Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 by Popular Mechanics

Part 9 out of 15

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 1.6 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

cannon ball, the others are spiral-spherical springs covered with
black cloth (Fig. 1). These balls can be pressed together in flat
disks and put in the bag, Fig. 2. without taking up any great
amount of space. When the spring is released it will fill out the
black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be
distinguished from the real article.
--Contributed by J. F. Campbell, Somerville, Mass.

** A Rising Card Trick [256]

A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by
using the simple device illustrated. The only

[Illustration: Card Slips from the Pack]

things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber
band. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the
other end through the other card, as shown in the illustration,
drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting
a pin through them. The remaining two cards are pasted to the
first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band.

Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards; take any
other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way
that you do not see and know the card shown. Return the card to
the pack, but be sure and place it between the cards tied together
with the rubber band. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger
tightly at first, and by gradually loosening your hold the card
previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack.
--Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara, San Francisco, Cal.

** Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]

[Illustration: Box with Fastener]

While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it
quite convenient to keep my small drills, taps, small brooches,
etc., In boxes having a sliding cover. To keep the contents from
spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as
shown in the accompanying illustration, The fastener is made of
steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on
the outside of the box. A hole is drilled on the upper part to
receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. This pin
should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring, which is
bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. The pin
can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled
entirely out of the box.
--Contributed by Herm Grabemann, Milwaukee, Wis.

** How to Chain a Dog [257]

A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for
exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized

[Illustration: The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise]

wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large
enough to slide freely. The chain from the dog's collar is
fastened to the ring. This method can also be used for tethering a
cow or horse, the advantage being the use of a short tie rope
eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled.

** Water-Color Box [257]

There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of
holding water colors, but they are either too expensive for the
average person or too small to be convenient. I do a great deal of
water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color
dish. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my
pocketbook. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to
hold them, as shown in the illustration. This box has done good

Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which
can be easily taken out and cleaned; the dishes are deep enough to
prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones, and the box
can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. The
tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in.
round pieces 2-1/4 in. from the bottom of the box, thus giving
ample store room for colors, prints, slides and extra brushes.

[Illustration: Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes]

--Contributed by B. Beller, Hartford, Connecticut.

** Saving Ink Pens [257]

Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. This can be prevented
by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink, which
will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens.

** A Plant-Food Percolator [258]

Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. holes in
the bottom of one, then cover the perforated part with a piece of
fine brass gauze (Fig. 1), tacking the gauze well at the corners.
The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind--a wood
faucet, costing 5 cents, will answer the purpose. Put the first
tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig.
2). Fill the upper tub, about three-fourths full, with well packed
horse manure, and pour water on it until it is well soaked. When
the water has percolated through into the lower tub, it is ready
to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water,
as it adds both fertilizer and moisture.
--Contributed by C. O. Darke, West Lynn, Mass.

[Illustration: FIG.1, Fig. 2]

** Lathe Safety [258]

Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still.
Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform.

** Folding Quilting-Frames [258]

The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a
quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently
when other duties must be attended to; and especially are the end
pieces objectionable. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so
they will fold underneath to the center. The end pieces are cut in
two at one-fourth their distance from each end, a hinge screwed to
the under side to hold them together, and a hook and eye fastened
on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use.
When the ends are turned under, the frame is narrow enough to be
easily carried from one room to another, or placed against a wall.

** A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]

When working with the hands in a pan of water, oil or other fluid,
it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms, when
they are raised from the pan, often to soil the sleeves of a clean
garment. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to
run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet
rubber or, if this is not available, from a piece of the inner
tube of a bicycle tire. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to
fit snugly about the wrist, but not so tight as to stop the

[Illustration: Shields for the Arms]

circulation of the blood. A pair of these shields will always come
in handy.
--Contributed by L. M. Eifel, Chicago.

** How to Cane Chairs [259]

There are but few households that do not have at least one or two
chairs without a seat or back. The same households may have some
one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do
it, and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for
the neighbors. If the following directions are carried out, new
cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are
broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position.

The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. This can be
done by turning the chair upside down and, with the aid of a sharp
knife or chisel, cutting the cane between the holes. After this is
done the old bottom can be pulled out. If plugs are found in any
of the holes, they should be knocked out. If the beginner is in
doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be
used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge, he may find
it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the
frame before removing the old cane.

The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane.
At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may
be secured.

The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. and each bundle

[Illustration: Three Stages of Weaving]

enough to reseat several chairs. In addition to the cane, the
worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind, a square
pointed wedge, as shown in Fig. 1, and 8 or 10 round wood plugs,
which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the

[Illustration: First Layer of Strands]

A bucket of water should be supplied in which to soak the cane
just before weaving it. Several minutes before you are ready to
begin work, take four or five strands of the cane, and, after
having doubled them up singly into convenient lengths and tied
each one into a single knot, put them into the water to soak. The
cane is much more pliable and is less liable to crack in bending
when worked while wet. As fast as the soaked cane is used, more of
it should be put into the water.

Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked, put about 3
or 4 in. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the
outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of
one of the small plugs mentioned. The plug should not be forced in
too hard nor cut off, as it must be

[Illustration: First Two Layers in Place]

removed again. The other end of the strand should be made pointed
and passed down through the hole at the opposite side, and, after
having been pulled tight, held there by inserting another plug.
Pass the end up through the next hole, then across and down, and
hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which
the cane was drawn. In the same manner proceed across the chair
bottom. Whenever the end of one strand is reached, it should be
held by a plug, and a new one started in the next hole as in the
beginning. No plugs should be permanently removed until another
strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand
in place. After laying the strands across the seat in one
direction, put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely
above the first layer. Both of these layers when in place appear
as shown in one of the illustrations.

After completing the second layer, stretch the third one, using
the same holes as for the first layer. This will make three
layers, the first being hidden by the third while the second layer
is at right angles to and between the first and third. No weaving
has been done up to this time, nothing but stretching and
threading the cane through the holes. The cane will have the
appearance shown in Fig. 3. The next thing to do is to start the
cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin
the weaving. The top or third layer strands should be pushed
toward the end from which the weaving starts, so that the strand
being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers
and up again between pairs. The two first strands of the fourth
layer are shown woven in Fig. 3. During the weaving, the strands
should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass
through with ease. Even with this lubrication, one can seldom
weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end
before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand
through. After finishing this fourth layer of strands, it is quite
probable that each strand will be about midway between its two
neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired, and here
is where the square and pointed wedge is used. The wedge is driven
down between the proper strands to move them into place.

Start at one corner and weave diagonally, as shown in Fig. 4,
making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which
form the corner of the square in each case. One more weave across
on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the
binding, as shown in Fig. 5. The binding consists of one strand
that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another
strand, a loop over the first being made every second or third
hole as desired. It will be of great assistance to keep another
chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the
first chair.
--Contributed by M. R. W.

** Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]

Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the
outside. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to
melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. When cool, trim
off the surplus rosin. If handled with a little care, a tray
repaired in this manner will last a long time. The chemicals will
not affect the rosin.
--Contributed by E. D. Patrick, Detroit, Michigan.

** How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]

The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the
shadow of the sun. They were quite common in ancient times before
clocks and watches were invented. At the present time they are
used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time,
although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. There
are several different designs of sundials, but the most common,
and the one we shall describe in this article, is the horizontal
dial. It consists of a flat circular table, placed firmly on a
solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal, Fig. 1,
called the gnomon, rising from its center and inclined toward the
meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the
place where the dial is to be used. The shadow of the edge of the
triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from
morning to afternoon, and thus supplies a rough measurement of the
hour of the day.

The style or gnomon, as it always equals the latitude of the
place, can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB, Fig. 1, 5 in.
long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC, the height of
which is taken from table No. 1. It may be necessary to
interpolate for a given latitude, as for example, lat. 41
degrees-30'. From table No. 1 lat. 42 degrees is 4.5 in. and for
lat. 40 degrees, the next smallest, it is 4.2 in. Their difference
is .3 in. for 2 degrees, and for 1 degrees it would be .15 in. For
30' it would be 1/2 of 1 degrees or .075 in. All added to the
lesser or 40 degrees, we have 4.2+.15+.075 in.= 4.42 in. as the
height of the line BC for lat. 41 degrees-30'. If you have a table
of natural functions, the height of the line BC, or the style, is
the base (5 in. in this case) times the tangent of the degree of
latitude. Draw the line AD, and the angle BAD is the correct angle
for the style for the given

[Illustration: Details of Dial]

TABLE No. 1.

Height of stile in inches for a 5in. base, for various latitudes

Latitude Height Latitude Height
25 2.33 42 4.50
26 2.44 44 4.83
27 2.55 46 5.18
28 2.66 48 5.55
30 2.89 50 5.96
32 3.12 52 6.40
34 3.37 54 6.88
36 3.63 56 7.41
38 3.91 58 8.00
40 4.20 60 8.66

latitude. Its thickness, if of metal, may be conveniently from
1/8 to 1/4 in. ; or if of stone, an inch or two, or more, according
to the size of the dial. Usually for neatness of appearance the
back of the style is hollowed as shown. The upper edges which
cast the shadows must be sharp and straight, and for this size
dial (10 in. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. long.

To layout the hour circle, draw two parallel lines AB and CD,
Fig. 2, which will represent the base in length and thickness.
Draw two semi-circles, using the points A and C as centers,
with a radius of 5 in. The points of intersection with the lines
AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. A line EF drawn
through the points A and C, and perpendicular to the base or
style, and intersecting the semicircles, gives the 6 o'clock
points. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the
dial. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted
by using table No. 2 for given latitudes, placing them to the
right or left of the 12-o'clock points. For latitudes not given,
interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.

Table NO. 2.
Chords in inches for a 10 in. circle Sundial.

12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 4 4-30 5 5-30
11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 8 7-30 7 6-30
20 .28 .56 .87 1.19 1.57 1.99 2.49 3.11 3.87 4.82 5.93
30 .33 .66 1.02 1.40 1.82 2.30 2.85 3.49 4.26 5.14 6.10
35 .38 .76 1.16 1.59 2.06 2.57 3.16 3.81 4.55 5.37 6.23
40 .42 .85 1.30 1.77 2.27 2.82 3.42 4.07 4.79 5.55 6.32
45 .46 .94 1.42 1.93 2.46 3.03 3.64 4.29 4.97 5.68 6.39
50 .50 1.01 1.53 2.06 2.68 3.21 3.82 4.46 5.12 5.79 6.46
55 .54 1.08 1.63 2.19 2.77 3.37 3.98 4.60 5.24 5.87 6.49
60 .57 1.14 1.71 2.30 2.89 3.49 4.10 4.72 5.34 5.93 6.52

1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the'
eye or they may be computed.

When placing the dial in position, care must be taken to get it
perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial
face, with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. An
ordinary compass, after allowing for the declination, will enable
one to set the dial, or it may be set by placing it as near north
and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at
standard time. The dial time and the watch time should agree after
the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table
No. 3, and for the difference between standard and local time,
changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.
Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year, April 16,
June 15, Sept. 2 and Dec. 25, and on these dates the dial needs no
correction. The corrections for the various days of the month can
be taken from Table 3. The + means that the clock is faster, and
the means that the dial is faster than the sun. Still another
correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.
Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York, 900
Chicago, 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. Ascertain in
degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the
nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15, reducing the
answer to minutes and seconds, which will be the correction in
minutes and seconds of time. If the dial is east of the meridian
chosen, then the watch is slower; if west, it will be faster. This
correction can be added to the values in table No. 3, making each
value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster
when it is west.

The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on
a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground
to make it solid.

The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.
--Contributed by J. E. Mitchell, Sioux City, Iowa.

Table No. 3

Corrections in minutes to change.
Sun time to local mean time,- add those marked + subtract those
Marked - from Sundial lime.

Day of month 1 10 20 30
January +3 +7 +11 +13
February +14 +14 +14
March +13 +11 +8 +5
April +4 +2 -1 -3
May -3 -4 -4 -3
June -3 +1 +1 +3
July +3 +5 +6 +6
August +6 +5 +3 +1
September +0 -3 -5 -10
October -10 -13 -15 -16
November -16 -16 -14 -11
December -11 -7 -3 +2

** Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]

The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying
illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from
wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. The designs
shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries. As they are the genuine reproductions, each article can
be labelled with the name, adding to each piece interest and
value, says the English Mechanic, London.

Each weapon is cut from wood. The blades of the axes and the
cutting edges of the swords are dressed down and finished with
sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood
with tinfoil. When putting on the tinfoil, brush a thin coat of
glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. If a
cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade
must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The
other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will
not quite cover to the cutting edge. After laying the foil and
allowing time for the glue to dry, wipe the surface with light
strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth.

[Illustration: Partisan, Fork and Halberd]

A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. The
weapon is 6-1/2 ft. long with a round handle having the same
circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson
cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed

[Illustration: Spontoon. Glaive and Voulge]

brass nails. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. long from the
point where it is attached to the handle. The widest part of the
blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The length of the tassel
or fringe is about 4 in.

Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century,
the length of which is about 5 ft. with a handle of wood bound
with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark
color. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points
is about 10 in., and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of

A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 3. This
combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. long from the point
of the spear to the end of the handle, which is square. The spear
and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The holes in
the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods, the
holes being about 1/4 in. in diameter.

Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon, used about the
seventeenth century. It is about 6 ft. long with a round wooden
handle. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle
is about 9 in. long. The edges are sharp. The cross bar which runs
through the lower end of the spear can

[Illustration: Halberd. Ranseur and Lance]

be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The
length of this bar is about 5 in. The small circular plate through
which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and
glued on the wooden spear.

A gisarm or glaive, used by Italians in the sixteenth century, is
shown in Fig. 5. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The blade is
engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the
spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. It has
a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The engraved
work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on,
press it well into the carved depressions.

Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century, 6 ft.
long, with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade, sharp on
the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands, which
are a part of the axe. The bands can be made of cardboard and
glued on to the wood axe. These bands can be made very strong by
reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. A small curved
spear point is carved from a piece of wood, covered with tinfoil
and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The band of metal
on the side is cut from cardboard, covered with tinfoil and
fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails.

A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth
century which is shown in Fig. 7. The entire length is about 6-1/2
ft., with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a
steel ornament. The length of the spear point to the lower end
where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The extreme width of the
axe is 16 or 17 in. The outer and inner edges of the
crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. This axe is cut out
with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil.

An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 8.
This weapon is about 6 ft. long with a round staff or handle. The
entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to
where it joins the staff is 15 in. The spear is steel, sharp on
the outer edges.

Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments
in the sixteenth century. The wood pole is covered with cloth or
painted a dark color. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel.
The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to
represent steel and studded with brass nails. The extreme length
is 9 ft.

The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made
from a few inches of worsted fringe, about 4 in. long and wound
around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed

** An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]

Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the
piece off which fastens on the stove. The large and rounding part
of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. This ladle will be found
convenient for melting babbitt or lead.
--Contributed by R. H. Workman, Loudonville, Ohio.

[Illustration: Babbitt Ladle]

** How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]

These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at
home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. They can be made of
various materials, the most durable being bamboo, although beads
of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. Substances
such as straw, while readily adaptable

[Illustration: Bamboo and Straw Portieres]

and having a neat appearance, are less durable and will quickly
show wear. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. 1, 2
and 3. In Figs. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering,
and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. A
straight paper bead is shown in Fig. B.

The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for
stringing and then procure the hanging cord. Be sure to get a cord
of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the
least possible lateral movement. This is important to secure
neatness. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood,
or in holes punched in a leather strap. Iron or brass rings can be
used if desired.

Cut all the cords the same length, making allowance for the number
of knots necessary to produce the design selected. Some designs
require only one knot at the bottom. It is best to make a rough
sketch of the design on paper. This will greatly aid the maker in
carrying on the work.

When the main part of the screen is finished, the cross cords,
used for spacing and binding the whole together, are put in place.
This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire, as
shown in Fig. 4. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. 5.
As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired, and if
placed from 6 to 12 in. apart, a solid screen will be made instead
of a portiere. The twisted cross cords should be of such material,
and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen.
If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened
by varnishing. The first design shown is for using bamboo. The
cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. The finished
portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Many beautiful
hangings can be easily fashioned.

The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of
either straw, bamboo or rolled paper. The cords are hung upon a
round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The
design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right
places between the lengths of ground material. One bead is placed
at the extreme end of each cord. The rows of twisted cord placed
at the top keep the strings properly spaced.
--Contributed by Geo. M. Harrer, Lockport, New York.

** Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]

While out camping, our only lantern was accidentally smashed
beyond repair, and it was necessary to devise something that would
take its place.

[Illustration: Lantern Made of Old Cans]

We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin, 3 in. wide, for a
length extending from a point 2 in. below the top to within 1/4
in. of the bottom. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in
the shape of a letter S, in which was placed a piece of glass.
Four V-shaped notches were cut, as shown at B, near the top of the
can and their points turned outward. A slit was cut in the bottom,
shaped as shown at C, and the pointed ends thus formed were turned
up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. A larger can
was secured and the bottom perforated. This was turned over the
top of the other can. A heavy wire was run through the
perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a
--Contributed by Maurice Baudier, New Orleans, La.

** New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]

The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly
worn and streched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough
to run the sweeper. To remedy this, procure some rubber tape a
little wider than the rims of the old wheels, remove the old
rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper
thickness. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk
or soapstone powder to prevent the tape from sticking to the
carpet. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a
new one.
--Contributed by W. H. Shay, Newburgh, N. Y.

** Gauntlets on Gloves [266]

When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out, do
not throw away the gloves, but cut off the gauntlets and procure a
pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be
sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves.
The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine, gathering
in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. A
pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves.
--Contributed by Joseph H. Sanford, Pasadena, Cal.

** How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]

The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the
metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin
paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet
of carbon paper. The brass should be somewhat larger than the

The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails
driven through the edges. Indent the name and outline of the flag
with a small chisel with the face ground flat, about 1/16 in.
wide. This should be done gradually, sinking the lines deeper and
deeper by going over them a number of times. After this is
finished, the brass is loosened from the block, turned over but
not fastened, and the whole outside of and between the letters is
indented with the rounded end of a nail, giving the appearance of
hammered brass.

The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled, two for the
chain by which to hang the flag to the wall, and two along the
side for attaching the staff. The staff is a small brass rod with
a knob attached to the top end.

It would be well to polish the brass at first, if the finished
work is to be

[Illustration: The Finished Flag]

bright, as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. A coat
of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. This is done by
heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac.
--Contributed by Chas. Schaffner, Maywood, Ill.

** An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]

A punching-bag platform, suitable for the tall athlete as well as
the small boy, is shown in the accompanying sketch. The platform
is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces, which in
turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. plank as long as the diameter of
the platform. This plank, as shown in the small drawing at the
upper left-hand corner of the sketch, is placed in grooves or
slots fastened against the side of a wall. The plank with the
platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height
and held there by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the
plank and into a hole in the wall.
--Contributed by W. A. Jaquythe, Richmond, Cal.

[Illustration: Adjustable Platform]

** Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]

A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the
illustration. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. in
diameter, bent as shown. This clasp is capable of standing a
strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade.
--E. K. Marshall, Oak Park, Ill.

[Illustration: Clasp]

** Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]

Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to
come in contact with water.

** Home-Made Electric Clock [268]

The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of
electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Unlike most
clocks, the pendulum swings

[Illustration: Magnetic Clock]

forward and backward instead of laterally. The construction is
very simple, and the result is not only novel but well worth
while, because one does not have to bother about winding a clock,
such as this one, says the Scientific American.

