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The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 by Popular Mechanics

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** How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]

Secure a good-sized box, say, 1 ft. high, 1-1/2 ft. wide, and 3
ft. long; and to the bottom, about 10 in. from one end, fasten a
2-in. square piece, A, Fig. 1, extending the width of the box.
Place a 10-in. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat
A. The swing door B, Fig. 1, is made as shown

[Illustration: Self-Setting Trap]

in Fig. 2, which represents the back side of the door. Sheet metal
or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the
hole. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out, also
provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels
or other animals. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. wide
and 4 in. high for rabbits. The door is made to swing freely on
two large nails driven through the sides of the box. The hole in
the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the
rabbit's head, the rabbit will push its way through to the bait,
causing the door to swing back and up, and it will close by its
own weight when the animal is inside. A small door is provided in
the other end to remove the animals caught.

The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught
others are liable to follow, and several rabbits will be trapped
at a time. Then, too, the rabbits are not harmed in any way as
they would be if caught in an ordinary trap.
--Contributed by H. F. Church, Alexandria, Va.

** How to Make an Atomizer [158]

Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Take two
glass tubes, with about 1/8-in. hole, and bend them as shown in
the sketch. This is done by heating them at the proper point over
a gas flame until they are soft. Two holes are bored through the
cork and the bent tubes inserted in them, as shown in the sketch,
so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom

[Illustration: Atomizer]

of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork.
The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a
tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and
drawing the tube out into a fine thread. The thread is broken off
at the proper place to make a small hole.

** Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159]

If you have a 5- by 7-in. camera and wish to use some 4- by 5-in.
plates, make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit
the larger holders, says Camera Craft. Take two pieces of
pasteboard, A and B, black surfaced if possible, and exactly 5 by
7 in. in size. The piece A will form the back of the kit and
should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. in size. Paste
a piece of strong black paper, C, over the under side of it to
keep the plate from falling through. Cut an opening in the other
piece, B, but cut it 1/4 in. shorter. This opening, being 1/8 in.
shorter at each end, will retain the plate in position and cut off
only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed
in the

[Illustration: Camera Kit]

camera. Cut a piece of thin black cloth, D, 1 in. wide and 5 in.
long. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with
gum or mucilage. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. black cards on
end together so that they will be square and true and bind the
other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. The two
cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate, and go
in the holder in the same way. Lay one of these kits down against
the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around,
inside of the opening. This will be a guide as to just what will
be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used.

** How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]

A good smooth box, say 8 in. wide, 10 in. high and 12 in. long,
will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater.
Out two rectangular holes, Fig. 1, one in each end and exactly
opposite each other. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. from the edge
on each side of these openings. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and
fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. On one of the two spools
attach another smaller spool, Fig. 2, to be used as a driving
pulley. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the
top of the spools. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape
about 3/4 in. wide. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy
paper and made in the form of people, automobiles, trolley cars,
horses and dogs. A painted scenery can be made in behind the
movable tape. The front part of the box may be draped with
curtains, making the appearance of the ordinary stage, as shown in
Fig. 3. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on
which the figures are attached.
--Contributed by William M. Crilly, Jr., Chicago.

[Illustration: Details of Stage]

** A Floating Compass Needle [160]

When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed
on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density
of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. A sewing needle thus
floating upon water may be used as a compass, if it has previously
been magnetized. The needle will then point north and south, and
will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved
about; if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its
position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is

** Home-Made Dog Cart [160]

The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile." The
photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2
in. of sand

Dog-Power Cart

left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. The machine is
nothing more than a boy's rubber-tired wagon on which are mounted
a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and
below the board of the wagon. The front wheels are guided by ropes
attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the
lower end of the steering rod. A pair of shafts are attached to
the rear, into which the dog is harnessed.

** How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]

[Illustration: Dry Battery Cell]

Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the
poles, but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed
by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in
the cell so it cannot spill.

A cell of this kind can easily be made, and to make it the proper
size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. long and 6 in. wide will be
required. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2-in. in
diameter. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in., which is tightly
soldered only on the outside of the seam. Close one end of the
cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it, making a watertight
receptacle. All soldering should be done on the outside and none
of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. All seams
on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover
any particles of solder. Do not paint any surface, only the
joints. Secure three carbon rods 1/2- in. in diameter and 6 in.
long which are copper plated. Carbons used in arc lamps will do.
File the rods to remove the copper plate, leaving about 1/2-in. of
the plate at one end. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with
the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod
by soldering a wire to the plated ends, allowing one end of the
wire to project about 2 in. for a connection. The plated ends of
the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. This
is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin
until the pores are thoroughly saturated.

The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. zinc oxide, 1 lb. sal ammoniac,
3/4 lb. plaster of paris, 1/4 lb. chloride of zinc mixed into a
paste by adding 1/2 pt. of water. Form a 1/2-in. layer of paste in
the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods
on this with their plated ends up. Hold the rods in the center of
the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick.
Pack the paste in, closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in.
of the top. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2
lb. of rosin and 2 oz. beeswax melted together. This wax seals the
cell and prevents any evaporation. Connection is made to the zinc
by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder.

** How to Paraffin Wire [161]

The following description of how to make an apparatus with which
to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction
that is simple and easy to put together in a. short time.

Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only; one that will hold
about 1 qt. The details of the construction are given in the
diagram, in which P is the pan; B is a base of 1 in. pine; S is
the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on
standards H and H; F is a spool, with narrow flanges, supported
near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. These may be
made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored
in the base; A is a block of l-in. pine with a piece of leather
tacked on one side. Four nails should be driven in the base just
outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the

Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire
through this hole, under the spool in the paraffin, then through a
small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A, and a notch
between the base and the pan. Tie a string around the wire between
the leather and the paraffin, making the knots so they will not
pull through the hole in the leather. This makes the wire smooth,
and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the
thickness of the paraffin, says Electrician and Mechanic. Place
the pan on the stove; when the paraffin is melted, pull out the
wire as needed. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or
some other weight on it.

[Illustration: Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire]

** Uses of Peat [161]

Peat is used in Germany for bedding, fodder, filter, fuel and
packing purposes.

** Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162]

In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning
Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Outside of the
scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick.
About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used
I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and
"Skidee," which created much merriment. Unless the trick is
thoroughly understood, for some it will turn one way, for others
the opposite way, while for others it will not revolve at all. One
person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo
and skidee at it, but the thing would not move at all, and he
finally, from vexation, threw the trick into the fire and a new
one had to be made. Very few can make it turn both ways at will,
and therein is the trick.

Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. square and about 9 in. long. On
one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1.
Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as
shown in Fig. 2. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as
boys make. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Enlarge
the hole slightly, enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to
the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Two or three
of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of
the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right.

[Illustration: How to Cut the Notches]

To operate the trick, grip the stick firmly in one hand, and with
the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first
finger to slide along the top edge, the second finger along the
side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches, thus
making the arm revolve in one direction. To make the arm revolve
in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time, so
the observer will not detect the change which the band
makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top, as in the
other movement, the thumb and second finger changing places: e.
g., in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb
nail while the hand is going from the body, and in the second
movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second
finger when the hand is coming toward the body, thus producing two
different vibrations. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you
must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement, and
then, no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed
to the second movement, you must say "skidee" and the arm will
immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. By
using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands
instantly and your audience will be mystified. If any of your
audience presume to dispute, or think they can do the same, let
them try it. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in
your breath, and many other things in order to make the arm
operate. At least it is amusing. Try it and see.
--Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley, Toledo, Ohio.

* * * * * * *

The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick"
appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. I have been told
that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the
state of Washington, by the Hindoos in India, and one friend tells
me that they were sold on the streets of our large cities many
years ago.

This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation
into the causes of its action, and I think the results may be of

To operate, one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the
left hand, while with the right hand a nail or match stick is
rubbed along the notched edge, at the same time pressing with the
thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the
stick. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is
pressed. A square stick with notches on edge is best, but the
section may be circular or even irregular in shape. The
experiments were as follows:

1. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. When the
pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first, no rotation
resulted. If the pressure was upon an edge, rotation was obtained.

2. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the
action. The depth of the notches was also unimportant, although it
should be suited to the size of the nail for best results.

3. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin; if
there is a close fit no rotation is obtained.

4. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within
the hole. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be

5. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained; with
this exception: if the stick has enough spring, and the end
clamped is far enough away from the notched portion, the rotation
may be obtained.

The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation
of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin, and
this was confirmed by the following experiments. The action is
somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with
a slight circular motion of the hand, It is necessary to show here
that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result
and, secondly, that such motion can be produced by the given
movements of the hands.

6. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe, and a
depression made in the end slightly eccentric, by means of a
center punch. If the end of the pin is inserted in this

[Illustration: The Lathe Experiment]

while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as
nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe, rotation of the lathe
will produce rotation of the revolving piece. Speeds between 700
and 1,100 r. p. m. gave the best results.

7. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin, and the hand
held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon
the wall. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The spot
of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two
components of motion, one circular and one due to the irregular
movements of the hand holding the stick. Usually the orbit was too
irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path, but at
times the circular motion became very pronounced. It was observed
and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was
unaware of the source of the motion. The production of the
circular motion can be explained in this way:

When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure
sends the stick upward; this upward motion against the oblique
pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral
component of motion towards the left. As the nail strikes the
opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again, this
motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand
side, and, the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the
stick to the right slightly, so that it is back in the old
position for the next upward motion. Thus a circular or elliptic
motion is repeated for each notch, and the direction of this
motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. For
oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward), the
motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be
counter-clockwise; if the pressure is from the left, it will be

That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging
action, and not to friction of the pin in the hole, is proved by
experiments 3 and 4.
--Contributed by M. G. Lloyd, Ph.D., Washington, D. C.

** Home-Made Lantern [163]

[Illustration: Tin Can Lantern]

The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost
anywhere for immediate use. All that is needed is an empty tomato
or coffee can, a piece of wire and a candle. Make a hole a little
smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the
way from the closed end of the can, as shown. A wire is tied
around the can, forming a handle for carrying. This kind of
lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will
not be blown out.
--Contributed by G. A. Sloan, Duluth, Minn.

** A Study of Splashes [164]

When a rough, or greasy, or dusty sphere falls into a liquid, the
liquid is

[Illustration: Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water]

forced away from the sphere. If the sphere is quite smooth the
liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge
and Scientific News.

Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive
stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water, and the
resultant "basket splash." The diameter of this sphere was about
3/5 in., and the height of the fall about 6 in. Examination of the
photographs shows that the liquid, instead of flowing over and
wetting the surface of the sphere, is driven violently away, so
far as can be seen from the photographs, the upper portion is, at
first, unwetted by the liquid. The gradual thickening of the
crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its
lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Thereafter
there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in
obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its
upper portion into little drops, while at the same time it gathers
volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall, graceful column
to a height which may be even greater than that from which the
sphere fell.

** How to Make a Stick Pin [164]

A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece.
Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and
slightly round the edges. Solder a pin to the back of the head
when it is to be used for a stick pin. If a collar button base is
soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used
for a button. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you
will have a neat pin or button, or a good emblem for the Order of

[Illustration: Stick Pin]

** How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]

A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the
attention of almost any person. The cost of a toy electric
locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well
make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they
"built it themselves." The electric locomotive described herewith
uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. The
first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. If one has no

[Illustration: The Different Parts for Making the Electric

lathe, the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Four wheels
are made from a round bar of metal, as shown in Fig. 1. Each wheel
is 1/4 in. thick and 1 in. in diameter, with a 1/16-in. flange and
a 1/4-in. hole drilled in the center. Each pair of wheels is
fitted on a 1/4-in. axle, about 2-5/8 in. long. One of the axles
should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel, as shown. Make the
frame from three pieces of heavy brass, as shown in Fig. 2.

The first piece, or main part of the frame, is made from brass,
3/4 in. wide and 16 in. long, bent into an oblong shape and the
ends soldered or bolted together. If the ends are to be soldered,
before doing so drill four 1/4-in. holes 1 in. from the ends and
insert the ends of the axles. The other two pieces are 1/2-in.
wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. These pieces are
riveted in the middle of the oblong frame, each in its proper
place. The motor is now bolted, bottom side up, to the top of the
piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. A trolley, Fig. 3, is made
from a piece of clock spring, bent as shown, and a small piece of
tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. A groove is
made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place.

The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the
dimensions given in Fig. 4. The trolley should be well insulated
from the frame. The parts, put together complete, are shown in
Fig. 5. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved
wheel on the axle, as shown in Fig. 6, and the locomotive is ready
for running.

In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made
more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in
the line, so that the engine can be started and stopped at will
from a distance and the speed regulated. Automatic switches can be
attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the
locomotive passes a certain point.

One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and
the other to a rail. The connection for the motor runs from one
binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well
insulated to avoid a short-circuit. The other binding-post is
connected to the frame.

