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The Child and Childhood in Folk-Thought by Alexander F. Chamberlain

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And with no language but a cry.--_Tennyson._

10. A pet lamb makes a cross ram.

11. A reasonable word should be received even from a child or a
parrot.--_Sanskrit._

12. A simple child
That lightly draws its breath,
And feels its life in every limb,
What should it know of death?--_Wordsworth._

13. As sair greets [as much weeps] the bairn that's paid at e'en as he
that gets his whawks in the morning.--_Scotch._

14. A tarrowing bairn was never fat.--_Scotch._

15. Auld men are twice bairns.--_Scotch._

16. Auld wives and bairns make fools of physicians.--_Scotch._

17. Bairns are certain care, but nae sure joy.--_Scotch._

18. Be born neither wise nor fair, but lucky.--_Russian._

19. Behold the child, by Nature's kindly law,
Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw.--_Pope._

20. Better be unborn than untaught.--_Gaelic_.

21. Birth's good, but breeding's better.--_Scotch_.

22. Bon sang ne peut mentir. Qui naquit chat court apres les souris.
[Good blood cannot lie. The kitten will chase the
mouse.]--_French_.

23. Broken bread makes hale bairns.--_Scotch_.

24. By sports like these are all their cares beguil'd, The sports of
children satisfy the child.--_Goldsmith_.

25. Ce que l'enfant entend au foyer, est bientot connu jusqu'au Moistre.
[What children hear at the fireside is soon known as far as Moistre (a
town in Savoy).]--_French_.

26. Che nasce bella nasce maritata. [A beautiful girl is born
married.]--_Italian_.

27. Childhood and youth see the world in persons.--_Emerson_.

28. Childhood is the sleep of Reason.--_Rousseau_.

29. Children and chickens are always a-picking.

30. Children and drunken people tell the truth.

31. Children and fools speak the truth.--_Greek_.

32. Children and fools have many lives.

33. Children are certain sorrows, but uncertain joys.--_Danish_.

34. Children are the poor man's wealth.--_Danish_.

35. Children are very nice observers, and they will often
perceive your slightest defects.--_Fenelon_.

36. Children cry for nuts and apples, and old men for gold and silver.

37. Children have more need of models than of critics.--_Jouberi_.

38. Children have wide ears and long tongues.

38a. Children increase the cares of life, but they mitigate the
remembrance of death.

39. Children, like dogs, have so sharp and fine a scent, that they
detect and hunt out everything--the bad before all the
rest.--_Goethe_.

40. Children of wealth, or want, to each is given One spot of green, and
all the blue of heaven.--_Holmes_.

41. Children pick up words as chickens peas, And utter them again as God
shall please.

42. Children should have their times of being off duty, like
soldiers.--_Ruskin_.

43. Children to bed, and the goose to the fire.

44. Children should laugh, but not mock; and when they laugh, it should
not be at the weaknesses and faults of others.--_Buskin._

45. Children sweeten labours, but they make misfortunes more
bitter.--Bacon. 46. Children tell in the streets what they hear round
the hearth.--_Portuguese._

47. Das kann ein Kind machen. [A child can do that--that
is very easy.]--_German._

48. Das Kind mit dem Bade verschutten. [To throw away the child with the
bath--to reject the good along with the bad.]--_German._

49. Dat is en kinnerspil. [That's child's play--very easy.]
--_Frisian._

50. Dat lutjeste un lefste. [The youngest and dearest.]
--_Frisian._

51. Dawted [i.e. petted] bairns dow bear little.--_Scotch._

52. Dawted dochters mak' dawly [slovenly] wives.--_Scotch._

53. Delightful task! to rear the tender thought, To teach the young idea
how to shoot.--_Thomson._

54. De wesen wil bemint, de nem sin naver kind. [Who would be loved, let
him take his neighbour's child.]--Frisian.

55. Die Kinder sind mein liebster Zeitvertreib. [Children are my dearest
pastime.]--_Chamisso._

56. Dochders zijn broze waaren. [Daughters are brittle
ware.]--_Dutch._

57. Do not meddle wi' the de'il and the laird's bairns.--_Scotch._

58. Do not talk of a rape [rope] to a chiel whose father was
hangit.--_Scotch._

59. Do not train boys to learning by force or harshness; but direct them
to it by what amuses their minds, so that you may be the better able to
discover with accuracy the peculiar bent of the genius of
each.--_Plato._

60. Education begins its work with the first breath of life.
--_Jean Paul._

61. Education commences at the mother's knee, and every word spoken
within the hearing of little children tends towards the formation of
character.--_Ballou._

62. Eet maar Brod, dann wardst du grot. [Eat bread and you'll
grow.]--_Frisian_.

63. Ein Kind, kein Kind, zwei Kind, Spielkind, drei Kind, viel Kind,
vier Kind, ein ganzes Hausvoll Kinder. [One child, no child; two
children, playing children; three children, many children; four
children, a whole house full of children.]--_German_ (with numerous
variants).

64. Ein Laster kostet mehr als zwei Kinder. [One crime costs more than
two children.]--_German_.

65. Es ist besser zehn Kinder gemacht, als ein einziges umgebracht. [It
is better to have made ten children than to have destroyed
one.]--_German_.

66. Fools and bairns shouldna see things half done.--_Scotch_.

67. Fools with bookish learning are children with edged tools; they hurt
themselves, and put others in pain.--_Zimmermann_.

68. Fremde Kinder, wir lieben sie nie so sehr als die eignen. [We never
love the children of others so well as our own.]--_Goethe_.