The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in.,
by 1-5/16 in. thick. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by
3/4-in. bar, 6 in. long and at each side of this, 5/16 in. away,
is an electromagnet, 3/4 in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. high. Two
uprights, 7-1/2 in. high and 1/4 in. in diameter, are secured in
the base bar, and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece
on which the clock frame is supported. Just below the yoke piece a
hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the
crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. The
pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of
the electromagnets. Mounted at the right-hand side of the base are
three tall binding-posts, the center one being 2-3/4 in. high, and
the other two 2-5/8 in. high. Each is fitted with a piece of
copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. These springs
lie in the plane of the pendulum, which serves to swing the
central tip first against one and then against the other of the
side tips, thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and
then the other. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its
circuit is broken by release of the center tip, and on the return
swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly
closed. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate
magnetic impulses. The clock train is taken from a standard clock
and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by
means of a pawl, bearing on the latter, which is lifted at each
forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from
the pivotal end of the pendulum rod.

** Method of Joining Boards [268]

The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards
together so that they will fit square and tight. The accompanying
sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Secure a
board, A, about 12 in. wide that is perfectly flat. Fasten another
board, B, about 6 in. wide, to the first one with screws or glue.
Now place the board to be joined, C, on the board B, letting it
extend over the inside edge about 1 in. and fastening it to the
others with clamps at each end. Lay the plane on its side and
plane the edge straight. Place the second board in the clamps in
the same manner as the first, only have the opposite side up. If
the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical, the boards planed
in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. In using
this method, first-class joints can be made without much trouble.
--Contributed by V. Metzech, Chicago.

[Illustration: Joining Boards]

** Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]

The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in.
wide and 5 in. long. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from
the side or cover of a cigar box. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. wide
and 1 in. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis
and 1-3/8 in. from one end, as shown at A, Fig. 1. A small notch
is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut
in the end of the wood as shown at C. Rubber bands are fastened in
these notches as shown in Fig. 2. The trigger, whose dimensions
are given in Fig. 3, is fastened in the hole A, Fig. 1, by driving
a pin through the wood. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. 4.

Place the cardboard square in the nick B, attach the rubber bands
and pull the trigger. The top rubber band will fly off and drive
the cardboard

[Illustration: Details of Toy Gun]

square 75 ft. or more. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in.
square. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box.
--Contributed by Elmer A. Vanderslice, Phoenixville, Pa.

** Photographic Developing Tray [269]

Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath
occasionally for examination. The film when in a chemical-soaked
condition is easily damaged. The tray illustrated herewith was
made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take
hold of them until the bath had completed its work, the
examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the

A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the
tray when it

[Illustration: Developing Tray with Glass Bottom]

is turned up in a vertical position. A tray for developing 5 by
7-in. plates should be made 8 in. square inside. The side pieces
with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. 1. Two of each of
these pieces are made with mitered ends. The short groove shown in
the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate
covering on the pocket end of the tray.

Two blocks, one-half the length of the side pieces, are put in
between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from
dropping down when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position.
The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. square, which allows 1/4
in. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. The
wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin, and the mitered
corners well glued and nailed.
--Contributed by J.A. Simonis, Fostoria, Ohio.

** Iron Putty [269]

A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as
follows: Take, by weight, 3 parts of stiff keg lead, 5 parts of
black filler, 2 parts of whiting, 5 parts of pulverized silica and
make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan,
rubbing varnish and turpentine.

** Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]

Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands

[Illustration: Bands in String]

suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite, as shown in
the illustration. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make
the right pull, if only two bands are put in the lower strings.
--Contributed by Thos. DeLoof, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

** An Aid in Sketching [270]

Sketching requires some little training, but with the apparatus
here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent
results. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. deep, 8 in. wide and
about 1 ft. long. A double convex lens, G, is fitted in a brass
tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger
tube fastened to the end of the box. A mirror, II, is set at an
angle of 45 deg.

[Illustration: Sketching Aid]

in the opposite end of the box. This reflects the rays of light
passing through the lens to the surface K, which may be either of
ground or plain glass. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and
keeps the strong light out when sketching. The inside of the box
and brass tube are painted a dull black.

In use, the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the
scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the
reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass.
Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted
on the glass. If you wish to make a pencil drawing, all you have
to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass.
If a plain glass is used, place tracing paper on its surface, and
the picture can be drawn as described.

** How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]

A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch.
A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the
lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a
binding-post, as shown in Fig. 1. A piece of metal, preferably
copper, is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. 2 and the
coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction.
Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the
metal. If the wire fits the lamp loosely, remove the lamp and
press the sides of the coil closer together. The metal parts can

[Illustration: Wire Socket]

be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular
--Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, No. Dartmouth, Mass.

** Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271]

The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in
imitation of ancient weapons, and now the amateur armorer must
have some helmets to add to his collection. There is no limit to
the size of the helmet, and it may be made as a model or full
sized. In constructing helmets, a mass of clay of any kind that is
easily workable and fairly stiff, is necessary, says the English
Mechanic, London. It must be kept moist and well kneaded. A large

[Illustration: Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs]

Board or several planks, joined closely together, on which to
place the clay, will be necessary. The size of this board will
depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon

The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of
producing a German morion, shown in Fig. 1. This helmet has
fleur-de-lis in embossed work, and on each side is a badge of the
civic regiment of the city of Munich. The side view of the helmet
is shown in Fig. 1.

The clay, is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in
Fig. 2. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses, a few
clay-modeling tools, and the deft use of the fingers. The
fleur-de-lis are slightly raised, as in bas-relief. To aid in
getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides, and over
the crest on top, cut out the shape from a piece of wood, as shown
in Fig. 3, with a keyhole saw. This wood being passed carefully
and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape, and will also
show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling, which
can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. The cut-out
pattern shown in Fig. 4 is the side outline of the helmet.

Scraps of thin, brown, wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin
of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size
melted and well stirred, or some thin glue, and left over night to
soak. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large
as the palm of the hand. After the clay model is finished, give it
a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very
well. All being ready, the clay model oiled, and the basin of
soaked paper near to hand, take, up one piece of paper at a time
and very carefully place it upon the model, pressing it well on
the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns, and
continue until the clay is completely covered.

This being done, give the paper a thin and even coating of glue,
which must be quite hot and put on as quickly

[Illustration: Ancient Helmets]

as possible. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as
before, then another coating of glue, and so on, until there are
from four to six coats of glue and paper. When dry, the paper
coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to
be used for ornamental purposes. Before taking it off the model,
which should be no difficult matter, owing to the clay being
oiled, trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife, and
smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. The paper is
then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to
give it a finished appearance. When the helmet is off the model,
make holes with a small awl at equal distances, through which to
insert some fancy brass nails, bending the points over and flat
against the inside of the helmet.

A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. 5. This helmet has a movable vizor
in the front that can be lifted up, a crest on top, and around the
neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. The
whole helmet with the exception of the vizor, should be modeled
and made in one piece. The vizor can then be made and put in place
with a brass-headed nail on each side. The oblong slits in front
of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut
through with a knife or chisel.

