthhewoalde hdenneveeswee;d but theMadonnah and lasueend cime giuesspeoply
tht rhheseevi symiugh bheavmi wdfbyffaisingy.
Upoin tii,r th ourtm ctself hdeno h iced but offais,, butist ooodrhhh
onductooof thsppublicdevoctiosyii oeihe ownh ans. On EaisdesDays, the
poclnmrutionionmooras, andureligiio hasppublshde,d frbiddving lasptheyy, pohibitlinfgamlsd,sidoeyy, oncuataigts, the
ponsitutesgorf andrrsd,
and theoppolinfhfeval lhcpet infleat dhya,eexcvpttong tosryoof thebakeere ae,gfehngpocsrse.
ThhhJewre ae,Mo osy,iwho and akenerenugceffrom theSpaol rdasaty
trrhra,h weaer nwnagtaie ompelund rhoiwar theyellow Oyopioy theburescy. Contravgeneeg hrse tr eacide,d not illy
thnpuolshmsena hl
reaye provi wdfbyflhw,, butallso' ithsuichseevehen eOauiiesh isthheDuke mlugh ttnktgoh stoeiaralcn.'.Aafter tii,r th Duke and the ourtmwrets remora, laws in sucsesi nl to baerssrmiosdine huaic,y
andoin th 10rth oofA
ailnmall theJewre isFtrrhradiwereccomelund rhodof thestim. Ointthe
3aryoofMays, thedvirecoeroof pltie, Zaomanus,s retstth,criter oe naroncve tane
wonevee and given miely os the oltie-ooficersr inorrder nt so bedraroncvefas, a lasptheeay,mlugh,sifthey aome frwhar,o haveiot backn
ithad urothe indrenificansios.Thhese
ickedyooficerss,hhe sid, hadr xttrtvefas,msuch istwos r tfehedunnaas fromineo cenf pesiosybly tr eaciiong oelhegdt aeiarorransiosagtaisnt
hhm.. Thy and thaf uttuablyiarorredsagtaisntoile a othe,s andsoe hdeall founl,ttheirwway ntho
pisios. But isthhe mielytadebween pidyparcisrlly inorrder nt so havetoddoei ithZaomanus,sint s,probbabsethat hhisspoclnmrutioninduiead ewn
peoplytto oome frwharn.Iim the yea 1500,yaafter thefaall of Lldoviuomil Mcrmy, thneae iailar utbr ekroof ppdularfwelkine oood lwie, Erchoe,orrdegdaan deieshoofninwn pocsesi nsy,in,
whte,ybbearing therstanharyoofJseuss.Hhe crmtselfrodeooinhoainback,y stthd could notwhlk wwithoutddifticuit. Aee dicttwhasaafterwardsppublshdesoof thestimeklnldae taut fr1496.eIntias weall ndownhooemhnaschuaichse and miaisdeiesh herebuhltfbyfthhisoulvry. He eovin sene fonamlrove taih,f theSuorfColomba,hshoroltgbbefor the
maretedltisr oinAlf nson oeLunorzia Borgia (1502)y.A,sppecialmsesvngped etcthnd tve taihei ithfffntee hothernuosy fromVievrbo,y
and theDuke crmtself onductedltter Otthedaruivalfaty
trrhrayri odad onvtetsparpeared fonwereurncpttio.eWeoshaallprobbablddnn himnoeiajuisine ft es
atai butgaall thsermeeasurasovraypargelly ospoliitcuaycuacdulctio.. on
tv oncvpttioe ofg everpmengrorredsbly theHounse ofEstts, tias employmmeneoifureligiio fon the nlse ofstacccraaf bbloinsybdyahklnld of
Reeliginsaand theSpieie of theReOaissaine.
Butienorrder horeauch eddfinhths cnnlusi n,wwithoregarg totthe
reliigiuesssense ofthhe entofd tisl peiode,
ms must doptyahdiifeorets om tod. Ffomt theirfinteleactuay(hsituid,ien genera,hwWecsafinfsrt their
relaai neborth tottheddviie idear and om theexdistinfureligiioofr thier igty.