69. Fremde Kinder werden wohl erzogen. [Other people's children are well
brought up.]--_German_.

70. Gie a bairn his will,
And a whelp his fill,
Nane o' them will e'er do well.--_Scotch_.

71. Give a child till he craves, and a dog while his tail doth wag, and
you'll have a fair dog, but a foul knave.

72. Gie a dog an ill name and he'll soon be hanged.--_Scotch_.

73. God is kind to fou [_i.e._ drunken] folk and
bairns.--_Scotch_.

74. God ne'er sent the mouth but He sent the meat wi't.--_Scotch_.

75. God watches over little children and drunkards.--_Russian_.

76. Gude bairns are eith [easy] to lear [teach].--_Scotch_.

77. Happy is he that is happy in his children.

78. He who sends mouths will send meat.

79. Heimerzogen Kind ist bei den Leuten wie ein Rind. [A home-bred child
acts like a cow.]--_German_.

80. He that's born to be hanged will never be drowned.

81. He that is born under a tippeny [two-penny] planet will ne'er be
worth a groat.--_Scotch_.

82. I cuori fanciulli non veston a bruno. [A child's heart puts on no
mourning.]--_Zendrini._

83. If our child squints, our neighbour's has a cast in both eyes.

84. Ill bairns are best heard at hame.--_Scotch._

85. It is the squalling child that gets the milk.--_Turkish._

86. Je lieberes Kind, je scharfere Rute. [The dearer the child, the
sharper the rod.]--_German._

87. Kinder hat man, Kinder kriegt man. [Children bring
children.]--_German._

88. Kinder kommen von Herzen und gehen zu Herzen. [Children come from
the heart, and go to the heart.]--_German._

89. Kinder und Bienstocke nehmen bald ab bald zu. [Children and
bee-hives now decrease, now increase.]--_German._

90. Kind's hand is ball fullt,
Kind's zurn is ball stillt.
[A child's hand is soon filled,
A child's anger is soon stilled.]--_Low German._

91. Late children are early orphans.--_Spanish._

92. Les enfants sont ce qu'on les fait. [Children are what we make
them.]--_French._

93. Let thy child's first lesson be obedience, and the second will be
what thou wilt.--_Franklin._

94. Liebe Kinder haben viele Namen. [Dear children have many
names.]--_German._

95. Lieber ungezogene, als verzogene Kinder. [Better unbred children
than ill-bred ones.]--_German._

96. Like the wife wi' the mony daughters, the best comes
hindmost.--_Scotch._

97. Little pitchers have big ears.

98. Little ones are taught to be proud of their clothes before they can
put them on.--_LocJce._

99. Lutze potten hebben ok oren [i.e. little children have
ears].--_Low German._

100. Man is wholly man only when he plays.--_Schiller._

101. Maxima debetur pueris reverentia. [The greatest respect is due to
boys (youth).]--_Juvenal._

102. Men are generally more careful of the breed of their horses and
dogs than of their children.--_William Penn._

103. Mony a ane kisses the bairn for love of the nurice.--_Scotch._

104. More children, more luck.--_German._

105. Nessuno nasce maestro. [No one is born master.]--_Italian._

106. 'N god Kind, wen't slopt. [A good child, when it sleeps.]
--_Frisian._

107. O banish the tears of children! Continual rains upon the blossoms
are hurtful.--_Jean Paul._

108. O formose puer, nimium ne crede colori. [Oh, beauteous boy, trust
not too much to thy rosy cheeks.]--_Virgil._

109. Of bairns' gifts ne'er be fain, Nae sooner they give but they seek
them again.--_Scotch._

110. One chick keeps a hen busy.

111. Our young men are terribly alike.--_Alex. Smith._

112. Pars minima est ipsa puella sui. [The girl herself is the smallest
part of herself.]--_Ovid._

113. Parvum parva decent. [Small things become the small.]
--_Horace._

114. Play is the first poetry of the human being.--_Jean Paul._

115. Qui aime bien, chatie bien. [Who loves well chastises
well.]--_French._

116. Qui parcit virga odit filium. [Who spareth the rod
hateth his child.]--_Latin._

117. Reckless youth maks ruefu' eild [age].--_Scotch._

118. Royet [wild] lads may make sober men.--_Scotch._

119. Rule youth well, for eild will rule itself.--_Scotch._

120. Salt and bread make the cheeks red.--_German._

121. Seven nurses cost the child an eye.--_Russian._

122. Small birds [_i.e._ children] must have meat.

123. Sores are not to be shown to flies, and children are not to be
taught to lie.--_Malay._

124. Spare the rod and spoil the child.

125. Teach your children poetry; it opens the mind, lends grace to
wisdom, and makes the heroic virtues hereditary.--_Mahomet._

126. Tenez la bride haute a votre fils. [Keep a tight rein over your
son.]--_French._

127. That's the piece a step-bairn never gat.--_Scotch._

128. The bairn speaks in the field what he hears at the fireside.
--_Scotch._

129. The bearing and the training of a child is woman's wisdom.
--_Tennyson._

130. The best horse needs breeding and the aptest child needs
teaching.--_Arabic._

131. The boy's will is the wind's will.--_Lapp._

132. The chief art is to make all that children have to do sport
and play.--_Locke._

133. The child says nothing but what he heard at the fireside.
--_Spanish._

134. The de'il's bairns hae the de'il's luck.--_Scotch._

135. The heart is a child; it desires what it sees.--_Turkish._

136. The heart of childhood is all mirth.--_Keble._

137. The king is the strength of the weak; crying is the strength of
children.--_Sanskrit._

138. The right law of education is that you take the best pains with the
best material.--_Ruskin._

139. The spring is the youth of trees, wealth is the youth of men,
beauty is the youth of women, intelligence is the youth of the
young.--_Sanskrit._

140. The plays of children are the germinal leaves of all later
life.--_Froebel._

141. The time of breeding is the time of doing children good.
--_George Herbert._

142. They were scant o' bairns that brought you up.--_Scotch._

143. The youth gets together his materials to build a bridge to the
moon, or perchance a palace on the earth; at length middle-aged, he
concludes to build a woodshed with them.--_Thoreau._

144. They who educate children well are more to be honoured than they
who produce them; these gave them life only, those the art of
well-living.--_Aristotle._

145. To a child all weather is cold.

146. To endure is the first and most necessary lesson a child has to
learn.--_Rousseau._

147. To write down to children's understandings is a mistake; set them
on the scent, and let them puzzle it out.--_Scott._

148. Un enfant brule craint le feu. [A burnt child dreads the
fire.]--_French._

149. Ungezogene Kinder gehen zu Werk wie Binder. [Unbred children go to
work like cattle.]--_German._

150. Viel Kinder viel Vaterunser, viel Vaterunser viel Segen. [Many
children, many Paternosters; many Paternosters, many
blessings.]--_German_.

151. We ought not to teach the children the sciences, but give them a
taste for them.--_Rousseau_.

152. Wen de gosen water sen, dan willen se drinken. [When the geese
(_i.e._ children) see water, they want to drink.]--_Frisian_.

153. Wenn das Kind ertrunken ist, deckt man den Brunnen. [When the child
is drowned, the well is covered.]--_German_.

154. Wenn Kinder und Narren zu Markte gehen, losen die Kramer Geld.
[When children and fools go to market, the dealers make
money.]--_German_.

155. Wenn Kinder wohl schreien, so lebeu sie lange. [When children cry
well, they live long.]--_German_.

156. Wer wil diu kint vraget, der wil si liegen leren. [Who asks
children many questions teaches them to lie.]--_Old High German_.

157. What children hear at home soon flies abroad.

158. When children remain quiet, they have done something wrong.

159. Women and bairns lein [hide] what they ken not.--_Scotch_.

160. Women and children should retire when the sun does.
--_Portuguese_.

161. You should lecture neither child nor woman.--_Russian_.

_Index to Proverbs, etc._

Following is an index of peoples and authors for the foregoing proverbs
and sayings (the references are to pages):--

_A, PEOPLES._

Afghan, 377,379,385,389.
Angolese, 385,386,387,391.
Arabic, 388,400.
Badaga, 384.
Basque, 382,387.
Bulgarian, 393.
Chinese, 377.
Danish, 377,378,395.
Dutch, 391,392,396.
Egyptian, 381.
English, 376,377,380,382,383,384,385,387,388,390,392,393,394,
395,396,397,398,399,400,401.
French, 379,380,383,385,388,395,398,399,400.
Frisian, 380,385,392,396,397,399,401.
Gaelic, 376,395.
German,378,380,382,383,384,385,387,388,390,392,393,396,397,398,
399,400,401.
Greek, 393,395.
Hebrew, 383.
Hindu, 377.
Italian, 383,385,387,388,391,393,395,399.
Lapp, 400.
Latin, 380, 385, 388, 399.
Low German, 377, 382, 389, 392, 398.
Malay, 399.
Oriental, 377.
Persian, 382.
Portuguese, 383,396, 401.
Roman, 378.
Russian, 376, 380, 383, 384, 385, 387, 394, 397, 399, 401.
Sanskrit, 377, 382, 394, 400.
Scotch, 380, 382, 383, 385, 388, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395,
396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401.
Spanish, 377, 384, 388, 398.
Telugu, 386.
Turkish, 377, 398, 400.

B, AUTHORS, ETC.

Alcibiades, 383.
Aristotle, 400.
Auerbach, 378, 389.
Bacon, 377, 379, 380, 388, 396.
Ballon, 396.
Barrie, 392, 393.
Beecher, 377, 383.
Bible, 377, 378, 388.
Blake, 391.
Burns, 381.
Carlyle, 380.
Chamisso, 396.
Chapman, 393.
Cicero, 380.
Coleridge, 379, 380.
Cornelia, 378.
Cowper, 380.
Dante, 379.
Dickens, 381.
Disraeli, 393.
Dryden, 379, 380.
Emerson, 379, 380, 381, 390, 393, 395.
Eotvos, 376.
Euripides, 389.
Fenelon, 395.
Franklin, 398.
Froebel, 400.
Goethe, 378, 379, 380, 381, 385, 389, 390, 392, 393, 395, 397.
Goldsmith, 395.
Haliburton, 383.
Hare, 379, 383.
Hazlitt, 381.
Herbert, 387, 400.
Hitopadesa, 377, 385.
Holmes, 395.
Horace, 376, 399.
Hugo, 384.
Hunt, 378, 381.
Jean Paul, 376, 380, 384, 385, 386, 389, 392, 393, 396, 399.
Jesus, 377, 379, 381.
Johnson, 377.
Joubert, 395.
Juvenal, 398.
Keble, 384, 385, 400.
La Bruyere, 377.
Lacretelle, 383.
Landor, 393.
Langdale, 383.
La Rochefoucauld, 392.
Lessing, 392.
Locke, 398, 400.
Mahomet, 399.
Manu, 377.
Menander, 380.
Milton, 381, 390.
Napoleon, 385.
Novalis, 394.
Ovid, 391, 399.
Penn, 398.
Pfeffel, 391.
Phadrus, 377.
Pistorius, 376.
Plato, 396.
Pope, 394.
Raghuvansa, 388.
Rousseau, 395, 400, 401.
Ruckert, 391.
Ruskin, 378, 379, 381, 390, 395, 396, 400.
Schiller, 381, 391, 398.
Schopenhauer, 379.
Scott, 400.
Shakespeare, 381, 387, 388, 392, 393.
Shirley, 387.
Sidney, 391.
Simons, 381.
Smith, 399.
Socrates, 392.
Southey, 376.
Spurgeon, 388.
Svetchin, 392.
Swift, 392.
Talmud, 389, 392.
Tennyson, 384, 394, 400.
Terence, 390.
Thomson, 396.
Thoreau, 400.
Veda, 388.
Virgil, 399.
Weber, 376.
West, 382.
Wordsworth, 380, 381, 388, 394.
Young, 387.
Zachari, 380.
Zendrini, 398.
Zimmermann, 397.

For the collection of proverbs and sayings here given, the writer
acknowledges his indebtedness to the numerous dictionaries of quotations
and proverbs, of which he has been able to avail himself.

CHAPTER XXXIII.

CONCLUSION.

In these pages the "Child in Primitive Culture" has been considered in
many lands and among many peoples, and the great extent of the
activities of childhood among even the lowest races of men fully
demonstrated. That the child is as important to the savage, to the
barbarous peoples, as to the civilized, is evident from the vast amount
of lore and deed of which he is the centre both in fact and in fiction.
The broader view which anthropologists and psychologists are coming to
take of the primitive races of man must bring with it a larger view of
the primitive child. Still less than the earliest men, were their
children, mere animals; indeed, possibly, nay even probably, the
children of primitive man, while their childhood lasts, are the equals,
if not the superiors, of those of our own race in general intellectual
capacity. With the savage as with the European of to-day, the "child is
father of the man."