The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be
over $1.50. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw
cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. This will save buying a
--Contributed by Maurice E. Fuller, San Antonio, Texas.

** Demagnetizing a Watch [166]

A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing
a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement
wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the
watch is magnetized. A magnetized watch must be placed in a

[Illustration: Watch Demagnetizer]

coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing
through it to remove the magnetism. A demagnetizer can be made as
shown in the illustration. Two end pieces for the coil are made as
shown in Fig. 1 from 1/4-in. wood. These ends are fastened
together, Fig. 2, with cardboard 3 in. long glued to the inside
edges of the holes cut in them. Wind upon the spool thus formed
about 2 lb. of No. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. As it will be
necessary to place a 16-cp. lamp in series with the coil, both the
coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as
shown in Fig. 3. The current, which must be 110 volt alternating
current, is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch
slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil.
--Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg, Cincinnati, O.

** How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166]

Secure a square file and break off a piece, Fig 1, the length of a
paper clip, Fig. 2. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of
file, but do not heat the center. This can be done by wrapping a
wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in
the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end
uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Hold this
projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull
red. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. When cold treat
the other end in the same way. This will draw the temper in only
the ends which are filed, as shown in Fig. 1, and holes drilled in
them. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper
clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Fasten the file
in the clip with small bolts, as shown in Fig. 3. When the file
gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Place the
runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of
the runner. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as
the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file
level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Push the
clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened.

[Illustration: Sharpener for Skates]

** Old-Time Magic [167]

** Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167]

The accompanying sketch shows a. trick of removing a dime from the
bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin.
The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a
silver quarter dropped in on top. The quarter will not go all the
way down. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the
dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose.

[Illustration: Coin Trick]

** Untying-a-Knot Trick [167]

Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief, as shown in the
accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly
drawing the two upper ends; then continue to tighten much more,
pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief, and as
this end belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much
without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a
straight line. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end,
which can be drawn out without disturbing the form, or apparent
security of the knot, at the moment when you cover the knot with
the unused part of the handkerchief. When the trick is to be
performed, tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn
and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. The slip
knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way

[Illustration: Knot Trick]

and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the

** Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]

When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the
amateur usually purchases them, never thinking that he could make
them on his own lathe. A small attachment can be made to fasten in
the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel
on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The frame is made
from a 1/2 in. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the

[Illustration: Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes]

projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. A pair of
centers are fitted, one of which should have a screw thread and
lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel.

All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and
used for index wheels. All of these wheels should be fitted to one
end of the mandrel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the
mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired
placed on the other end. When the mandrel is put in between the
centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with
its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. One clock
wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel.
For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to
index 6, 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth
each time 3, 2 and 1 respectively. In the sketch, A shows the end
of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool.
When the cutter A, which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of
the lathe, has finished a cut for a tooth, the pawl is disengaged
and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel.

In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to
block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted
by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests
on the rocker in the tool post. Should too much spring occur when
cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the
space between it and the lathe bed.

The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe, or
should the lathe head be raised, a short mandrel with the cutter
near the end can be placed in a chuck, and adjusted to run true.
The frame holding the mandrel, gear blank and clock wheel is
inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of
the cutter. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the
cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. The pawl is released and the
mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation
repeated. In this manner gears 3 in. in diameter can be made on a
6-in. swing lathe.
--Contributed by Samuel C. Bunker, Brooklyn, N.Y.

** Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168]

[Illustration: Cotter Pin Wire Terminal]

Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made
from cotter pins, Fig. 1, about 1-1/2 in. long. Each end of the
wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin, twisted around itself
and soldered. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as
shown in Fig. 2. When connecting to batteries, spread the pin and
push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the
binding-post. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be
better than with the bare wire.
--Contributed by Howard S. Bott.

** Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168]

Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done
with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such
as carpenter use, and a nut pick.

The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be
made. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are:
Case for court-plaster, coin purse, lady's card case, eye glass
cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Second row: Two
book marks, note book, blotter back, book mark. Third row: Pin
ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks), tea
cosey, gentleman's card case or bill book. Fourth row: Needle or
pin case, tea cosey, lady's belt bag, watch fob ready for

Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. (1.) Make on
paper the design wanted. (2.) Moisten the back side of the leather
with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not
show through on the face side. (3.) Place the leather on some hard
non-absorbent material, such as brass or marble. (4.) Place the
paper design on the leather and, holding it in place with the left
hand, trace the outline, of the object and the decorative design
with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather.
(5.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make
the grooves deeper. (6.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the
background promiscuously. This is done by making an effort to hold
the point of the set about 1/4 in. above the surface, at the same
time striking light, rapid blows on the top with a hammer or

[Illustration: This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick]

With such objects as coin purses and card cases, a sewing machine
will be needed to fasten the parts together. An ordinary machine
will do. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and
lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord.

In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown, draw center
lines across the required space, dividing it into as many parts as
desired. Make free-hand one quarter of the design, if four parts
are to be alike, or one-half of the design, if but two parts. Fold
over along these center lines. Put a piece of double-surfaced
carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already

** How to Make a Simple Still [170]

A still to distill water can be made from a test tube, some heavy
rubber hose, and an ordinary bottle. Secure

[Illustration: Distilling Water]

a stopper for the test tube, and bore a hole through the center,
into which fit a small piece of tube. The bottle is also fitted
with a stopper containing a piece of tube, and both bottle and
test tube connected with a rubber tube.

The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held
over an alcohol lamp. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold
water. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam
passes over to the bottle, where it condenses. The basin should be
supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The
rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is
to be used several times, a metal tube should be supplied to
connect the test tube and bottle.

** Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]

Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle, A, and push it through a
cork, B, and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle.
Thrust a pin, C, through the cork at right angles to the needle
and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that
they will project downward as shown. The whole arrangement is
balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the
matches. If the needle is not horizontal, pull it through the cork
to one side or the other, or change

[Illustration: Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin]

the wax balls. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish
and covered with a pane of glass.

** Brighten White Paint [170]

Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used
for lettering on a dark ground.

** Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170]

[Illustration: Details of the Receiving Instrument]

Wireless messages have been received at Washington, D.C., from Key
West, Florida, a distance of 900 miles, through a receiving
instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition
were used on the electrodes. In making an instrument of this kind
the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. One piece
must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The electrodes
are made cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw
adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each
other. Connect as shown in the illustration, using a high
resistance receiver.
--Contributed by Edwin L. Powell, Washington, D. C.