In Fig. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the
sixteenth century. This helmet may have the appearance of being
richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing, or, a few
lines running down, as seen in the other part of the sketch, will
make it look neat. The band is decorated with brass studs.

An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 7.
This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed
nails, as shown: in the design.

In Fig. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which
comes very much forward, so as to allow the wearer to breathe
freely. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century, and was
probably used for tilting and tournaments.

A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig.
9. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal, square in
shape, which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the
front of the helmet, and is held in any position by a thumbscrew
as shown in the illustration.

A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the
wearer's face. This contrivance should be made of wood, the helmet
to be modeled in three pieces, the skullcap, peak and lobster
shell neck guard in one piece, and the ear guards in two pieces,
one for each side. The center of the ear guards are perforated.
All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for
Fig. 1. They are all covered with tinfoil.

** How to Repair Linoleum [273]

A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet
spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. The damaged spot was
removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was
cut of the same outline and size. The edges were varnished and
then the patch was set in the open space. The linoleum was given a
good coat of varnish making it more durable. When perfectly dry,
the piecing could not be detected.
--Contributed by Paul Keller, Indianapolis, Indiana.

** How to Make an Electric Stove [273]

The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal
pie plates of the same size; 4 lb. of fire clay; two ordinary
binding posts; about 1 lb. of mineral wool, or, if this cannot be
obtained, thick sheet asbestos; one oblong piece of wood, 1 in.
thick, 12 in. wide and 15 in. long; one small switch; one fuse
block; about 80 ft. of No. 22 gauge resistance wire, German-silver
wire is better, as it stands a higher temperature; two
middle-sized stove bolts with nuts; one glass tube, about 1/4 in.
in diameter and 9 in. long, which can be bought from a local
druggist, and two large 3-in. screws.

If a neat appearance is desired, the wood can be thoroughly
sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on
the upper side. Punch holes in one of the pie plates, as shown in
Fig. 1. The two holes, E and F, are on the rim and should be
exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. The holes
B and C are about 3 in. apart and should be at equal distances
from the center hole D. The rim of the second plate is drilled to
make two holes, AA, Fig. 2, that will match the holes E and F in
the first plate, Fig. 1. A round collar of galvanized iron, FF,
Fig. 4, 3 in. high, is made with a diameter to receive the first
plate snugly. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes
punched in their centers, AA, to receive screws for holding it to
the base. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F, Fig. 1, and
used to hold the

[Illustration: Details of Electric Stove]

rims of both plates together, when they are placed in opposite
positions, as shown in Fig. 4. This will make an open space
between the plates. The collar is then screwed to one end of the
base, as shown in Fig. 2.

Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes
D and A in the bottom plate. The glass tube is cut to make two
pieces, each 4-1/2 in. long. This can be done easily by filing a
nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. These tubes
are forced into the holes bored in the base, and, if the
measurements are correct, should extend about 1/4 in. above the
collar. The mineral wool, JJ, Fig. 4, is then packed down inside
the collar, until it is within 1 in. of the top. This will allow
the plate, Fig. 1, to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass
tubes, GG, Fig. 4, to project through the holes D and A of the
plate, Fig. 1. The rim of the plate should be level with the top
edge of the collar. If asbestos is used, the sheets should be cut
into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar,
and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. The
small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the
space H, Fig. 4. The plate, Fig. 1, is held to the base by two
screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position
shown by DD, Fig. 4.

The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D, Fig. 2, also
the switch B and the fuse block C, holes being bored in the base
to make the wire connections. The reverse side of the base, with
slits cut for the wires, is shown in Fig. 3. The points marked BB
are the glass tubes; AA, the holes leading to the switch; and C,
the fuse block. The wires run through the glass tubes GG, Fig. 4,
are allowed to project about 1 in. for connections.

The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is
to take a large clay or drain tile and wind the wire tightly
around it, allowing a space between each turn. The tile is then
set on its side with a block or brick under each end. It should
not be set on end, as the turns of the wires, when heated, will
slip and come in contact with each other, causing a short circuit.
When the tile is in place, a short piece of fuse wire is fastened
to each of its two ends. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong
enough. A connection is made to these two wires from an
electric-light socket. The wire will get hot but probably remain
the same color. If this is the case, one of the feed wires is
disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down
the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a
dull red. This point marks the proper length to cut it, as the
wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. If the wire gets
bright hot when the current is turned on, more wire should be
added. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around
a large wire nail. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in.

Next, the fire clay is moistened and well mixed, using care not to
get it too wet. It should have the proper consistency to mould
well. The clay, II, Fig. 4, is then packed in the first plate to a
height of about 1/4 in. above the rim. While the clay is damp, one
end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass
tube, and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay, KK,
and pressed into it. When this is done, the other end is connected
to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. As these
connections cannot be soldered, the ends of the wires should be
twisted closely together, so that the circuit will not become
broken. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other
or the top plate. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the
fuse block, and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two
binding-posts. The top plate is put in place and screwed down.
This completes the stove.

It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out
the packing. If it is not thoroughly dry, steam will form when the
current is applied. It should not be left heated in this
condition. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when
making toast.
--Contributed by R. H. Cnonyn, St. Catherines, Can.

** How to Make Weights for Athletes [274]

Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for

[Illustration: Mold for the Lead]

athletic stunts, but do not know how to go about it to cast the
metal. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration, it is
not necessary to know the method of molding. The round lead weight
for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow
cardboard or pressed-paper ball, sold in department and toy stores
for 10 cents. Cut a 1/2-in. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. 1
and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the
sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section, Fig. 2.
Cover over about 1 in. deep. A wood plug inserted in the hole will
prevent any sand falling inside. When the sand is tamped in and
the plug removed, it leaves a gate for the metal. Pour melted lead
into the gate until it is full, then, when cool, shake it out from
the sand and remove the charred paper. A file can be used to
remove any rough places. The dry paper ball prevents any
sputtering of the hot lead.
--Contributed by W. A. Jaquythe, Richmond, Cal.

** Removing Pies from Pans [275]

Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so
tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. If a
knife with a flexible blade is not used, the pie will be damaged.

[Illustration: Separating Pies from Pans]

If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in
the accompanying sketch, the baked dough can be separated from the
tin with one revolution of the cutter. The cutter is made from a
piece of heavy tin, bent to the same outline as the inside of the
pan and pivoted at its center.

** Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]

A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a
cheesecloth stretcher. Such a stretcher can be made on a light
wood frame, constructed of 3/4-in. square material in any size,
but 12 by 24 in. is large enough. The end pieces B are fastened on
top of the long side pieces A, and the cheesecloth C stretched and
tacked over them, as shown.

