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The Chinese Classics by James Legge

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A note from the digitizer

Your computer must have the Big 5 character set (Traditional
Chinese) installed to display the Chinese text in this file
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This text preserves the original page breaks. In a few places I
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nonstandard forms used by Legge. Characters not included in
the Big 5 character set in any form are described by their
constituent elements.

THE CHINESE CLASSICS

with a translation, critical and exegetical
notes, prolegomena, and copious indexes

by

James Legge

IN FIVE VOLUMES

CONFUCIAN ANALECTS
THE GREAT LEARNING
THE DOCTRINE OF THE MEAN

論語
CONFUCIAN ANALECTS.

學而第一
BOOK I. HSIO R.

【第一章】
【一節】子曰、 學而時習之、不亦說乎。【二節】有朋自遠方來、不亦樂
乎。【三節】人不知而不慍、不亦君子乎。
CHAPTER I. 1. The Master said, 'Is it not pleasant to learn
with a constant perseverance and application?
2. 'Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant
quarters?'
3. 'Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no
discomposure though men may take no note of him?'

【第二章】【一節】有子曰、其為人也孝弟、而好犯上者鮮矣、不好犯上、
而好作亂者、未之有也。【二節】君子務本、本立、而道生、孝
CHAP. II. 1. The philosopher Yu said, 'They are few who,
being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their
superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend
against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.
2. 'The superior man bends his attention to what is
radical.

弟也者、其為仁之本與。
【第三章】子曰、巧言令色、鮮矣仁。
【第四章】曾子曰、吾日三省吾身、為人謀、而不忠乎、與朋友交、而不信
乎、傳不習乎。
That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up.
Filial piety and fraternal submission!-- are they not the root of
all benevolent actions?'
CHAP. III. The Master said, 'Fine words and an
insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue.'
CHAP. IV. The philosopher Tsang said, 'I daily examine
myself on three points:-- whether, in transacting business for
others, I may have been not faithful;-- whether, in intercourse
with friends, I may have been not sincere;-- whether I may
have not mastered and practised the instructions of my
teacher.'

【第五章】子曰、道千乘之國、敬事而信、節用而愛人、使民以時。
【第六章】子曰、弟子、入則孝、出則弟、謹而信、凡愛眾、而親仁、行有
餘力、則以學文。
【第七章】子夏曰、賢賢易色、事父母、能竭其力、事君、能致其身、
CHAP. V. The Master said, To rule a country of a thousand
chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and
sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the
employment of the people at the proper seasons.'
CHAP. VI. The Master said, 'A youth, when at home,
should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should
be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and
cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and
opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should
employ them in polite studies.'
CHAP. VII. Tsze-hsia said, 'If a man withdraws his mind
from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love
of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his
utmost strength;

與朋友交、言而有信、雖曰未學、吾必謂之學矣。
【第八章】【一節】子曰、君子不重、則不威、學則不固。【二節】主忠信。
【三節】無友不如己者。【四節】過則勿憚改。
【第九章】曾子曰、慎終追遠、民德歸厚矣。
if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his
intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-- although
men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he
has.'
CHAP. VIII. 1. The Master said, 'If the scholar be not
grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning
will not be solid.
2. 'Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.
3. 'Have no friends not equal to yourself.
4. 'When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them.'
CHAP. IX. The philosopher Tsang said, 'Let there be a
careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let
them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of
sacrifice;-- then the virtue of the people will resume its proper
excellence.'

【第十章】【一節】子禽問於子貢曰、夫子至於是邦也、必聞其政、求之與、
抑與之與。【二節】子貢曰、夫子溫、良、恭、儉、讓、以得之、夫子之求
之也、其諸異乎人之求之與。
【十一章】子曰、父在、觀其志、父沒、觀其行、三年無改於父之道、可謂
孝矣。
CHAP. X. 1. Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung, saying, 'When our
master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about
its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to
him?'
2. Tsze-kung said, 'Our master is benign, upright,
courteous, temperate, and complaisant, and thus he gets his
information. The master's mode of asking information!-- is it
not different from that of other men?'
CHAP. XI. The Master said, 'While a man's father is alive,
look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his
conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of
his father, he may be called filial.'

【十二章】【一節】有子曰、禮之用、和為貴、先王之道、斯為美;小大由
之。【二節】有所不行、知和而和、不以禮節之、亦不可行也。
【十三章】有子曰、信近於義、言可復也、恭近於禮、遠恥辱也、因不失其
親、亦可宗也。
【十四章】子曰、君子食無求
CHAP. XII. 1. The philosopher Yu said, 'In practising the rules of
propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed
by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things
small and great we follow them.
2. 'Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing
how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without
regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be
done.'
CHAP. XIII. The philosopher Yu said, 'When agreements
are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be
made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper,
one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon
whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he
can make them his guides and masters.'
CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'He who aims to be a man of
complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his
appetite, nor

飽、居無求安、敏於事、而慎於言、就有道、而正焉、可謂好學也已。
【十五章】【一節】子貢曰貧、而無諂、富而無驕、何如。子曰、可也、未
若貧而樂、富而好禮者也。【二節】子貢曰、詩云、如切如磋、如琢如磨、
其斯之謂與。【三節】子曰、賜也、始可與言詩
in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is
earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he
frequents the company of men of principle that he may be
rectified:-- such a person may be said indeed to love to learn.'
CHAP. XV. 1. Tsze-kung said, 'What do you pronounce
concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich
man who is not proud?' The Master replied, 'They will do; but
they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful,
and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety.'
2. Tsze-kung replied, 'It is said in the Book of Poetry, "As
you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish."-- The
meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just
expressed.'
3. The Master said, 'With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to
talk

已矣、告諸往而知來者。
【十六章】子曰、不患人之不己知、患不知人也。
about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper
sequence.'
CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'I will not be afflicted at
men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know
men.'

為政第二
BOOK II. WEI CHANG.

【第一章】子曰、為政以德、譬如北辰、居其所、而眾星共之。
CHAP. I. The Master said, 'He who exercises government
by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar
star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it.'

【第二章】子曰、詩三百、一言以蔽之、曰、思無邪。
【第三章】【一節】子曰、道之以政、齊之以刑、民免而無恥。【二節】道
之以德、齊之以禮、有恥且格。
【第四章】【一節】子曰、吾十有五而志于學。【二節】三十而立。【三節】
四十而不惑。【四節】五
CHAP. II. The Master said, 'In the Book of Poetry are
three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be
embraced in one sentence-- "Having no depraved thoughts."'
CHAP. III. 1. The Master said, 'If the people be led by
laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments,
they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of
shame.
2. 'If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be
given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense
of shame, and moreover will become good.'
CHAP. IV. 1. The Master said, 'At fifteen, I had my mind
bent on learning.
2. 'At thirty, I stood firm.
3. 'At forty, I had no doubts.
4. 'At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.

十而知天命。【五節】六十而耳順。【五節】七十而從心所欲、不踰矩。
【第五章】【一節】孟懿子問孝、子曰、無違。【二節】樊遲御、子告之曰、
孟孫問孝於我、我對曰、無違。【三節】樊遲曰、何謂也、子曰、生事之以
禮、死葬之以禮、祭之以禮。
5. 'At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the
reception of truth.
6. 'At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired,
without transgressing what was right.'
CHAP. V. 1. Mang I asked what filial piety was. The
Master said, 'It is not being disobedient.'
2. Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master
told him, saying, 'Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and
I answered him,-- "not being disobedient."'
3. Fan Ch'ih said, 'What did you mean?' The Master
replied, 'That parents, when alive, be served according to
propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to
propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to
propriety.'

【第六章】孟武伯問孝、子曰、父母唯其疾之憂。
【第七章】子游問孝、子曰、今之孝者、是謂能養、至於犬馬、皆能有養、
不敬、何以別乎。
【第八章】子夏問孝、子曰、色難、有事、弟子服其勞、有酒食、先生饌、
曾是以為孝乎。
CHAP. VI. Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The
Master said, 'Parents are anxious lest their children should be
sick.'
CHAP. VII. Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The
Master said, 'The filial piety of now-a-days means the support
of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do
something in the way of support;-- without reverence, what is
there to distinguish the one support given from the other?'
CHAP. VIII. Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The
Master said, 'The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when
their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the
toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they
set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial
piety?'

【第九章】子曰、吾與回言終日、不違、如愚。退兒省其私、亦足以發、回
也不愚。
【第十章】【一節】子曰、視其所以。【二節】觀其所由。【三節】察其所
安。【四節】人焉廋哉、人焉廋哉。
【十一章】子曰、溫故而知新、可以為師矣。
CHAP. IX. The Master said, 'I have talked with Hui for a
whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I
said;-- as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have
examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able
to illustrate my teachings. Hui!-- He is not stupid.'
CHAP. X. 1. The Master said, 'See what a man does.
2. 'Mark his motives.
3. 'Examine in what things he rests.
4. 'How can a man conceal his character?
5. How can a man conceal his character?'
CHAP. XI. The Master said, 'If a man keeps cherishing his
old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may
be a teacher of others.'

【十二章】子曰、君子不器。
【十三章】子貢問君子、子曰、先行其言、而後從之。
【十四章】子曰、君子周而不比、小人比而不周。
【十五章】子曰、學而不思則罔、思而不學則殆。
【十六章】子曰、攻乎異端、斯害也己。
CHAP. XII. The Master said, 'The accomplished scholar is
not a utensil.'
CHAP. XIII. Tsze-kung asked what constituted the
superior man. The Master said, 'He acts before he speaks, and
afterwards speaks according to his actions.'
CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'The superior man is catholic
and no partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic.'
CHAP. XV. The Master said, 'Learning without thought is
labour lost; thought without learning is perilous.'
CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'The study of strange
doctrines is injurious indeed!'

【十七章】子曰、由、誨女知之乎、知之為知之、不知為不知、是知也。
【十八章】【一節】子張學干祿。【一節】子曰、多聞闕疑、慎言其餘、則
寡尤、多見闕殆、慎行其餘、則寡悔、言寡尤、行寡悔、祿在其中矣。
CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'Yu, shall I teach you what
knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know
it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not
know it;-- this is knowledge.'
CHAP. XVII. 1. Tsze-chang was learning with a view to
official emolument.
2. The Master said, 'Hear much and put aside the points
of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the
same time of the others:-- then you will afford few occasions
for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem
perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying
the others into practice:-- then you will have few occasions for
repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his
words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in
the way to get emolument.'

【十九章】哀公聞曰、何為則民服。孔子對曰、舉直錯諸枉、則民服、舉枉
錯諸直、則民不服。
【二十章】季康子問使民敬忠以勤、如之何。子曰、臨之以莊、則敬、孝慈、
則忠、舉善而教不能、則勤。
【廿一章】【一節】或謂孔子曰、子奚
CHAP. XIX. The Duke Ai asked, saying, 'What should be
done in order to secure the submission of the people?'
Confucius replied, 'Advance the upright and set aside the
crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and
set aside the upright, then the people will not submit.'
CHAP. XX. Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to
reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to
nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, 'Let him preside
over them with gravity;-- then they will reverence him. Let
him be filial and kind to all;-- then they will be faithful to him.
Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;-- then
they will eagerly seek to be virtuous.'
CHAP. XXI. 1. Some one addressed Confucius, saying, 'Sir,
why are you not engaged in the government?'