** How to Make a Glider [171]
By Carl Bates

A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane, or flying-machine,
propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the
air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. Flying
in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air, and is the
most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The style of
glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or
"double-decked" aeroplane, and is composed of two arched cloth
surfaces placed one above the other.

In building a glider the wood material used should be
straight-grained spruce, free from knots. First prepare from
spruce planks the following strips of wood. Four long beams 3/4
in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 20 ft. long; 12 crosspieces 3/4 in.
thick, 3/4 in. wide and 3 ft. long; 12 uprights 1/2 in. thick,
1-1/2 in. wide and 4 ft long; 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in.
thick, 1/2-in. wide and 4 ft. long; 2 arm sticks 1 in. thick, 2
in. wide and 3 ft. long; the rudder sticks 3/4 in. square and 8 ft
long; several strips 1/2 in. by 3/4 in. for building the vertical
and horizontal rudders. The frames for the two main surfaces
should be constructed first, by bolting the crosspieces to the
long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. 1. If
20-ft. lumber cannot be procured, use 10-ft. lengths and splice
them, as shown in Fig. 3. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. in
diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. These frames formed
by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown.
All wiring is done with No. 16 piano wire.

The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by
using fine flat-headed brads 7/8 in. long. These ribs are spaced 1
ft. apart and extend 1 ft. beyond the rear edges of the main
frames, as shown in Fig. 1. After nailing one end of a rib to the
front long beam, the rib is arched by springing down the loose end
and nailing to the rear beam. The ribs should have a curve as
shown in Fig. 2, the amount of curvature being the same in all the

The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with
cloth. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering,
which is tacked to the front edge, stretched tightly over the bent
ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the
ribs. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. In
the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2
ft. wide and 4 ft. long for the body of the operator. Place the
two main surfaces 4 ft. apart and connect with the 12 uprights,
placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The uprights are
fastened by bolting to the crosspieces, as shown in Fig. 2. The
whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal
wires, both laterally and longitudinally.

The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind
and is not movable. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a
light wooden frame, which is nailed to the rudder sticks
connecting to the main frame. The horizontal rudder is also made
of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame, and arranged to
intersect the vertical rudder at its center. This rudder is held
in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. The
horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent
the machine from diving, and also to keep it steady in its flight.
The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks,
and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy
wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. 1.
The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. apart and bolted
to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane
where the operator is to take his position.

The glider should be examined to see

[Illustration: Details of the Glider]

that the frame is not warped or twisted. The surfaces must be true
or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. To make a
glide, take the glider to the top of a hill, get in between the
arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under
the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from
the ground. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount
of lift, and if the weight of the body is in the right place you
will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. The landing is
made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. This will cause
the glider to tip up in front, slacken speed and settle. The
operator can then land safely and gently on his feet. Of course,
the beginner should learn by taking short jumps, gradually
increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in
balancing and landing.

The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of
the planes, but this must be found by experience. The machine
should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour.
Glides are always made against the wind, and the balancing is done
by moving the legs. The higher the starting point the farther one
may fly. Great care should be exercised in making landings;
otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a
broken limb. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a
hilltop, the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body
of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper
place, and on the lower line he changes his position from front to
back while flying, which causes the dip in the line.

** Boys Representing the Centaur [173]

This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur, a
creature of Greek mythology, half man and half horse. One of the
players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping
position with his hands upon the first player's hips, as shown in
Fig. 1. The

[Illustration: Making Up the Centaur]

second player is covered over with a. shawl or table cover which
is pinned around the waist of the first player. A tail made of
strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover.
The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak
thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. 2. Imitation
hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes.

** Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]

Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or
strap iron on one side for a handle. When heated a little, hammer
out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. This makes a good
ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. --Contributed
by L. M. Olson, Bellingham, Wash

** How to Make a Flash Lamp [174]

Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a
flashlight than by depending on light from windows. The lighting
can be made from any direction to suit the operator. If lighting
flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be
depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. To make a simple
and inexpensive flash lamp, first secure from your druggist an
empty salve box about 3 in. in diameter. While at the drug store
get 3 ft. of small rubber tubing; this will cost about 15 cents.
Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4
in. square; a piece of brass or steel wire, about the size of
stove pipe wire, 14 in. long. These with a strip of light asbestos
paper and some small iron wire, about the size of door screen
wire, will complete the material list.

Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the
bottom with a 10-penny nail. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. long and
about 3/8 in. wide and roll this around a 8-penny nail so as to
form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve
box. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. wide into a small cup
about 3/8 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. at the other.

Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to
the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2
in. outside the box. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter
the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the
bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. The tube and cup
should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. Bend a
ring on one end of the larger piece of wire, making it 2-1/2 in.
in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a
spiral, soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup.
Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way

[Illustration: Made from a Tin Salve Box ]

around with the strip of asbestos paper, wrapping them together
over and over until the entire ring is covered. Slip the end of
the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the
flash lamp is complete.

To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center
with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. When
all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick
blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash
powder upward into the flame and cause the flash.

When through with the lamp place the cover over it, pushing the
asbestos ring down inside the box. Wind the rubber tubing around
the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the

** Photographing the New Moon [174]

To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good
picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. At home and
with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new
moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball, the tennis ball
taking the part of the moon. The ball is suspended in front of a
black cloth screen, the camera focused by holding a burning match
near the ball and the exposure made by burning a

[Illustration: Tennis Ball Photographed]

small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the
ball. The light from the flash only striking one side of the ball
gives the effect of the new moon. --Photo by M. M. Hunting,
Dayton, O.

** Old-Time Magic- Part II [175]

** Removing Scissors from a Cord [175]

A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of
scissors with a slip knot, as shown in Fig. 1. After passing the
ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are
tied fast to a chair, door knob or any other object that may be of
sufficient size to make the ends secure. The trick is to release
the scissors without cutting the cord.

Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and
drawing it first

[Illustration: How the Scissors Are Removed]

through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of
the scissors, as shown in Fig. 2. This is very simple when you
know how, but puzzling when the trick is first seen.

** Coin and Card on the First Finger [175]

This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt,
while others will fail time after time. It is a good trick to
spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it
beforehand. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the
forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger
end, as shown in the sketch. With the right hand forefinger and
thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. If done properly the
card will flyaway, leaving the penny poised on the finger end.

[Illustration: Coin and Card]

** How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175]

Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the
foundation of the hat pin. Hold the end of the stick over a flame
until the wax is soft enough to drop; then put it on the hat-pin
head. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin, hold the lump
over the flame, revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will
not drop and the head will form a round ball. The head can be made
in any shape desired while warm. When the desired shape has been
obtained, cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully.

Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops
of other brilliant colored wax, and by careful manipulation the
wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form
pretty stripes and designs. If a certain color is to be more
prominent, the wax to make this color must be applied last and the
pin put through the flame again. Cool in water and dry, as before,
and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster.

** Old-Time Magic-Part III [176]

** Disappearing Coin [176]

While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick, it will take very
little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. Take a
quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger, as shown, and by
a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time
close the hand, and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve.
On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Take three quarters
and hold one in the palm of the left hand, place the other two,
one between the thumb and finger of each hand, then give the coin
in the right hand a whirl, as described, closing both hands
quickly. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve,
and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters,
while the one in the right shall have disappeared.

[Illustration: Disappearing Coin]

** Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176]

Cut a small notch in a coin--ten cent piece or quarter will do--so
a small point will project. When this is pressed firmly against a
wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly.

** A Chinese Outdoor Game [176]

The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl," or the
Chinese students' favorite game. This game is played by five
persons, four of them turning around the fifth or central figure

[Illustration: Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl]

with their arms locked about each other and the two outside
persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal.

** Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176]

How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph
the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a
ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. Here is a method by
which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear
night in your own house. Paste two strips of black paper on a
piece of glass that is 10 in. square so as to leave a clear space
through the center 2-in. or more in width. Smoke this uncovered
space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to
prevent light passing through. Take a sharp lead pencil and
outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface, using a fine
needle to make the smaller lines, and then set the glass up
against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space
between them of 4 or 5 in.

A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine
through for focusing the camera. After darkening the room set your
camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash
light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. This
will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the
smoked glass.

[Illustration: Lightning Flash]

** How to Make a Static Machine [177]

Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon
which a number of sectors are cemented; these sectors, passing
through neutralizing brushes, distribute electric charges

[Illustration: Details of a Homemade Static Machine]

to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. The glass
selected for the plates must be clear white glass, free from
wrinkles, and of a uniform thickness. Two plates are necessary to
make this machine, and the glass should be of sufficient size to
cut a circular plate 16-in. in diameter. A hole must be made
exactly in the center of each plate, and this should be done
before cutting the circle. One of the best ways to make the hole
is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill, the cutting
edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and
1 part sweet oil while drilling. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. in
diameter. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a
glass cutter. The plates are trued up, after they are mounted, by
holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are
turning. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the

The sectors are cut from tinfoil, 1-1/2 in. wide at one end, 3/4
in. at the other, and 4 in. long. A thin coat of shellac varnish
is applied to both sides of the plates, and 16 sectors put on one
side of each plate, as shown in Fig. 1. The divisions can be
marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a
guide to place the sectors at proper intervals.

The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed
out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates
revolve. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil
are put in place.

The collectors are made, as shown in Fig. 2, from about 1/4-in.
copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. The fork
part is 6 in. long and the shank 4 in. Holes are drilled on the
inside of the forks, and pins inserted and soldered. These pins,
or teeth, should be long enough to be very close to the sectors
and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning.

The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood
with dimensions shown in Fig. 3, the side pieces being 24 in. long
and the standards 3 in. wide. The two pieces, C C, Fig. 3, are
made from solid, close grained wood turned in the shape shown,
with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. in diameter, and
the outer end 1-1/2 in. in diameter, the smaller end being turned
with a groove for a round belt. Before turning the pieces a hole
is bored through each piece for the center, and this hole must be
of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal
diameter of 3/4 in. The turned pieces are glued to the glass
plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the
sectors are fastened. Several hours' time will be required for the
glue to set. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a
brass tube axle placed through the hole. The plates, turned wood
pieces, and brass axle turn on a stationary axle, D.

The drive wheels, EE, are made from 7/8-in. material 7 in. in
diameter, and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom
handle. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod
tightly, and extends through the standards with a crank attached
to one end.

Two solid glass rods, GG, Fig. 4, 1 in. in diameter and 15 in.
long, are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame.
Two pieces of 1-in. brass tubing and the discharging rods, RR, are
soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. in diameter.
The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with
the ends extending, to which insulating handles are attached.
Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging
rods, one having a 2-in. ball and the other one 3/4 in. in

Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the
stationary shaft, D, and drilled through their diameter to admit
heavy copper rods, KK, which are bent as shown. Tinsel or fine
wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to
the ends of these rods, and the brushes thus made must be adjusted
so they will just touch the plates. The caps are fitted with
screws for adjusting the brushes. These rods and brushes are
called the neutralizers. A little experimenting will enable one to
properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results.
--Contributed by C. Lloyd Enos, Colorado City, Colo.

** A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]

[Illustration: Home-Made Swimming Pool]

Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city
concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The
money was raised by various means to purchase the cement, and the
work was done by themselves. The ground was selected in a secluded
spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft.,
12 ft. wide and 22 ft. long. The concrete was made by mixing 1
part cement, 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the
bulk moistened with water. The bottom was made the same as laying
a sidewalk, and forms were only used for the inside of the
surrounding wall. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines
planted to grow over a poultry wire fence.

** Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]

Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179]

This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines,
but it

[Illustration: The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays]

is a good one. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the
lower end of the cork. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small
weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle
when the cork is in place. Inform your audience that you will
sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the

All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying
glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. The thread
will quickly burn and the weight fall.

** Removing a Key from a Double String [179]

Tie the ends of a 5-ft. string together, making a double line on
which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted
lines in the sketch. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and
reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold
of the inside line near the left-hand thumb.

[Illustration: "The Key Will Drop from the String"]

Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near
right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. You will
then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Quickly let
loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb
on the other and pull the string taut. The key will drop from the

** How to Bore a Square Hole [179]

You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a
piece of cardboard, yet such a thing can be done. Take a cardboard
or a thin piece of wood, fold and place it between two pieces of
board with the fold up; the boards are then put in a vise as
shown. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold, using a
1-in. bit, and bore a

[Illustration: Boring a Square Hole]

hole 1/2 in. deep. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it
will appear as shown at B and when unfolded, as at A.


Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration
are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. They can be
used to keep pins and needles, pens and pencils, or cigar ashes,
etc. They are easily made, require no equipment in the way of
tools except what are usually found about the house, unless it
would be the metal shears, and when the decorations are well
designed and the metal nicely colored, they make attractive little
pieces to have about.