The primitive child, as language and folk-lore demonstrate, has been
weighed, measured, and tested physically and mentally by his elders,
much as we ourselves are doing now, but in ruder fashion--there are
primitive anthropometric and psychological laboratories as proverb and
folk-speech abundantly testify, and examinations as harassing and as
searching as any we know of to-day. Schools, nay primitive colleges,
even, of the prophets, the shamans, and the _magi_, the race has
had in earlier days, and everywhere through the world the activities of
childhood have been appealed to, and the race has wonderfully profited
by its wisdom, its _naivete_, its ingenuity, and its touch of
divinity.

Upon, language, religion, society, and the arts the child has had a
lasting influence, both passive and active, unconscious, suggestive,
creative. History, the stage, music, and song have been its debtors in
all ages and among all peoples.

To the child language owes many of its peculiarities, and the
multiplicity of languages perhaps their very existence. Religion has had
the child long as its servant, and from the faith and confidence of
youth and the undying mother-love have sprung the thought of immortality
and the Messiah-hope that greets us all over the globe. Even among the
most primitive races, it is the children who are "of the Kingdom of
Heaven," and the "Fall of Man" is not from a fabled Garden of Eden, but
from the glory of childhood into the stern realities of manhood. As a
social factor the child has been of vast importance; children have sat
upon thrones, have dictated the policies of Church and of State, and
from them the wisest in the land have sought counsel and advice. As
oracles, priests, shamans, and _thaumaturgi_, children have had the
respect and veneration of whole peoples, and they have often been the
very mouth-piece of deity, standing within the very gates of heaven. As
hero and adventurer, passing over into divinity, the child has explored
earth, sea, and sky, descending into nethermost hell to rescue the bones
of his father, and setting ajar the gates of Paradise, that the radiant
glory may be seen of his mother on earth. Finally, as Christ sums up all
that is divine in men, so does the Christ-Child sum up all that is God-
like in the child. The Man-Jesus stands at the head of mankind, the
Child-Jesus is the first of the children of men. All the activities and
callings of the child, the wisdom, the beauty, the innocence of
childhood find in folk-belief and folk-faith their highest, perfect
expression in the Babe of Bethlehem. True is it as ten thousand years
ago:--

"Before life's sweetest mystery still
The heart in reverence kneels;
The wonder of the primal birth
The latest mother feels."

Motherhood and childhood have been the world's great teachers, and the
prayer of all the race should be:--

"Let not (the) cultured years make less
The childhood charm of tenderness."

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

The Bibliography here given is intended to serve the double purpose of
enabling readers of this book to verify the statements made and the
citations from the numerous authorities referred to in the compilation
of the work, with as little difficulty as possible, and of furnishing to
such as may desire to carry on extended reading in any of the subjects
touched upon in the book a reasonable number of titles of the more
recent and valuable treatises dealing with such topics.

All references in the body of the book to works listed in the
Bibliography are by number and page. Thus: 6. 26 means that the
quotation is from, or the opinion is derived from, _Bachofen, J.
J._, Das Mutterrecht, S. 26; 127.11. 180 means _Post, A. H._,
Afrikanische Jurisprudenz, II. Th., S. 180; 300. 15 means _Lombroso,
C._, The Man of Genius, p. 15; 480 (1893). 140 means _Journal of
American Folk-Lore_, 1893, p. 140.

A. MOTHER, FATHER, FAMILY, SOCIETY.

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7. BACON, ALICE M.: Japanese Girls and Women. London, 1891. 330 pp. 8vo.

8. BANDELIER, A. F.: On the Social Organization and Mode of Government
of the Ancient Mexicans. _Rep. Peab. Mus._ II., pp. 557-699.

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10. BAWA,--: Marriage Customs of the Moors of Ceylon. _Journ. Ceylon
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11. BELILOVSKI, K. A.: [Woman in Siberia (Medico-ethnographical
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12. BERGEL, Jos.: Die Eheverhaltnisse der alten Juden. Leipzig, 1881.

13. BERNHOFT, F.: Verwandschaftsnamen und Eheformen der
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14. BERTHOLON, M.: Les formes de la famille chez les premiers habitants
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581-614.

15. BERTILLON, J.: Etudes demographiques du divorce et de la separation
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16. BLOOMFIELD, M.: Women as Mourners in the Atharva-Veda. _Proc.
Amer. Orient. Soc._ Vol. XV. (1890), pp. xlix. ff.

16 a. BLYTH, D.: Notes on the Traditions and Customs of the Natives of
Fiji in relation to Conception, Pregnancy, and Parturition. _Glasgow
Med. Journ._ Vol. XXVIII. (1887), pp. 176-186.

17. Boshaftes von der Gattin und Schwiegermutter. Sammlung von Spruchen,
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140. SCHERER, O.: Bilder aus dem serbischen Volks- und Familienleben.
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141. SCHEURL, O. v.: Das gemeine deutsche Eherecht. Erlangen, 1882.

142. SCHLAGINTWEIT, E.: Die Hindu-Wittwe in Indien. _Globus_.
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143. SCHMIDT, K.: Jus primae noctis. Freiburg im B., 1881.

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145. SCHROEDER, L. v.: Die Hochzeitsgebrauche der Esten und einiger
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146. SCHWIERIGER-LERCHENFELD, A. FREIH. v.: Das Frauenleben der Erde.
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Following is a subject-index to the titles of Section A:--

Abnormal and delinquent, 49, 86, 104, 110, 116, 185, 148, 144, 148, l57.
Africa, 14, 48.
Amazons, 154.
American Indians, 13, 27, 51, 52, 63, 69, 72, 73.
Arabia, 80a, 151, 168.
Assyria, 138.
Australia, 54, 55-57.

Babylonia, 74, 138.

Celibacy, 71, 94.
Ceylon, 10.
Child-birth, l6a, 43, 48, 83.
China, 81, 123.
Chirography, 65, 66.

Divorce, 15, 25a, 47, 106, 183, 175.

Egypt, 19, 88.
Epigram, 17, 45, 122, 126.
Esthonian, 145.
Evolution, 36, 37.

Family, 26, 32, 44, 68, 76, 89, 92, 99, 103, 119, 123, 128, 139, 140,
151, 152, 163, 166, 169.
Father, 114, 130a, 151.
Father-right, 9, 82, 80, 114.
Fiji, l6a.
France, 85, 160.

Gender, 3, 68.
Germany, 29, 81, 54, 98, 141, 165.
Girls, 7, 54, 116.
Gypsies, 172.

India, 5, 16, 85.
Italy, 33, 173.

Japan, 7, 78, 105.
Jews, 12, 41, 102.

Language, 19, 74, 158, 164.
Literature, 78, 126.

Magyars, 170.
Man, names for, 158.
Marriage, 1, 10, 12, 13, 25a, 30, 31, 33, 41, 55-57, 68, 69, 72, 73, 88,
91, 98, 99, 102, 106, 109, 115, 141, 145, 151, 161-163, 166, 169.
Medicine, 173.
Mexico, 8.
Morals, 96.
Mordwins, 109.
Mother, 4, 39, 67, 150, 156, 174.
Matriarchate and mother-right, 6, 9, 31, 32, 80, 168.
Mother and child, 27.
Mother-in-law, 17, 58.
Mourning, 16.
Mummy, 19.

New Britain, 30.

Old maids, 71.
Oriental, 159.

Papua, 139.
Poetry of motherhood, 39.
Poets, 22, 149.
Polyandry, 5, 40.
Proverbs, 45, 132, 133.

Relationship, 13, 41, 108, 118, 147, 167.
Religion, 73, 124.
Rome, 92, 159.
Royalty, 75.
Russia, 84, 136.

Samoa, 89.
Satire, 17, 45.
Scotland, 134.
Servia, 140.
Sex-relations, 20, 28, 42, 46, 53, 54, 59, 60, 62, 64, 86, 90, 110, 120,
125, 128, 135, 137, 143, 144, 157, 161.
Siberia, 11.
Slavonic, 87, 88.
Sociology, 8, 25, 85, 51, 52, 81, 82, 84, 95, 100, 101, 107, 117, 127,
130, 184, 136, 138, 170, 172.

Tibet, 5.
Transylvania, 171, 172.
Turkey, 61, 80a.

Ukraine, 167.
United States, 25a.

Woman, names for, 164.
Woman's position and labours, 2, 11, 21-24, 29, 34, 88, 46, 50, 61, 69,
77, 78, 80a, 85, 97, 104, 105, 111-118, 121, 122, 125, 132, 146, 158,
155, 160, 165.

_B_. CHILDREN, CHILDHOOD, CHILD-LIFE, ETC.

176. "A.," and MENELLA SMEDLEY: Poems Written for a Child.

177. "A.," and MENELLA SMEDLEY: The Child's World.

178. ADAMS, J. D.: Child-Life and Girlhood of Remarkable Women. New
York, 1894.

179. AMELINEAU, E.: La Morale Egyptienne quinze siecles avant notre ere.
Paris, 1892. lxxxviii, 261 pp. 8vo.

180. America's Shame: Symposium on the Age of Consent Laws in the United
States. _Arena_ (Boston). Vol. XI. (1895), pp. 192-215.

180 a. AYRTON, M. C.: Child-Life in Japan. London, 1879. xx, 125 pp.

181. BABCOCK, W. H.: Games of Washington Children. _Amer. Anthrop_.
(Washington). Vol. I. (1888), pp. 243-284.

182. BALDWIN, J. M.: Mental Development in the Child and the Race. Vol.
I. Methods and Processes. New York, 1895. xvi, 496 pp. 8vo.

183. BALL, V.: Wolf-Reared Children in India. _Journ. Anthr. Inst._
(London). Vol. IX. (1879), pp. 465-474.

184. BAMFORD, MARY E.: Child-Life among the California Foot-Hills.
_Overl. Mo._ (San Francisco). 2d ser. Vol. II. (1883), pp. 56-59.

184 a. BARNES, EARLE.: Theological Life of a California Child. _Pedag.
Sem._ (Worcester, Mass.). Vol. II., 442-448.

185. BARNSTEIN, A. P. v.: Beitrage zur Geschichte mid Literatur des
deutschen Studententhumes. Wurzburg, 1882. xiii, 156 S. 8vo.

186. BOAS, F.: The Game of Cat's Cradle. _Intern. Arch. f.
Ethnogr._ I. Bd. (1888), S. 229.

187. BOLTON, H. C.: The Counting-Out Rhymes of Children, their
Antiquity, Origin, and Wide Distribution. A Study in Folk-Lore. New
York, 1888. ix, 123 pp. Gr. 8vo.

188. BONFIGLI, C.: Dei fattori sociali della pazzia in rapporto con
l'educazione infantile. Roma, 1894.

189. BRAMHALL, MAE ST. JOHN: The Wee Ones of Japan. New York, 1894.
137pp. 12mo.

190. BRAMLEY, H. R., and JOHN STAINER: Christmas Carols New and Old.
London, n.d. 94 pp.

191. BREWER, E. C.: A Dictionary of Miracles. London, 1884. xliv, 582
pp. 8vo.

192. BREWER, W. H.: The Instinctive Interest of Children in Bear and
Wolf Stories. _Proc. Amer. Ass. Adv. Sci._ Vol. XLII. (1893),
Salem, 1894, pp. 309-311.

193. BRINTON, D. G.: On the Physiological Correlations of Certain
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cxxxiii-iv.

194. BROWN, H. W.: Some Records of the Thoughts and Reasonings of
Children. From the Collection of Observations at the State Normal School
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195. BULWER-LYTTON, E. R.: Fables in Song. London, 1874.

196. BYJRNHAM, W. H.: The Study of Adolescence. _Pedag. Sem._ Vol.
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197. CAMPBELL HELEN: Child-Life in the Slums of New York. _Demorest's
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198. CARSTENS, H.: Die Schwalbe im Volksmunde und im Kinderlied. _Am.
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198 a. CARSTENS, H.: Der Storch als heiliger Vogel im Volksmund und im
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199. CARSTENSEN, H. H.: A B C Spiel. _Am Ur-Quell._ IV. Bd. (1893),
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200. CHAMBERLAIN, A. F.: Notes on Indian Child-Language. _Amer.
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201. CHAMBERLAIN, A. F.: Further Notes on Indian Child-Language.
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202. CHAMBERLAIN, A. F.: The Use of Diminutives in -_ing_ by Some
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203. CHAMBERLAIN, A. F.: The Coyote and the Owl (Tales of the Kootenay
Indians). _Mem. Intern. Congr. Anthr._ (1893), Chicago, 1894, pp.
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204. CHAMBERLAIN, A. F.: Human Physiognomy and Physical Characteristics
in Folk-Lore and Folk-Speech. _Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore._ Vol. VI.
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205. CHERVIN, A.: Faut-il conper le frein de la Langue (Extr. de _La
Voix Parlee et Chantee_, frevrier, 1894). Paris, 1894. 16 pp.

206. CHRISMAN, O.: Secret Language of Children. _Science_ (New
York). Vol. XXII. (1893), pp. 303-305.

207. Christmas with the Poets. London, n.d. x, 202 pp.

208. CLEVELAND, DUCHESS OF: The True Story of Kaspar Hauser. From
Official Documents. London and New York, 1893. 122pp. Sm. 8vo.

209. COFFIGNON, A.: L'Enfant a Paris. Paris, 1890. xxii, 440 pp.

210. CORIVEAU, A.: La Sante de nos Enfants. Paris, 1890. 288 pp. 8vo.

211. CUIR, A. F.: Les Petits Ecoliers. Lectures morales sur les Defauts
et les Qualites des Enfants. Paris, 1893. 12mo.

212. CULIN, S.: Street Games of Brooklyn. _Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore._
Vol. IV. (1891), pp. 221-236.

213. CULIN, S.: Exhibit of Games in the Columbian Exposition.
_Ibid._ Vol. VI. (1893), pp. 205-227.

214. DANIELS, A. H.: The New Life: A Study of Regeneration (Repr. from
_Amer. Journ. Psych._, Vol. VI., 1893, pp. 61-106). Worcester,
Mass., 1893. 48 pp. 8vo.

215. DENEUS, CLEMENT.: De la Reserve hereditaire des Enfants (Art. 913
du code civil). Etude historique, philosophique et economique. Gand,
Paris, 1894. xvii, 231 pp. 8vo.

216. DONALDSON, H. H.: Education of the Nervous System. _Educ.
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217. DORSET, J. O.: Games of the Teton-Dakota Children. _Amer.
Anthr_. Vol. IV. (1891), pp. 329-345.

218. DRAGOMANO, M.: Slavonic Folk-Tales about the Sacrifice of One's Own
Children. (Transl. O. Wardrop). _Journ. Anthr. Inst_. (London).
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219. DREYLING, G.: Die Ausdrucksweise der ubertriebenen Verkleinerung im
altfranzosichen Karlepos. Marburg, 1888.

220. DURINGSFELD, J. V., und O. V. REINSBERG-DURINGSFELD: Sprichworter
sammlung. 6 Bde. (Das Sprichwort als Kosmopolit. 3 Bde. Intern.
Titulaturen. 2 Bde. Das Kind im Sprichwort). Leipzig, 1863-1864. 8vo.

221. EARLE, ALICE M.: Customs and Fashions in Old New England. [Chapter
I., pp. 1-35, Child-Life.] New York, 1893. iii, 387 pp. 8vo.

222. EASTMAN, C. A.: Recollections of Wild-Life. III. Games and Sports.
_St. Nicholas_ (New York). Vol. XXI. (1893-4), pp. 306-308.

223. EELLS, M.: Twins among Indians of Puget Sound. _Science_ (New
York). Vol. XX. (1892), p. 192.

224. ELIOT, S.: Poetry for Children. Boston, [1879]. xii, 327 pp. Sm.
8vo.

225. ENFANT (L') chez les sauvages et chezles civilises. _Revue
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226. FEWKES, J. W.: Dolls of the Tusayan Indians (Repr. fr. _Intern.
Arch. f. Ethnogr_., VII. Bd., 1894, pp. 45-73). Leiden, 1894. 30 pp.
4to. Five coloured plates.

226 a. FIELD, EUGENE: Love Songs of Childhood. Chicago, 1895.

227. FLETCHER, ALICE C.: Glimpses of Child-Life among the Omaha Indians.
_Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore_. Vol. I. (1888), pp. 115-123.

228. FLOWER, B. O.: Lust Fostered by Legislation. _Arena_ (Boston).
Vol. XI. (1895), pp. 167-175.

229. FLOWER, W. H.: Fashion in Deformity. London, 1881. 85 pp. 8vo.

230. FORD, R.: Ballads of Bairnhood. Selected and edited with notes by
Robert Ford. Paisley, 1894. xix, 348 pp. 8vo.

231. FOSTER, MARY J. C.: The Kindergarten of the Church. New York, 1894.
227 pp. 8vo.

232. FRACASETTI, L.: I giovani nella vita pubblica. Conferenza. Udine,
1893.

233. FROEBEL, F.: Mother's Songs, Games, and Stories. Froebel. Mutter-
und Kose-Lieder rendered in English by Frances and Emily Lord. New and
revised edition. London, 1890. xxxvi, 212 + 75 (music) pp. 8vo.

234. FURNIVALL, F. J.: Child-Marriages, Divorces, Ratifications, etc. In
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Also Entries from the Mayors' Books, Chester, A.D. 1558-1600. Edited
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256 pp. 8vo.

235. GAIDOZ, H.: Un vieux rite medical. Paris, 1892. ii, 85 pp. Sm. 8vo.

236. GAIDOZ, H.: Ransom by Weight. _Am Ur-Quell_. II. Bd. (1891),
S. 39-42, 59-61, 74-75.

237. GAIDOZ, H., et M. PEKDRIZET: La Mesure du Cou. _Melusine_
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(1893), p. 408.