The prints should be placed face up on the cloth, and the frame
set near a window. If the stretcher is made in

[Illustration: Cloth on the Frame]

this way, the air can enter from both top and bottom, and the
prints will dry rapidly. Several of these frames can be stacked
and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time.
--Contributed by Andrew G. Thorne, Louisville, Ky.

** A Temporary Funnel [275]

The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires
to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit, says the
Photographic Times. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper
usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the
bottle, thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser," A
better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown
by the dotted lines. Then clip a little off the

[Illustration: Paper Funnel]

point, open out, and you have a funnel that will not give any
trouble. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when
dirty, thereby saving time and washing.

** An Electric Engine [276]

The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. thick, 4
in. wide and 7 in. long. The upright B, Fig. 1,

[Illustration: Shaft Turned by Magnetism]

which is 1/2 in. thick and 3 in. high, is secured across the base
about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a
wood screw put through from the under side. The magnet core C is
made of a carriage bolt, 2-1/2 in. long, which is fastened in a
hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will
protrude slightly. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the
upright, slip on two cardboard washers, each 1 in. in diameter,
one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Wrap a
thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind
the space full of No. 22 gauge magnet wire, allowing each end to
project for connections.

The driving arm D, Figs. 1 and 3, is made of a piece of soft sheet
iron, 1/2 in. wide and 3 in. long. A small block is fastened to
the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights, 1/2
in. high, which are fastened to the base. The uprights on each
side of the block are better shown in Fig. 3.

Two supports, each 1/2 in. thick and 3 in. high, are fastened with
screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright
B, Fig. 1. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 2, at
GG. A 1/8-in. hole is bored through the top part of each support
so they will be in a line for the axle. The axle is made of a
piece of steel 1/8 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. An offset
is bent in the center, as shown, for the crank. A small flywheel
is attached to one end of the shaft. The connecting rod E, Fig. 1,
is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D
with a small screw or nail. The contact F is made of a strip of
copper, 14 in. wide. This is to open and close the circuit when
the engine is running. The connections are made as shown in Fig.

Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel.
The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm
toward the bolt head, which gives the shaft a half turn. The
turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F,
causing a break in the current. As the shaft revolves, the arm is
again brought back against the copper strip F, thus the current is
broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. --Contributed
by S. W. Herron, Le Mars, Iowa.

** Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]

A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or
packing case. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in
the shape shown in the illustration. The apron or board in front
slides on the two front ropes. The board can be raised to place

[Illustration: Made of a Box]

child in the box and to remove him. The ropes are fastened to the
box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them.

** Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]

A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by
enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers,
and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large
enough to admit a small bird.

Place the pot, bottom side up, on a board, 3 in. wider than the
diameter of the largest pot used, and fasten it to the board with
wood cleats and brass screws. Fit the cleats as close as possible
to the sides of the pot. One or more pots may be used, as shown in
the sketch.

The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a
post or pole 10 or 12 ft. in height. The board is braced with lath
or similar strips of wood, making a framework suitable for a
roost. In designing the roost, the lath can be arranged to make it
quite attractive, or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a
tree to make a rustic effect.
--Contributed by William F. Stecher, Dorchester, Mass.

[Illustration: Pots Fastened to the Board]

** Location of a Gas Meter [277]

The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas
will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be
proportionately increased. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its
volume for each deg. F. that it is heated. If the meter is warmed
10 deg. F., it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more,
without any corresponding benefit.

** How to Make Rope Grills [277]

Beautiful and useful household ornaments, grills and gratings for
doors, windows, shelves, odd corners, etc., can be made by the
following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a
little ingenuity. The materials required are rope or, preferably,
common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. in diameter;
ordinary glue, paraffin and paint or varnish. A few strips of wood
or molding are very handy to use around the edges.

The design must be considered first and when one is selected, if
it is other than straight lines, adopt the method described.

Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which,
when combined, will produce the pattern desired. Drive finishing
nails at the angle points or along curves as required. Coat the
board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin, using
an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to
the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails.

Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time, then
bend or twist it along or around the lines desired, as shown in
Fig. 1, and give it time to dry. The bottom part of the sketch,
Fig. 1, shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to
make circular objects. Wind the

[Illustration: Fig. 2-Designs for Grills]

desired number of turns and when dry, cut and glue them together.

[Illustration: Fig. 1-Method of Forming the Rope]

In Fig. 2, six designs are shown. These suggest ideas in making up
combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by
the ingenuity of the designer.
--Contributed by Geo. M. Harrer, Lockport, N. Y.

** A Simple and Effective Filter [278]

Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses
of cheese cloth over the end of it. Press a tuft of absorbent
cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in.
Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a
support. Pour the water in until the filter is filled, when it
will be observed that any organic matter, chips of iron rust,
etc., will be retained by the cotton. The fine organic matter may
penetrate the cotton for about 1 in., but no farther. The
resultant filtered water will be clear and pure.

[Illustration: Filter]

** Cutting Tools [278]

The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers.

** Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]

A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff
must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the
models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the
articles illustrated in these sketches. A modeling board must be
made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together
upon which to work the clay, says the English Mechanic, London.
The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be

[Illustration: Armor and Clay Models]

An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. This
piece of horse armor, which was used in front of a horse's head,
makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the
swords, etc., and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try
his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work.
The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular,
and the sides do not cover the jaws. As the main part of this
armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4
in. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands,
after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or
pure olive oil. A day before making the clay model some pieces of
thin, brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the,
size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water
in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. If size
cannot be obtained from your local painter, a weak solution of
glue will do equally well. All being ready, and the clay model
oiled, take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully
place it on the surface of the model, pressing it on well and into
and around any crevices and patterns. Continue this operation
until the clay model is completely covered on every part. This
being done, give the paper a thin and even coating of glue, which
must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. Lay on a
second layer of paper as carefully as before, then another coat of
glue, and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and
paper. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all
ornamental purposes. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off
with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine
sandpaper. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the
armor the appearance of steel. The armor is now removed from the

A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 2.
This can be made in one piece, with the exception of the thumb
shield, which is separate. The thumb shield is attached to the
thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on
the inside of the gauntlet.

[Illustration: Corrugated Breastplate and Former]

The part covering the wrist is a circular piece, but the back is
not necessary, as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is
hanging in its place.

In Fig. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with
separately articulated fingers. This gauntlet may be molded in one
piece, except the thumb and fingers, which must be made separately
and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is
attached to the inside of the gauntlet, the same as in Fig. 2.

A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in
Fig. 4. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate
with straps and buckles, as shown in the sketch. There is a belt
around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. Attached
to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the
shoulder. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top
right and left-hand corners of the front plate. For decorative
purposes the back plate need not be made, and therefore it is not
described. The method of making armor is the same as of making
helmets, but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less
clay owing to the bulk and weight.

