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The Chinese Classics by James Legge

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are only not modest, and think that they are valourous. I hate
those who make known secrets, and think that they are
straightforward.'
CHAP. XXV. The Master said, 'Of all people, girls and
servants are the most difficult to behave to. If you are familiar
with them, they lose their humility. If you maintain a reserve
towards them, they are discontented.'
CHAP. XXVI. The Master said, 'When a man at forty is the
object of dislike, he will always continue what he is.'

微子第十八
BOOK XVIII. WEI TSZE.

【第一章】【一節】微子去之、箕子為之奴、比干諫而死。【二節】孔子曰、
殷有三仁焉。
【第二章】柳下惠為士師、三黜、人曰、子未可以去乎。曰、直道而事人、
焉往而不三黜、枉道而事人、何
CHAP. I. 1. The Viscount of Wei withdrew from the court.
The Viscount of Chi became a slave to Chau. Pi-kan
remonstrated with him and died.
2. Confucius said, 'The Yin dynasty possessed these three
men of virtue.'
CHAP. II. Hui of Liu-hsia being chief criminal judge, was
thrice dismissed from his office. Some one said to him, 'Is it not
yet time for you, sir, to leave this?' He replied, 'Serving men in
an upright way, where shall I go to, and not experience such a
thrice-repeated

必去父母之邦。
【第三章】齊景公待孔子、曰、若李氏、則吾不能、以李孟之閒待之。曰、
吾老矣、不能用也。孔子行。
【第四章】齊人歸女樂。李桓子受之、三日不朝、孔子行。
【第五章】【一節】楚狂接輿歌而過
dismissal? If I choose to serve men in a crooked way, what
necessity is there for me to leave the country of my parents?'
CHAP. III. The duke Ching of Ch'i, with reference to the
manner in which he should treat Confucius, said, 'I cannot treat
him as I would the chief of the Chi family. I will treat him in a
manner between that accorded to the chief of the Chi, and that
given to the chief of the Mang family.' He also said, 'I am old; I
cannot use his doctrines.' Confucius took his departure.
CHAP. IV. The people of Ch'i sent to Lu a present of
female musicians, which Chi Hwan received, and for three days
no court was held. Confucius took his departure.
CHAP. V. 1. The madman of Ch'u, Chieh-yu, passed by
Confucius, singing and saying, 'O FANG! O FANG! How is your

孔子、曰、鳳兮鳳兮、何德之衰、往者不可諫、來者猶可追。已而已而、今
之從政者殆而。【二節】孔子下、欲與之言。趨而辟之、不得與之言。
【第六章】【一節】長沮桀溺耦而耕。孔子過之、使子路問津焉。【二節】
長沮曰、夫執輿者為誰。子路曰、為孔丘。曰、是魯孔丘與。曰、是也。曰、
是知津矣。【三節】問於桀
virtue degenerated! As to the past, reproof is useless; but the
future may still be provided against. Give up your vain pursuit.
Give up your vain pursuit. Peril awaits those who now engage
in affairs of government.'
2. Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him,
but Chieh-yu hastened away, so that he could not talk with
him.
CHAP. VI. 1. Ch'ang-tsu and Chieh-ni were at work in the
field together, when Confucius passed by them, and sent Tsze-
lu to inquire for the ford.
2. Ch'ang-tsu said, 'Who is he that holds the reins in the
carriage there?' Tsze-lu told him, 'It is K'ung Ch'iu.' 'Is it not
K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?' asked he. 'Yes,' was the reply, to which the
other rejoined, 'He knows the ford.'
3. Tsze-lu then inquired of Chieh-ni, who said to him,
'Who

溺。桀溺曰。子為誰。曰、為仲由。曰、是魯孔丘之徒與。對曰、然。曰、
滔滔者、天下皆是也、而誰以易之、且而與其從辟人之士也、豈若從辟世之
士哉。耰而不輟。【四節】子路行以告、夫子憮然曰、鳥獸不可與同群、吾
非斯人之徒與而誰與、天下有道、丘不與易也。
are you, sir?' He answered, 'I am Chung Yu.' 'Are you not the
disciple of K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?' asked the other. 'I am,' replied
he, and then Chieh-ni said to him, 'Disorder, like a swelling
flood, spreads over the whole empire, and who is he that will
change its state for you? Than follow one who merely
withdraws from this one and that one, had you not better
follow those who have withdrawn from the world altogether?'
With this he fell to covering up the seed, and proceeded with
his work, without stopping.
4. Tsze-lu went and reported their remarks, when the
Master observed with a sigh, 'It is impossible to associate with
birds and beasts, as if they were the same with us. If I
associate not with these people,-- with mankind,-- with whom
shall I associate? If right principles prevailed through the
empire, there would be no use for me to change its state.'

【第七章】【一節】子路從而後、遇丈人、以杖荷蓧。子路問曰、子見夫子
乎。丈人曰、四禮不勤、五穀不分、孰為夫子。植其杖而芸。【二節】子路
拱而立。【三節】止子路宿、殺雞為黍而食之、見其二子焉。【四節】明日、
子路行以告。子曰、隱者也、使子路反見之、至、則行矣。【五節】子路曰、
不仕
CHAP. VII. 1. Tsze-lu, following the Master, happened to
fall behind, when he met an old man, carrying across his
shoulder on a staff a basket for weeds. Tsze-lu said to him,
'Have you seen my master, sir!' The old man replied, 'Your four
limbs are unaccustomed to toil; you cannot distinguish the five
kinds of grain:-- who is your master?' With this, he planted his
staff in the ground, and proceeded to weed.
2. Tsze-lu joined his hands across his breast, and stood
before him.
3. The old man kept Tsze-lu to pass the night in his
house, killed a fowl, prepared millet, and feasted him. He also
introduced to him his two sons.
4. Next day, Tsze-lu went on his way, and reported his
adventure. The Master said, 'He is a recluse,' and sent Tsze-lu
back to see him again, but when he got to the place, the old
man was gone.
5. Tsze-lu then said to the family, 'Not to take office is not

無義。長幼之節、不可廢也、君臣之義、如之何其廢之、欲潔其身、而亂大
倫、君子之仕也、行其義也、道之不行、已知之矣。
【第八章】【一節】逸民、伯夷、叔齊、虞仲、夷逸、朱張、柳下惠、少連。
【二節】子曰、不降其志、不辱其身、伯夷叔齊與。【三節】謂柳下惠少連、
降志辱身矣、言
righteous. If the relations between old and young may not be
neglected, how is it that he sets aside the duties that should be
observed between sovereign and minister? Wishing to
maintain his personal purity, he allows that great relation to
come to confusion. A superior man takes office, and performs
the righteous duties belonging to it. As to the failure of right
principles to make progress, he is aware of that.'
CHAP. VIII. 1. The men who have retired to privacy from
the world have been Po-i, Shu-ch'i, Yu-chung, I-yi, Chu-chang,
Hui of Liu-hsia, and Shao-lien.
2. The Master said, 'Refusing to surrender their wills, or
to submit to any taint in their persons;-- such, I think, were
Po-i and Shu-ch'i.
3. 'It may be said of Hui of Liu-hsia, and of Shao-lien, that
they surrendered their wills, and submitted to taint in their
persons,

中倫、行中慮、其斯而已矣。【四節】謂虞仲夷逸、隱居放言、身中清、廢
中權。【五節】我則異於是、無可無不可。
【第九章】【一節】大師摯適齊。【二節】亞飯干適楚。三飯繚適蔡。四飯
缺適秦。【三節】鼓方叔、
but their words corresponded with reason, and their actions
were such as men are anxious to see. This is all that is to be
remarked in them.
4. 'It may be said of Yu-chung and I-yi, that, while they
hid themselves in their seclusion, they gave a license to their
words; but, in their persons, they succeeded in preserving their
purity, and, in their retirement, they acted according to the
exigency of the times.
5. 'I am different from all these. I have no course for
which I am predetermined, and no course against which I am
predetermined.'
CHAP. IX. 1. The grand music master, Chih, went to Ch'i.
2. Kan, the master of the band at the second meal, went
to Ch'u. Liao, the band master at the third meal, went to Ts'ai.
Chueh, the band master at the fourth meal, went to Ch'in.
3. Fang-shu, the drum master, withdrew to the north of
the river.

入於河。播(tao2, 上兆下鼓)武、入於漢。【五節】少師陽、擊磬襄、入於
海。
【第十章】周公謂魯公曰、君子不施其親、不使大臣怨乎不以、故舊無大故、
則不棄也、無求備於一人。
【十一章】周有八士、伯達、伯适、仲突、仲忽、叔夜、叔夏、李隨、李騧。
4. Wu, the master of the hand drum, withdrew to the
Han.
5. Yang, the assistant music master, and Hsiang, master of
the musical stone, withdrew to an island in the sea.
CHAP. X. The duke of Chau addressed his son, the duke of
Lu, saying, 'The virtuous prince does not neglect his relations.
He does not cause the great ministers to repine at his not
employing them. Without some great cause, he does not dismiss
from their offices the members of old families. He does not
seek in one man talents for every employment.'
CHAP. XI. To Chau belonged the eight officers, Po-ta,
Po-kwo, Chung-tu, Chung-hwu, Shu-ya, Shu-hsia, Chi-sui, and
Chi-kwa.

子張第十九
BOOK XIX. TSZE-CHANG.

【第一章】子張曰、士、見危致命、見得思義、祭思敬、喪思哀、其可已矣。
【第二章】子張曰、執德不弘、信道不篤、焉能為有、焉能為亡。
CHAP. I. Tsze-chang said, 'The scholar, trained for public
duty, seeing threatening danger, is prepared to sacrifice his life.
When the opportunity of gain is presented to him, he thinks of
righteousness. In sacrificing, his thoughts are reverential. In
mourning, his thoughts are about the grief which he should
feel. Such a man commands our approbation indeed.'
CHAP. II. Tsze-chang said, 'When a man holds fast to
virtue, but without seeking to enlarge it, and believes right
principles, but without firm sincerity, what account can be
made of his existence or non-existence?'

【第三章】子夏之門人問交於子張。子張曰、子夏云何。對曰、子夏曰、可
者與之、其不可者拒之。子張曰、異乎吾所聞、君子尊賢而容眾、嘉善而矜
不能、我之大賢與、於人何所不容、我之不賢與、人將拒我、如之何其拒人
也。
【第四章】子夏曰、雖小道、必有
CHAP. III. The disciples of Tsze-hsia asked Tsze-chang
about the principles that should characterize mutual
intercourse. Tsze-chang asked, 'What does Tsze-hsia say on the
subject?' They replied, 'Tsze-hsia says:-- "Associate with those
who can advantage you. Put away from you those who cannot
do so."' Tsze-chang observed, 'This is different from what I
have learned. The superior man honours the talented and
virtuous, and bears with all. He praises the good, and pities the
incompetent. Am I possessed of great talents and virtue?--
who is there among men whom I will not bear with? Am I
devoid of talents and virtue?-- men will put me away from
them. What have we to do with the putting away of others?'
CHAP. IV. Tsze-hsia said, 'Even in inferior studies and
employments there is something worth being looked at; but if
it be

可觀者焉、致遠恐泥、是以君子不為也。
【第五章】子夏曰、日知其所亡、月無忘其所能、可謂好學也已矣。
【第六章】子夏曰、博學而篤志、切問而近思、仁在其中矣。
【第七章】子夏曰、百工居肆、以成其事、君子學以致其道。
attempted to carry them out to what is remote, there is a
danger of their proving inapplicable. Therefore, the superior
man does not practise them.'
CHAP. V. Tsze-hsia said, 'He, who from day to day
recognises what he has not yet, and from month to month does
not forget what he has attained to, may be said indeed to love
to learn.'
CHAP. VI. Tsze-hsia said, 'There are learning extensively,
and having a firm and sincere aim; inquiring with earnestness,
and reflecting with self-application:-- virtue is in such a
course.'
CHAP. VII. Tsze-hsia said, 'Mechanics have their shops to
dwell in, in order to accomplish their works. The superior man
learns, in order to reach to the utmost of his principles.'

【第八章】子夏曰、小人之過也、必文。
【第九章】子夏曰、君子有三變、望之儼然、即之也溫、聽其言也厲。
【第十章】子夏曰、君子信而後勞其民、未信、則以為厲己也、信而後諫、
未信、則以為謗己也。
【十一章】子夏曰、大德不踰閑、
CHAP. VIII. Tsze-hsia said, 'The mean man is sure to gloss
his faults.'
CHAP. IX. Tsze-hsia said, 'The superior man undergoes
three changes. Looked at from a distance, he appears stern;
when approached, he is mild; when he is heard to speak, his
language is firm and decided.'
CHAP. X. Tsze-hsia said, 'The superior man, having
obtained their confidence, may then impose labours on his
people. If he have not gained their confidence, they will think
that he is oppressing them. Having obtained the confidence of
his prince, one may then remonstrate with him. If he have not
gained his confidence, the prince will think that he is vilifying
him.'
CHAP. XI. Tsze-hsia said, 'When a person does not
transgress the boundary line in the great virtues, he may pass
and repass it in the small virtues.'

小德出入可也。
【十二章】【一節】子游曰、子夏之門人小子、當洒掃、應對、進退、則可
矣、抑末也、本之則無、如之何。【二節】子夏聞之曰、噫、言游過矣、君
子之道、孰先傳焉、孰後倦焉、譬諸草木、區以別矣、君子之道、焉可誣也、
有始有卒者、其惟聖人乎。
CHAP. XII. 1. Tsze-yu said, 'The disciples and followers of
Tsze-hsia, in sprinkling and sweeping the ground, in answering
and replying, in advancing and receding, are sufficiently
accomplished. But these are only the branches of learning, and
they are left ignorant of what is essential.-- How can they be
acknowledged as sufficiently taught?'
2. Tsze-hsia heard of the remark and said, 'Alas! Yen Yu
is wrong. According to the way of the superior man in teaching,
what departments are there which he considers of prime
importance, and delivers? what are there which he considers of
secondary importance, and allows himself to be idle about? But
as in the case of plants, which are assorted according to their
classes, so he deals with his disciples. How can the way of a
superior man be such as to make fools of any of them? Is it not
the sage alone, who can unite in one the beginning and the
consummation of learning?'

【十三章】子夏曰、仕而優則學、學而優則仕。
【十四章】子游曰、喪致乎哀而止。
【十五章】子游曰、吾友張也、為難能也、然而未仁。
【十六章】曾子曰、堂堂乎張也、難與並為仁矣。
【十七章】曾子曰、吾聞諸夫子、人未有自致者也、必也親喪乎。
CHAP. XIII. Tsze-hsia said, 'The officer, having discharged
all his duties, should devote his leisure to learning. The student,
having completed his learning, should apply himself to be an
officer.'
CHAP. XIV. Tsze-hsia said, 'Mourning, having been carried
to the utmost degree of grief, should stop with that.'
CHAP. XV. Tsze-hsia said, 'My friend Chang can do things
which are hard to be done, but yet he is not perfectly virtuous.'
CHAP. XVI. The philosopher Tsang said, 'How imposing is
the manner of Chang! It is difficult along with him to practise
virtue.'
CHAP. XVII. The philosopher Tsang said, 'I heard this
from our Master:-- "Men may not have shown what is in them
to the full extent, and yet they will be found to do so, on
occasion of mourning for their parents."'

【十八章】曾子曰、吾聞諸夫子、孟莊子之孝也、其他可能也、其不改父之
臣、與父之政、是難能也。
【十九章】孟氏使陽膚為士師、問於曾子。曾子曰、上失其道、民散、久矣、
如得其情、則哀矜而勿喜。
【二十章】子貢曰、紂之不善、不如是之甚也、是以君子
CHAP. XVIII. The philosopher Tsang said, 'I have heard
this from our Master:-- "The filial piety of Mang Chwang, in
other matters, was what other men are competent to, but, as
seen in his not changing the ministers of his father, nor his
father's mode of government, it is difficult to be attained to."'
CHAP. XIX. The chief of the Mang family having
appointed Yang Fu to be chief criminal judge, the latter
consulted the philosopher Tsang. Tsang said, 'The rulers have
failed in their duties, and the people consequently have been
disorganised, for a long time. When you have found out the
truth of any accusation, be grieved for and pity them, and do
not feel joy at your own ability.'
CHAP. XX. Tsze-kung said, 'Chau's wickedness was not so
great as that name implies. Therefore, the superior man hates
to dwell

惡居下流、天下之惡皆歸焉。
【廿一章】子貢曰、君子之過也、如日月之食焉、過也、人皆見之、更也、
人皆仰之。
【廿二章】【一節】衛公孫朝問於子貢曰、仲尼焉學。【二節】子貢曰、文
武之道、未墜於地、在人、賢者識其大者、不賢者識其小者、莫不有文武之
道焉、夫子焉不學、而亦何常師之有、
in a low-lying situation, where all the evil of the world will
flow in upon him.'
CHAP. XXI. Tsze-kung said, 'The faults of the superior
man are like the eclipses of the sun and moon. He has his
faults, and all men see them; he changes again, and all men
look up to him.'
CHAP. XXII. 1. Kung-sun Ch'ao of Wei asked Tsze-kung,
saying, 'From whom did Chung-ni get his learning?'
2. Tsze-kung replied, 'The doctrines of Wan and Wu have
not yet fallen to the ground. They are to be found among men.
Men of talents and virtue remember the greater principles of
them, and others, not possessing such talents and virtue,
remember the smaller. Thus, all possess the doctrines of Wan
and Wu. Where could our Master go that he should not have an
opportunity of learning them? And yet what necessity was
there for his having a regular master?'

【廿三章】【一節】叔孫武叔語大夫於朝曰、子貢賢於仲尼。【二節】子服
景伯以告子貢。子貢曰、譬之宮牆、賜之牆也、及肩、窺見室家之好。【三
節】夫子之牆、數仞、不得其門而入、不見宗廟之美、百官之富。【四節】
得其門者或寡矣、夫子之云、不亦宜乎。
CHAP. XXIII. 1. Shu-sun Wu-shu observed to the great
officers in the court, saying, 'Tsze-kung is superior to Chung-ni.'
2. Tsze-fu Ching-po reported the observation to Tsze-
kung, who said, 'Let me use the comparison of a house and its
encompassing wall. My wall only reaches to the shoulders. One
may peep over it, and see whatever is valuable in the
apartments.
3. 'The wall of my Master is several fathoms high. If one
do not find the door and enter by it, he cannot see the ancestral
temple with its beauties, nor all the officers in their rich array.
4. 'But I may assume that they are few who find the door.
Was not the observation of the chief only what might have
been expected?'

【廿四章】叔孫武叔毀仲尼。子貢曰、無以為也、仲尼不可毀也、他人之賢
者、丘陵也、猶可踰也、仲尼、日月也、無得而踰焉、人雖欲自絕、其何傷
於日月乎、多見其不知量也。
【廿五章】【一節】陳子禽謂子貢曰、子為恭也、仲尼豈賢於子乎。【二節】
子貢曰、君子一言以為知、一言以為不知、言不可不慎也。【三節】夫子之
CHAP. XXIV. Shu-sun Wu-shu having spoken revilingly of
Chung-ni, Tsze-kung said, 'It is of no use doing so. Chung-ni
cannot be reviled. The talents and virtue of other men are
hillocks and mounds which may be stepped over. Chung-ni is
the sun or moon, which it is not possible to step over. Although
a man may wish to cut himself off from the sage, what harm
can he do to the sun or moon? He only shows that he does not
know his own capacity.
CHAP. XXV. 1. Ch'an Tsze-ch'in, addressing Tsze-kung,
said, 'You are too modest. How can Chung-ni be said to be
superior to you?'
2. Tsze-kung said to him, 'For one word a man is often
deemed to be wise, and for one word he is often deemed to be
foolish. We ought to be careful indeed in what we say.
3. 'Our Master cannot be attained to, just in the same way
as the heavens cannot be gone up to by the steps of a stair.

不可及也、猶天之不可階而升也。【四節】夫子之得邦家者、所謂立之斯立、
道之期行、綏之期來、動之斯和、其生也榮、其死也哀、如之何其可及也。
4. 'Were our Master in the position of the ruler of a State
or the chief of a Family, we should find verified the description
which has been given of a sage's rule:-- he would plant the
people, and forthwith they would be established; he would lead
them on, and forthwith they would follow him; he would make
them happy, and forthwith multitudes would resort to his
dominions; he would stimulate them, and forthwith they would
be harmonious. While he lived, he would be glorious. When he
died, he would be bitterly lamented. How is it possible for him
to be attained to?'

堯曰第二十
BOOK XX. YAO YUEH.

【第一章】【一節】堯曰、咨、爾舜、天之曆數在爾躬、允執其中、四海困
窮、天祿永終。【二節】舜亦以命禹。【三節】曰、予小子履、敢用玄牡、
敢昭告于皇皇后帝、有罪不敢赦、帝臣不蔽、簡在帝心、朕躬有罪、無以萬
方、萬方有罪、
CHAP. I. 1. Yao said, 'Oh! you, Shun, the Heaven-
determined order of succession now rests in your person.
Sincerely hold fast the due Mean. If there shall be distress and
want within the four seas, the Heavenly revenue will come to a
perpetual end.'
2. Shun also used the same language in giving charge to
Yu.
3. T'ang said, 'I the child Li, presume to use a dark-
coloured victim, and presume to announce to Thee, O most
great and sovereign God, that the sinner I dare not pardon, and
thy ministers, O God, I do not keep in obscurity. The
examination of them is by thy mind, O God. If, in my person, I
commit offences, they are not to be attributed to you, the
people of the myriad regions. If you in the myriad regions
commit offences, these offences must rest on my person.'

罪在朕躬。【四節】周有大賚、善人是富。【五節】雖有周親、不如仁人、
百姓有過、在予一人。【六節】謹權量、審法度、修廢官、四方之政行焉。
【七節】興滅國、繼絕世、舉逸民、天下之民歸心焉。【八節】所重民、食、
喪、祭。【九節】寬則得眾、信、則民任焉、敏、則有功、公則說。
4. Chau conferred great gifts, and the good were enriched.
5. 'Although he has his near relatives, they are not equal
to my virtuous men. The people are throwing blame upon me,
the One man.'
6. He carefully attended to the weights and measures,
examined the body of the laws, restored the discarded officers,
and the good government of the kingdom took its course.
7. He revived States that had been extinguished, restored
families whose line of succession had been broken, and called
to office those who had retired into obscurity, so that
throughout the kingdom the hearts of the people turned
towards him.
8. What he attached chief importance to, were the food of
the people, the duties of mourning, and sacrifices.
9. By his generosity, he won all. By his sincerity, he made
the people repose trust in him. By his earnest activity, his
achievements were great. By his justice, all were delighted.

【第二章】【一節】子張問於孔子曰、何如、斯可以從政矣。子曰、尊五美、
屏四惡、斯可以從政矣。子張曰、何謂五美。子曰、君子惠、而不費、勞、
而不怨、欲、而不貪、泰、而不驕、威、而不猛。【二節】子張曰、何謂惠
而不費。子曰、因民之所利而利之、
CHAP. II. 1. Tsze-chang asked Confucius, saying, 'In what
way should a person in authority act in order that he may
conduct government properly?' The Master replied, 'Let him
honour the five excellent, and banish away the four bad,
things;-- then may he conduct government properly.' Tsze-
chang said, 'What are meant by the five excellent things?' The
Master said, 'When the person in authority is beneficent
without great expenditure; when he lays tasks on the people
without their repining; when he pursues what he desires
without being covetous; when he maintains a dignified ease
without being proud; when he is majestic without being fierce.'
2. Tsze-chang said, 'What is meant by being beneficent
without great expenditure?' The Master replied, 'When the
person in authority makes more beneficial to the people the
things from which

斯不亦惠而不費乎、擇可勞而勞之、又誰怨、欲仁而得仁、又焉貪、君子無
眾寡、無小大、無敢慢、斯不亦泰而不驕乎、君子正其衣冠、尊其瞻視、儼
然人望而畏之、斯不亦威而不猛乎。【三節】子張曰、何謂四惡。子曰、不
教而殺、謂之虐、不戒視成、謂之暴、慢令致期、謂之賊、猶
they naturally derive benefit;-- is not this being beneficent
without great expenditure? When he chooses the labours which
are proper, and makes them labour on them, who will repine?
When his desires are set on benevolent government, and he
secures it, who will accuse him of covetousness? Whether he
has to do with many people or few, or with things great or
small, he does not dare to indicate any disrespect;-- is not this
to maintain a dignified ease without any pride? He adjusts his
clothes and cap, and throws a dignity into his looks, so that,
thus dignified, he is looked at with awe;-- is not this to be
majestic without being fierce?'
3. Tsze-chang then asked, 'What are meant by the four
bad things?' The Master said, 'To put the people to death
without having instructed them;-- this is called cruelty. To
require from them, suddenly, the full tale of work, without
having given them warning;-- this is called oppression. To issue
orders as if without urgency, at first, and, when the time
comes, to insist on them with severity;-- this is called injury.
And, generally, in the giving pay

之與人也、出納之吝、謂之有司。
【第三章】【一節】子曰、不知命、無以為君子也。【二節】不知禮、無以
立也。【三節】不知言、無以知人也。
or rewards to men, to do it in a stingy way;-- this is called
acting the part of a mere official.'
CHAP III. 1. The Master said, 'Without recognising the
ordinances of Heaven, it is impossible to be a superior man.
2. 'Without an acquaintance with the rules of Propriety, it
is impossible for the character to be established.
3. 'Without knowing the force of words, it is impossible to
know men.'

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