The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare
the design. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are
more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. Having
determined the size of the tray, draw on paper an oblong to
represent it. Inside this oblong, draw another one to represent
the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the
sides. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to
represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked.
The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in., the small ash tray 4 by 4
in., the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. The second
oblong was 3/4 in. inside the first on all, and the third one 1/4
in. inside the second on all.

If the decoration is to have two parts alike--symmetrical--divide
the space with a line down the middle. Draw one-half the design
free hand, then fold along this line and trace the second half
from this one. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil,
rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force
enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be
determined. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two
foldings, etc.

For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears,
two spikes, file, flat and round-nosed pliers, screw-driver and
sheet copper of No. 23 gauge. Proceed as follows: 1. Cut off a
piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. extra metal on each
of the four sides. 2. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the
copper lines that

[Illustration: Articles Made from Copper]

shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along
which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent; also trace
the decorative design. 3. With a nail make a series of holes in
the extra margin, about 3/4-in. apart and large enough to take in
a 3/4-in. slim screw. 4. Fasten the metal to a thick board by
inserting screws in these holes. 5. With a 20-penny wire nail that
has the sharpness of its point filed off, stamp the background
promiscuously. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. above the work
and striking it with the hammer, at the same time striving to keep
it at 1/4 in. above the metal, very rapid progress can be made.
This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises
the design. 6. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and
background, using a nail filed to chisel edge. This is to make a
clean, sharp division between background and design. 7. When the
stamping is completed, remove the screws and the metal from the
board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. File the
edges until they are smooth to the touch. 8. With the flat pliers
"raise" one side of the tray, then the other side. 9. Raise the
ends, adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. Use the
round-nosed pliers for this purpose.

Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. Very
pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with
turpentine, then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen
burner until the turpentine burns off. The copper will "take on"
almost all the colors of a rainbow, and the effect will be most

** Photograph of a Clown Face [181]

At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the
person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face
painted like a clown. On close observation you will notice that
the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the
table. The eyes, nose and mouth are cut from black paper and
pasted on the bald spot. The subject's face is horizontal and
resting upon his hands.

[Illustration: A Bald Head Photographed]

** Finger Mathematics [181]
By Charles C. Bradley

All machinists use mathematics. Ask a machinist what would be the
product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72, but change
the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that
instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a
pencil. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell
at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. You will be able to
multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations.

In the first numbering, begin by holding your hands with the palms
toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and
fingers as follows: Thumbs, 6; first fingers, 7; second fingers,
8; third fingers, 9, and fourth fingers, 10. Suppose you desire to
multiply 8 by 9, put the eighth finger on one hand against the
ninth finger of the other hand as shown.

[Illustration: "8 Times 9"]

The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the
thumbs fingers) are called the upper fingers and each has a value
of ten, which tens are added. All the fingers below the joined
fingers are termed the lower fingers, and each of the lower
fingers represents a unit value of one. The sum of the units on
one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other
hand. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the
product desired. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands
we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right,
which would be 70. We also find two units on the left hand and one
on the right. Two times one are two, and 70 plus 2 equals 72, or
the product of 8 times 9.

Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Put your thumbs together;
there are no fingers above, so the two thumbs represent two tens
or 20; below the thumbs are four units on each hand, which would
be 16, and 20 plus 16 equals 36, or the product of 6 times 6.

[Illustration: "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7"]

Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. Put the little finger of the left
hand against the first finger of the right hand. At a glance you
see seven tens or 70. On the right hand you have three units and
on the left nothing. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70
plus nothing is 70.

In the second numbering, or numbers above 10, renumber your
fingers; thumbs, 11; first fingers, 12, etc. Let us multiply 12 by

Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. At a glance you
see four tens or 40. At this point we leave the method explained
in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. We go
back to the upper fingers again

[Illustration: "12 Times 12"]

and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by
the number of upper fingers used on the other hand, viz., 2 times
2 equals 4. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. We now add 100 (because
anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144,
the product of 12 times 12.

The addition of 100 is arbitrary, but being simple it saves time
and trouble. Still, if we wish, we might regard the four upper
fingers in the above example as four twenties, or 80, and the six
lower fingers as six tens, or 60; then returning to the upper
fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on
the left we would have 4; hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144;
therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and
easier method.

Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100; above 15 times 15 it
is 200; above 20 times 20, 400; 25 times 25, 600, etc., etc., as
high as you want to go.

In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers,
beginning the thumbs with 16, first finger 17, and so on. Oppose
the proper finger tips as before, the upper fingers representing a
value of 20. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. Take
For example 18 times 18.

At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2
units on right hand plus 200 equals 324.

In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked, thumbs, 21, first
fingers 22, etc., the value of the upper fingers being 20. Proceed
as in the second lumbering, adding 400 instead of 100.

[Illustration: "18 Times 18"]

Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each
and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead
of 200.

This system can be carried as high as you want to go, but you must
remember that for figures ending in 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 proceed as in
the second numbering. For figures ending in 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 the
third numbering applies.

Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent
tens, twenties, thirties, forties, or what. For example, any two
figures between 45 and 55, the value of the upper fingers would be
50, which is the half-way point between the two fives. In 82 times
84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point
between the two fives, 75 and 85, being 80). And the lump sum to

Just three things to remember:

Which numbering is to follow, whether the one described in second
or third numbering; the value which the upper fingers have; and,
lastly, the lump sum to add, and you will be able to multiply
faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before.

** Optical Illusions [183]

If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on
the end of cords which are in rapid revolution, not rotation,
about a vertical axis, the direction of revolution will seem to
reverse. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum
sponge, such as an used for lighting gas-burners, were hung in
tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned
constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas
flame to keep the platinum in a glow. The inversion and reversion
did not take place, as one might suppose, at the will of the
observer, but was compulsory and followed regular rules. If the
observer watches the rotating objects from the side, or from above
or from below, the inversion takes place against his will; the
condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric.
It takes place also, however, with a change in the convergence of
the optical axes, whether they are parallel to each other or more
convergent. Also when the image on the retina is made less
distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens, the revolution
seems to reverse; further, in the case of a nearsighted person,
when he removes his spectacles,

[Illustration: Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge
"Pills" and Hat Pins]

inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not
sharp. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes

The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of
windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. It is then
not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel, but
whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer.
The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a
conspicuous head, holding it firmly in a horizontal position, and
putting a cork on the point. Looking at it in semi-darkness, one
seems to see sometimes the head of the pin, sometimes the point
towards him, when he knows which direction is right. The inversion
will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the
side. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or
distance; and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls;
the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them
one considers to be the front one and which the rear one.