不為政。【二節】子曰、書云孝乎、惟孝友于兄弟、施於有政、是亦為政、
奚其為為政。
【廿二章】子曰、人而無信、不知其可也、大車無輗、小車無軏、其何以行
之哉。
【廿三章】【一節】子張問十世、可知也。【二節】子曰、殷因於夏禮、
2. The Master said, 'What does the Shu-ching say of filial
piety?-- "You are filial, you discharge your brotherly duties.
These qualities are displayed in government." This then also
constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be
THAT-- making one be in the government?'
CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'I do not know how a man
without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be
made to go without the cross-bar for yoking the oxen to, or a
small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?'
CHAP. XXIII. 1. Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of
ten ages after could be known.
2. Confucius said, 'The Yin dynasty followed the
regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them
may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations
of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known.
Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the
distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known.'

所損益、可知也、周因於殷禮、所損益、可知也、其或繼周者、雖百世、可
知也。
【廿四章】【一節】子曰、非其鬼而祭之、諂也。【二節】見義不為、無勇
也。
CHAP. XXIV. 1. The Master said, 'For a man to sacrifice to
a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.
2. 'To see what is right and not to do it is want of
courage.'

八佾第三
BOOK III. PA YIH.

【第一章】孔子謂季氏、八佾舞於庭、是可忍也、孰不可忍也。
CHAP. I. Confucius said of the head of the Chi family, who
had eight rows of pantomimes in his area, 'If he can bear to do
this, what may he not bear to do?'

【第二章】三家者、以雍徹。子曰、相維辟公、天子穆穆、奚取於三家之堂。
【第三章】子曰、人而不仁、如禮何、人而不仁、如樂何。
【第四章】【一節】林放問禮之本。【二節】子曰、大哉問。【三節】禮、
與其奢也、寧
CHAP. II. The three families used the YUNG ode, while the
vessels were being removed, at the conclusion of the sacrifice.
The Master said, '"Assisting are the princes;-- the son of heaven
looks profound and grave:"-- what application can these words
have in the hall of the three families?'
CHAP. III. The Master said, 'If a man be without the
virtues proper to humanity, what has he to do with the rites of
propriety? If a man be without the virtues proper to humanity,
what has he to do with music?'
CHAP. IV. 1. Lin Fang asked what was the first thing to be
attended to in ceremonies.
2. The Master said, 'A great question indeed!
3. 'In festive ceremonies, it is better to be sparing than
extravagant.

儉、喪、與其易也、寧戚。
【第五章】子曰、夷狄之有君、不如諸夏之亡也。
【第六章】季氏旅於泰山。子謂冉有曰、女弗能救與。對曰、不能。子曰、
嗚呼、曾謂泰山、不如林放乎。
In the ceremonies of mourning, it is better that there be deep
sorrow than a minute attention to observances.'
CHAP. V. The Master said, 'The rude tribes of the east and
north have their princes, and are not like the States of our
great land which are without them.'
CHAP. VI. The chief of the Chi family was about to
sacrifice to the T'ai mountain. The Master said to Zan Yu, 'Can
you not save him from this?' He answered, 'I cannot.' Confucius
said, 'Alas! will you say that the T'ai mountain is not so
discerning as Lin Fang?'

【第七章】子曰、君子無所爭、必也射乎、揖讓而升、下而飲、其爭也君子。
【第八章】子夏問曰、巧笑倩兮、美目盼兮、素以為絢兮。何為也。【二節】
子曰、繪事後素。【三節】曰、禮後乎。子曰、起予者商也、始可與言詩已
矣。
CHAP. VII. The Master said, 'The student of virtue has no
contentions. If it be said he cannot avoid them, shall this be in
archery? But he bows complaisantly to his competitors; thus he
ascends the hall, descends, and exacts the forfeit of drinking. In
his contention, he is still the Chun-tsze.'
CHAP. VIII. 1. Tsze-hsia asked, saying, 'What is the
meaning of the passage-- "The pretty dimples of her artful
smile! The well-defined black and white of her eye! The plain
ground for the colours?"'
2. The Master said, 'The business of laying on the colours
follows (the preparation of) the plain ground.'
3. 'Ceremonies then are a subsequent thing?' The Master
said, 'It is Shang who can bring out my meaning. Now I can
begin to talk about the odes with him.'

【第九章】子曰、夏禮吾能言之、杞不足徵也、殷禮吾能言之、宋不足徵也、
文獻不足故也、足、則吾能徵之矣。
【第十章】子曰、禘、自既灌而往者、吾不欲觀之矣。
【十一章】或問禘之說。子曰、不知也、知其說者、之於天下也、其如示諸
CHAP. IX. The Master said, 'I could describe the
ceremonies of the Hsia dynasty, but Chi cannot sufficiently
attest my words. I could describe the ceremonies of the Yin
dynasty, but Sung cannot sufficiently attest my words. (They
cannot do so) because of the insufficiency of their records and
wise men. If those were sufficient, I could adduce them in
support of my words.'
CHAP. X. The Master said, 'At the great sacrifice, after the
pouring out of the libation, I have no wish to look on.'
CHAP. XI. Some one asked the meaning of the great
sacrifice. The Master said, 'I do not know. He who knew its
meaning would find it as easy to govern the kingdom as to look
on this;-- pointing to his palm.

斯乎。指其掌。
【十二章】【一節】祭如在、祭神如神在。【二節】子曰、吾不與祭、如不
祭。
【一節】王孫賈問曰、與其媚於奧、寧媚於(zao4 上穴,中土,下黽)、何
謂也。【二節】子曰、不然、獲罪於天、無所禱也。
CHAP. XII. 1. He sacrificed to the dead, as if they were
present. He sacrificed to the spirits, as if the spirits were
present.
2. The Master said, 'I consider my not being present at
the sacrifice, as if I did not sacrifice.'
CHAP. XIII. 1. Wang-sun Chia asked, saying, 'What is the
meaning of the saying, "It is better to pay court to the furnace
than to the south-west corner?"'
2. The Master said, 'Not so. He who offends against
Heaven has none to whom he can pray.'

【十四章】子曰、周監於二代、郁郁乎文哉、吾從周。
【十五章】子入大廟、每事問。或曰、孰謂鄹人之子知禮乎、入大廟、每事
問。子聞之曰、是禮也。
【十六章】子曰、射不主皮、為力不同科、古之道也。
CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'Chau had the advantage of
viewing the two past dynasties. How complete and elegant are
its regulations! I follow Chau.'
CHAP. XV. The Master, when he entered the grand
temple, asked about everything. Some one said, 'Who will say
that the son of the man of Tsau knows the rules of propriety!
He has entered the grand temple and asks about everything.'
The Master heard the remark, and said, 'This is a rule of
propriety.'
CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'In archery it is not going
through the leather which is the principal thing;-- because
people's strength is not equal. This was the old way.'

【十七章】【一節】子貢欲去告朔之餼羊。【二節】子曰、賜也、爾愛其羊、
我愛其禮。
【十八章】子曰、事君盡禮、人以為諂也。
【十九章】【一節】定公問君使臣、臣事君、如之何。孔子對曰、君使臣以
禮、臣事君以忠。
【二十章】子曰、關睢樂而不淫、哀而不傷。
CHAP. XVII. 1. Tsze-kung wished to do away with the
offering of a sheep connected with the inauguration of the first
day of each month.
2. The Master said, 'Ts'ze, you love the sheep; I love the
ceremony.'
CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'The full observance of the
rules of propriety in serving one's prince is accounted by
people to be flattery.'
CHAP. XIX. The Duke Ting asked how a prince should
employ his ministers, and how ministers should serve their
prince. Confucius replied, 'A prince should employ his minister
according to according to the rules of propriety; ministers
should serve their prince with faithfulness.'
CHAP. XX. The Master said, 'The Kwan Tsu is expressive of
enjoyment without being licentious, and of grief without being
hurtfully excessive.'

【廿一章】【一節】哀公問社於宰我。宰我對曰、夏后氏以松、殷人以柏、
周人以栗、曰、使民戰栗。【二節】子聞之曰、成事不說、遂事不諫、既往
不咎。
【廿二章】【一節】子曰、管仲之器小哉。【二節】或曰、管仲儉乎。【三
節】曰、管氏有三歸、
CHAP. XXI. 1. The Duke Ai asked Tsai Wo about the altars
of the spirits of the land. Tsai Wo replied, 'The Hsia sovereign
planted the pine tree about them; the men of the Yin planted
the cypress; and the men of the Chau planted the chestnut tree,
meaning thereby to cause the people to be in awe.'
2. When the Master heard it, he said, 'Things that are
done, it is needless to speak about; things that have had their
course, it is needless to remonstrate about; things that are past,
it is needless to blame.'
CHAP. XXII. 1. The Master said, 'Small indeed was the
capacity of Kwan Chung!'
2. Some one said, 'Was Kwan Chung parsimonious?'
'Kwan,' was the reply, 'had the San Kwei, and his officers
performed no double duties; how can he be considered
parsimonious?'
3. 'Then, did Kwan Chung know the rules of propriety?'
The

官事不攝、焉得儉。【四節】然則管仲知禮乎。【五節】曰、邦君樹塞門、
管氏亦樹塞門、邦君為兩君之好、有反坫、管氏亦有反坫、管氏而知禮、孰
不知禮。
【廿三章】子語魯大師樂曰、樂其可知也、始作、翕如也、從之、純如也、
繳如也、繹如也、以成。
Master said, 'The princes of States have a screen intercepting
the view at their gates. Kwan had likewise a screen at his gate.
The princes of States on any friendly meeting between two of
them, had a stand on which to place their inverted cups. Kwan
had also such a stand. If Kwan knew the rules of propriety,
who does not know them?'
CHAP. XXXII. The Master instructing the grand music-
master of Lu said, 'How to play music may be known. At the
commencement of the piece, all the parts should sound
together. As it proceeds, they should be in harmony while
severally distinct and flowing without break, and thus on to the
conclusion.'

【廿四章】儀封人請見、曰、君子之至於斯也、吾未嘗不得見也。從者見之、
出曰、二三子、何患於喪乎、天下之無道也久矣、天將以夫子為木鐸。
【廿五章】子謂韶、盡美矣、又盡善也、謂武、盡美矣、未盡善也。
【廿六章】子曰、居上不寬、為禮
CHAP. XXIV. The border warden at Yi requested to be
introduced to the Master, saying, 'When men of superior virtue
have come to this, I have never been denied the privilege of
seeing them.' The followers of the sage introduced him, and
when he came out from the interview, he said, 'My friends,
why are you distressed by your master's loss of office? The
kingdom has long been without the principles of truth and
right; Heaven is going to use your master as a bell with its
wooden tongue.'
CHAP. XXV. The Master said of the Shao that it was
perfectly beautiful and also perfectly good. He said of the Wu
that it was perfectly beautiful but not perfectly good.
CHAP. XXVI. The Master said, 'High station filled without
indulgent generosity; ceremonies performed without reverence;
mourning conducted without sorrow;-- wherewith should I
contemplate such ways?'

不敬、臨喪不哀、吾何以觀之哉。

里仁第四
BOOK IV. LE JIN.

【第一章】子曰、里仁為美、擇不處仁、焉得知。
【第二章】子曰、不仁者、不可以久處約、不可以長處樂、仁者安仁、知者
利仁。
CHAP. I. The Master said, 'It is virtuous manners which
constitute the excellence of a neighborhood. If a man in
selecting a residence, do not fix on one where such prevail, how
can he be wise?'
CHAP. II. The Master said, 'Those who are without virtue
cannot abide long either in a condition of poverty and hardship,
or in a condition of enjoyment. The virtuous rest in virtue; the
wise desire virtue.'

【第三章】子曰、惟仁者、能好人、能惡人。
【第四章】子曰、苟志於仁矣、無惡也。
【第五章】【一節】子曰、富與貴、是人之所欲也、不以其道得之、不處也。
貧與賤、是人之所惡也、不以其道得之、不去也。【二節】君子去仁、惡乎
成名。【三節】君子無終食之間
CHAP. III. The Master said, 'It is only the (truly) virtuous
man, who can love, or who can hate, others.'
CHAP. IV. The Master said, 'If the will be set on virtue,
there will be no practice of wickedness.'
CHAP. V. 1. The Master said, 'Riches and honours are
what men desire. If it cannot be obtained in the proper way,
they should not be held. Poverty and meanness are what men
dislike. If it cannot be avoided in the proper way, they should
not be avoided.
2. 'If a superior man abandon virtue, how can he fulfil
the requirements of that name?
3. 'The superior man does not, even for the space of a
single meal, act contrary to virtue. In moments of haste, he
cleaves to it. In seasons of danger, he cleaves to it.'

違仁、造次必於是、顛沛必於是。
【第六章】【一節】子曰、我未見好仁者、惡不仁者、好仁者、無以尚之、
惡不仁者、其為仁矣、不使不仁者、加乎其身。【二節】有能一日用其力於
仁矣乎、我未見力不足者。【三節】蓋有之矣、我未之見也。
【第七章】子曰、人之過也、各於其黨、觀過、斯知仁矣。
CHAP. VI. 1. The Master said, 'I have not seen a person
who loved virtue, or one who hated what was not virtuous. He
who loved virtue, would esteem nothing above it. He who hated
what is not virtuous, would practise virtue in such a way that
he would not allow anything that is not virtuous to approach
his person.
2. 'Is any one able for one day to apply his strength to
virtue? I have not seen the case in which his strength would be
insufficient.
3. 'Should there possibly be any such case, I have not
seen it.'
CHAP. VII. The Master said, 'The faults of men are
characteristic of the class to which they belong. By observing a
man's faults, it may be known that he is virtuous.'

【第八章】子曰、朝聞道、夕死、可矣。
【第八章】子曰、士志於道、而恥惡衣惡食者、未足與議也。
【第十章】子曰、君子之於天下也、無適也、無莫也、義之與比。
【十一章】子曰、君子懷德、小人懷土、君子懷刑、小
CHAP. VIII. The Master said, 'If a man in the morning
hear the right way, he may die in the evening without regret.'
CHAP. IX. The Master said, 'A scholar, whose mind is set
on truth, and who is ashamed of bad clothes and bad food, is
not fit to be discoursed with.'
CHAP. X. The Master said, 'The superior man, in the
world, does not set his mind either for anything, or against
anything; what is right he will follow.'
CHAP. XI. The Master said, 'The superior man thinks of
virtue; the small man thinks of comfort. The superior man
thinks of the sanctions of law; the small man thinks of favours
which he may receive.'

人懷惠。
【十二章】子曰、放於利而行、多怨。
【十三章】子曰、能以禮讓為國乎、何有、不能以禮讓為國、如禮何。
【十四章】子曰、不患無位、患所以立、不患莫己知、求為可知也。
【十五章】【一節】子曰、參乎、吾道一以貫之。曾子曰、唯。【二節】子
出、門人問
CHAP. XII. The Master said: 'He who acts with a constant
view to his own advantage will be much murmured against.'
CHAP. XIII. The Master said, 'Is a prince is able to govern
his kingdom with the complaisance proper to the rules of
propriety, what difficulty will he have? If he cannot govern it
with that complaisance, what has he to do with the rules of
propriety?'
CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'A man should say, I am not
concerned that I have no place, I am concerned how I may fit
myself for one. I am not concerned that I am not known, I seek
to be worthy to be known.'
CHAP. XV. 1. The Master said, 'Shan, my doctrine is that
of an all-pervading unity.' The disciple Tsang replied, 'Yes.'
2. The Master went out, and the other disciples asked,
saying,

曰、何謂也。曾子曰、夫子之道、忠恕而已矣。
【十六章】子曰、君子喻於義、小人喻於利。
【十七章】子曰、見賢思齊焉、見不賢而內自省也。
【十八章】子曰、事父母幾諫、見志不從、又敬
'What do his words mean?' Tsang said, 'The doctrine of our
master is to be true to the principles of our nature and the
benevolent exercise of them to others,-- this and nothing more.'
CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'The mind of the superior
man is conversant with righteousness; the mind of the mean
man is conversant with gain.'
CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'When we see men of worth,
we should think of equalling them; when we see men of a
contrary character, we should turn inwards and examine
ourselves.'
CHAP. XVIII. The Master said, 'In serving his parents, a
son may remonstrate with them, but gently; when he sees that
they do not incline to follow his advice, he shows an increased
degree of reverence, but does not abandon his purpose; and
should they punish him, he does not allow himself to murmur.'

不違、勞而不怨。
【十九章】子曰、父母在、不遠游、游必有方。
【二十章】子曰、三年無改於父之道、可謂孝矣。
【廿一章】子曰、父母之年、不可不知也、一則以喜、一則以懼。
【廿二章】子曰、古者言之不出、恥躬之不逮也。
【廿三章】子曰、以約、失之者鮮矣。
CHAP. XIX. The Master said, 'While his parents are alive,
the son may not go abroad to a distance. If he does go abroad,
he must have a fixed place to which he goes.'
CHAP. XX. The Master said, 'If the son for three years
does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called
filial.'
CHAP. XXI. The Master said, 'The years of parents may by
no means not be kept in the memory, as an occasion at once for
joy and for fear.'
CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'The reason why the
ancients did not readily give utterance to their words, was that
they feared lest their actions should not come up to them.'
CHAP. XXIII. The Master said, 'The cautious seldom err.'

【廿四章】子曰、君子欲訥於言、而敏於行。
【廿五章】子曰、德不孤、必有鄰。
【廿六章】子游曰、事君數、斯辱矣、朋友數、斯疏矣。
CHAP. XXIV. The Master said, 'The superior man wishes
to be slow in his speech and earnest in his conduct.'
CHAP. XXV. The Master said, 'Virtue is not left to stand
alone. He who practises it will have neighbors.'
CHAP. XXVI. Tsze-yu said, 'In serving a prince, frequent
remonstrances lead to disgrace. Between friends, frequent
reproofs make the friendship distant.'

公冶長第五
BOOK V. KUNG-YE CH'ANG.

【第一章】【一節】子謂公冶長、可妻也、雖在縲絏之中、非其罪也。以其
子妻之。【二節】子謂南容、
CHAP. I. 1. The Master said of Kung-ye Ch'ang that he
might be wived; although he was put in bonds, he had not been
guilty of any crime. Accordingly, he gave him his own daughter
to wife.
2. Of Nan Yung he said that if the country were well
governed

邦有道不廢、邦無道免於刑戮。以其兄之子妻之。
【第二章】子謂子賤、君子哉若人、魯無君子者、斯焉取斯。
【第三章】子貢問曰、賜也何如。子曰、女器也。曰、何器也。曰、瑚璉也。
he would not be out of office, and if it were ill-governed, he
would escape punishment and disgrace. He gave him the
daughter of his own elder brother to wife.
CHAP. II. The Master said of Tsze-chien, 'Of superior
virtue indeed is such a man! If there were not virtuous men in
Lu, how could this man have acquired this character?'
CHAP. III. Tsze-kung asked, 'What do you say of me,
Ts'ze? The Master said, 'You are a utensil.' 'What utensil?' 'A
gemmed sacrificial utensil.'

【第四章】【一節】或曰、雍也仁、而不佞。【二節】子曰、焉用佞、禦人
以口給、屢憎於人、不知其仁、焉用佞。
【第五章】子使漆雕開仕。對曰、吾斯之未能信。子說。
【第六章】子曰、道不行、乘桴浮于海、從我者、
CHAP. IV. 1. Some one said, 'Yung is truly virtuous, but he
is not ready with his tongue.'
2. The Master said, 'What is the good of being ready with
the tongue? They who encounter men with smartnesses of
speech for the most part procure themselves hatred. I know
not whether he be truly virtuous, but why should he show
readiness of the tongue?'
CHAP. V. The Master was wishing Ch'i-tiao K'ai to enter
on official employment. He replied, 'I am not yet able to rest in
the assurance of THIS.' The Master was pleased.
CHAP. VI. The Master said, 'My doctrines make no way. I
will get upon a raft, and float about on the sea. He that will
accompany me will be Yu, I dare say.' Tsze-lu hearing this was
glad,

其由與。子路聞之喜。子曰、由也、好勇過我、無所取材。
【第七章】【一節】孟武伯問子路仁乎。子曰、不知也。【二節】又問。子
曰、由也、千乘之國、可使治其賦也、不知其仁也。【三節】求也何如。子
曰、求也、千室之邑、百乘之家、可使為之宰也、不知其仁也。【四節】赤
也何如。子曰、赤也、束帶立於朝、可使與賓客言也、不知其仁也。
upon which the Master said, 'Yu is fonder of daring than I am.
He does not exercise his judgment upon matters.'
CHAP. VII. 1. Mang Wu asked about Tsze-lu, whether he
was perfectly virtuous. The Master said, 'I do not know.'
2. He asked again, when the Master replied, 'In a
kingdom of a thousand chariots, Yu might be employed to
manage the military levies, but I do not know whether he be
perfectly virtuous.'
3. 'And what do you say of Ch'iu?' The Master replied, 'In
a city of a thousand families, or a clan of a hundred chariots,
Ch'iu might be employed as governor, but I do not know
whether he is perfectly virtuous.'
4. 'What do you say of Ch'ih?' The Master replied, 'With
his sash girt and standing in a court, Ch'ih might be employed
to converse with the visitors and guests, but I do not know
whether he is perfectly virtuous.'

【第八章】【一節】子謂子貢曰、女與回也、孰愈。【二節】對曰、賜也、
何敢望回、回也、聞一以知十、賜也、聞一以知二。【三節】子曰、弗如也、
吾與女、弗如也。
【第九章】宰予晝寢。子曰、朽木不可雕也、糞土之牆、不可朽也、於予與
何誅。【二節】子曰、始吾於人也、聽其言而信其行、今吾於人也、
CHAP. VIII. 1. The Master said to Tsze-kung, 'Which do
you consider superior, yourself or Hui?'
2. Tsze-kung replied, 'How dare I compare myself with
Hui? Hui hears one point and knows all about a subject; I hear
one point, and know a second.'
3. The Master said, 'You are not equal to him. I grant you,
you are not equal to him.'
CHAP. IX. 1. Tsai Yu being asleep during the daytime, the
Master said, 'Rotten wood cannot be carved; a wall of dirty
earth will not receive the trowel. This Yu!-- what is the use of
my reproving him?'
2. The Master said, 'At first, my way with men was to
hear their words, and give them credit for their conduct. Now
my way is to hear their words, and look at their conduct. It is
from Yu that I have learned to make this change.'

聽其言而觀其行、於予與改是。
【第十章】子曰、吾未見剛者。或對曰、申棖。子曰、棖也慾、焉得剛。
【十一章】子貢曰、我不欲人之加諸我也、吾亦欲無加諸人。子曰、賜也、
非爾所及也。
【十二章】子貢曰、夫子之文章、
CHAP. X. The Master said, 'I have not seen a firm and
unbending man.' Some one replied, 'There is Shan Ch'ang.'
'Ch'ang,' said the Master, 'is under the influence of his passions;
how can he be pronounced firm and unbending?'
CHAP. XI. Tsze-kung said, 'What I do not wish men to do
to me, I also wish not to do to men.' The Master said, 'Ts'ze, you
have not attained to that.'
CHAP. XII. Tsze-kung said, 'The Master's personal
displays of his principles and ordinary descriptions of them
may be heard. His discourses about man's nature, and the way
of Heaven, cannot be heard.'

可得而聞也、夫子之言性與天道、不可得而聞也。
【十三章】子路有聞、未之能行、唯恐有聞。
【十四章】子貢問曰、孔文子、何以謂之文也。子曰、敏而好學、不恥下問、
是以謂之文也。
【十五章】子謂子產、有君子之道四焉、其行己也恭、其事上也敬、其養民
也惠、其使民
CHAP. XIII. When Tsze-lu heard anything, if he had not
yet succeeded in carrying it into practice, he was only afraid
lest he should hear something else.
CHAP. XIV. Tsze-kung asked, saying, 'On what ground did
Kung-wan get that title of Wan?' The Master said, 'He was of an
active nature and yet fond of learning, and he was not ashamed
to ask and learn of his inferiors!-- On these grounds he has
been styled Wan.'
CHAP. XV. The Master said of Tsze-ch'an that he had four
of the characteristics of a superior man:-- in his conduct of
himself, he was humble; in serving his superiors, he was
respectful; in nourishing the people, he was kind; in ordering
the people, he was just.'

也義。
【十六章】子曰、晏平仲善與人交、久而敬之。
【十七章】子曰、藏文仲、居蔡、山節藻梲、何如其知也。
【十八章】【一節】子張問曰、令尹子文三仕為令尹、無喜色、三已之、無
慍色。舊令尹之政、必以告新令尹、何如。子曰、忠矣。曰、仁矣乎。曰、
CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'Yen P'ing knew well how to
maintain friendly intercourse. The acquaintance might be long,
but he showed the same respect as at first.'
CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'Tsang Wan kept a large
tortoise in a house, on the capitals of the pillars of which he
had hills made, and with representations of duckweed on the
small pillars above the beams supporting the rafters.-- Of what
sort was his wisdom?'
CHAP. XVIII. 1. Tsze-chang asked, saying, 'The minister
Tsze-wan thrice took office, and manifested no joy in his
countenance. Thrice he retired from office, and manifested no
displeasure. He made it a point to inform the new minister of
the way in which he had conducted the government;-- what do
you say of him?' The Master replied. 'He was loyal.' 'Was he
perfectly virtuous?' 'I do not know. How can he be pronounced
perfectly virtuous?'

未知、焉得仁。【二節】崔子弒齊君、陳文子有馬十乘、棄而違之。至於他
邦、則曰、猶吾大夫崔子也、違之、之一邦、則又曰、猶吾大夫崔子也、違
之、何如。子曰、清矣。曰、仁矣乎。曰、未知、焉得仁。
【十九章】季文子三思而後行。子聞之曰、再、斯可矣。
【二十章】子曰、甯武子、邦有道、則
2. Tsze-chang proceeded, 'When the officer Ch'ui killed
the prince of Ch'i, Ch'an Wan, though he was the owner of forty
horses, abandoned them and left the country. Coming to
another State, he said, "They are here like our great officer,
Ch'ui," and left it. He came to a second State, and with the same
observation left it also;-- what do you say of him?' The Master
replied, 'He was pure.' 'Was he perfectly virtuous?' 'I do not
know. How can he be pronounced perfectly virtuous?'
CHAP. XIX. Chi Wan thought thrice, and then acted. When
the Master was informed of it, he said, 'Twice may do.'
CHAP. XX. The Master said, 'When good order prevailed in
his country, Ning Wu acted the part of a wise man. When his
country was in disorder, he acted the part of a stupid man.
Others may equal his wisdom, but they cannot equal his
stupidity.'

知、邦無道、則愚、其知可及也、其愚不可及也。
【廿一章】子在陳曰、歸與歸與、吾黨之小子狂簡、斐然成章、不知所以裁
之。
【廿二章】子曰、伯夷叔齊、不念舊惡、怨是用希。
【廿三章】子曰、孰謂微生高
CHAP. XXI. When the Master was in Ch'an, he said, 'Let
me return! Let me return! The little children of my school are
ambitious and too hasty. They are accomplished and complete
so far, but they do not know how to restrict and shape
themselves.'
CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'Po-i and Shu-ch'i did not
keep the former wickednesses of men in mind, and hence the
resentments directed towards them were few.'
CHAP. XXIII. The Master said, 'Who says of Wei-shang
Kao

直、或乞醃焉、乞諸鄰而與之。
【廿四章】子曰、巧言令色、足恭、左丘明恥之、丘亦恥之、匿怨而友其人、
左丘明恥之、丘亦恥之。
【一節】顏淵季路侍。子曰、盍各言爾志。【二節】子路曰、願車馬、衣輕
裘、與朋友共、蔽之而無憾。【三節】顏淵曰、願無
that he is upright? One begged some vinegar of him, and he
begged it of a neighbor and gave it to the man.'
CHAP. XXIV. The Master said, 'Fine words, an insinuating
appearance, and excessive respect;-- Tso Ch'iu-ming was
ashamed of them. I also am ashamed of them. To conceal
resentment against a person, and appear friendly with him;--
Tso Ch'iu-ming was ashamed of such conduct. I also am
ashamed of it.'
CHAP. XXV. 1. Yen Yuan and Chi Lu being by his side, the
Master said to them, 'Come, let each of you tell his wishes.'
2. Tsze-lu said, 'I should like, having chariots and horses,
and light fur dresses, to share them with my friends, and
though they should spoil them, I would not be displeased.'
3. Yen Yuan said, 'I should like not to boast of my
excellence, nor to make a display of my meritorious deeds.'

伐善、無施勞。【四節】子路曰、願聞子之志。子曰、老者安之、朋友信之、
少者懷之。
【廿六章】子曰、已矣乎、吾未見能見其過、而內自訟者也。
【廿七章】子曰、十室之邑、必有忠信、如丘者焉、不如丘之好學也。
4. Tsze-lu then said, 'I should like, sir, to hear your
wishes.' The Master said, 'They are, in regard to the aged, to
give them rest; in regard to friends, to show them sincerity; in
regard to the young, to treat them tenderly.'
CHAP. XXVI. The Master said, 'It is all over! I have not
yet seen one who could perceive his faults, and inwardly
accuse himself.'
CHAP. XXVII. The Master said, 'In a hamlet of ten
families, there may be found one honourable and sincere as I
am, but not so fond of learning.'

雍也第六
BOOK VI. YUNG YEY.

【第一章】【一節】子曰、雍也可使南面。【二節】仲弓問子桑伯子。子曰、
可也、簡。【三節】仲弓曰、居敬而行簡、以臨其民、不亦可乎、居簡而行
簡、無乃大簡乎。【四節】子曰、雍之言然。
CHAP. I. 1. The Master said, 'There is Yung!-- He might
occupy the place of a prince.'
2. Chung-kung asked about Tsze-sang Po-tsze. The Master
said, 'He may pass. He does not mind small matters.'
3. Chung-kung said, 'If a man cherish in himself a
reverential feeling of the necessity of attention to business,
though he may be easy in small matters in his government of
the people, that may be allowed. But if he cherish in himself
that easy feeling, and also carry it out in his practice, is not
such an easy mode of procedure excessive?'
4. The Master said, 'Yung's words are right.'

【第二章】【一節】哀公問弟子孰為好學。【二節】孔子對曰、有顏回者好
學、不遷怒、不貳過、不幸短命死矣、今也則亡、未聞好學者也。
【第三章】【一節】子華使於齊、冉子為其母請粟。子曰、與之釜。請益。
曰、與之庾。冉子與之粟五秉。【二節】子曰、赤之適齊也、乘肥馬、衣輕
裘、吾
CHAP. II. The Duke Ai asked which of the disciples loved
to learn. Confucius replied to him, 'There was Yen Hui; HE loved
to learn. He did not transfer his anger; he did not repeat a fault.
Unfortunately, his appointed time was short and he died; and
now there is not such another. I have not yet heard of any one
who loves to learn as he did.'
CHAP. III. 1. Tsze-hwa being employed on a mission to
Ch'i, the disciple Zan requested grain for his mother. The
Master said, 'Give her a fu.' Yen requested more. 'Give her an
yu,' said the Master. Yen gave her five ping.
2. The Master said, 'When Ch'ih was proceeding to Ch'i, he
had fat horses to his carriage, and wore light furs. I have heard
that

聞之也、君子周急、不繼富。【三節】原思為之宰、與之粟九百、辭。【四
節】子曰、毋、以與爾鄰里鄉黨乎。
【第四章】子謂仲弓曰、犁牛之子騂且角、雖欲勿用、山川其舍諸。
【第五章】子曰、回也、其心三月不違仁、其餘、則日月至焉而已矣。
a superior man helps the distressed, but does not add to the
wealth of the rich.'
3. Yuan Sze being made governor of his town by the
Master, he gave him nine hundred measures of grain, but Sze
declined them.
4. The Master said, 'Do not decline them. May you not
give them away in the neighborhoods, hamlets, towns, and
villages?'
CHAP. IV. The Master, speaking of Chung-kung, said, 'If
the calf of a brindled cow be red and horned, although men
may not wish to use it, would the spirits of the mountains and
rivers put it aside?'
CHAP. V. The Master said, 'Such was Hui that for three
months there would be nothing in his mind contrary to perfect
virtue. The others may attain to this on some days or in some
months, but nothing more.'

【第六章】季康子問仲由、可使從政也與。子曰、由也果、於從政乎何有。
曰、賜也、可使從政也與。曰、賜也達、於從政乎何有。曰、求也、可使從
政也與。曰、求也藝、於從政乎何有。
【第七章】季氏使閔子騫為費宰、閔子騫曰、善為我辭焉、如有復我者、則
吾必在汶上矣。
CHAP. VI. Chi K'ang asked about Chung-yu, whether he
was fit to be employed as an officer of government. The Master
said, 'Yu is a man of decision; what difficulty would he find in
being an officer of government?' K'ang asked, 'Is Ts'ze fit to be
employed as an officer of government?' and was answered,
'Ts'ze is a man of intelligence; what difficulty would he find in
being an officer of government?' And to the same question
about Ch'iu the Master gave the same reply, saying, 'Ch'iu is a
man of various ability.'
CHAP. VII. The chief of the Chi family sent to ask Min
Tsze-ch'ien to be governor of Pi. Min Tsze-ch'ien said, 'Decline
the offer for me politely. If any one come again to me with a
second invitation, I shall be obliged to go and live on the banks
of the Wan.'

【第八章】伯牛有疾、子問之、自牖執其手、曰、亡之、命矣夫、斯人也、
而有斯疾也、斯人也、而有斯疾也。
【第九章】子曰、賢哉回也、一簞食、一瓢飲、在陋巷、人不堪其憂、回也
不改其樂、賢哉回也。
【第十章】冉求曰、非不說子之道、力不足也。子曰、力不
CHAP. VIII. Po-niu being ill, the Master went to ask for
him. He took hold of his hand through the window, and said, 'It
is killing him. It is the appointment of Heaven, alas! That such a
man should have such a sickness! That such a man should have
such a sickness!'
CHAP. IX. The Master said, 'Admirable indeed was
the virtue of Hui! With a single bamboo dish of rice, a single
gourd dish of drink, and living in his mean narrow lane, while
others could not have endured the distress, he did not allow his
joy to be affected by it. Admirable indeed was the virtue of
Hui!'
CHAP. X. Yen Ch'iu said, 'It is not that I do not delight in
your doctrines, but my strength is insufficient.' The Master
said, 'Those whose strength is insufficient give over in the
middle of the way but now you limit yourself.'

足者、中道而廢、今女畫。
【十一章】子謂子夏曰、女為君子儒、無為小人儒。
【十二章】子游為武城宰、子曰、女得人焉耳乎。曰、有澹臺滅明者、行不
由徑、非公事、未嘗至於偃之室也。
【十三章】子曰、孟之反不伐、奔而殿、將入門、策其馬、曰、非敢後也、
馬不進也。
CHAP. XI. The Master said to Tsze-hsia, 'Do you be a
scholar after the style of the superior man, and not after that of
the mean man.'
CHAP. XII. Tsze-yu being governor of Wu-ch'ang, the
Master said to him, 'Have you got good men there?' He
answered, 'There is Tan-t'ai Mieh-ming, who never in walking
takes a short cut, and never comes to my office, excepting on
public business.'
CHAP. XIII. The Master said, 'Mang Chih-fan does not
boast of his merit. Being in the rear on an occasion of flight,
when they were about to enter the gate, he whipped up his
horse, saying, "It is not that I dare to be last. My horse would
not advance."'

【十四章】子曰、不有祝鮀之佞、而有宋朝之美、難乎免於今之世矣。
【十五章】子曰、誰能出不由戶?何莫由斯道也。
【十六章】子曰、質勝文則野、文勝質則史、文質彬彬、然後君子。
【十七章】子曰、人之生也直、罔之生也、幸而免。
CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'Without the specious speech
of the litanist T'o and the beauty of the prince Chao of Sung, it
is difficult to escape in the present age.'
CHAP. XV. The Master said, 'Who can go out but by the
door? How is it that men will not walk according to these
ways?'
CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'Where the solid qualities are
in excess of accomplishments, we have rusticity; where the
accomplishments are in excess of the solid qualities, we have
the manners of a clerk. When the accomplishments and solid
qualities are equally blended, we then have the man of virtue.'
CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'Man is born for
uprightness. If a man lose his uprightness, and yet live, his
escape from death is the effect of mere good fortune.'

【十八章】子曰、知之者、不如好之者、好之者、不如樂之者。
【十九章】子曰、中人以上、可以語上也、中人以下、不可以語上也。
【二十章】樊遲問知。子曰、務民之義、敬鬼神而遠之、可謂知矣。問仁。
曰、仁者先難而後獲、可
CHAP. XVIII. The Master said, 'They who know the truth
are not equal to those who love it, and they who love it are not
equal to those who delight in it.'
CHAP. XIX. The Master said, 'To those whose talents are
above mediocrity, the highest subjects may be announced. To
those who are below mediocrity, the highest subjects may not
be announced.'
CHAP. XX. Fan Ch'ih asked what constituted wisdom. The
Master said, 'To give one's self earnestly to the duties due to
men, and, while respecting spiritual beings, to keep aloof from
them, may be called wisdom.' He asked about perfect virtue.
The Master said, 'The man of virtue makes the difficulty to be
overcome his first business, and success only a subsequent
consideration;-- this may be called perfect virtue.'

謂仁矣。
【廿一章】子曰、知者樂水、仁者樂山、知者動、仁者靜。知者樂、仁者壽。
【廿二章】子曰、齊一變、至於魯、魯一變、至於道。
【廿三章】子曰、觚不觚、觚哉觚哉。
【廿四章】宰我問曰、仁者雖告之曰、井有仁焉、其從之
CHAP. XXI. The Master said, 'The wise find pleasure in
water; the virtuous find pleasure in hills. The wise are active;
the virtuous are tranquil. The wise are joyful; the virtuous are
long-lived.'
CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'Ch'i, by one change, would
come to the State of Lu. Lu, by one change, would come to a
State where true principles predominated.'
CHAP. XXIII. The Master said, 'A cornered vessel without
corners.-- A strange cornered vessel! A strange cornered
vessel!'
CHAP. XXIV. Tsai Wo asked, saying, 'A benevolent man,
though it be told him,-- 'There is a man in the well' will go in
after him, I suppose.' Confucius said, 'Why should he do so?' A
superior

也。子曰、何為其然也、君子可逝也、不可陷也、可欺也、不可罔也。
【廿五章】子曰、君子博學於文、約之以禮、亦可以弗畔矣夫。
【廿六章】子見南子、子路不說、夫子矢之、曰、予所否者、天厭之、天厭
之。
【廿七章】子曰、中庸之為德也、其至矣乎、民鮮久矣。
man may be made to go to the well, but he cannot be made to
go down into it. He may be imposed upon, but he cannot be
fooled.'
CHAP. XXV. The Master said, 'The superior man,
extensively studying all learning, and keeping himself under
the restraint of the rules of propriety, may thus likewise not
overstep what is right.'
CHAP. XXVI. The Master having visited Nan-tsze, Tsze-lu
was displeased, on which the Master swore, saying, 'Wherein I
have done improperly, may Heaven reject me, may Heaven
reject me!'
CHAP. XXVII. The Master said, 'Perfect is the virtue which
is

【廿八章】【一節】子貢曰、如有博施於民、而能濟眾、何如、可謂仁乎。
子曰、何事於仁、必也聖乎、堯舜其猶病諸。【二節】夫仁者、己欲立而立
人、己欲達而達人。【三節】能近取譬、可謂仁之方也已。
according to the Constant Mean! Rare for a long time has been
its practise among the people.'
CHAP. XXVIII. 1. Tsze-kung said, 'Suppose the case of a
man extensively conferring benefits on the people, and able to
assist all, what would you say of him? Might he be called
perfectly virtuous?' The Master said, 'Why speak only of virtue
in connexion with him? Must he not have the qualities of a
sage? Even Yao and Shun were still solicitous about this.
2. 'Now the man of perfect virtue, wishing to be
established himself, seeks also to establish others; wishing to
be enlarged himself, he seeks also to enlarge others.
3. 'To be able to judge of others by what is nigh in
ourselves;-- this may be called the art of virtue.'

述而第七
BOOK VII. SHU R.

【第一章】子曰、述而不作、信而好古、竊比於我老彭。
【第二章】子曰、默而識之、學而不厭、誨人不倦、何有於我哉。
【第三章】子曰、德之不脩、學之不講、聞義不能徒、不善不能改、
CHAP. I. The Master said, 'A transmitter and not a maker,
believing in and loving the ancients, I venture to compare
myself with our old P'ang.'
CHAP. II. The Master said, 'The silent treasuring up of
knowledge; learning without satiety; and instructing others
without being wearied:-- which one of these things belongs to
me?'
CHAP. III. The Master said, 'The leaving virtue without
proper cultivation; the not thoroughly discussing what is
learned; not being able to move towards righteousness of which
a knowledge is gained; and not being able to change what is not
good:-- these are the things which occasion me solicitude.'

是吾憂也。
【第四章】子之燕居、申申如也、夭夭如也。
【第五章】子曰、甚矣吾衰也、久矣、吾不復夢見周公。
【第六章】【一節】子曰、志於道。【二節】據於德。【三節】依於仁。【四
節】游於藝。
CHAP. IV. When the Master was unoccupied with
business, his manner was easy, and he looked pleased.
CHAP. V. The Master said, 'Extreme is my decay. For a
long time, I have not dreamed, as I was wont to do, that I saw
the duke of Chau.'
CHAP. VI. 1. The Master said, 'Let the will be set on the
path of duty.
2. 'Let every attainment in what is good be firmly
grasped.
3. 'Let perfect virtue be accorded with.
4. 'Let relaxation and enjoyment be found in the polite
arts.'

【第七章】子曰、自行束脩以上、吾未嘗無誨焉。
【第八章】子曰、不憤不啟、不悱不發、舉一隅、不以三隅反、則不復也。
【第九章】【一節】子食於有喪者之側、未嘗飽也。【二節】子於是日哭、
則不歌。
【第十章】【一節】子謂顏淵曰、用之則行、舍之則藏、惟我
CHAP. VII. The Master said, 'From the man bringing his
bundle of dried flesh for my teaching upwards, I have never
refused instruction to any one.'
CHAP. VIII. The Master said, 'I do not open up the truth
to one who is not eager to get knowledge, nor help out any one
who is not anxious to explain himself. When I have presented
one corner of a subject to any one, and he cannot from it learn
the other three, I do not repeat my lesson.'
CHAP. IX. 1. When the Master was eating by the side of a
mourner, he never ate to the full.
2. He did not sing on the same day in which he had been
weeping.
CHAP. X. 1. The Master said to Yen Yuan, 'When called to
office, to undertake its duties; when not so called, to lie
retired;-- it is only I and you who have attained to this.'

與爾有是夫。【二節】子路曰、子行三軍則誰與。【三節】子曰、暴虎馮河、
死而無悔者、吾不與也、必也臨事而懼、好謀而成者也。
【十一章】子曰、富而可求也、雖執鞭之士、吾亦為之、如不可求、從吾所
好。
【十二章】子之所慎、齊、戰、疾。
2. Tsze-lu said, 'If you had the conduct of the armies of a
great State, whom would you have to act with you?'
3. The Master said, 'I would not have him to act with me,
who will unarmed attack a tiger, or cross a river without a
boat, dying without any regret. My associate must be the man
who proceeds to action full of solicitude, who is fond of
adjusting his plans, and then carries them into execution.'
CHAP. XI. The Master said, 'If the search for riches is sure
to be successful, though I should become a groom with whip in
hand to get them, I will do so. As the search may not be
successful, I will follow after that which I love.'
CHAP. XII. The things in reference to which the Master
exercised the greatest caution were -- fasting, war, and
sickness.

【十三章】子在齊聞韶、三月不知肉味、曰、不圖為樂之至於斯也。
【十四章】【一節】冉有曰、夫子為衛君乎。子貢曰、諾、吾將問之。【二
節】入曰、伯夷叔齊、何人也。曰、古之賢人也。曰、怨乎。曰、求仁而得
仁、又何怨。出曰、夫子不為也。
CHAP. XIII. When the Master was in Ch'i, he heard the
Shao, and for three months did not know the taste of flesh. 'I
did not think'' he said, 'that music could have been made so
excellent as this.'
CHAP. XIV. 1. Yen Yu said, 'Is our Master for the ruler of
Wei?' Tsze-kung said, 'Oh! I will ask him.'
2. He went in accordingly, and said, 'What sort of men
were Po-i and Shu-ch'i?' 'They were ancient worthies,' said the
Master. 'Did they have any repinings because of their course?'
The Master again replied, 'They sought to act virtuously, and
they did so; what was there for them to repine about?' On this,
Tsze-kung went out and said, 'Our Master is not for him.'

【十五章】子曰、飯疏食飲水、曲肱而枕之、樂亦在其中矣、不義而富且貴、
於我如浮雲。
【十六章】子曰、加我數年、五十以學易、可以無大過矣。
【十七章】子所雅言、詩、書、執禮、皆雅言也。
CHAP. XV. The Master said, 'With coarse rice to eat, with
water to drink, and my bended arm for a pillow;-- I have still
joy in the midst of these things. Riches and honours acquired
by unrighteousness, are to me as a floating cloud.'
CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'If some years were added to
my life, I would give fifty to the study of the Yi, and then I
might come to be without great faults.'
CHAP. XVII The Master's frequent themes of discourse
were-- the Odes, the History, and the maintenance of the Rules
of Propriety. On all these he frequently discoursed.

【十八章】【一節】葉公問孔子於子路、子路不對。【二節】子曰、女奚不
曰、其為人也、發憤忘食、樂以忘憂、不知老之將至云爾。
【十九章】子曰、我非生而知之者、好古、敏以求之者也。
【二十章】子不語、怪、力、亂、神。
CHAP. XVIII. 1. The Duke of Sheh asked Tsze-lu about
Confucius, and Tsze-lu did not answer him.
2. The Master said, 'Why did you not say to him,-- He is
simply a man, who in his eager pursuit (of knowledge) forgets
his food, who in the joy of its attainment forgets his sorrows,
and who does not perceive that old age is coming on?'
CHAP. XIX. The Master said, 'I am not one who was born
in the possession of knowledge; I am one who is fond of
antiquity, and earnest in seeking it there.'
CHAP. XX. The subjects on which the Master did not talk,
were-- extraordinary things, feats of strength, disorder, and
spiritual beings.

【廿一章】子曰、三人行、必有我師焉、擇其善者而從之、其不善者而改之。
【廿二章】子曰、天生德於予、桓魋其如予何。
【廿三章】子曰、二三子、以我為隱乎、吾無隱乎爾、吾無行而不與二三子
者、是丘也、
【廿四章】子以四教、文、行、忠、信。
CHAP. XXI. The Master said, 'When I walk along with two
others, they may serve me as my teachers. I will select their
good qualities and follow them, their bad qualities and avoid
them.'
CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'Heaven produced the virtue
that is in me. Hwan T'ui-- what can he do to me?'
CHAP. XXIII. The Master said, 'Do you think, my disciples,
that I have any concealments? I conceal nothing from you.
There is nothing which I do that is not shown to you, my
disciples;-- that is my way.'
CHAP. XXIV. There were four things which the Master
taught,-- letters, ethics, devotion of soul, and truthfulness.

【廿五章】【一節】子曰、聖人吾不得而見之矣、得見君子者、斯可矣。【二
節】子曰、善人吾不得而見之矣、得見有恆者、斯可矣。【三節】亡而為有、
虛而為盈、約而為泰、難乎有恆矣。
【廿六章】子釣而不綱、弋不射宿。
【廿七章】子曰、蓋有不知而作
CHAP. XXV. 1. The Master said, 'A sage it is not mine to
see; could I see a man of real talent and virtue, that would
satisfy me.'
2. The Master said, 'A good man it is not mine to see;
could I see a man possessed of constancy, that would satisfy
me.
3. 'Having not and yet affecting to have, empty and yet
affecting to be full, straitened and yet affecting to be at ease:--
it is difficult with such characteristics to have constancy.'
CHAP. XXVI. The Master angled,-- but did not use a net.
He shot,-- but not at birds perching.
CHAP. XXVII. The Master said, 'There may be those who
act without knowing why. I do not do so. Hearing much and
selecting what is good and following it; seeing much and
keeping it in memory:-- this is the second style of knowledge.'

之者、我無是也。多聞、擇其善者而從之、多見而識之、知之次也。
【廿八章】【一節】互鄉難與言、童子見、門人惑。【二節】子曰、與其進
也、不與其退也、唯何甚、人潔己以進、與其潔也、不保其往也。
子曰、仁遠乎哉、我欲仁、斯仁至矣。
【三十章】【一節】陳司敗問昭公知禮乎。孔子曰、知禮。孔子退、揖巫馬
期而進
CHAP. XXVIII. 1. It was difficult to talk (profitably and
reputably) with the people of Hu-hsiang, and a lad of that place
having had an interview with the Master, the disciples
doubted.
2. The Master said, 'I admit people's approach to me
without committing myself as to what they may do when they
have retired. Why must one be so severe? If a man purify
himself to wait upon me, I receive him so purified, without
guaranteeing his past conduct.'
CHAP. XXIX. The Master said, 'Is virtue a thing remote? I
wish to be virtuous, and lo! virtue is at hand.'
CHAP. XXX. 1. The minister of crime of Ch'an asked
whether the duke Chao knew propriety, and Confucius said, 'He
knew propriety.'
2. Confucius having retired, the minister bowed to Wu-
ma Ch'i

之、曰、吾聞君子不黨、君子亦黨乎、君取於吳為同姓、謂之吳孟子、君而
知禮、孰不知禮。【三節】 巫馬期以告。子曰、丘也幸、苟有過、人必知
之。
【卅一章】子與人歌、而善、必使反之、而後和之。
【卅二章】子曰、文、莫吾猶人
to come forward, and said, 'I have heard that the superior man
is not a partisan. May the superior man be a partisan also? The
prince married a daughter of the house of Wu, of the same
surname with himself, and called her,-- "The elder Tsze of Wu."
If the prince knew propriety, who does not know it?'
3. Wu-ma Ch'i reported these remarks, and the Master
said, 'I am fortunate! If I have any errors, people are sure to
know them.'
CHAP. XXXI. When the Master was in company with a
person who was singing, if he sang well, he would make him
repeat the song, while he accompanied it with his own voice.
CHAP. XXXII. The Master said, 'In letters I am perhaps
equal to other men, but the character of the superior man,
carrying out in his conduct what he professes, is what I have
not yet attained to.'

也、躬行君子、則吾未之有得。
【卅三章】子曰、若聖與仁、則吾豈敢、抑為之不厭、誨人不倦、則可謂云
爾已矣。公西華曰、正唯弟子不能學也。
【卅四章】子疾病。子路請禱。子曰、有諸。子路對曰、有之、誄曰、禱爾
於上下神
祗 。子曰、丘之禱久矣。
CHAP. XXXIII. The Master said, 'The sage and the man of
perfect virtue;-- how dare I rank myself with them? It may
simply be said of me, that I strive to become such without
satiety, and teach others without weariness.' Kung-hsi Hwa
said, 'This is just what we, the disciples, cannot imitate you in.'
CHAP. XXXIV. The Master being very sick, Tsze-lu asked
leave to pray for him. He said, 'May such a thing be done?'
Tsze-lu replied, 'It may. In the Eulogies it is said, "Prayer has
been made for thee to the spirits of the upper and lower
worlds."' The Master said, 'My praying has been for a long
time.'

【卅五章】子曰、奢則不孫、儉則固、與其不孫也、寧固。
【卅六章】子曰、君子坦蕩蕩、小人長戚戚。
【卅七章】子溫而厲、威而不猛、恭而安。
CHAP. XXXV. The Master said, 'Extravagance leads to
insubordination, and parsimony to meanness. It is better to be
mean than to be insubordinate.'
CHAP. XXXVI. The Master said, 'The superior man is
satisfied and composed; the mean man is always full of
distress.'
CHAP. XXXVII. The Master was mild, and yet dignified;
majestic, and yet not fierce; respectful, and yet easy.

泰伯第八
BOOK VIII. T'AI-PO.

【第一章】子曰、太伯其可謂至德也已矣、三以天下讓、民無得而稱焉。
CHAP. I. The Master said, 'T'ai-po may be said to have
reached the highest point of virtuous action. Thrice he declined
the kingdom, and the people in ignorance of his motives could
not express their approbation of his conduct.'

【第二章】【一節】子曰、恭而無禮則勞、慎而無禮則葸、勇而無禮則亂、
直而無禮則絞。【二節】君子篤於親、則民興於仁、故舊不遺、則民不偷。
【第三章】曾子有疾、召門弟子曰、啟予
CHAP. II. 1. The Master said, 'Respectfulness, without the
rules of propriety, becomes laborious bustle; carefulness,
without the rules of propriety, becomes timidity; boldness,
without the rules of propriety, becomes insubordination;
straightforwardness, without the rules of propriety, becomes
rudeness.
2. 'When those who are in high stations perform well all
their duties to their relations, the people are aroused to virtue.
When old friends are not neglected by them, the people are
preserved from meanness.'
CHAP. III. The philosopher Tsang being ill, he called to
him the disciples of his school, and said, 'Uncover my feet,
uncover my hands. It is said in the Book of Poetry, "We should
be apprehensive and cautious, as if on the brink of a deep gulf,
as if treading on thin ice," and so have I been. Now and
hereafter, I know my escape from all injury to my person, O ye,
my little children.'

足、啟予手、詩云、戰戰兢兢、如臨深淵、如履薄冰、而今而後、吾知免夫、
小子。
【第四章】【一節】曾子有疾、孟敬子問之。曾子言曰、鳥之將死、其鳴也
哀、人之將死、其言也善。【三節】君子所貴乎道者三、動容貌、斯遠暴慢
矣、正顏色、斯近信笑、出辭氣、斯遠鄙倍矣、籩豆之事、則有司存。
CHAP. IV. 1. The philosopher Tsang being ill, Meng Chang
went to ask how he was.
2. Tsang said to him, 'When a bird is about to die, its
notes are mournful; when a man is about to die, his words are
good.
3. 'There are three principles of conduct which the man of
high rank should consider specially important:-- that in his
deportment and manner he keep from violence and
heedlessness; that in regulating his countenance he keep near
to sincerity; and that in his words and tones he keep far from
lowness and impropriety. As to such matters as attending to
the sacrificial vessels, there are the proper officers for them.'

【第五章】曾子曰、以能問於不能、以多問於寡、有若無、實若處、犯而不
校、昔者吾友、嘗從事於斯矣。
【第六章】曾子曰、可以託六尺之孤、可以寄百里之命、臨大節、而不可奪
也、君子人與、君子人也。
【第七章】【一節】曾子曰、士、不可以不弘毅、任重而道遠。【二節】仁
以為己
CHAP. V. The philosopher Tsang said, 'Gifted with ability,
and yet putting questions to those who were not so; possessed
of much, and yet putting questions to those possessed of little;
having, as though he had not; full, and yet counting himself as
empty; offended against, and yet entering into no altercation;
formerly I had a friend who pursued this style of conduct.'
CHAP. VI. The philosopher Tsang said, 'Suppose that there
is an individual who can be entrusted with the charge of a
young orphan prince, and can be commissioned with authority
over a state of a hundred li, and whom no emergency however
great can drive from his principles:-- is such a man a superior
man? He is a superior man indeed.'
CHAP. VII. 1. The philosopher Tsang said, 'The officer
may not be without breadth of mind and vigorous endurance.
His burden is heavy and his course is long.

任、不亦重乎、死而後已、不亦遠乎。
【第八章】【一節】子曰、興於詩。【二節】立於禮。【三節】成於樂。
【第九章】子曰、民可使由之、不可使知之。
【第十章】子曰、好勇疾貧、亂也、人而不仁、疾之已甚、亂也。
2. 'Perfect virtue is the burden which he considers it is
his to sustain;-- is it not heavy? Only with death does his
course stop;-- is it not long?
CHAP. VIII. 1. The Master said, 'It is by the Odes that the
mind is aroused.
2. 'It is by the Rules of Propriety that the character is
established.
3. 'It is from Music that the finish is received.'
CHAP. IX. The Master said, 'The people may be made to
follow a path of action, but they may not be made to
understand it.'
CHAP. X. The Master said, 'The man who is fond of daring
and is dissatisfied with poverty, will proceed to
insubordination. So will the man who is not virtuous, when you
carry your dislike of him to an extreme.'

子曰、如有周公之才之美、使驕且吝、其餘不足觀也已。
【十二章】子曰、三年學、不至於穀、不易得也。
【十三章】【一節】子曰、篤信好學、守死善道。【二節】危邦不入、亂邦
不居、天下有道則見、無道則隱。【三節】邦有道、貧且賤焉、恥也、邦無
道、富且貴焉、恥也。
CHAP. XI. The Master said, 'Though a man have abilities
as admirable as those of the Duke of Chau, yet if he be proud
and niggardly, those other things are really not worth being
looked at.'
CHAP. XII. The Master said, 'It is not easy to find a man
who has learned for three years without coming to be good.'
CHAP. XIII. 1. The Master said, 'With sincere faith he
unites the love of learning; holding firm to death, he is
perfecting the excellence of his course.
2. 'Such an one will not enter a tottering State, nor dwell
in a disorganized one. When right principles of government
prevail in the kingdom, he will show himself; when they are
prostrated, he will keep concealed.
3. 'When a country is well-governed, poverty and a mean
condition are things to be ashamed of. When a country is ill-
governed, riches and honour are things to be ashamed of.'

【十四章】子曰、不在其位、不謀其政。
【十五章】子曰、師摯之始、關睢之亂、洋洋乎盈耳哉。
【十六章】子曰、狂而不直、侗而不愿、悾悾而不信、吾不知之矣。
【十七章】子曰、學如不及、猶恐失之。
【十八章】子曰、巍巍乎、舜禹之
CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'He who is not in any
particular office, has nothing to do with plans for the
administration of its duties.'
CHAP. XV. The Master said, 'When the music master Chih
first entered on his office, the finish of the Kwan Tsu was
magnificent;-- how it filled the ears!'
CHAP. XVI. The Master said, 'Ardent and yet not upright;
stupid and yet not attentive; simple and yet not sincere:-- such
persons I do not understand.'
CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'Learn as if you could not
reach your object, and were always fearing also lest you should
lose it.'
CHAP. XVIII. The Master said, 'How majestic was the
manner in which Shun and Yu held possession of the empire, as
if it were nothing to them!'

有天下也、而不與焉。
【十九章】【一節】子曰、大哉、堯之為君也、巍巍乎、唯天為大、唯堯則
之、蕩蕩乎、民無能名焉。【二節】巍巍乎、其有成功也、煥乎、其有文章。
【二十章】【一節】舜有臣五人、而天下治。【二節】武王曰、予有亂臣十
人。【三節】孔子曰、才難、不其然乎、唐虞之際、於斯為盛、
CHAP. XIX. 1. The Master said, 'Great indeed was Yao as a
sovereign! How majestic was he! It is only Heaven that is
grand, and only Yao corresponded to it. How vast was his
virtue! The people could find no name for it.
2. 'How majestic was he in the works which he
accomplished! How glorious in the elegant regulations which he
instituted!'
CHAP. XX. 1. Shun had five ministers, and the empire was
well-governed.
2. King Wu said, 'I have ten able ministers.'
3. Confucius said, 'Is not the saying that talents are
difficult to find, true? Only when the dynasties of T'ang and Yu
met, were they more abundant than in this of Chau, yet there
was a woman among them. The able ministers were no more
than nine men.

有婦人焉、九人而已【四節】三分天下有其二、以服事殷、周之德、其可謂
至德也已矣。
【廿一章】子曰、禹吾無間然矣、菲飲食、而致孝乎鬼神、惡衣服、而致美
乎黻冕、卑宮室、而盡力乎溝恤、禹吾無間然矣。
4. 'King Wan possessed two of the three parts of the
empire, and with those he served the dynasty of Yin. The
virtue of the house of Chau may be said to have reached the
highest point indeed.'
CHAP. XXI. The Master said, 'I can find no flaw in the
character of Yu. He used himself coarse food and drink, but
displayed the utmost filial piety towards the spirits. His
ordinary garments were poor, but he displayed the utmost
elegance in his sacrificial cap and apron. He lived in a low mean
house, but expended all his strength on the ditches and water-
channels. I can find nothing like a flaw in Yu.'

子罕第九
BOOK IX. TSZE HAN.

【第一章】子罕言、利、與命、與仁。
【第二章】【一節】達巷黨人曰、大哉孔子、搏學而無所成名。【二節】子
聞之、謂門弟子曰、吾何執、執御乎、執射乎、吾執御矣。
CHAP. I. The subjects of which the Master seldom spoke
were-- profitableness, and also the appointments of Heaven,
and perfect virtue.
CHAP. II. 1. A man of the village of Ta-hsiang said, 'Great
indeed is the philosopher K'ung! His learning is extensive, and
yet he does not render his name famous by any particular
thing.'
2. The Master heard the observation, and said to his
disciples, 'What shall I practise? Shall I practise charioteering,
or shall I practise archery? I will practise charioteering.'

【第三章】【一節】子曰、麻冕、禮也、今也純、儉、吾從眾。【二節】拜
下、禮也。今拜乎上、泰也、雖遠眾、吾從下。
【第四章】子絕四、毋意、毋必、毋固、毋我。
【第五章】【一節】子畏於匡。【二節】曰、文王既沒、文不在茲乎。【三
節】天之將喪斯文也、後死者不得與於斯文也、
CHAP. III. 1. The Master said, 'The linen cap is that
prescribed by the rules of ceremony, but now a silk one is
worn. It is economical, and I follow the common practice.
2. 'The rules of ceremony prescribe the bowing below the
hall, but now the practice is to bow only after ascending it. That
is arrogant. I continue to bow below the hall, though I oppose
the common practice.'
CHAP. IV. There were four things from which the Master
was entirely free. He had no foregone conclusions, no arbitrary
predeterminations, no obstinacy, and no egoism.
CHAP. V. 1. The Master was put in fear in K'wang.
2. He said, 'After the death of King Wan, was not the
cause of truth lodged here in me?

天之未喪斯文也、匡人其如予何。
【第六章】【一節】大宰問於子貢、曰、夫子聖者與、何其多能也。【二節】
子貢曰、固天縱之將聖、又多能也。【三節】子聞之曰、大宰知我乎、吾少
也賤、故多能、鄙事、君子多乎哉、不多也。【四節】牢曰、子云、吾不試、
故藝。
3. 'If Heaven had wished to let this cause of truth perish,
then I, a future mortal, should not have got such a relation to
that cause. While Heaven does not let the cause of truth perish,
what can the people of K'wang do to me?'
CHAP. VI. 1. A high officer asked Tsze-kung, saying, 'May
we not say that your Master is a sage? How various is his
ability!'
2. Tsze-kung said, 'Certainly Heaven has endowed him
unlimitedly. He is about a sage. And, moreover, his ability is
various.'
3. The Master heard of the conversation and said, 'Does
the high officer know me? When I was young, my condition
was low, and therefore I acquired my ability in many things,
but they were mean matters. Must the superior man have such
variety of ability? He does not need variety of ability.'
4. Lao said, 'The Master said, "Having no official
employment, I acquired many arts."'

【第七章】子曰、吾有知乎哉、無知也、有鄙夫問於我、空空如也、我叩其
兩端而竭焉。
【第八章】子曰、鳳鳥不至、河不出圖、吾已矣乎。
【第九章】子見齊衰者、冕衣裳者、與瞽者、見之、雖少必作、過之必趨。
CHAP. VII. The Master said, 'Am I indeed possessed of
knowledge? I am not knowing. But if a mean person, who
appears quite empty-like, ask anything of me, I set it forth
from one end to the other, and exhaust it.'
CHAP. VIII. The Master said, 'The FANG bird does not
come; the river sends forth no map:-- it is all over with me!'
CHAP. IX. When the Master saw a person in a mourning
dress, or any one with the cap and upper and lower garments
of full dress, or a blind person, on observing them approaching,
though they were younger than himself, he would rise up, and
if he had to pass by them, he would do so hastily.

【第十章】【一節】顏淵喟然歎曰、仰之彌高、鑽之彌堅、瞻之在前、忽焉
在後夫子循循然善誘人、博我以文、約我以禮。【三節】欲罷不能、既竭吾
才、如有所立卓爾、雖欲從之、末由也已。
【十一章】【一節】子疾病、子路使門人為臣。【二節】病間曰、久矣哉、
由之行詐也、無臣而為有
CHAP. X. 1. Yen Yuan, in admiration of the Master's
doctrines, sighed and said, 'I looked up to them, and they
seemed to become more high; I tried to penetrate them, and
they seemed to become more firm; I looked at them before me,
and suddenly they seemed to be behind.
2. 'The Master, by orderly method, skilfully leads men on.
He enlarged my mind with learning, and taught me the
restraints of propriety.
3. 'When I wish to give over the study of his doctrines, I
cannot do so, and having exerted all my ability, there seems
something to stand right up before me; but though I wish to
follow and lay hold of it, I really find no way to do so.'
CHAP. XI. 1. The Master being very ill, Tsze-lu wished the
disciples to act as ministers to him.
2. During a remission of his illness, he said, 'Long has the
conduct of Yu been deceitful! By pretending to have ministers
when I have them not, whom should I impose upon? Should I
impose upon Heaven?

臣、吾誰欺、欺天乎。【三節】且予與其死於臣之手也、無寧死於二三子之
手乎、且予縱不得大葬、予死於道路乎。
【十二章】子貢曰、有美玉於斯、韞(du2 匚+賣、與「櫝」同)而藏諸、求
善賈而沽諸。子曰、沽之哉、沽之哉、我待賈者也。
【十三章】【一節】子欲居九夷。【二節】或曰、陋、如之何。子曰、君子
居之、何陋之有。
【十四章】子曰、吾自衛反魯、然後樂
3. 'Moreover, than that I should die in the hands of
ministers, is it not better that I should die in the hands of you,
my disciples? And though I may not get a great burial, shall I
die upon the road?'
CHAP. XII. Tsze-kung said, 'There is a beautiful gem here.
Should I lay it up in a case and keep it? or should I seek for a
good price and sell it?' The Master said, 'Sell it! Sell it! But I
would wait for one to offer the price.'
CHAP. XIII. 1. The Master was wishing to go and live
among the nine wild tribes of the east.
2. Some one said, 'They are rude. How can you do such a
thing?' The Master said, 'If a superior man dwelt among them,
what rudeness would there be?'
CHAP. XIV. The Master said, 'I returned from Wei to Lu,
and then the music was reformed, and the pieces in the Royal
songs and Praise songs all found their proper places.'

正、雅頌各得其所。
【十五章】子曰、出則事公卿、入則事父兄、喪事不敢不勉、不為酒困、何
有於我哉。
【十六章】子在川上曰、逝者如斯夫、不舍晝夜。
【十七章】子曰、吾未見好德、如好色者也。
【十八章】子曰、譬如為山、未成一簣、止、吾止也、譬如平地、雖
CHAP. XV. The Master said, 'Abroad, to serve the high
ministers and nobles; at home, to serve one's father and elder
brothers; in all duties to the dead, not to dare not to exert one's
self; and not to be overcome of wine:-- which one of these
things do I attain to?'
CHAP. XVI. The Master standing by a stream, said, 'It
passes on just like this, not ceasing day or night!'
CHAP. XVII. The Master said, 'I have not seen one who
loves virtue as he loves beauty.'
CHAP. XVIII. The Master said, 'The prosecution of
learning may be compared to what may happen in raising a
mound. If there want but one basket of earth to complete the
work, and I stop, the

覆一簣、進、吾往也。
【十九章】子曰、語之而不惰者、其回也與。
【二十章】子謂顏淵曰、惜乎、吾見其進也、未見其止也。
【廿一章】子曰、苗而不秀者、有矣夫、秀而不實者、有矣夫。
【廿二章】子曰、後生可畏、焉知來者之不如今也、四十五十而無聞焉、斯
亦不足畏也已。
stopping is my own work. It may be compared to throwing
down the earth on the level ground. Though but one basketful
is thrown at a time, the advancing with it is my own going
forward.'
CHAP. XIX. The Master said, 'Never flagging when I set
forth anything to him;-- ah! that is Hui.'
CHAP. XX. The Master said of Yen Yuan, 'Alas! I saw his
constant advance. I never saw him stop in his progress.'
CHAP. XXI. The Master said, 'There are cases in which the
blade springs, but the plant does not go on to flower! There are
cases where it flowers, but no fruit is subsequently produced!'
CHAP. XXII. The Master said, 'A youth is to be regarded
with respect. How do we know that his future will not be equal
to our present? If he reach the age of forty or fifty, and has not
made himself heard of, then indeed he will not be worth being
regarded with respect.'

【廿三章】子曰、法語之言、能無從乎、改之為貴、巽與之言、能無說乎、
繹之為貴、說而不繹、從而不改、吾末如之何也已矣。
【廿四章】子曰、主忠信、毋友不如己者、過則勿憚改。
【廿五章】子曰、三軍可奪師也、匹夫不可奪志也。
CHAP. XXV. The Master said, 'Can men refuse to assent to
the words of strict admonition? But it is reforming the conduct
because of them which is valuable. Can men refuse to be
pleased with words of gentle advice? But it is unfolding their
aim which is valuable. If a man be pleased with these words,
but does not unfold their aim, and assents to those, but does
not reform his conduct, I can really do nothing with him.'
CHAP. XXIV. The Master said, 'Hold faithfulness and
sincerity as first principles. Have no friends not equal to
yourself. When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them.'
CHAP. XXV. The Master said, 'The commander of the
forces of a large state may be carried off, but the will of even a
common man cannot be taken from him.'

【廿六章】【一節】子曰、衣敝縕袍、與衣孤貉者立、而不恥者、其由也與。
【二節】不忮不求、何用不臧。【三節】子路終身誦之、子曰、是道也、何
足以臧。
【廿七章】子曰、歲寒、然後知松柏之後彫也。
【廿八章】子曰、知者不惑、仁者不憂、勇者不懼。
【廿九章】子曰、可與共學、未可與
CHAP. XXVI. 1. The Master said, 'Dressed himself in a
tattered robe quilted with hemp, yet standing by the side of
men dressed in furs, and not ashamed;-- ah! it is Yu who is
equal to this!
2. '"He dislikes none, he covets nothing;-- what can he do
but what is good!"'
3. Tsze-lu kept continually repeating these words of the
ode, when the Master said, 'Those things are by no means
sufficient to constitute (perfect) excellence.'
CHAP. XXVII. The Master said, 'When the year becomes
cold, then we know how the pine and the cypress are the last
to lose their leaves.'
CHAP. XXVIII. The Master said, 'The wise are free from
perplexities; the virtuous from anxiety; and the bold from fear.'
CHAP. XXIX. The Master said, 'There are some with whom
we may study in common, but we shall find them unable to go
along

適道、可與適道、未可與立、可與立、未可與權。
【三十章】【一節】唐棣之華、偏其反而、豈不爾思、室是遠而。【二節】
子曰、未之思也、未何遠之有。
with us to principles. Perhaps we may go on with them to
principles, but we shall find them unable to get established in
those along with us. Or if we may get so established along with
them, we shall find them unable to weigh occurring events
along with us.'
CHAP. XXX. 1. How the flowers of the aspen-plum flutter
and turn! Do I not think of you? But your house is distant.
2. The Master said, 'It is the want of thought about it.
How is it distant?'

鄉黨第十
BOOK X. HEANG TANG.

【第一章】【一節】孔子於鄉黨、恂恂如也、似不能言者。【二節】其在宗
廟朝廷、便便然、唯謹爾。
【第二章】【一節】朝、與下大夫言、侃侃如也、與上大夫言、誾誾如也。
【二節】君在、踧踖如也、與與如也。
CHAP. I. 1. Confucius, in his village, looked simple and
sincere, and as if he were not able to speak.
2. When he was in the prince's ancestorial temple, or in
the court, he spoke minutely on every point, but cautiously.
CHAP II. 1. When he was waiting at court, in speaking
with the great officers of the lower grade, he spake freely, but
in a straightforward manner; in speaking with those of the
higher grade, he did so blandly, but precisely.
2. When the ruler was present, his manner displayed
respectful uneasiness; it was grave, but self-possessed.

【第三章】【一節】 君召使擯、色勃如也、足躩如也。【二節】揖所與立、
左右手、衣前後、檐如也。【三節】趨進、翼如也。【四節】賓退、必復命
曰、賓不顧矣。
【第四章】【一節】入公門、鞠
CHAP. III. 1. When the prince called him to employ him
in the reception of a visitor, his countenance appeared to
change, and his legs to move forward with difficulty.
2. He inclined himself to the other officers among whom
he stood, moving his left or right arm, as their position
required, but keeping the skirts of his robe before and behind
evenly adjusted.
3. He hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of a
bird.
4. When the guest had retired, he would report to the
prince, 'The visitor is not turning round any more.'
CHAP. IV. 1. When he entered the palace gate, he seemed
to bend his body, as if it were not sufficient to admit him.

躬如也、如不容。【二節】立不中門、行不履閾。【三節】過位、色勃如也、
足躩如也、其言似不足者。【四節】攝齊升堂、鞠躬如也、屏氣似不息者。
【五節】出、降一等、逞顏色、怡怡如也、沒階、趨進、翼如也、復其位、
踧踖如也。
【第五章】【一節】執圭、鞠躬如也、如
2. When he was standing, he did not occupy the middle of
the gate-way; when he passed in or out, he did not tread upon
the threshold.
3. When he was passing the vacant place of the prince,
his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to bend under
him, and his words came as if he hardly had breath to utter
them.
4. He ascended the reception hall, holding up his robe
with both his hands, and his body bent; holding in his breath
also, as if he dared not breathe.
5. When he came out from the audience, as soon as he
had descended one step, he began to relax his countenance, and
had a satisfied look. When he had got to the bottom of the
steps, he advanced rapidly to his place, with his arms like
wings, and on occupying it, his manner still showed respectful
uneasiness.
CHAP. V. 1. When he was carrying the scepter of his
ruler, he seemed to bend his body, as if he were not able to
bear its weight. He did not hold it higher than the position of
the hands in making

不勝、上如揖、下如授、勃如戰色、足蹜蹜如有循。【二節】享禮、有容色。
【三節】私覿、愉愉如也
【第六章】【一節】君子不以紺緅飾。【二節】紅紫不以為褻服。【三節】
當暑袗絺綌、必表而出之。【四節】緇衣羔裘、素衣麑裘、黃衣
a bow, nor lower than their position in giving anything to
another. His countenance seemed to change, and look
apprehensive, and he dragged his feet along as if they were
held by something to the ground.
2. In presenting the presents with which he was charged,
he wore a placid appearance.
3. At his private audience, he looked highly pleased.
CHAP. VI. 1. The superior man did not use a deep purple,
or a puce colour, in the ornaments of his dress.
2. Even in his undress, he did not wear anything of a red
or reddish colour.
3. In warm weather, he had a single garment either of
coarse or fine texture, but he wore it displayed over an inner
garment.
4. Over lamb's fur he wore a garment of black; over
fawn's fur one of white; and over fox's fur one of yellow.

狐裘。【五節】褻裘長、短右袂。【六節】必有寢衣、長一身有半。【七節】
狐貉之厚以居。【八節】去喪、無所不佩。【九節】非帷裳、必殺之。【十
節】羔裘玄冠不以弔。【十一節】吉月、必朝服而朝。
5. The fur robe of his undress was long, with the right
sleeve short.
6. He required his sleeping dress to be half as long again
as his body.
7. When staying at home, he used thick furs of the fox or
the badger.
8. When he put off mourning, he wore all the appendages
of the girdle.
9. His under-garment, except when it was required to be
of the curtain shape, was made of silk cut narrow above and
wide below.
10. He did not wear lamb's fur or a black cap, on a visit of
condolence.
11. On the first day of the month he put on his court
robes, and presented himself at court.

【第七章】【一節】齊、必有明衣、布。【二節】齊必變食、居必遷坐。
【第八章】【一節】食不厭精、膾不厭細。【二節】食饐而餲、魚餒而肉敗、
不食、色惡不食、臭惡不食、失飪不食、不時不食。【三節】割不正不食、
不得其醬不食。【四節】肉雖多、不使勝食氣、惟酒無量、不及亂。【五節】
沽酒
CHAP. VII. 1. When fasting, he thought it necessary to
have his clothes brightly clean and made of linen cloth.
2. When fasting, he thought it necessary to change his
food, and also to change the place where he commonly sat in
the apartment.
CHAP. VIII. 1. He did not dislike to have his rice finely
cleaned, nor to have his minced meat cut quite small.
2. He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or
damp and turned sour, nor fish or flesh which was gone. He did
not eat what was discoloured, or what was of a bad flavour, nor
anything which was ill-cooked, or was not in season.
3. He did not eat meat which was not cut properly, nor
what was served without its proper sauce.
4. Though there might be a large quantity of meat, he
would not allow what he took to exceed the due proportion for
the rice. It was only in wine that he laid down no limit for
himself, but he did not allow himself to be confused by it.
5. He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in
the market.

市脯不食。【六節】不撤薑食。【七節】不多食。【八節】祭於公、不宿肉。
祭肉不出三日、出三日、不食之矣。【九節】食不語、寢不言。【十節】雖
疏食菜羹、瓜祭、必齊如也。
【第九章】席不正不坐。
【第十章】【一節】鄉人飲酒、杖者出、斯出矣。【二節】鄉人儺、朝服而
立於阼階。
6. He was never without ginger when he ate.
7. He did not eat much.
8. When he had been assisting at the prince's sacrifice, he
did not keep the flesh which he received overnight. The flesh
of his family sacrifice he did not keep over three days. If kept
over three days, people could not eat it.
9. When eating, he did not converse. When in bed, he did
not speak.
10. Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable
soup, he would offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave,
respectful air.
CHAP. IX. If his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it.
CHAP. X. 1. When the villagers were drinking together, on
those who carried staffs going out, he went out immediately
after.
2. When the villagers were going through their
ceremonies to drive away pestilential influences, he put on his
court robes and stood on the eastern steps.

【十一章】【一節】問人於他邦、再拜而送之。【二節】康子饋藥、拜而受
之、曰、丘未達、不敢嘗。
【十二章】廄焚、子退朝、曰、傷人乎、不問馬。
【十三章】【一節】君賜食、必正席、先嘗之、君賜腥、必熟而薦之、君賜
生、必畜之。【二節】侍食於君、
CHAP. XI. 1. When he was sending complimentary
inquiries to any one in another State, he bowed twice as he
escorted the messenger away.
2. Chi K'ang having sent him a present of physic, he
bowed and received it, saying, 'I do not know it. I dare not
taste it.'
CHAP. XII. The stable being burned down, when he was
at court, on his return he said, 'Has any man been hurt?' He did
not ask about the horses.
CHAP. XIII. 1. When the prince sent him a gift of cooked
meat, he would adjust his mat, first taste it, and then give it
away to others. When the prince sent him a gift of undressed
meat, he would have it cooked, and offer it to the spirits of his
ancestors. When the prince sent him a gift of a living animal, he
would keep it alive.
2. When he was in attendance on the prince and joining
in the entertainment, the prince only sacrificed. He first tasted
everything.

君祭、先飯。【三節】疾、君視之、東首、加朝服拖紳。【四節】君命召、
不俟駕行矣。
【十四章】入大廟每事問。
【十五章】【一節】朋友死、無所歸、曰、於我殯。【二節】朋友之饋、雖
車馬、非祭肉不拜。
【十六章】【一節】寢不尸、居不容。【二節】見齊衰者、雖狎必變、見冕
者、與瞽者、雖褻必以貌。【三節】凶
3. When he was ill and the prince came to visit him, he
had his head to the east, made his court robes be spread over
him, and drew his girdle across them.
4. When the prince's order called him, without waiting for
his carriage to be yoked, he went at once.
CHAP. XIV. When he entered the ancestral temple of the
State, he asked about everything.
CHAP. XV. 1. When any of his friends died, if he had no
relations who could be depended on for the necessary offices,
he would say, 'I will bury him.'
2. When a friend sent him a present, though it might be a
carriage and horses, he did not bow.
3. The only present for which he bowed was that of the
flesh of sacrifice.
CHAP. XVI. 1. In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At
home, he did not put on any formal deportment.
2. When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it
might be an acquaintance, he would change countenance; when
he saw any one wearing the cap of full dress, or a blind person,
though he might be in his undress, he would salute them in a
ceremonious manner.

服者式之、式負版者。【四節】有盛饌、必變色而作。【五節】迅雷、風烈、
必變。
【十七章】【一節】升車、必正立、執綏。【二節】車中、不內顧、不疾言、
不親指。
【十八章】【一節】色斯舉矣、翔而後集。【二節】曰、山梁雌雉、時哉時
哉。子路共之、三嗅而作。
3. To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the
crossbar of his carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one
bearing the tables of population.
4. When he was at an entertainment where there was an
abundance of provisions set before him, he would change
countenance and rise up.
5. On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he

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