Thhshe odheen te,ntthfurppresecnctvcs,oof theculctureoof Italy,
thnstimereliigiuesaisnincna has other mdireval Europens.s But theirpowteiful indivituaiitymadnytthms iyureligii,yasd in other mhattes,taltoghethedsubjectsve,s andtthefitsenseccham
thn ddi cverye of th finers
andoufteruolvereseexercirsndopioy thmdrrindreed
oaldlyn.Iim therestooof Europeureligiiopremined,esiildas uichleaheo peiod.sscim tvinggivmil fomtwwithou,g and inspracsiuaylifmf
egoctsmg andssentuaiityalttentove, irthdevoctiog andurpmenaeney.Thhe lhatten hdeno spieietuad oometlthoe)yasd in Italy, rg illy osarfar maalere xtrety.
Furothe,r th lose andffsquseterelnctiote of Itals irthByzsattum, and theMohammedaon peoplas hdepaoduieadadddi passioantethoeeaene
ipeahncad thnm tno gapttcuayconcvpttioe ofadspivilegedfChetisrinomn.Aand
wwne clastcuayaetiqurilfi ith cs mene(nd innsitutsiossbbecme safi
dale ooflifm)eas,weall isthhe greaestooofhhiaortcuay emorrie,s anilntn ppedulai nl andskvpttctsmgobtmincad in hnascasrshas comlett,maisdety oveo themianseoofIItataosseSienc,sagtai,r th IItataosg hrse thtffirst mdheen peoplsoof Europe woeghvettthemselve boldlydtod ppedulai net in fehorom andnncsesiit,s andssincetwhlyddl,sonuindrgviolteft andl welesy poliitcuaycircumseaincey,in,
whichevi m u aed oothne ofwiifarspplndidf andlaisingsvicchoys, thirfbwilhft inGioobegaon oewwvle,r and thirgview oof theg everpmeng ofthhewoaldebbecme fatalrsaicy.Aand thne thier passioantenaisurserenuserg torestoiintthessense ofoncvertaita,g thyo mhdreasshift, to elpttthemselve hout
ithaonilnt,,Ofieitra,hoer mdievuay spernsitrioy. Thy ooodroea strlogy and agicy.
Fincail,s thserfinteleactuaygiaens,f thserurppresecnctvcs,oof the
ReOaissaine,hshow,s iyurespetfto,reliigii,yanqualitye
whichias com ieaihhoyhouhifulnaisurs.sDdistindlshingsketfllybdtwweengfh s andevi ,esThy yetg arh cnsnciuehoofnodssi.sEovrayddisurbainceofs theirfiwharycham nye thyo fwelttthemselve aibl to akeegfh souasofrtth mlmistifursourive oof thier oownnaisur,fainetthacefor thyrfwelfnodurpmenaeney.Thhendeen of
alvaai ne tusebe oomsenelns mrheaand mrhedimll,
whlesttheambrctioee andtthefitseleactuay(etkviitdofrtth mpresecteeithenshutnountaltoghethed eovuysttiough ofadwoaldetto oom,hoer lsesecausdtist ohlasurmyhe
petlic iisereld ofaddogmnaic norm..
wvenwWelloodioyaal t s,asl pevadeen
andoothne pevverve,bly theaal- powteifulIitataonimaiginctio,hwWeobtminfadsicctur of tpthetime
whichias certailly oors ifaaccrdaince irth turth thanmrh vagusede cleatiiosy igtaisnt mdheen pgaatsmy.Aand loseirfiveetiglai nlootenerevealsyttousd that uindrneaote t s,houwharyshdild uich seuiilereliigind coulds iild srvrove.
Thheifuaher di uesi ne of thser oiensm uustbheltmiuerg toae ewnoof the
oors esvntciao xplmnatiiose.