From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When,
in the case of a perception remitting two appearances, one fixedly
observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the
sharpness of the image on the retina, the other appearance asserts

** Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184]

Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for
the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe
and fittings. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. tee, the third
opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to
such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the
bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of
the tee. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. and
the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. A flat slide valve
was used.

The ports were not easy to make, as

[Illustration: The Engine Is About 20 Inches High]

they had to be drilled and chipped out. The steam chest is round,
as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. The
crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the
sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. One end is screwed
into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted
into an oblong plate. Both ends of this plate were drilled and
tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. pipe.

The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. pipe 10 in. long and one
made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole
length 10 in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that
served as a base. The open part of the cross was babbitted to
receive the main shaft. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to
take a part of the strain from the main bearing. The eccentric is
constructed of washers. While this engine does not give much
power, it is easily built, inexpensive, and anyone with a little
mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the
construction as shown in the illustration.
--Contributed by W. H. Kutscher, Springfield, Ill.

** How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]

To make a copper bowl, such as is shown in the illustration,
secure a piece of No. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient
to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. in diameter.

Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned, and
file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp
places. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings
about 1/2 in. apart. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl
to form.

The tools are simple and can be made easily. First make a
round-nosed mallet of some hard wood, which should have a diameter
of about 1-1/4 in, across the head. If nothing better is at hand,
saw off a section of a broom handle, round one end and insert a
handle into a hole bored in its middle. Next take a block of wood,
about 3 by 3 by 6 in., and make in one end a hollow, about 2 in.
across and 1/2 in. deep. Fasten the block solidly, as in a vise,
and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block,
beat with the mallet along the concentric rings.

Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a
circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim.
Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward
the center. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has
the shape desired, when the bottom is flattened by placing the
bowl, bottom side up, on a flat surface and beating the raised
part flat. Beating copper tends to harden it and, if continued too
long without proper treatment, will cause the metal to break. To
overcome this hardness, heat the copper over a bed of coals or a
Bunsen burner to a good heat. This process is called annealing, as
it softens the metal.

The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a
border. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out
in pencil, a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each
space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed

To produce color effects on copper, cover the copper with
turpentine and

[Illustration: Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace]

hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated.

** Cleaning Furniture [185]

After cleaning furniture, the greasy appearance may be removed by
adding some good, sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Vinegar,
which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid, is one of the best
cleansers of dirty furniture.

** Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]

Take a buckshot, wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper,
and, holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand,
place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just
far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. In a few
seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has
melted without even scorching the paper.
--Contributed by W. O. Hay, Camden, S. C.

** The Principles of the Stereograph [185]

Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object; the one
sees a trifle more to the right-hand side, the other to the left,
especially when the object is near to the observer. The
stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by
bringing the two pictures together in the senses. The stereograph
produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the
stereoscope. In the first place there is

[Illustration: Looking Through the Colored Gelatine]

only one picture, not two mounted side by side. The stereograph
consists of a piece of card, having therein two circular openings
about 1-1/4 in. diameter, at a distance apart corresponding to the
distance between the centers of the pupils. The openings are
covered with transparent gelatine, the one for the left eye being
blue, that for the right, orange. The picture is viewed at a
distance of about 7 in. from the stereograph. As a result of
looking at it through the stereograph, one sees a colorless black
and white picture which stands out from the background. Try
looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these
colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced.

If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through
the orange glass, and then with the left eye through the blue
glass, one will understand the principle on which the little
instrument works. Looking through the blue glass with the left
eye, one sees only those portions which are red on the picture.
But they seem black. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed
by the blue filter. Through the orange gelatine all the white
portions of the picture seem orange, because of the rays coming
from them, and which contain all the colors of the spectrum; only
the orange rays may pass through. The red portions of the picture
are not seen, because, although they pass through the screen, they
are not seen against the red ground of the picture. It is just as
though they were not there. The left eye therefore sees a black
picture on a red background.

In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only
a black picture on a red background; this black image consisting
only of the blue portions of the picture. Any other part of
complementary colors than blue and orange, as for instance red and
green, would serve the same purpose.

The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated
by a very simple experiment. On white paper one makes a picture or
mark with a red pencil. Looking at this through a green glass it
appears black on a green ground; looking at it through a red glass
of exactly the same color as the picture, it, however, disappears

Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color
of the glass itself, and without any picture. Through a red glass
a green picture will appear black.

So with the stereograph; each eye sees a black picture
representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope; the
only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the
background for each eye is colored; while both eyes together see a
white background.

In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not
coincide; neither can they be very far apart in order to produce
the desired result. In order that the picture shall be "plastic,"
which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of
distance in the picture, they must be a very trifle apart. The
arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the
pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which
they are printed. In order to make them appear before the card,
the left eye sees through a blue screen, but the red picture which
is seen by it is a black one, and lies to the right on the
picture; and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. The further
apart the pictures are, the further from the card will the
composite image appear.

In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the
proper arrangement of the prisms; with the stereograph, in the
proper choice of colors.

** Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187]

Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break
connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary
discharge. Two types of make-and-break connection are used, the
common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil
and the mercury break operated by a small motor. The sketch
herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Two blocks of
wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor
fastened to the top of the vertical piece. The shaft of the motor
is bent about 18 in. in the shape of a crank, so that in turning
it will describe a circle 1/4 in. in diameter. A small connecting
bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. thick, 1/4 in. wide and 1
in. long and a hole drilled in each end; one hole to fit the motor
shaft and the other to slip on a No. 12 gauge wire. Two L-shaped
pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled
with holes of such a size that a No. 12 gauge wire will slip
through snugly. Place a NO.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend
the top end at right angles.

[Illustration: Motor-Driven Make-and-Break]

Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers
fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end
of the wire. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the
proper length when the parts are all in place. A small round
bottle about 1/2 in. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has
been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and
close up to the vertical piece. This should only be bored about
half way through the block. The wire is now cut so at the length
of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth, or
the middle of the bottle.

Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is
running, the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about
one-half of the stroke. Cover the mercury over with a little
alcohol. A No. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of
the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The other end of
this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the
bottom block. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass
brush attached to the side of the vertical piece, which is placed
with some pressure on the moving wire. The motor can be run with a
current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same
batteries with the coil. The proper height of the mercury can be
regulated for best results. The motor must run continuous if the
coil is used for writing code signals, wireless, etc.
--Contributed by Haraden Pratt, San Francisco, Cal.

** How to Make a Barometer [188]

Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. The weight of
the air in round numbers is 15 lb. to the square inch and will
support a column of water 1 in. square, 34 ft. high, or a column
of mercury (density 13.6) 1 in. square, 30 in. high. The parts
necessary to make a simple barometer are, a glass tube 1/8 in.
internal diameter and about 34 in. long, a bottle 1 in. inside
diameter and 2 in. high. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in
the flame of a gas burner, which will soon soften the glass so it
can be pinched together with pliers. Put a little paraffin in the
bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. When
cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. thick.
The tube is now to be filled with mercury. This may be
accomplished with a paper funnel, but before attempting to put in
the mercury, place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch
any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. Only redistilled
mercury should be used, and the tube should be perfectly clean
before filling. When the tube is filled to

[Illustration: Barometer]

within 1 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole
and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the
finger end. The filling is continued until the tube is full of
mercury. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now
placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an
airtight fit with the tube. The bottle and tube are inverted and
after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may
be raised out of the wax, but be careful not to bring its edge
above the surface of the mercury.

The instrument is put aside while the base is being made, or, if
you choose, have the base ready to receive the parts just
described when they are completed. Cut a base from a piece of
7/8-in. pine 3 in. wide and 40 in. long. In this base cut a groove
to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is
hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in., so the bottle
rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board
and one-half below. The instrument is made secure to the base with
brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. After the
instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the
depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be
about 1/2 in.

The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. wide and 4 in.
long. The 4 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths, and
the inches numbered 27 up to 31. The scale is fastened to the base
with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in
the sketch. Before fastening the scale, the instrument should be
compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both
readings are the same. But if a standard barometer is not
available, the instrument, if accurately constructed, will
calibrate itself.

In general, a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad
weather, while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a
frost. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like
changes in weather. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair
weather, and a slow fall, the contrary. During the frosty days the
drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates

** Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189]

Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit
a wax or tallow candle. This can be done with a glass cutter or a
hot ring; the size of the outside of the bottle, which is slipped
quickly over the end. Procure a metal can cover, a cover from a
baking powder can will do, a lid fit it on the end where the
bottom was removed. The cover is punched full of holes to admit
the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus
made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the
candle. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as
shown in the sketch. This light can be used on a post or hung from
a metal support.

[Illustration: Swinging Light]

** A Checker Puzzle [189]

Cut a block from a board about 3 in. wide and 10 in. long.
Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Mark out
seven 1-in. squares on the surface to be used for the top and
color the squares alternately white and black. Make six men by
sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. thick. Number
the pieces 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7, and place them as shown in Fig. 1.
The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last
three and

[Illustration: Position of the Men]

move only one at a time. This may be done as follows:

Move 1-Move No. 3 to the center.
Move 2-Jump No. 5 over No. 3.
Move 3-Move No. 6 to No. 5's place.
Move 4-Jump No, 3 over No. 6.
Move 5-Jump No. 2 over No. 5.
Move 6-Move No. 1 to No. 2's place.
Move 7-Jump No. 5 over No. 1.
Move 8-Jump No. 6 over No. 2.
Move 9-Jump No. 7 over No. 3.
Move 10-Move No. 3 into No. 7's place.
Move ll-Jump No. 2 over No. 7.
Move 12-Jump No, l over No. 6.
Move 13-Move No. 6 into No. 2's place.
Move 14-Jump No. 7 over No. 1.
Move 15-Move No. 1 into No, 5's place.

After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. This
can be done on a checker board, as shown in Fig. 2, using checkers
for men, but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy
a row containing only 7 spaces.
--Contributed by W. L. Woolson, Cape May Point, N.J.

** Gold Railroad Signals [189]

Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of
painting on some roads. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the
weather for 15 or 20 years, while paint requires recovering three
or four times a year.

** How to Make a Bell Tent [190]

A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns, as well as for a
boy's camping outfit. The illustrations show a plan of a tent
14-ft. in diameter. To make such a tent, procure unbleached tent
duck, which is the very best material for the purpose, says the
Cleveland Plain Dealer. Make 22 sections, shaped like Fig. 3, each
10 ft. 6 in. long and 2 ft. 2 in. wide at the bottom, tapering in
a straight line to a point at the top. These dimensions allow for
the laid or lapped seams, which should be

[Illustration: An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent]

double-stitched on a machine. The last seam sew only for a
distance of 4 ft. from the top, leaving the rest for an opening.
At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it
will not rip. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom
edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing, 3 in.
across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay
ropes. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in.
long and 4 in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. These are
ventilators. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. 2
in. high. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom
with canvas. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. wide at the
bottom, and the space between the ground and the wall when the
tent is raised, fill with canvas edging. Stitch the upper edge of
the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the
dotted line, Fig. 2.

For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in.
round galvanized iron, 6-in. diameter. Stitch the canvas at the
apex around the hoop and along the sides. Make the apex into a
hood and line it with stiff canvas. Have the tent pole 3 in. in
diameter, made in two sections, with a socket joint and rounded at
the top to fit into the apex of the tent.

In raising the tent, fasten down the wall by means of loops of
stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven
through them into the ground, Fig. 5. Run the stay ropes from the
eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. 5) stuck in the
ground. Use blocks, as in Fig. 6, on the stay ropes for holding
the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes.

** Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]

The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a
piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand
about 12 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. The
bony structure will be clearly distinguishable.
--Contributed by G.J. Tress, Emsworth, Pa.

** How to Make a Candle Shade [191]

Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper, 9 by 12
in., making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. As shown
in the sketch, the pattern for this particular shade covers a half
circle with 2-3/4 in. added. Allowance must be made for the lap
and as 1/4 in. will do, a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. from the
one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates
the design.

Nail a thin sheet of brass, about 9 in. wide by 12 in. long, to a
smooth board of soft wood, then trace the design on the brass by
laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass.
After transferring the design to the brass, use a small awl to
punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures
traced. Punch holes in the brass in the spaces around the outlined
figures, excepting the 1/4-in. around the outside of the pattern.
When all the holes are punched, remove the brass sheet from the
board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern,
then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures
appearing in relief. When the edges are brought together by
bending, fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads.

If a wood-turning lathe is at hand, the shade can be made better
by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass
shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The
pattern is traced as before, but before punching the holes, cut
out the brass on the outside lines, bend into shape, fasten the
ends together and place on the wood cone. The holes are now
punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open
spaces made full of holes. The holes being punched after the shade
is shaped, the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a
cone much better.

The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom
part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. apart.
The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware

[Illustration: Punching the Holes; Completed Shade; Pattern]

dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise
--Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. Corr, Chicago.

** A Putty Grinder [191]

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