238. GARBINI, A.: Evoluzione della Voce nella Infanzia. Verona, 1892. 53
pp. 8vo.

239. GATSCHET, A. S.: A Mythic Tale of the Isleta Indians: The Race of
the Antelope and the Hawk around the Horizon. _Proc. Amer. Philos.
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240. GESSMANN, G. W.: Die Kinderhand und ihre Bedeutung fur Erziehung
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Abbild.

241. GILL, V. W.: Child-Birth Customs of the Loyalty Islands. _Journ.
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242. GOMME, ALICE B.: Children's Singing Games with the Tunes to which
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243. GOMME, ALICE B.: The International Games of England, Scotland, and
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the variants extant and recorded in different parts of the Kingdom. Vol.
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244. GORE, J. H.: The Go-Backs. _Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore._ Vol. V.
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245. GRIFFIS, W. E.: Japanese Fairy World. Schenectady, N.Y., 1880. vii,
304 pp. 12mo.

246. GREGOR, W.: Notes on the Folk-Lore of the North-East of Scotland.
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247. GULL, F.: Kinderheimat in Liedern. Volksausgabe. Gutersloh, 1875.
225 S. 8vo.

247 a. HAAS,--A.: Das Kind im Glauben und Branch der Pommern. _Am
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248. HABERLANDT, M.: Ueber tulapurusha der Inder. _Mitt. d. anthr.
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249. HALE, HORATIO: The Origin of Languages and the Antiquity of
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250. HALE, HORATIO: The Development of Language. _Proc. Canad.
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251. HALE, HORATIO: Language as a Test of Mental Capacity. _Trans.
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252. HALL, G. S.: The Contents of Children's Minds on Entering School.
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252 a. HALL, G. S.: Children's Lies. _Ibid_., pp. 211-218.

253. HALL, G. S.: The Moral and Religious Training of Children and
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254. HALL, G. S.: Child-Study: The Basis of Exact Education.
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255. HALL, G. S.: The Story of a Sand-Pile. _Scribner's Mag._ (New
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256. HARQUEVAUX, E., et L. PELLETIER: 200 jeux d'enfants en plein air et
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257. HARRIS, W. T.: Eighth Annual Report of the Commissioner of
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257 a. HARRISON, ELIZABETH: A Study of Child-Nature from the
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258. HARTLAND, E. S.: The Science of Fairy Tales. An Inquiry into Fairy
Mythology. London, 1891. viii, 372 pp. 8vo.

259. HARTMANN, B.: Die Analyse des kindlichen Gedankenkreises als die
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260. HASKELL, ELLEN M.: Imitation in Children. _Pedag. Sem._ Vol.
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261. HERVEY, T. K.: The Book of Christmas. Boston, 1888. vi, 356 pp.

262. HIGGINSON, T. W.: Concerning All of Us. New York, 1893. vi, 210 pp.
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263. HOFLER, M.: Die Losung des Zungenbandchens. _Am Ur-Quell._ V.
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264. HOYT, W. A.: The Love of Nature as the Root of Teaching and
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265. HUGHES, J. L.: The Educational Value of Play, and the Recent Play-
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266. HURLL, ESTELLE M.: Child-Life in Art. New York, 1894.

267. IM THURN, E. F.: Games of Guiana Indians. _Timehri_
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268. JOCELYN, E.: The Mother's Legacy to her Unborn Child. New York,
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269. JOHNSON, G. E.: Education by Plays and Games. _Pedag. Sem._
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270. JOHNSON, J. H.: Rudimentary Society amongst Boys. _Overl.
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271. JOHNSON, J. H.: Judicial Procedure amongst Boys. _Ibid_.,
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272. JOHNSON, J. H.: Rudimentary Society among Boys (J. H. Univ. Studies
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273. JOHNSON, J., Jr.: The Savagery of Boyhood. _Pop. Sci. Mo._
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274. KALMANT, L.: Kinderschrecker und Kinderrauber im magyarischen
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275. KEBER, A.: Zur Philosophie der Kindersprache. Gereimtes und
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276. KIPLING, E.: The Jungle Book. New York, 1894. xvii, 303 pp. 8vo.

277. KISS, A.: Magyar gyermekjatek gyutemeny [Collection of Hungarian
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278. KLEINPAUL, R.: Menschenopfer und Ritualmorde. Leipzig, 1892. 80 S.
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279. KRAUSS, F. S.: Serbischer Zauber und Brauch Kinder halber. _Am
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280. KRAUSS, F. S.: Haarschurgodschaft bei den Sudslaven (Sep. Abdr.
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281. KRAUSS, F. S.: Geheime Sprachweisen _Am Ur-Quell_. II. Bd.
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282. KEUSCHE, G.: Litteratur der weiblichen Eiziehung und Bildung in
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285. LAIBLE, H.: Jesus Christus im Thalmud. Berlin, 1891. 122 S. 8vo.

286. LAILLEMAND, L.: Histoire des Enfants abandonnes et delaisses.
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287. LALLEMAND, L.: La question des Enfants abandonnes et delaisses au
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288. LANGE, HELENE: Higher Education of Women in Europe. New York, 1890.
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289. LAURIE, S. S.: Lectures on the Rise and Early Constitution of
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290-296. LAURIE, S. S.: The History of Early Education. [Several
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301. LOMBROSO, PAOLA: Saggi di Psicologia del Bambino. Torino-Roma,
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302. LUMMIS, C. F.: The Man who Married the Moon, and other Pueblo
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303. MACDONALD, A.: Abnormal Man, being Essays on Education and Crime,
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304. MAGNUS, LADY: The Boys of the Bible. London, 1894.

305. MARENHOLZ-BULOW, BARONESS: The Child and Child-Nature. 5th ed.
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306. MASON, O. T.: Cradles of the American Aborigines. _Rep. U. S.
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307. MAUPATE, L.: Recherches d'anthropologie criminelle chez l'enfant;
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309. MEHNERT, A.: Bin indischer Kaspar Hauser. Eine Erzahlung aus dem
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311. MORENO, H. DE: La festa del natale in Sicilia. Palermo, 1893.

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313. NEWELL, W. W.: Games and Songs of American Children. New York,
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314. NICOLAY, F.: Les enfants mal eleves. Paris, 1890.

315. ORTWEIN, F.: Deutsche Weihnachten. Der Weihnachtsfestkreis nach
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316. OWENS, J. G.: Natal Ceremonies of the Hopi Indians. Journ. Amer.
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317. Papers Relating to Infant Marriage and Enforced Widowhood in India.
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318. Pedagogical Seminary (The). An International Record of Educational
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320. PEREZ, B.: L'Art et la Poesie chez l'Enfant. Paris, 1888. 308 pp.

321. PITRE, G.: Usi e Credenze dei Fanciulli in Sicilia. Palermo, 1889.
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322. PITRE, G.: Mirabile facolta di alcune famiglie di guarire certe
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323. PITRE, G.: Folk-lore giuridico dei Fanciulli in Sicilia. Palermo,
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324. PITRE, G.: Il pesce d'Aprile. V. Ed. con moltiss. giunte. Palermo,
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325. PLOSS, H.: Das kleine Kind vom Tragbett bis zum ersten Schritt.
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326. PLOSS, H.: Das Kind in Brauch und Sitte der Volker.
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327. POKROVSKI, E. A.: Fizicheskoe vospitanie detei u. raznich narodov
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328. POKROVSKI, E. A.: Pervonachalnoe fizicheskoe vospitanie dietei
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329. POKROVSKI, E. A.: Ob ucho die za malymi dietmi [on the care of
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330. POKROVSKI, E. A.: Detskija igry preimushestvenno russkija (V.
svjazi s istorei, etnografei, pedagogiei, i gigienoi) [Children's Games,
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331. PORTER, J. H.: Notes on the Artificial Deformation of Children
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332. POST, A. H.: Mittheilungen aus dem bremischen Volkleben
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332a. PODLSSON, E.: Finger-Plays for Nursery and Kindergarten. Boston,
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333. RAND, K. E.: The Childhood of an Affinity. New York, 1893. vi, 304
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334. RASSIER, M: Valeur du temoignage des enfants en justice. Lyons,
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335. RAUBER, A.: Homo Sapiens Ferus oder die Zustande der Verwilderten
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336. RICCARDI, A.: Antropologia e Pedagogia. Introduzione ad una Scienza
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336a. RILEY, J. W.: Rhymes of Childhood. Indianapolis, 1894. 186 pp.
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337. ROBERTSON, E. S.: The Children of the Poets. An Anthology from
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xxxviii, 273 pp. 12mo.

337 a. ROBINSON, L.: The Primitive Child. _N. Amer. Rev._ (N. Y.),
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339. [RUNKLE, K. B.]: A Collection for Christmas. The New Year. Easter.
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340. SAUBERT, DR.: Maikafer, Frau Holle's Bote. _Am Urdhs-Brunnen._
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341. SCHALLENBERGER, MARGARET E.: A Study of Children's Rights as seen
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343. SCHELL, O.: Woher kommen die Kinder? _Am Ur-Quell._ IV. Bd.
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344. SCOTT, C. N.: The Child-God in Art. _Contemp. Bev._ (London).
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345. SCRIPTURE, E. W.: Arithmetical Prodigies. _Amer. Journ.
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346. SCUDDER, H. M.: Childhood in Greek and Roman Literature.
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347. SCUDDER, H. M.: Childhood in Early Christianity. _Ibid._, pp.
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348. SCUDDER, H. M.: Childhood in Medieval Art. _Ibid._, LVI.
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349. SCUDDER, H. M.: Childhood in English Literature and Art. Ibid., pp.
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349 a. SCUDDER, H. M.: Childhood in Modern Literature and Art.
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350. SCUDDER, H. M.: Childhood in Literature and Art, with Some
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351. SESSIONS, F.: The Younger Son (Folk-Lore Topics, No. 5). Eepr. from
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352. SESSIONS, F.: Beating the Bounds (Folk-Lore Topics, No. 4). Eepr.
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353. SHINN, MILLICENT W.: Some Comments on Babies [of Various Eaces].
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354. SOHNKEY, H.: Geburt und Taufe in der Gegend des Sollinger Waldes.
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355. STARR, F.: A Page of Child-Lore. Journ, Amer. Folk-Lore. Vol. IV.
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356. STEEL, F. A., and E. C. TEMPLE: Wide Awake Stories. A Collection of
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357. STEINMETZ, S. E.: De "Fosterage" of Opvoeding in Vreemde Families
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358. STEVENSON, Mrs. T. E.: The Religious Life of a ZnEi Child. Fifth
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359. STEVENSON, E. L.: A Child's Garden of Verse, 1885.

360. STORK, T.: The Children of the New Testament. Philadelphia, 1856.
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361. STRACK, H. C.: Der Blutaberglaube in der Menschheit, Blutmorde und
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361a. STRASZBURGER, B.: Geschichte der Erziehung und des Unterrichts bei
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362. STRETTELL, ALMA: Lullabies of Many Lands. New York, 1894.

363. STRONG, G. D.: Child-Life in Many Lands. Boston, 1870. iv, 210 pp.
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364. Studentensprache und Studentenlied in Halle von 100 Jahren.
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365. SULLY, J.: Studies of Childhood. [Numerous articles in Pop. Sei.
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366. SUNDERMANN, F.: Woher kommen die Kinder? Eine Beantwortung dieser
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367. "SYLVANUS URBAN": Infant-Marriages. Gentlm. Mag. (Load.) Vol. 277
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368. The Feeble-Minded Child and Adult. A Report on an Investigation of
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369. The Epileptic and Crippled Child and Adult. London, 1893. xxi, 132
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370. TILTE, M.: Die Geschichte der deutschen Weihnacht. Leipzig, 1894.

371. TRACY, F.: The Psychology of Childhood. Sec. Ed. Boston, 1894.
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372. TREICHEL, A.: Provinzielle Sprache zu und von Thieren und ihre
Namen. _Alt-Preuss. Monatsschr_. XXIX. Bd., Hefte I., II.

373. TREICHEL, A.: Zungenubungen aus Preussen. _Am Ur-Quell_. V.
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374. TUCKER, ELIZABETH S.: Children of Colonial Days. New York, 1894.

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