An arrangement is shown in Fig. 5 to reduce the amount of clay
used. This triangular-shaped support, which can be made in any
size, is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with
clay. This will make the model light and easy to move around, and
will require less clay. It is not necessary to have smooth boards;
the rougher the better, as the surface will hold the clay. The
clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper
on the surface are shown in Figs. 6 and 7.

A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth
century is shown in Fig. 8. The breastplate and tassets of this
armor are supposed to be in one piece, but for convenience in
making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue
them together after they are taken from the model. A narrow
leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. Fluted
armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves, 1/2 in.
in depth, running down the plate. A piece of board, cut into the
shape shown in Fig. 9, will be very useful for marking out the
fluted lines.

** Home-Made Hand Vise [280]

A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as
shown in the illustration. The vise consists of three pieces of
wood, two for the jaws and one a wedge. The hinge for connecting
the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes, two in each jaw.
When locating the place for the screw eyes, place the two in one
jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Put a nail
through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are
ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed.
--Contributed by John G. Buxton, Redondo Beach, Calif.

[Illustration: Hand Vise]

** Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]

A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber
stopper. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large
enough to admit a small brass rod. The length of this rod will be
governed by the shape of the bottle, but 3-1/2 in. will be about
right. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum
foil, each about 1/4 in. wide and 1/2 in. long, are glued to it.
The two pieces of foil, fastened to the rod, are better shown in
Fig. 2. Fasten a polished brass ball to, the top of the rod, and
the instrument is ready for use. Place the article which you wish
to test near the ball, and if it holds a

[Illustration: Aluminum Foil in a Bottle]

slight electrical charge, the two pieces of foil will draw
together. If it does not hold a charge, the foils will not move.
--Contributed by Ralph L. La Rue, Goshen, N. Y.

** Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]

The tip-up, used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is
caught, is made of a 1/4-in. pine board, about 15 in. long, 2-1/2
in. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other.
At a point 6 in. from the smaller end, the board should be cut
slightly wider and a 1/2-in. hole bored through it. Two or three
wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on
each side

[Illustration: Tip-Up in Place]

of the hole to give added strength. Both ends of the board should
be notched deeply.

A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a
chisel, as this will cut under the water without splashing. The
chipped ice can be removed with a pail. A rod or round stick of
wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across
the round hole, as shown in the illustration.

The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from
the short end of the tip-up. When a fish is hooked, the other end
will tip up and signal the fisherman. Any number of holes can be
cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each, thus enabling one person
to take care of as many lines.

** Home-Made Candle Holder [281]

The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an
ordinary tin can, such as is used for canning salmon or potted
ham. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the
can and the points turned up about the can die. The can may be
bronzed, silvered, enameled or otherwise decorated, thus making it
ornamental as well as useful.
--Contributed by Mrs. A. M. Bryan, Corsicana, Texas.

** How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]

A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made, as follows:
Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design,
as indicated in the

[Illustration: Match Holder]

accompanying sketch. The size may be made to suit the taste of the
worker. A good size is 5 in. wide by 6 in. long over all. The
metal holder should be proportioned to this size, as shown.

Having completed the drawing, take a piece of thin wood, 3/8 or
1/4 in. thick, and trace upon it the design and outline, using a
piece of carbon paper. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to
fasten the paper and design in place. Put the tacks in the lines
of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished
piece. Any kind of wood will do. Basswood or butternut, or even
pine, will do as well as the more expensive woods.

Next prepare the metal holder. This may be made of brass or copper
and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. 22 is plenty heavy enough.
The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper
pattern of the development. The illustration shows how this will
look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above.
Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out
by means of metal shears. Polish the metal, using powdered pumice
and lye, then with a nail, punch the holes, through which small
round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the
wood back. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the
edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the
lower edge so as to keep the bending true.

The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. If soft
wood, such as basswood or pine was used, it may be treated by
burning with the pyrography outfit. If no outfit is at hand a very
satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small V-shaped
groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from
"running." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a
little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the
flower red. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Rub a
coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with
a cloth. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first
put on, but by covering them at the same time the background is
colored brown, they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. When
it has dried over night, put a coat or two of wax and polish over
the wood as the directions on the can suggest.

The metal holder may next be fastened in place.

If one has some insight in carving, the background might be
lowered and the plant modeled, the whole being finished in linseed
oil. If carving is contemplated, hard woods such as cherry or
mahogany should be used.

** Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]

The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains
of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt
white wax in the same manner as melting glue. This may be done by
cutting the wax into small pieces, placing them in a vessel and
setting the vessel in boiling water. To each ounce of melted wax
thoroughly stir in 1 dr. of pure olive oil. The fingers should be
dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. This will form
a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers, yet
protects the skin from the chemicals. It is useful for

** Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]

This trapeze, with rings for the large boys and a swing for the
smaller ones, can be made on the same standards. Instead of the
usual two short ropes, tied and bolted through the top crosstimber
bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily.
Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to
cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached.

At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails, allowing them to
project 1 or 2 in. This will keep the rope from slipping off when
the rings and swing are raised and lowered. All sharp edges should
be sandpapered to prevent

[Illustration: Rings and Swing]

the rope from being cut. A board with notches cut in the ends will
make a good swing board which can be removed instantly.
--Contributed by W. A. Jaquythe, Richmond, Cal.

** Homemade Telegraph Key [283]

[Illustration: Key and Connections]

A piece of wood, 1/2 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 5 in. long, is used
for the base of this instrument. Two wire nails, each 1 in. long,
are used for the cores of the magnets. Each nail is wound with
three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire, about No. 25
gauge, similar to that used in electric bells, leaving about 1/4
in. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base.
The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch, at A.

About 1 in. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood,
the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the
coils. A piece of tin, cut in the shape of the letter T, is
fastened with two screws to the top of this block, and the end
bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in.

The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood, in the shape shown
in the sketch, and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a
base for the key. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along
the under side of the key, as shown by the dotted lines. A rubber
band, passing over the end of the key and attached to the base
with a tack, acts as a spring to keep the key open. A small piece
of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. This is
for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires
from the coils, when the key is pushed down.
--Contributed by W. H. Lynas.

** Protecting Sleeves [283]

Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs
are turned back and rolled above the elbows.

** Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]

The helmets, breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and
VI can be used in making up a complete model

[Illustration: Full Suit of Armor]

for a full suit of armor of any size, as shown in Fig. 1. All of
the parts for the armor have been described, except that for the
legs. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the
left leg. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters,
the paper covering put on, and the tinfoil applied in imitation of
steel. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made
by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig.
3. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness

The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered
with red or green baize. The armor should be supported by a light
frame of wood built up on the inside, says the English Mechanic,
London. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they
will extend up inside the legs, and at the top of them is attached
a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to
carry the helmet. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded
out with straw, then covered with red cloth or baize to represent
the legs.