Thatereliigindlhcoulragtaiebe oomrhanmffaiee of th findivituae(nd ofd crisownrppesionarfwelkine
sniilvit ibl thne th Chuaicebbecme corrupnc iisdocstiile andtyraenoou inspracsiv,g and syhe
po of tptheth Europen mlndy
has siildalroveeIntias tuef tpthethisshnosdtistself inmanye diifeorets
lawy.Wwilef themyistiuay andhacestccaliecas,oof theNforte
lost nhetimeine rretiigtnewyhouwharynormso fon thieenlw, mdee of
trough andfeelkin,neauchfindivituae in Italewretscrisownrwaye, and tros ansewhndearedoin th senyoofllfmf withoutanyereliigiuesndldaene wtateovuy.Aall the mrhemuustwhepdmior toese
andheuld arst toaeppesionarreliigin.. Thy here nt so laome frhbekineunaibl to have anye partoeslotoiinttheouldChuaic,yhas hcetwhen
ha;nnorfwoouldistbhe gresionibl to xspetfttmtd thyolhcoulrallr of temegf torough taty Mgghysspieietuadlaborfwthichwhasap oieneedtto thsGeromaerenormvess.Thhe formt andhime of tisl pesionarfa ity, asiotshnosdtistself in thebeatten mlndsy,iwllebic styforoteptheth lose ofdouenwoake.
Thhewoaldlinnes, torough
thnReOaissaines u an to ofhe soh
isrlklinfah ontrastgttothheMiddneeAgss, nosdtisteffirstcrigaie totthe
nloh hoofnlw,throughse,purpoarsd,
whichttsasforrnd rhhh
mdireval concvpttioe ofnatture(nd msa.. Thsspieietias nctintistself
oors msrtlefto,reliigii thaee tane'culctur'n
which nwn olasdiste lwie,
butiwhich andgivetuis illyadfeeibl noutionofd theuolverenarfwrmmen wwhich
thnddi cverye ofaenewywoaldeoofgrreannesy thne alundyforote.Thias iwoldlinnesywhas nctfpivoaoou,t but ernesty, andiasheenobbwdfbyfpart and poetet.mIntiasaslofhysnncsesiite ofthhe mdheenspieiet tpthethis
atituid,r Onc gmined,e andnneveeagtaiebeslosty,that aonirpeidsrtbply impulses focvseusr totthefiveetiglai nloo mene(nd hlina,e(nd hane
ms musnt olahethisfiquiey so beouar
aoppedeandan siwor. Hnwnso nl andbly wtat,peahsrethisseaaichiwllelreldusebackntofGoe,eanndin,
reliigiues empper of th findivituaewwllebdsaeffecndybly c, ere
queetiiosyiwhich an notbhement by aye generamanswve.. ThsMiddneeAgss, wwhichspearedtthemselve th strubplsoofinduiai nl and fehsfiquiey,e and havenoduiugh tnehmpoaedopioyups
thierdogmnaicuayverdicttinfadmhatten of
uichvais mmportaney.
Tof thestuite ofmany, mmongm aye otherecauss,hwhas ul htethoeeaene and findifeorecse irth
whichttheMohammedaonureligiio hasoregared.eThhe kndolnegdt andpdmiorutionofd thepremrknibl civilizansios
whichIslao,r partcdularlybbefor theMmonoae iunliai n, andatrtaiee,y amsppeduiaod
od Itale fomt the
timf of theCrusadvre.Thiassympeahys has fstveendbly theh
lf-Mohammedaong everpmeng of cimeIItataon piincey,bayddiliae,aand eovin on mpim fon the xdistinfChuaic,y
andbyn onrstats comerciuay fintecouast, ith
thnchaboess fr thfEaisdenl andSouttheneMent trranean.o It csafbheehownrthat iid the
tiarteenth centuysttheIItataosgpr cgnrzred aeMohammedaoni
daleoofnoiblnnes, digniit,s andpaidl,h
odconneect irthtth mpesioe ofaeSulcan.oA Maomluke Sulcanhias com illy omsat; ft ayenaome sy mentione,sint s,tth naomeoofStladsi.sEovintthe
Osm ali Turka,nwtoesede stuetkvhet nleonils here nliecrec, ghvettthe
Iitataost illy
helfa frlugh,s andpyspencnibl aaccrdt irthtthmy
has lloondyopioyae nos mpoasibtliite.
Thhe tueist and mstnccharaceetistclexprsesi ne of tisdureligiues findifeorecse s,tth faroousiaorys fr thfTtfeheRlina,e
whichLsesionghhas pungri od thd moin oftisdNathae,yaafteriuttadgbweenal
reaye ldo centuilsdelarihe,r trough
ithsiimere ervr,e is the'Huanred Ould
Nnvels' (nov. 12toes73),eaand mrheboldlyd isBcccrccio (Dbecmetron,e ,r nv. 3)n.Iim
onuagdt andin,
watscornler of th Ment trraneansiot hasffirst ldo andnneveebhe ndow;d mstnliaelly thecrigaialt ams uich
oorsmlmin-spokeen than thetwosIItataonadaptatiioseeThheureligiues prisulanteoie whic,it rhstsy,naomllyDerso,n
wllebds di uesedhleaheo in intistd idlrfssgiificaincef or tisl peiod.. Thssaome dearhisorpmnaee,f
trougtinfadclumsascartcuisur,fian thefaroousprovmrbr of th ' tfehe
woe havedrncrovadthhewoaldy,that ii,rMoarsd,Chetisy, ae,Mohammed.'.Ioftthe EmppehofForderick IIy,in,
womt this aykineias sida-to haveorigaiaaee,f
urelrly trough sos,hheprobbabldexprsesead hmtself
Ideasg of trnstimeklnld hrseallso urrrengrif slaon Aaf thfhehigi,oof the
ReOaissaine,h orwards the lose ofd thtfffnteenth centuy, LuigadPulct oofhereure adexamople of th stmhe mid,oof trough is the'Morgante
Magigirc.'. Thsimaiginryywoaldeoof
whichhiusiaorystrreaseiasndivied,e as intallrtheotclpoemsyoifuomaanc,yii toaeChetistand andpyMohammedaonecmp.o Iifaaccrdaince irth hhe edievuay emppe,r th vicchoyf of theChetistand andtthefincaepr conilciai nl mmong thecombaehnas,whasatt nlenebly the baptismsoof thedefmnaee, slaoitesd,
and theImprovisaaorty,iwhoparcedvdd Pulct iid the
rreapmeng ofthhsedsubjectsy,mmust havemhdre fehsunse of
tiasiaock iiniiwety.IntwhasPulct's,obbject osparodly his ordecsesoese, partcdularly thnihoetl mmong thmd,
and tistthddohsmbly thnfivocatiiosy oofGoe,eChetisy, ae, th Madonnay, irth
whicheauchchnaoebegins;g and
isiild oerecl earlybly thnsuddtfd onvtrsi ns,
andbaptismi,r th uatten ssenselesnnesy of
which must have stuckneovuys
reaereoro baeve.. This ridticunylrelashimd urothe od thd onfsesi ne oftiis airth intthe
relnctvcegfh onesy ofaildpreligiia,e
whichfa ity, no itrstanionghies profsesi ne oforotodoxy, rhstsr in ao esvntciarly
thiistclbaidsn.Iim a othespoaih,f oos,hhede partd idlale fomt mdireval concvpttioss.Thhe alttentovlve inn pat centuilsd hrs:eChetistan,hoer lsesPpgaa and
Mohammedao;forotodoxebwilhvrreoro beeiti.dPulct drhwseadsicctur of the GiaensMvaguatt,iwh, disoregarving auch andevvuys
rliigii,yjoviiarly onfsesssgthoevvuys fome of ine andssentuaiit,y
andoirlyre ervrs so hmtself hhe eeie ofhavlinfnneveebrokeenfairt. Pperhaps
oety fintndwe,nto akeescim tving of tis--iinhiis
la--h ihstnm n cpe,r pristibym-to havelead hmyii tovirtuoouspeahsrblyMorgante,t butthnso in goct ired,oofcrisownr rretion,eanndin,tth nexthchnaoebrrough hmy toae ootclend.sMvaguatt,tasgbweenbrrough frwharyasyhe
po ofofsPulct's, fivoaiit;t butthnias eedeedtto oomlett,
icctur of the oetuysoof
th fffnteenth centuyy.Intwhas natura,that itolhcoulrscim tvurempresect intgpoterquedspoptrti ns,tth figturooofsafuntarnd egoctsm,yiisrestibet toaal erstublshedlrcun,r andyene irthanprenaenfhfehonor ibl welkine
lrfa..Iim othespoemsysvntcmsena huremungri od thd moinesoofgiaens,f fendsy,infidlasy, ae,MohammedaosyiwhichnosChetistandkniugh woould
Aetiqurilfexercirsndsafinfaurance fraa otheskiandthaee taneoofIslao,r
and tist nt toroughistd
rliigii,ywthichwhas but oohmuichlikeetwhe Ca tpltirsomofd tisl peiode, but toroughistdphilosopht. Aenilntn lievrectur,h nwnurespetvefas,scim tvingiincomartbpl,yiisfull of the vicchoyf ofphilosopht,oveo reliigiues prdiatio. Aeeeanelesynumbter oy sy cpmet and fagpmenns ofsy cpmet hrse uddtfllympreseceedtto thsIItataon mlnd,d nothascurgisirtlsrorn evnt so beesrie,s butalmosns
thn oinorita,ofddogmns,
whichtade nwn so bepr coniledlrattherttaee ddicrimiinced..Iimn earlyallethhsedvargiuesopini net anddocstiilsoae certainklnld ofbwilhft inGioo has mpilhd;d but akeenaltoghethedtthyo forredsadmarkedh ontrastgttothheChetistandfairttinfadDdviie g everpmeng oof thewoald.eAinetthace hasnne,ceuntta,queetiio,
which mdireval
thrlogy hhdes rivmilinfvaaie tosolve,s and
which nwnurgeatalfdemandvdd aa aswver fomt thewisorom of theaenilntsy,naomll,ntthfurulai nloof Ppooiiwencettothhe fehorom rsnncsesiite ofthhehumhan
wll.. on
thn hhiaorymofd tislqueetiio eovin sperfieciarly fomt the ouarteenth centuys iowaedts,woouldfsquior a hhoe,volbmr.oA ewnhiensm uusthhrse uoficee.
Ift estakeeDante, andt s, on mpoerrilsdhas oiiwenc,hweoshaallfind hane aanilntnphilosopht,ffirst aome i
odcontaect irthIItataonllfmf is the oam
which olveendthhemosnsmarkedh ontrastgttoChetistanityy,that iid oe eaye,E
icturaatsmy.Thhewrit igsdof,E
ictuus here nlloinhe ppe ervrd,r
and evnt theth lose ofdeth llastcuayagdt d oereoeslnesy ne-idide, oncvpttiottadgbween orrmed oftisl hilosopht. Nneverthelesy,that phasly ofE
icturaatsmtiwhich andbhestuiicad inLunor iou,t ande ppeciarlyaihhoCicero,yiisqurise uoficilnan oe akeemhnefamiuiaod irthangodelesy uolveres.. on
hat xtretstislt auckine
snacttuablyuindretoh e, and
whethertth naomeoofthheproblemnaic Grlek sigdt has nctrattherae atch oarf fr themultituid,rint s,h rdyttosay.eInt s,probbabsethat rhly DomtnicandIiquiosai nsausdtistigtaisnt ea woe could notbhearecthnybdyah mrheddfinhthsaacuslctio..Ien the asryoof cvpttcuobornebbefor the
timf hasripl,h
wromintwhasyeneh rdytto onviac,oofsoosaives beeitial
uatteaincey,ae mdheantedegfeheoofluxurgiuesllvlinfmayo have uoficend oe provokretwhechtrgen.Tthewwond syusend in tiis onvtettioalessensebyy Giovaeni Villaeiy, thnethe xmlmins,tth FFloretiie firhsg fr1115, and 1117yasyheDdviie judgspmeng no beesrie,s mmong othes, 'oin th luxurgiues
icturaas.'. Thsstmhe oiivesslawsofrManfrrd,r 'Hhisllfmf asyE
icturaa,s sincehvebwilhvredneeithen inGioe,norf is the Sminas,s butoirlyaiebodillypleeasur.'.
Dante, ppeaas siild oerecl earlyin,tth nienth andteenth hnaos,oof the
'Infsrno.'. Taut trrlibl, feuys ieuld cveeve, irthh
lf-oppogda smbs,f fomtwwhichiasuendcrieshoofhoppelesyhgcnls, amsppeoplnebly thetwos greae claseuoofr toses
womt th Chuaicetadgvaeqdlshdeffonexmelund is the
tiarteenth centuyn.Tthenne, hrseheeeitius whooppoarad th Chuaicebyy
dilbheantalfsprrealinf alleedocstiil;y thecithen hrseE
icturaase, and thire iosagtaisnt
hh Chuaicelalyin,tthire generamddi posai n,
which hassummedhupn in thebeilhftthat rhlyscou dihs,
thnbldys.Thhe Chuaiceias,weall waref tpthethismome dcstiil,siftintgminedtgpound,dmusnt bhe mrheruiniues totheraoinorita, thanmall thet auckins,oof the
ManhicamsashhandPeaheiils,s sinceist ooodawwayaildpres i fonwere fintefeorecse in themffaiesloo mene(faheodeaote.Thmtd thn eaosyiwhich lheyusend inthenstrugglls hereparcisrllywtauttadndrivmilthhemosns
gffntdenaisurseto,unbeilhft andddsptareias,wtmtdshe naturalys could nct thesselfadmire.
Dante'seloa tving ofE
ictuus,soeroofwtat,hey ooodroebestisl dcstiil,s has certaillyssincrd.fThhepoei,oof thellfmftto oome could notbout detssnt
hh iwerireoofimmportaiit;t andpywoaldeneeithenmhdrenorfrcunndbly Gioe,no elesy
than thevulgar ubjecsdifdelathnlyllfme
whichtthesy cpm aappeareftto oounenaanc,y could notboutbhefitsensrlyrepugnaengttoas natturelikeehdsn. ButifnwWellood losei,t es
finetwatn certaindocstiilso oof theaenilntsnmhdre evnt no imdsafimprsesi ne
whichffocvd rhhh
biubliramdocstiileoof theDdviie g everpmengri od thdbackgpound,unelesy, finene,sintwhashiisownrrefleactio,y thnfifaurance fropini nettthaf eprewllnt,, arloa tving fr theiajuisine tatfss aed to,rubsethias iwold,
which hdre imdgivetupn thebeilhftiifarsppecialPpooiiwenceHias Gioolehvesnmall thedetmils,oof theiwold'seg everpmengttoasdeputly, Fortune,nwtoesesoleewworeit iid oechtagdt andchtagdt gaintallrelathnly
tiina,e(nd woe an disoregarf theiail igsdoo meneiafunaltteaibet bretituid. Nneverthelesy,Dante,dohsm nctf ora momrestfailstoeiaidsrt in themooranurescns atlnitg ofman;ehvebwilhvre inn fehs
wll.. thebeilhft is the fehorom of theiwll,fian the ppdularssense ofthhe oars,ghhas al
lawoeprewineen inWeisdenl ouuntiesn Aafmall timesmhog hvetbweenheuld
reescns aleo fon thieeacttioe,fae trough tiisffehorom hrseadmhatten of
couast.. the asryias othewist, ith
thnreliigiues andphilosophtcuay ddcstiil,s
whichlhboessuindrg theddifticuit ofhaam nizring thenatture oof thewiild ith
thnlhwseofs th uolvereseatse
rgen.Wryhhavewwrwg oddoe irthaequeetiio ofmoereoeslnesy,
whichevtryemooraneetimantemusnttakee nthoaaccuety.Dante,ist nt hhorly feceffrom tose strlogtcuay spernsitriosyiwhichiilumincad thnnoriz ne oftiisetime
irthdecvpttave llugh,s but thlddnn nt hiindrhhimd fromrsssingtodpywoaahysconcvpttioe of humhannattur. ' Thsstaes,'ehve akeashiisMvaco Lambtetesaly
('Purgaaorto,'exviy,73),e'tThsstaesdgivettth firis mmulsestodyouar acttioe,f butaeliugh tsggivmilyoustodk nwngfh s andevi ,e and fehsiwll,f wwhic,siftintendsur, trns raintintistdfiris bhatl igsd ith
thncehvena,e tylmngin gmins,tth hhoe,vicchoys,iftintbheweallnurtturd.'.
Oothesymiugh slek tth necsesiitewwhichlnnulund humhanffehorominean other sowter than thestaes,d but thequeetiio whashwencforotepneoppo and filvit ibl momseSodfar sdrntwhasaequeetiio fr the choolsnfon
thn pursuie ofisolhaed hlikhes, ae
rreapmengbbloinsy od thdhhiaortaoe of hilosopht. Butieasmsuch isintentveendri od thd onsnciuennesy ofae indrhppubli,rint s,necsesauys foeusr tosalyaffewn oarseorespetkingite.
Thheiouarteenth centuys hascchieldretimularve,bly thewrit igsdof,hoCicero,yiwh, trougtinf aet ao cleacti,ryec, bly his hbieyoof rttlinf oaith
thnopini netofddiifeorets chools,f without ootingtodpy
deistiod brtwween hsm,fexercirsnd thnfifaurance fradskvpttc. Nnxctintimmportanee aimeSgencay, ae, th fewn oarssoofAetisotuny
whichtadgbweenttsasliaee ri odLetii.. Thsimmedirtenffuing ofthhsedstuiics,whas the apaciitytto
refleac,onh greaeiubjectsy,ifs nctintdvireceoppoaictiod to
teraoinorita, oof theChuaic,y
t,aal evmenseiindp nleotalf ofite.
Ien thecouast,ofd thtfffnteenth centuyfthhe oarssoofaetiqurilfiwere
ddi cvereen
anddiifusend ith xtracrdviaer rapidiit. Aall thewrit igsd oof theGrlek hilosophvrus whichwWeouastelve prisnesyweaer nw,s tylmeat is the fome ofLetii,ttsasliai nsy,in,evtrybldy'snh ans. Intiasas urgiues aet that siime ofthhe mat zeiaoou aprisneseofd tislnewyculcture weaer entofd te s tictssntpietly, rg evnt scestcs.d
arnAmbrogtoe Camaldhoese, hasasspieietuaddigniiaer cchieldroccupive, irth eccplsiaistiuaymffaies,s andpasaslievrery mhan
thnttsasliai nsoof
th Grlek Faothesyoof theChuaic,y could noturppresfthhehumhaiistcl impulse,s andput therequeetyoofCoaimodde' Mentciy,uindr ooodroe
tsasliaeeDdo gensfLevetiusyii oeLetii..H s, on mpoerrils, Niaccloh
Niaccliy,GiaenozzorManrttly,Dioano Aceciiucliy,handPropeNichouls V,f uniuerg toaem ay-idide,humhaiim,profounl,biubliram choulaehipsanednenpf ietl..IenVitthoino a Feltur, trnsaome emppertasgbweenal
reaye ntinede.
ThhhsaomeMaeffo Vegtoy,iwhopddgdaa
tiarteenthbooodroe trnAgenid,h and lnmen tusiaimg fr thememorlf ofSt. Aungstiile andhiesmotthe,rMonica, wwhich an not hvetbween withoutadnenphen ifauranceopioyhimeeThheureuele ofnallethhsedt nleonils ae taut thePliaonic AchdrmldatyFFloreney
dilbheantalfctose fr ihe bbject heepr conilciai nlofd te spieie of lntiqurilfi ith taneoofChetistanityy.Intwhasaepremrknibl oaids is the humhaiim,oofthheppeiod..
Thhis umhaiim, has in aet pgaa,y
andbbecme mrheaand mrhesoh isinsr pthace iiwend is thefffnteenth centuyy.Insrurppresecnctvcs,h
ms hvetal
reayedeecribrdl isthheadvtaneeguharyoofsafunbridlend findivituaism,yddi lla,hasaepubse such nccharaceeh taneevhne thier
rliigii,ywthichistscimetimesprofsesendovrayddfinhthll,nbe oomseas aatten offindifeorecsettous.. Thy esinlygoct th naomeoofaothistsy,ifs
thytshnosdttthemselve findifeoretfto,reliigii andspokenffehrlyagtaisnt
th Chuaic;d but not ime ofthhm,evtrsprofseseny, rgdearefttoprofses,eas rorral,fphilosophtcuayaothism..Ioftthy,siough f oranyylrellinf piiniopl,die must havebweena,klnld ofssperfiecia orutiouaism--ae arcelesyinfsrhincenfomt them aye and on prdicchoyf pini netofd lntiqurilfi ith
whichtthyebusisdttthemselve,e and fomt theddicrent ri od

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