In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found
very convenient to use rope, a stout cord or strings in making up
the patterns on the parts. Instead of using brass-headed nails,
brass paper fasteners will be found useful. These can be purchased
at a stationery store. Secure the kind having a round brass head
from which hang two brass tongues. These are pushed through a hole
and spread out flat on the opposite side. Other materials can be
used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Silver paper will
do very well, but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found
difficult to manipulate, go over the armor with a coat of silver
paint put on with a brush. When dry give the surface a coat of

** A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]

An inexpensive tripod holder, one that will prevent the tripod
from slipping on a smooth floor, and prevent the points from doing
damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or
carpet, can be made in a few minutes' time, says Camera Craft.

Secure two strips of wood, or ordinary plaster laths will do, and
plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in., for the sake of
lightness. Cut them to a length or 40 in. and round off the ends
to improve their appearance. Take the piece shown in Fig. 1 and
drill a 1/4-in. hole in the center, and eight small holes, 1 in.
apart, at each end. In one end of the piece, Fig. 2, make the same
series of eight small holes and, in the other end, drill six
1/4-in. holes, 3 in. apart. A 1/4-in. flat headed carriage bolt,
about 1 in. long, completes the equipment.

The two pieces are bolted together, not too tight, and the points
of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. So
set up, there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping
out of position. By moving the position of the bolt from, one to
another of the larger holes in the strip, Fig. 2, almost any
desired inclination of the camera can be secured.

The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger, and
with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes,
makes an

[Illustration: The Tripod Cannot Slip]

excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted
about, as in portraiture and the like.

** How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285]

Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings, take both ends of
one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other,
leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. long, as shown in Fig. 2. In this sketch,
A is the first string and B is the second, doubled and run through
the web of A. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig.
2, allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Start with
one end, the one marked A, in Fig. 1, for instance, and lay it
over the one to the right. Then take B and lay it over A, and the
one beneath C; lay Cover B and the one under D, and then lay D
over C and stick the end under A. Then draw all four ends up
snugly. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B
and D; D over A and C; C over D and B, then B over C and the end
stuck under A. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about
1-1/2 in. of the ends remain unwoven. Four pins stuck through each
corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart.
The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel.
This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. 4.

A round fob is made in a similar way, taking the same start as for
the square fob, but instead of reversing

[Illustration: Fobs Made from Shoestrings]

the ends of each alternate layer, always lap one string, as at A
in Fig. 3. over the one to its right, as B, slipping the last end
of the four strings under and tightening all, as in making the
square fob. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel.
The round fob is shown in Fig. 5.

A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four
shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them,
then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings
are tied. A loop, 1-1/2 in. long, is left out at the center before
starting on one side. The loop is for attaching the fob to the
watch. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made, a
small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of
a horseshoe.

Other designs can be made in the same manner. Strings of different
colors will make up a very pretty fob, especially if silk strings
are used.
--Contributed by John P. Rupp, Monroeville, Ohio.

** How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286]

The table mat, the design of which is shown herewith, is to be
made of leather. It may be made of Russian calf and the background
modeled down

[Illustration: Pattern for the Table Mat]

as has been described in several previous articles dealing with
leather work. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side
just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool,
but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Any
smooth piece of steel, such as a nut pick, that will not cut or
scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do.

A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and, using the
reverse side, outline the design by means of a pyrographer's
outfit. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs
no description.

A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin, trace
the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper, and put
the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold
for this purpose.

The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. Draw the
one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A
and B, tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion
of double-surfaced carbon paper.

On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the
tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. After
this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled.

** Sad Iron Polisher [286]

A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work.
The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the
iron. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes
in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half

[Illustration: Polisher]

its thickness, filling them with wax, beeswax or paraffin, and
covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin.

The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of
the wax to make the iron work smoothly. When the supply of wax is
exhausted, it can be easily renewed.
--Contributed by A. A. Houghton, Northville, Mich.

** Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]

Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of
wood such

[Illustration: Floating Coin]

as the side of a bookcase, door facing or door panel, and strike
it hard with a downward sliding motion, pressing it against the
wood. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork.
The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and
the wood, thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin.

** Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]

Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable, but sometimes it

[Illustration: How the Paper is Folded]

becomes necessary, and usually a regular coin mailer is not
available. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins
for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper, nearly
as wide as the envelope is long, and about 12 in. long. Fold on
the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch, and slip the coin
in the pocket thus formed. Fold together on lines C, D, E and F,
making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the
envelope. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope
where it cannot work around and cut through the edges.
--Contributed by O. J. Thompson, Petersburg, Ill.

** Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]

Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist
and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast.
The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be
mounted. Select the print you wish to mount, those on matte paper
will work best, and after wetting, place it face down in the dish,
press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth.
Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Earthen
dishes will be found more convenient, although tin ones can be
used with good success, says Photographic Times.

Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little
thick. Enough plaster should. be mixed to cover the bottom of the
dish about 1/2 in. thick. Pour the plaster into the dish over the
print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. The cast can
then be removed and the print should be fast to it. If the print
or plaster is inclined to stick, take a knife and gently pry
around the edges and it can be removed without breaking.

Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large
enough to leave a good margin. This is a very important point as
it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Platinum or
blueprint papers work well, but any kind that will not stick may
be used. After the plaster has thoroughly dried, any tint may be
worked on the margin by the use of water colors; if blueprints are
used, it is best to leave a plain white margin.

** Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]

A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a
number of large tacks into one end of the board. The tacks should
be about 1 in. apart and driven in only part way, leaving about
1/4 in. remaining above the surface of the board. The hot iron
will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. This iron
rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. --Contributed
by Beatrice Oliver, New York, N. Y.

[Illustration: Iron Rest]

** Instantaneous Crystallization [288]

Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water
and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been
warmed in boiling water, filling the same about onehalf full.
Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts
of boiling water. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in
such a way that it forms an upper layer, without mixing the
solutions. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin
layer of boiling water and allowed to cool.

[Illustration: Crystallization]

Lower into the test tube a wire, at the extremity of which is
fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. The crystal
traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble, but
crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the
lower hyposulphite of soda solution, as shown at the left in the

When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized, lower
in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by
another wire, as shown in the right of the sketch, and this will
crystallize the same as the other solution.

** Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]

Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by
contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. Cover the dish
with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening
the flowers that are to be decolored. The action is very rapid and
in a short time myrtle, violets, bell flowers, roses, etc., will
be rendered perfectly white.

[Illustration: Flowers]

** How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]

Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg
shells. One of the most effective ways of preserving them is as
follows: After the egg is blown, melt common beeswax and force it

Book of the day: