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The Botanist's Companion, Vol. II by William Salisbury

Part 6 out of 6

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263 --------- hieracifolia Hawkweed-leaved ditto c.m.
264 Gypsophila paniculata Panicled Gypsophila c.m.
265 ---------- altissima Tall ditto c.m.
266 Dianthus barbatus Common Sweet William c.m.
267 -------- hybridus Mule Pink c.m.
268 -------- superbus Superb ditto c.m.


269 Cucabulus viscosus Clammy Bladder Campion c.m.
270 --------- tataricus Tartarian ditto c.m.
271 --------- stellatus Starry ditto l.b.
272 Silene longiflora Long-flowered Catchfly c.m.


273 Sedum majus Great Stonecrop c.m.
274 ----- Aizoon Yellow ditto c.m.
275 Agrostemma coronaria Common Rose Campion c.m.
276 ---------- Flos Jovis Umbell'd ditto c.m.
277 Lychnis chalcedonia Scarlet Lychnis c.m.
278 Cerastium repens Creeping Mouse-ear Chickweed c.m.
279 --------- dioicum Spanish ditto c.m.
280 --------- tomentosum Wooly-leaved ditto c.m.
281 --------- sufruticosum Shrubby ditto c.m.
282 --------- strictum Upright ditto c.m.


283 Phytolacca decandra Branching Phytolacca l.b.


284 Lythrum virgatum Fine-branched Willow-herb c.m.


285 Agrimonia odorata Sweet-scented Agrimony c.m.
286 --------- repens Creeping ditto c.m.
287 --------- Agrimonoides Three-leaved ditto c.m.


288 Euphorbia coralloides Coral-stalk'd Spurge l.
289 --------- pilosa Hairy ditto l.
290 --------- Esula Gromwell-leaved ditto l.
291 --------- falcata Sickle-leaved ditto l.
292 --------- Cyparissias Cypress ditto c.m.
293 --------- palustris Marsh ditto l.b.
294 --------- verrucosa Warted ditto l.
295 --------- multicorymbosa Flax-leaved ditto c.m.


296 Spiraea Aruncus Goat's-beard Meadow Sweet c.m.
297 ------ lobata Lobe-leaved ditto l.
298 ------ trifoliata Three-leaved ditto l.b.


299 Fragaria monophylla One-leaved Strawberry c.m.
300 -------- virginiana Virginian ditto c.m.
301 -------- grandiflora Pine ditto c.m.
302 -------- chiliensis Chili or White ditto c.m.
303 Potentilla pensylvanica Pensylvanian Cinquefoil c.m.
304 ---------- recta Upright ditto c.m.
305 ---------- hirta Hairy ditto c.m.
306 ---------- mutlifida Cut-leaved ditto c.m.
307 ---------- norwegica Norway ditto c.m.
308 Potentilla grandiflora Great-flowered Cinquefoil c.m.
309 ---------- monspeliensis Montpelier ditto c.m.
310 Geum virginicum Virginian Avens c.m.
311 ---- strictum Upright ditto c.m.
312 ---- potentilloides Cinquefoil ditto c.m.
313 ---- montanum Mountain ditto c.m.


314 Actea racemosa American Herb-Christopher c.m.
315 Podophyllum peltatum Duck's-foot, or May-apple c.m.
316 Chelidonium laciniatum Cut-leaved Celandine c.m.
317 Papaver orientale Oriental Poppy c.m.


318 Paeonia coralloides Female Paeony l.
319 ------ humilis Dwarf ditto l.
320 ------ albiflora White-flowered ditto l.
321 ------ officinalis Common or Male ditto c.m.
322 ------ tenuiflora Fine-leaved ditto c.m.
323 ------ fimbriata Fringed-flowered ditto c.m.
324 ------ anomala Siberian ditto c.m.


325 Delphinium intermedium Palmate-leaved Bee Larkspur c.m.
326 ---------- hybridum Bastard ditto l.
327 ---------- elatum Common ditto c.m.
328 ---------- exaltatum American ditto c.m.
329 ---------- grandiflorum Large-flowered ditto c.m.
330 Aconitum Lycoctonum Great Yellow Wolf's-bane c.m.
331 --------- Napellus Common Blue Wolf's-bane c.m.
332 --------- pyrenaicum Pyrenean ditto c.m.
333 --------- japonicum Japan ditto l.b.
334 --------- Anthora Wholesome ditto c.m.
335 --------- variegatum Variegated ditto c.m.
336 --------- ochroleucum Tall ditto c.m.
337 --------- album White-flowered ditto l.
338 --------- volubile Twining ditto l.b.
339 --------- uncinatum Hook-seeded ditto c.m.
340 --------- Cammarum Purple ditto c.m.


341 Aquilegia canadensis Canadian Columbine c.m.
342 --------- montana Mountain ditto l.
343 --------- sibirica Siberian ditto l.
344 --------- viridiflora Green-flowered ditto l.


345 Anemone pratensis Meadow Anemone l.b.
346 Anemone coronaria Common Garden ditto l.
347 ------- sylvestris Snow-drop ditto c.m.
348 ------- virginiana Virginian ditto c.m.
349 ------- pensylvanica Pensylvanian ditto c.m.
350 Clematis recta Upright Virgin's-Bower c.m.
351 -------- ochroleuca Yellow ditto l.
352 -------- viorna Leathery-flowered ditto l.
353 -------- integrifolia Intire-leaved ditto c.m.
354 Thalictrum aquilegifolium Feathered Columbine c.m.
355 ---------- simplex Simple-stalked ditto c.m.
356 ---------- lucidum Shining-leaved Meadow Rue c.m.
357 ---------- nigricans Black-flowered ditto c.m.
358 ---------- elatum Tall ditto c.m.
359 ---------- foetidum Stinking ditto c.m.
360 ---------- purpurascens Purple-stalked ditto c.m.
361 ---------- medium German ditto c.m.
362 ---------- atropurpureum Dark-purple-flowered ditto c.m.
363 ---------- rugosum Rough-leaved ditto c.m.
364 ---------- dioicum Dioicous ditto c.m.
365 ---------- sibiricum Siberian ditto c.m.
366 ---------- tuberosum Tubrous-rooted ditto c.m.
367 ---------- angustifolium Narrow-leaved ditto c.m.
368 ---------- contortum Twisted-stalked ditto c.m.
369 ---------- Cornuti Canadian ditto c.m.
370 Thalictrum speciosum Glaucous-leaved Meadow Rue c.m.
371 Ranunculus aconitifolius Fair Maids of France c.m.
372 ---------- platanifolius Plane-leaved Ranunculus c.m.
373 ---------- illyricus Illyrian ditto l.b.
374 ---------- asiaticus Common Persian ditto c.m.
375 Trollius asiaticus Asiatic Globe-flower l.b.s.
376 -------- americanus American ditto l.b.s.
377 Helleborus niger Christmas Rose l.s.
378 ---------- lividus Livid Hellebore l.b.s.


379 Teucrium lucidum Shining-leaved Germander c.m.
380 -------- multiflorum Many-flowered ditto c.m.
381 Hyssopus nepetoides Square-stalked Hyssop l.
382 Nepeta pannonica Hungarian Cat-Mint c.m.
383 ------ incana Hoary ditto c.m.
384 ------ violacea Violet-flowered ditto c.m.
385 ------ Nepetella Small ditto c.m.
386 ------ nuda Spanish ditto c.m.
387 ------ tuberosa Tuberous-rooted ditto c.m.
388 Sideritis hyssopifolia Hyssop-leaved Iron-wort l.
389 --------- scordioides Crenated ditto l.
390 --------- hirsuta Hairy ditto
391 Mentha crispa Curled-leaved Mint c.m.
392 Mentha niliaca White Mint c.m.
393 ------ auriculata Ear-leaved ditto c.m.
394 Lamium Orvala Balm-leaved Archangel l.
395 ------ rugosum Wrinkled-leaved ditto c.m.
396 ------ garganicum Wolly ditto c.m.
397 ------ molle Pellitoria-leaved ditto c.m.
398 Betonica stricta Danish Betony c.m.
399 ------- incana Hoary ditto c.m.
400 ------- orientalis Oriental ditto c.m.
401 ------- hirsuta Hairy ditto c.m.
402 Stachys circinata Blunt-leaved Stachys c.m.
403 ------- lanata Woolly-leaved ditto c.m.
404 ------- cretica Cretan ditto c.m.
405 ------- recta Upright ditto c.m.
406 Marrubium supinum Procumbent Base Horehound c.m.
407 --------- hispanicum Spanish ditto c.m.
408 --------- peregrinum Saw-leaved ditto c.m.
409 Phlomis tuberosa Tuberous-rooted Phlomis c.m.
410 ------- Herba venti Rough-leaved ditto l.b.
411 Origanum hybridum Bastard ditto l.b.
412 -------- heracloticum Winter ditto c.m.
413 Thymus virginicus Virginian Thyme l.
414 Melissa grandiflora Great-flowered Balm c.m.
415 ------- graeca Grecian ditto c.m.
416 Dracocephalum virginicum Virginian Dragon's-head l.
417 ------------- ruyschianum Hyssop-leaved ditto c.m.
418 ------------- sibiricum Siberian ditto c.m.
419 Scutellaria albida Hairy Skull-cap c.m.
420 ----------- integrifolia Entire-leaved ditto l.b.
421 ----------- lupulina Great-flowered ditto l.b.


422 Chelone glabra White-flowered Chelone l.b.
423 ------- obliqua Red ditto l.b.
424 ------- ruelloides Scarlet ditto l.b.
425 ------- formosa Tall ditto l.b.
426 Antirrhinum purpureum Purple Toad-flax c.m.
427 ----------- genistifolium Broom-leaved ditto l.
428 ----------- triornithophorum Whorl-leaved ditto l.b.
429 Scrophularia betonicaefolia Betony-leaved Figwort l.
430 ------------ orientalis Oriental ditto l.
431 Digitalis lutea Yellow Foxglove c.m.
432 --------- ambigua Great ditto c.m.
433 --------- ferruginea Iron-coloured ditto c.m.
434 Dodartia orientalis Eastern Dodartia l.
435 Penstemon pubescens American Penstemon l.b.
436 -------- Iaevigatum Smooth-leaved ditto l.b.
437 Mimulus ringens Oblong-leaved Monkey-flower l.
438 Mimulus guttatus Yellow Monkey-flower l.b.
439 Acanthus mollis Smooth Bear's-Breech c.m.
440 -------- spinosa Prickly ditto c.m.


441 Myagrum perenne Perennial Gold-of-Pleasure c.m.
442 Cochlearia Draba Draba-leaved Scurvy-Grass c.m.
443 Iberis sempervirens Evergreen Candy-Tuft c.m.
444 Alyssum saxatile Shrubby Madwort c.m.
445 Lunaria rediviva Perennial Honesty c.m.


446 Sisymbrium strictissimum Spear-leaved Sisymbrium c.m.
447 Hesperis matronalis Single Garden Rocket c.m.
448 Bunias orientalis Oriental Bunias c.m.


449 Geranium aconitifolium Aconite-leaved Crane's-bill c.m.
450 -------- angulosum Angular-stalked ditto c.m.
451 -------- maculatum Spotted ditto c.m.
452 -------- macorhizum Long-rooted ditto c.m.
453 -------- palustre Marsh ditto l.
454 -------- reflexum Reflexed-flowered ditto c.m.
455 -------- striatum Striped-flowered ditto c.m.
456 -------- lividum Wrinkled ditto c.m.


457 Althaea cannabina Hemp-leaved Marsh-Mallow c.m.
458 Lavatera thuringiacea Large-flowered Lavatera c.m.
459 Alcea rosa Common Holyoak c.m.
460 Hibiscus palutris Marsh Hibiscus l.b.
461 Kitiabella vitifolia Vine-leaved Kitiabella c.m.


462 Ononis antiquorum Tall Rest-Harrow l.
463 Lupinus perennis Perennial Lupine l.b.
464 Glycine Apios Tuberous-rooted Glycine l.
465 Orobus Lathyroides Upright Bitter-Vetch c.m.
466 ------ angustifolius Narrow-leaved ditto l.b.
467 ------ niger Black-flowered ditto c.m.
468 ------ vernus Spring ditto l.
469 Lathyrus tuberosus Tuberous-rooted Lathyrus c.m.
470 -------- heterophyllus Various-leaved ditto c.m.
471 -------- pisiformis Siberian ditto c.m.
472 Vicia pisiformis Pale-flowered Vetch c.m.
473 Glycyrrhiza echinata Prickly-leaved Liquorice c.m.
474 ----------- glabra Common ditto c.m.
475 Coronilla varia Purple Coronilla c.m.
476 Hedysarum canadense Canada Saintfoin c.m.
477 Galega officinalis Officinal Goat's-rue c.m.
478 ------ montana Mountain ditto l.b.
479 Phaca alpina Alpine Phaca, or Bastard-Vetch l.b.
480 Astralagus alopecuroides Foxtail Milk-Vetch l.b.
481 --------- virescens Green-flowered ditto c.m.
482 --------- galegiformis Goat's-rue-leaved ditto c.m.
483 --------- Cicer Bladder-podded ditto l.b.
484 --------- Onobrichis Purple-spiked ditto c.m.
485 Trifolium hybridum Bastard Trefoil, or Clover c.m.
486 --------- rubens Long-spiked ditto c.m.
487 --------- alpestre Oval-spiked ditto c.m.
488 --------- Lupinaster Bastard Lupine c.m.
489 Lotus maritimus Sea Bird's-foot Trefoil c.m.
490 Medicago Karstiensis Creeping-rooted Medick c.m.
491 -------- prostrata Procumbent ditto c.m.


492 Hypericum calycinum Great-flowered St. John's-wort c.m.s.
493 --------- perfoliatum Perfoliate ditto c.m.s.
494 --------- Ascyron Red-leavedditto c.m.s.


495 Scorzonera hispanica Spanish Viper's-grass c.m.
496 Sonchus sibiricus Siberian Sow-thistle c.m.
497 Prenanthes purpurea Purple Prenanthes l.
498 Hieracium amplexicaule Heart-leaved Hawkweed c.m.
499 --------- pyrenaicum Pyrenean ditto c.m.
500 Crepis pontica Roman Crepis c.m.
501 Catananche caerulea Blue Catananche c.m.
502 Serratula praealta Tall Saw-wort c.m.
503 --------- coronata Lyre-leaved ditto c.m.
504 --------- spicata Spike-flowered ditto b.l.
505 Carduus canus Hoary Thistle c.m.
506 ------- ciliatus Ciliated ditto c.m.
507 ------- tuberosus Tuberous-rooted ditto c.m.
508 ------- serratuloides Saw-wort ditto c.m.
509 Cnicus oleraceus Pale-flowered Cnicus c.m.
510 ------ ferox Prickly ditto c.m.
511 ------ centauroides Centaury ditto c.m.
512 Cynara Scolymus French Artichoke c.m.
513 Carthamus corymbosus Umbelled Carthamus l.b.
514 Carline acaulis Stemless Carline l.b.s.
515 Cacalia hastata Spear-leaved Cacalia c.m.
516 ------ suaveolens Sweet-scented ditto c.m.
517 ------ saracenica Creeping-rooted ditto c.m.
518 Eupatorium maculatum Spotted Eupatorium c.m.
519 ---------- altissimum Tall ditto c.m.
520 Eupatorium trifoliatum Three-leaved Eupatorium c.m.
521 ---------- perfoliatum Perfoliate ditto l.b.
522 ---------- Ageratoides Nettle-leaved ditto b.l.
523 Chrysocoma linosyris German Goldy-locks c.m.
524 ---------- biflora Two-flowered ditto c.m.


525 Tanacetum macrophyllum Various-leaved Tansy c.m.
526 --------- Balsamita Cost-Mary c.m.
527 Artemisia Abrotanum Common Southernwood c.m.
528 --------- santonicum Tartarian ditto or Wormseed c.m.
529 --------- pontica Roman ditto c.m.
530 --------- Dracunculus Tarragon c.m.
531 Conyza linifolia Flax-leaved Flea-bane c.m.
532 Tussilago paradoxa Downy-leaved Coltsfoot c.m.
533 --------- lobata Lobated ditto c.m.
534 --------- alba White ditto c.m.
535 Senecio luridus Dingy-coloured Groundsel c.m.
536 ------- coriaceus Thick-leaved ditto c.m.
537 Dahlia superflua Purple Dahlia c.m.
538 ------ v. rosea c.m.
539 ------ frustranea Red ditto c.m.
540 ------ v. lutea Yellow ditto c.m.
541 ------ v. violacea Violet ditto c.m.
542 Boltonia asteroides Aster-leaved Boltonia c.m.
543 Aster hyysopifolius Hyssop-leaved Aster c.m.
544 ----- dumosus Purple-flowered ditto c.m.
545 ----- ericoides Heath-leaved ditto c.m.
546 ----- multiflorus Many-flowered ditto c.m.
547 ----- linearifolus Linear-leaved ditto c.m.
548 ----- foliolosus Many-leaved ditto c.m.
549 ----- salicifolius Willow-leaved ditto c.m.
550 ----- linifolius Flax-leaved ditto c.m.
551 ----- rigidus Rough-leaved ditto c.m.
552 ----- acris Biting ditto c.m.
553 ----- umbellatus Umbel'd ditto c.m.
554 ----- novae anglicae New England ditto c.m.
555 ----- grandiflorus Great-flowered ditto c.m.
556 ----- patens Spreading ditto c.m.
557 ----- aestivus Labrador ditto c.m.
558 ----- undulatus Wave-leaved ditto c.m.
559 ----- concolor Woolly ditto c.m.
560 ----- Amellus Italian ditto c.m.
561 ----- sibiricus Siberian ditto c.m.
562 ----- flexuosus Bending-stalk'd ditto c.m.
563 ----- divaricatus Divaricated ditto c.m.
564 ----- longifolius Long-leaved ditto c.m.
565 ----- cordifolius Heart-leaved ditto c.m.
566 Aster corymbosus Purple-stalk Aster c.m.
567 ----- paniculatus Smooth-stalked panicled ditto c.m.
568 ----- puniceus Small Purple-stalked ditto c.m.
569 ----- laevis Smooth ditto c.m.
570 ----- novi belgii New-Holland ditto c.m.
571 ----- Tradescanti Tradescant's ditto c.m.
572 ----- pendulus Pendulous ditto c.m.
573 ----- diffusus Diffuse red-flowered ditto c.m.
574 ----- divergens Spreading downy-leaved ditto c.m.
575 ----- tardiflorus Spear-leaved ditto c.m.
576 ----- spectabilis Showy ditto c.m.
577 ----- mutabilis Variable ditto c.m.
578 ----- macrophyllus Broad-leaved-white ditto c.m.
579 ----- fragilis Brittle ditto c.m.
580 ----- junceus Slender-stalked ditto c.m.
581 ----- elegans Elegant ditto c.m.
582 ----- glaberrimus Smooth ditto c.m.
583 ----- lucidus Shining ditto c.m.
584 ----- sessiliflorus Sessil-flowered ditto c.m.
585 ----- altissimus Tallest ditto c.m.
586 Solidago viminea Twiggy Golden Rod c.m.
587 -------- mexicana Mexican ditto c.m.
588 -------- sempervirens Narrow-leaved Evergreen do. c.m.
589 -------- elliptica Oval-leaved ditto c.m.
590 -------- stricta Willow-leaved ditto c.m.
591 -------- latifolia Broad-leaved ditto c.m.
592 -------- laevigata Fleshy-leaved ditto c.m.
593 -------- caesia Maryland ditto c.m.
594 -------- lateriflora Red-stalked ditto c.m.
595 -------- altissima Tall ditto c.m.
596 -------- arguta Sharp Notched ditto c.m.
597 -------- canadensis Canadian ditto c.m.
598 -------- procera Great ditto c.m.
599 -------- reflexa Reflexed ditto c.m.
600 -------- lanceolata Grass-leaved ditto c.m.
601 -------- serotina Upright ditto c.m.
602 -------- nemoralis Woolly-stalked ditto c.m.
603 -------- bicolor Two-cloured ditto c.m.
604 -------- aspera Rough-leaved ditto c.m.
605 -------- flexicaulis Crooked-stalked ditto c.m.
606 -------- ambigua Angular-stalked ditto c.m.
607 -------- rigida Hard-leaved ditto c.m.
608 Cineraria sibirica Heart-leaved Cineraria c.m.
609 Inula squarrosa Net-leaved Inula c.m.
610 ----- salicina Willow-leaved ditto l.b.
611 ----- ensifolia Sword-leaved ditto c.m.
612 Helenium autumnale Smooth Helenium c.m.
613 Chrysanthemum corymbosum Large White Chrysanthemum c.m.
614 Chrysanthemum indicum Purple Indian Chrysanthemum c.m.
615 ------------- millefoliatum Tansy-leaved ditto c.m.
616 ------------- v. ----- a Quilled White.
617 ------------- v. ----- b Double White.
618 ------------- v. ----- c Bright Yellow.
619 ------------- v. ----- d Straw-coloured
620 ------------- v. ----- e Quilled Straw-coloured.
621 ------------- v. ----- f Purple Quilled.
622 ------------- v. ----- g Lilac-coloured.
623 ------------- v. ----- h Spanish brown.
624 ------------- v. ----- i Copper-coloured.
625 ------------- v. ----- j Quilled Lilac.
626 Achillea alpina Alpine Millefoil or Maudlin c.m.
627 -------- cristata Slender-branched ditto c.m.
628 -------- serrata Saw'd-leaved ditto c.m.
629 -------- impatiens Impatient ditto c.m.
630 -------- santolina Lavender-Cotton-leaved ditto c.m.
631 -------- tanacetifolia Tansy-leaved ditto c.m.
632 -------- nobilis Showy ditto c.m.
633 -------- abrotanifolia Southernwood-leaved ditto c.m.
634 Buphthalmum grandiflorum Great-flowered Ox-eye l.
635 ----------- salicifolium Willow-leaved ditto l.


636 Helianthus multiflorus Perennial Sun-flower c.m.
637 ---------- tuberosus Jerusalem Artichoke c.m.
638 ---------- divaricatus Rough-leaved Sun-flower c.m.
639 ---------- decapetalus Ten-petal'd ditto c.m.
640 ---------- altissimus Tall ditto c.m.
641 ---------- giganteus Gigantic ditto c.m.
642 Rudbeckia laciniata Broad-jagged-leaved Rudbeckia c.m.
643 --------- digitata Narrow-jagged-leaved do. c.m.
644 --------- fulgida Bright purple do. l.b.
645 --------- purpurea Common purple do. l.b.
646 Coreopsis verticillata Whorl-leaved Coreopsis c.m.
647 --------- tripteris Three leaved ditto c.m.
648 --------- aurea Hemp-leaved ditto c.m.
649 Coreopsis procera Tall Coreopsis c.m.
650 --------- alternifolia Alternate-leaved ditto c.m.
651 --------- auriculata Ear-leaved ditto c.m.
652 --------- minima Least ditto l.b.
653 Centaurea Cenaureum Great Centaury c.m.
654 --------- alpina Alpine ditto l.b.
655 --------- montana Mountain ditto c.m.
656 --------- sempervirens Evergreen ditto c.m.
657 --------- sibirica Siberian ditto c.m.
658 --------- phrygia Austrian ditto c.m.
659 Centaurea glastifolia Woad-leaved Centaury l.b.
661 --------- rhapontica Swiss ditto l.b.
662 --------- sonchifolia Sow-thistle-leaved ditto l.b.
663 --------- aurea Great Yellow ditto l.b.


664 Silphium scabrum Rough-leaved Silphium c.m.
665 -------- terebinthinum Broad-leaved ditto c.m.
666 -------- perfoliatum Perfoliate ditto c.m.
667 -------- connatum Round-stalked ditto c.m.
668 -------- Asteriscus Hairy-stalked ditto c.m.
669 -------- trifoliatum Three-leaved ditto c.m.


670 Echinops Ritro Small Globe Thistle c.m.
671 -------- sphaerocephalus Great ditto c.m.


672 Lobelia Cardinalis Scarlet Cardinal flower l.
673 ------- siphylitica Blue ditto l.


674 Sisyrinchium striatum Striated Sisyrinchium l.


675 Arum Dracunculus Long-sheathed Arum c.m.
676 ---- venosum Varied ditto c.m.


677 Parthenium integrifolium Intire-leaved Parthenium c.m.
678 Urtica nivea Snowy Nettle c.m.


669 Smilax herbacea Herbaceous Smilax b.l.s.


680 Datisca cannabina Bastard Hemp c.m.


681 Napaea laevis Smooth Napaea l.b.
682 ----- scabra Rough ditto c.m.


683 Veratrum album White Hellebore l.b.s.
684 -------- nigrum Dark-flowered Veratrum l.b.s.

* * * * *


These are cultivated by sowing their seeds, in the months of March or
April, in the places where they are to remain and flower during the
summer months.


1 Alyssum sweet Alyssum halimifolium
2 Alkekengi Physalis Alkakengi
3 Arctotus annual Arctotus anthemoides
4 Argemone or Devil's Fig Argemone mexicana
5 Asphodel annual Anthericum anuum
6 Aster China quilled
7 ----- red Aster chinensis
8 ----- white Aster chinensis
9 ----- purple Aster chinensis
10 ---- superb Aster chinensis
11 ---- Bonnet Aster chinensis
12 ---- striped Aster chinensis
13 Balm Moldavian Dracocephalon moldavicum
14 ---- white Dracocephalon moldavicum
15 ---- hoary Dracocephalon moldavicum
16 Belvidera Chenopodium Scoparium
17 Bladder Ketmia Hibiscus trionum
18 Candytuft purple Iberis umbellata
19 --------- white Iberis umbellata
20 --------- Normandy Iberis umbellata
21 Caterpillar Scorpiurus vermiculata
22 Catchfly pendulous Silene pendula
23 -------- Lobel's Armeria
24 Cyanus major Centaurea Crupina
25 ------ minor Centaurea Cyanus
26 Clary purple topped Salvia Hormium
27 ----- Red ditto Salvia Hormium
28 Chrysamthemum white-quill'd Chrysamthemum coronarium
29 ----------- yellow ditto Chrysamthemum tricolor
30 Hawkweed red Crepis rubra
31 -------- yellow Crepis barbata
32 Hedgehogs Medicago polymorpha, v. intertexta
33 Honeywort great Cerinthe major
34 --------- small Cerinthe minor
35 Indian Corn Zea mays
36 Jacobaea Senecio elegans
37 Larkspur Tall Rocket Delphinium Ajacis
38 -------- Dwarf Rocket Delphinium Ajacis
39 -------- Rose Larkspur Delphinium Ajacis
40 -------- Branching ditto Delphinium Ajacis
41 Lavatera Red Lavatera trimestris
42 -------- white Lavatera trimestris
43 Lobel's Catchfly red Silene armeria
44 ---------------- white Silene armeria
45 Love-lies-bleeding Amaranthus caudatus
46 Lupine yellow Lupinus luteus
47 ------ straw-coloured Lupinus luteus
48 ------ large blue Lupinus hirsutus
49 ------ small ditto Lupinus varius
50 ------ rose Lupinus pilosus
51 ------ blue Dutch Lupinus var
52 ------ white Lupinus albus
53 Mallow-curled Malva crispa
54 Marigold French Tagetes patula
55 -------- African Tagetes erecta
56 -------- small cape Calendula pluvialis
57 -------- great Cape Calendula hybrida
58 -------- starry Calendula stellata
59 Mignionette Reseda odorata
60 Nasturtium great Tropaeolum majus
61 ---------- small Tropaeolum minus
62 Nettle Roman Urtica pilulifera
63 Nigella Roman Nigella Romana
64 ------- Spanish Nigella Hispanica
65 ------- small Nigella sativa
66 Nolana Trailing Noalan prostrata
67 Noli-me-Tangere Impatiens Noli-me-Tangere
68 Oenothera purple Oenothera purpurea
69 Pea sweet purple Lathyrus odoratus
70 --------- scarlet Lathyrus odoratus
71 --------- white Lathyrus odoratus
72 --------- black Lathyrus odoratus
73 --------- striped Lathyrus odoratus
74 --------- painted lady Lathyrus odoratus
75 Pea jointed-podded Lathyrus articulatus
76 --- Anson's Lathyrus magellanicus
77 --- Painted Lady Crown Lathyrus sativus
78 --- Tangier scarlet Lathyrus tingitanus
79 --- purple Lathyrus tingitanus
80 --- red-winged Lotus tetragonolobus
81 --- yellow ditto Lotus tetragonolobus
82 Persicaria red Polygonum orientale
83 ---------- white Polygonum orientale
84 Poppy carnation Papaver somniferum
85 ----- dwarf Rhoeas
86 Quaking-grass Briza maxima
87 Saltwort Rose Salsola rosacea
88 Scabious starry Scabiosa stellata
89 Snails Medicago scutella
90 Soapwort Saponaria Vaccaria
91 Stock purple 10-week Cheiranthus annuus
92 ----- scarlet 10-week Cheiranthus annuus
93 ----- white 10-week Cheiranthus annuus
94 ----- white Prussian Cheiranthus annuus
95 ----- purple ditto Cheiranthus annuus
96 Stock Virginian white Cheiranthus maritimus
97 --------------- red Cheiranthus annuus
98 Stramonium purple Datula Tatula
99 ---------- white Datula stramonium
100 Spinage strawberry Blitum virgatum
101 Sunflower tall Helianthus annuus
102 --------- dwarf Helianthus annuus
103 --------- double Helianthus annuus
104 Sultan sweet purple Centaurea moschata
105 ------ white Centaurea moschata
106 ------ yellow Centaurea suaveolens
107 Toadflax three-leaved Antirrhinium triphyllum
108 Trefoil crimson Trifolium incarnatum
109 Venus's Looking-glass Campanula speculum
110 -----Navelwort Cynoglossum linifolium
111 Xeranthemum yellow shining Xeranthemum lucidum
112 ----------- white Xeranthemum annuum
113 ----------- purple double Xeranthemum annuum
114 Zinnia yellow Zinnia pauciflora
115 ------ red Zinnia multiflora
116 ------ elegant Zinnia elegans
117 ------ violet-coloured Zinnia tenniflora
118 ------ whorl-leaved Zinnia verticillata

* * * * *


Biennial Flowers, i.e. such as do not bloom the same year they are
raised from seeds.

These should be sown in the month of May or June, and let remain in the
place till the month of September, when they should be planted into
beds, and in the following spring placed out where they are to flower.

1 Canterbury Bells Campanula media
2 Iron-coloured Foxglove Digitalis ferruginea
3 Hollyoak Alcea rosa
4 Honesty Lunaria rediviva
5 Stocks red Brompton Cheiranthus incanus
6 ------ white ditto Cheiranthus incanus
7 ------ purple ditto Cheiranthus incanus
8 ------ Queen Cheiranthus incanus
9 ------ Twickenham Cheiranthus incanus
10 Wallflower Cheiranthus fruticulosus

* * * * *


Such as are usually sown in hot-beds in the months of February or March,
and grown in the stove or green-house after the removal of the plants in
the summer months, for which purpose they are very ornamental.


1 Amaranthus three-coloured Amaranthus tricolor
2 ---------- two-coloured ---------- bicolor
3 ---------- globe white Gomphrena globosa
4 ---------- purple Gomphrena globosa
5 Balsam Impatiens Balsamita
6 ------ scarlet Impatiens coccinea
7 Striped double white
8 Browallia blue Browallia elata
9 --------- white Browallia elata
10 Cacalia scarlet Cacalia coccinea
11 Capsicum large red Capsicum annuum
12 -------- yellow Capsicum annuum
13 -------- small red horn Capsicum annuum
14 -------- yellow ditto Capsicum annuum
15 -------- cherry Capsicum annuum
16 -------- Cayenne Capsicum annuum
17 Calceolaria wing-leaved Calceolaria pinnata
18 Convolvulus large-flowered Convolvulus major
19 ----------- minor ----------- tricolor
20 Cockscomb dwarf Celosia cristata
21 --------- tall Celosia cristata
22 --------- branching Celosia cristata
23 --------- buff or yellow Celosia cristata
24 Egg plant white Solanum Melongena
25 --------- purple Solanum Melongena
26 Impomaea Scarlet Impomaea coccinea
27 ------- wing-leaved ------- Quamoclit
28 Ice plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum
29 Love apple Solanum Lycopersicum
30 Sensitive plant Mimosa pudica
31 Stramonium double purple Datura Metel
32 ---------- Double white ------ v. flore albo

* * * * *



The following list comprises a number of plants of great beauty and
interest; but, being in general too small for the open borders, are only
to be preserved either in pots; planted in rock-work, or in such other
places where they are not overgrown by plants of larger size. There are
many others of a similar kind that we grow in gardens, but which, being
difficult to keep, we have thought fit not to insert; as persons who try
to cultivate such in the open ground have in general the mortification
to find that they do not compensate for the care and trouble necessary
for preserving them.

1 Ancistrum lucidum Shining Ancistrum b.l.
2 --------- laevigatum Smooth ditto b.l.
3 --------- latebrosum Hairy ditto b.l.
4 Veronica aphylla Naked-stalked Speedwell b.l.
5 -------- bellidoides Daisy-leaved ditto b.l.


6 Trichonema Bulbocodium Crocus-leaved Trichonema b.l.


7 Asperula crassifolia Thick-leaved Woodroofe b.l.
8 Houstonia caerulea Blue Houstonia l.
9 Mitchella repens Creeping Mitchella l.
10 Plantago alpina Alpine Plantain l.
11 -------- subulata Awl-leaved ditto l.
12 Cornus canadensis Herbaceous Dog-wood b.
13 Alchemilla pentaphylla Five-leaved Lady's Mantle b.l.
14 ---------- argentata Silvery-leaved ditto b.l.


15 Cynoglossum Omphaloides Blue Venus's Navelwort b.l.
16 Aretia vitaliana Primrose aretia l.
17 Androsace villosa Hairy Androsace l.
18 Primula cortusoides Bear's-ear Primrose b.l.
19 ------ villosa Hairy Primula b.l.
20 ------ nivea Snowy ditto b.l.
21 ------ marginata Margined ditto b.l.
22 ------ Auricula Common Yellow Auricula b.l.
23 ------ lonigfolia Long-leaved ditto b.l.
24 ------ helvetica Swiss ditto b.l.
25 Primula integrifolia Entire-leaved Auricula b.l.
26 Cortusa Mathioli Siberian Bear's-ear Sanicle b.
27 Soldanella alpina Alpine Soldanella b.l.
28 Dodecatheon Meadia American Cowslip b.l.
29 Cyclamen Coum Round-leaved Cyclamen l.
30 -------- hederaefolium Ivy-leaved ditto l.
31 Lysimachia dubia Purple Loosestrife l.
32 Phlox pilosa Hairy Lychnidea l.
33 ----- ovata Oval-leaved ditto l.
34 ----- suffruticosa Shrubby ditto l.
35 ----- stolonifera Creeping ditto l.
36 ----- subulata Awl-leaved ditto l.
37 ----- setacea Bristly ditto l.
38 Convulvulus lineatus Dwarf Bindweed l.
39 Campanulla pulla Dark-flowered Bell-flower b.l.
40 ---------- carpatica Carpasian ditto b.l.
41 ---------- pumila Purple-dwarf ditto b.l.
42 ---------- v. alba White-dwarf ditto b.l.
43 ---------- nitida Shining-leaved ditto b.l.
44 ---------- barbata Bearded ditto b.l.
45 ---------- azurea Azure-coloured ditto b.l.
46 Phyteuma hemisphaerica Small Rampion b.l.
47 Verbascum Myconi Borage-leaved Mullein l.


48 Gentiana acaulis Gentianella l.
49 -------- asclepiadea Swallow-wort Gentian l.
50 Bupleurum petraeum Rock Thorough-wax l.


51 Telephium Imperati True Orphine l.


52 Statice cordata Heart-leaved Thrift l.
53 ------- flexuosa Zigzag ditto l.
54 Linum flavum Yellow Flax l.
55 ----- austriacum Austrian ditto l.


56 Convallaria bifolia Two-leaved Lilly of the Valley l.b.


57 Trillium cernuum Drooping-flowered Trillium b.
58 -------- sessile Sessile-flowered ditto b.
59 Helonias bullata Spear-leaved Helonias b.
60 -------- asphodeloides Grass-leaved ditto b.


61 Rhexia mariana Hairy Rexia b.
62 Oenothera rosea Rose-flowered Tree Primrose l.b.
63 --------- pumila Dwarf Yellow ditto l.b.
64 Epilobium cordifolium Heart-leaved Willow-herb b.l.


65 Moehringia muscosa Mossy Moehringia l.


66 Saxifraga Cotyledon Pyramidal Saxifrage l.
67 --------- Aizoon Margined ditto c.m.
68 --------- ligulata Strap-leaved ditto c.m.
69 --------- rosularis Rose-leaved ditto c.m.
70 --------- mutata House-leek ditto c.m.
71 --------- Androsace Blunt-leaved ditto c.m.
72 --------- caesia Gray ditto c.m.
73 --------- pilosa Hairy ditto c.m.
74 --------- sarmentosa Creping ditto c.m.
75 --------- cuneifolia Wedge-leaved ditto c.m.
76 --------- aspera Rough-leaved ditto c.m.
77 --------- rotundifolia Round-leaved ditto c.m.
78 --------- ajugaefolia Ground Pine-leaved ditto c.m.
79 --------- sibirica Siberian Pine-leaved ditto c.m.
80 --------- adscendens Ascending Saxifrage c.m.
81 --------- viscosa Clammy ditto c.m.
82 Tiarella cordifolia Heart-leaved Tiarella c.m.
83 Mitella diphylla Two-leaved Mitella c.m.
84 Gypsophila repens Creeping Gypsophila l.b.
85 ---------- prostrata Trailing ditto l.b.
86 Saponaria acymoides Basil-leaved Soap-wort l.
87 -------- superbus Feathered ditto l.
88 -------- pungens Pungent ditto l.
89 -------- alpinus Alpine ditto l.
90 -------- capitatus Headed-flowered ditto l.
91 -------- glaucus Glaucous ditto l.
92 -------- virgineus Maiden ditto l.


93 Silene anemoena Siberian Catchfly l.
94 ------ alpestris Mountain ditto l.
95 ------ rupestris Rock ditto l.
96 ------ saxifraga Saxifrage ditto l.
97 ------ vallesia Downy ditto l.
98 Stellaria scapigera Naked-stalk'd Stitch-wort l.
99 Arenaria tetraquetra Square Sand-wort l.
100 ------- balearica Small ditto l.
101 ------- saxatilis Rock ditto l.
102 ------- striata Striated ditto l.
103 ------- grandiflora Great-flowered ditto l.
104 ------- liniflora Flax-flowered ditto l.


105 Sedum Aizoon Yellow Stonecrop c.m.
106 ----- Anacampseros Evergreen Orpine c.m.
107 ----- hybridum Bastard Sedum c.m.
108 ----- populifolium Poplar-leaved ditto c.m.
109 ----- virens Green ditto c.m.
110 ----- glaucum Glaucous ditto c.m.
111 ----- deficiens Round-leaved ditto c.m.
112 ----- hispanicum Spanish ditto l.
113 Lychnis quadridentata Small-flowering Lychnis l.b.


114 Asarum canadense Canadian Asarabaca l.b.


115 Sempervivum globiferum Globular House-leek l.
116 ----------- arachnoideum Cobweb ditto l.
117 ----------- hirtum Hairy ditto l.
118 ----------- montanum Mountain ditto l.
119 ----------- cuspidatum Prickly-leaved ditto l.
120 ----------- sediforme Stone-crop-leaved ditto l.


121 Rubus arcticus Dwarf Bramble l.b.
122 Potentilla sericea Silky Cinquefoil l.b.
123 ---------- multifida Multifid ditto l.
124 ---------- bifurca Bifid ditto l.
125 ---------- tridentata Trifid-leaved ditto l.
126 Geum potentilloides Cinquefoil Avens l.
127 ---- reptans Creeping ditto l.


128 Sanguinaria canadensis Canada Puccoon l.b.
129 Papaver nudicaule Naked-stalked Poppy l.
130 Cistus grandiflorus Great-flowered Cistus l.


131 Anemone Hepatica Common Liverwort c.m.
132 ------- hortensis Star Anemone l.b.
133 ------- dichotoma Forked ditto l.b.
134 Adonis vernalis Spring Adonis Flower c.m.
135 Ranunculus amplexicaulus Plaintain-leaved Crow-foot l.b.
136 ---------- alpestris Alpine ditto l.b.
137 ---------- glacialis Two-flowered ditto l.b.
138 Isopyrum thalictroides Thalictrum-leaved Isopyrum c.m.


139 Teucrium multiflorum Many-flowered Germander c.m.
140 -------- pyrenaicum Pyrenean ditto c.m.
141 Dracocephalum denticulatum Tooth-leaved Dragon's-head c.m.
142 ------------- austriacum Austrian ditto b.l.
143 ------------- grandiflorum Great-flowered ditto l.
144 Scutellaria alpina Alpine Skull-cap l.
145 ----------- grandiflora Large-flowered ditto l.
146 Prunella laciniata Cut-leaved Self-heal c.m.
147 -------- grandiflora Large-flowered ditto c.m.
148 -------- hyssopifolia Hyssop-leaved ditto c.m.
149 -------- latifolia Broad-leaved ditto c.m.


150 Erinus alpinus Alpine Erinus l.b.


151 Draba aizoides Hairy-leaved Willow-grass l.b.
152 Lepidium alpinum Mountain Pepper-wort l.b.
153 Iberis saxatilis Rock Candy-tuft l.b.
154 Alyssum montanum Mountain Mad-wort l.
155 ------- utriculatum Bladder-podded ditto l.
156 ------- deltoideum Purple-flowered ditto l.
157 ------- campestre Small yellow ditto l.


158 Cardamine asarifolia Heart-leaved Lady's Smock l.
159 --------- bellidifolia Daisy-leaved ditto l.
160 --------- trifolia Three-leaved ditto l.b.
161 Cheiranthus alpinus Alpine Stock l.
162 Arabis alpina Alpine Wall-Cress l.
163 ----- lucida Shining-leaved ditto l.
164 ----- bellidifolia Daisy-leaved ditto l.
165 ----- sibirica Siberian ditto l.b.


166 Erodium Reichardi Dwarf Erodium c.m.


167 Fumaria cucullaria Naked-stalked Fumitory l.
168 ------- nobilis Great-flowered ditto l.
169 Fumaria cava Hollow-rooted Fumitory l.
170 ------- solida Solid-rooted ditto l.
171 ------- spectabilis Scarlet ditto l.


172 Hedysarum obscorum Creeping-rooted Hedysarum l.b.
173 Astragalus pilosus Hairy Milk-Vetch l.
174 ---------- falcatus Sickle-podded ditto l.
175 ---------- uliginosus Marsh ditto l.
176 ---------- monspessulanus Montpelier ditto l.
177 ---------- exscapus Stalkless ditto l.
178 ---------- campestris Field ditto l.


179 Leontodon aureum Golden Dandelion l.


180 Artemisia glacialis Creeping Wormwood c.m.
181 Gnaphalium plantagineum Plaintain-leaved Everlasting l.
182 Erigeron philadelphicum Philadelphia Erigeron l.
183 -------- purpureum Purple ditto l.b.


184 Lobelia minuta Least Cardinal Flower
185 Viola palmata Palmated Violet b.
186 ----- cucullata Hollow-leaved ditto l.
187 ----- canadensis Canadian ditto l.b.
188 ----- striata Striated ditto l.b.
189 ----- pubescens Downy ditto l.b.
190 ----- biflora Two-flowered ditto l.b.
191 ----- grandiflora Great-flowered ditto l.b.
192 ----- calcarata Alpine ditto l.b.
193 ----- cornuta Pyrenean ditto l.b.
194 ----- obliqua Oblique-leaved ditto l.b.
195 Tussilago alpina Alpine Colt's-foot c.m.
196 Senecio abrotanifolia Southernwood-leaved Grounsel c.m.
197 Aster alpinus Alpine Star-wort l.b.
198 Doronicum bellidiastrum Daisy-leaved Leopard's-Bane l.b.
199 Bellis lusitania Portugal Daisy l.b.
200 Bellium minutum Bastard Daisy l.b.
201 Anthemis Pyrethrum Pellitory of Spain l.b.
202 Achillea tomentosa Woolly Milfoil l.b.
203 -------- Clavannae Silvery-leaved ditto l.b.


204 Cypripedium album White Ladies-Slipper b.


205 Sisyrinchum anceps Small Sisyrinchum c.m.
206 Arum tenuifolium Fine-leaved Arum c.m.


207 Polypodium marginale Margin-flowered Polypody b.l.
208 ---------- auriculatum Eared ditto b.l.
209 Onoclea sensibilis Sensitive Fern b.
210 Equisetum filiforme Fine Horse-tail l.

* * * * *



1. ALISMA Plantago. I cannot pass over this beautiful aquatic without
giving it a place amongst the ornamental plants with which our country
abounds. In pieces of water this is of considerable interest both as to
flowers and foliage, and no place of the kind should ever be destitute
of such a beauty. It is of easy culture; the plant taken from its place
of growth and sunk into the water with a stone to keep it in its place,
is a ready and easy mode of planting it, and there is no fear when once
introduced but it will succeed.

2. ANDROMEDA polifolia. This is a beautiful little shrub, and grown in
gardens for the sake of its flowers; it is also an evergreen. This plant
will not succeed unless it is planted in bog earth,--for a description
of which see page 152 of this volume.

3. AQUILEGIA vulgaris. COLUMBINE.--We have scarcely a plant affording
more beauty or greater variety than this. It is commonly, when found
wild, of a blue colour, but when the seeds are sown in the garden a
variety of tints is produced. It is a perennial, but easily raised from
seed, which should be sown in the spring.

4. ANTHEMIS maritima. A double-flowering variety of this plant used to
be common in the gardens near London, but is now scarce: it is very
beautiful, and constantly in bloom during summer. It is propagated by
planting the roots in the spring and autumn.

5. ANTIRRHINUM linaria, v. Peloria.--I cannot pass over this singular
and beautiful flower without notice. There is a fine figure of it in the
Flora Londinensis: it is very ornamental, and the structure of the bloom
is truly interesting. It is easily propagated by planting the roots in
the spring months, but it is not common.

6. ANTIRRHINUM majus. SNAPDRAGON.--This is also a plant deserving the
attention of the lover of flowers: it is capable of culture into many
very beautiful and interesting varieties.

7. BELLIS perennis. DAISY.--This plant affords us many very beautiful
varieties for the flower garden. The large Red Daisy and all the other
fine kinds are only this plant improved by culture.

8. BUTOMIS umbellatus. This is an aquatic, and well adapted to ornament
pieces of water. Its beautiful flowers in the summer months are inferior
to scarcely any plants growing in such places, and its foliage will form
protection for any birds, &c., which are usually kept in such places. It
is easily propagated by planting it in such places.

9. CALTHA palustris. MARSH MARIGOLD.--This fine yellow flower is also
made double by culture, and finds a place in the flower garden.

10. CHEIRANTHUS fruticulosus. WALLFLOWER.--Is a plant possessing great
beauty, and very interesting on account of its fine scent. We have this
plant also improved by culture, making many fine double varieties. It is
a biennial, and easily raised from seeds, which should be sown in June.
The double varieties are cultivated by cuttings of the branches.

11. CYPRIPEDIUM Calceolus. LADIES SLIPPER.--A flower of the most
uncommon beauty, but is now become scarce; it is a native of the woods
near Skipton in Yorkshire, but has been so much sought for by the lovers
of plants as to become almost extinct. It is difficult to propagate; but
when the plants have been for some years growing, will admit of being
parted, so that it may be increased in that way: it will not bear to be
often removed, and should be left to grow in the same place for several
years without being disturbed. It succeeds best in bog earth or rotten

12. DELPHINIUM Ajacis. LARKSPUR.--This is also an annual flower,
affording a pleasing variety in the flower garden in the summer months.
For it culture, see p. 188.

13. DIANTHUS Caryophyllus. THE CARNATION.--All our fine varieties of the
carnation are the produce of this plant.

The common single variety produces seed in great abundance, but the
improved double varieties are sparing in produce: the fine kinds of this
flower are reared by layers put down about the month of July; they may
also be propagated by cuttings, but the other is the most eligible and
certain mode.

14. EPILOBIUM angustifolium. A plant of singular ornament. There is also
a white variety of this found in gardens.

15. ERICA vulgaris. There is now in cultivation in the gardens a
double-flowering variety of this plant, which is highly interesting and
of singular beauty. It grows readily in bog earth, and is raised by

16. ERICA Daboeica. IRISH HEATH.--A plant of singular beauty and of easy
culture; and being of small growth and almost constantly in bloom, has
also obtained a place in the shrubbery.

17. FRITILLARIA Meleagris. A very ornamental bulbous plant, of which the
Dutch gardeners have many improved varieties, varying in the colour and
size of the blossoms: these are usually imported in August, and should
be immediately planted, as the bulbs will not keep long when out of
ground, unless they are covered with sand.

18. GALANTHUS nivalis. SNOWDROP.--The first of the productions of Flora
which reminds us of the return of spring after the dark and dreary days
of winter. This plant is also made double by cultivation, but is not
handsomer than the common wild one. The best time for planting the bulbs
of Snowdrops is in the month of September.

19. GENTIANA verna. VERNAL GENTIAN.--A delightful little plant of the
finest blue colour the Flora exhibits in all her glory: its scent is
also delightful: it is somewhat scarce and difficult to procure; but if
more generally known, few gardens would be destitute of such a treasure.
It is of tolerably easy culture, and grows well in loam: it is small,
and is best kept in a pot.

20. GENTIANA Pneumonanthe. MARSH GENTIAN.--Is also a beautiful plant,
and grows well in any moist place. From its beautiful blue flowers it is
well adapted to the flower garden; it delights in bog earth.

21. GERANIUM phaeum. BLACK-FLOWERED GERANIUM.--This is a perennial, and
makes a fine ornamental plant for the shrubbery: it will grow in any
soil and situation.

22. GLAUCUM Phoeniceum. PURPLE HORN POPPY.--An annual flower of
singular beauty, and deserving a place in the flower garden.

23. GNAPHALIUM margaritaceum. AMERICAN CUDWEED.--This plant affords
beautiful white flowers, which drying and keeping their colour, it is
worth attention on that account, as it affords a pleasing variety with
the different Xeranthema, and others of the like class in winter.

24. HIERACUM aurantiacum. GRIM-THE-COLLIER.--This is an old inhabitant
of our gardens, and affords a pleasing variety.

25. HOTTONIA palustris. WATER VIOLET.--This is a plant of singular
beauty in spring; it is an aquatic, and makes a fine appearance in our
ponds in the time of its bloom.

26. IBERIS amara. CANDYTUFT.--An annual flower of considerable beauty
and interest. We have several varieties of this sold in the seed-shops.

27. IMPATIENS NOLI ME TANGERE.--A very curious flower which is grown as
an annual. The construction of the seed-vessel causing the seeds to be
discharged with an elastic force is a pleasing phaenomenon.

28. LATHYRUS sylvestris.--EVERLASTING PEA.--This is also a great
ornament, and frequently found in gardens; it grows very readily from
seeds sown in the spring of the year.

29. LEUCOJUM aestivum. SUMMER SNOW FLAKE.--This is a very noxious plant
in the meadows where it grows wild. I have seen it in the neighbourhood
of Wooking in Surrey quite overpower the grass with its herbage in the
spring, and no kind of that animal that we know of will eat it.

It is however considered an ornamental plant, and is often found in our
flower gardens. It is of easy culture: the roots may be planted in any
of the autumn or winter months.

30. MALVA moschata. MUSK MALLOW.--This makes a fine appearance when in
bloom, for which purpose it is often propagated in gardens: its scent,
which is strong of vegetable musk, is also very pleasant.

31. MELLITIS mellyssophyllum. MELLITIS grandiflora. BASTARD BALM.--Both
these plants are very beautiful, and are deserving a place in the flower
garden: they are of easy culture, and will grow well under the shade of
trees, a property that will always recommend them to the notice of the

32. MENYANTHES Nymphoides. ROUND-LEAVED BOG BEAN.--This is a
beautiful aquatic, and claims a place in all ornamental pieces of water.

33. NARCISSUS poeticus. NARCISSUS Pseudo Narcissus.--These are much
cultivated in gardens for the sake of the flowers. The florists have by
culture made several varieties, as Double blossoms which are great
ornaments. The season for planting the bulbs of Narcissus of all
kinds is the month of October: they will grow well in any soil, and
thrive best under the shade of trees.

34. NUPHAR minima is also beautiful, but it is not common. It
will form an ornament for pieces of water.

35. NYMPHAEA alba. NYMPHAEA lutea.--These are aquatics, and scarcely
any plant is more deserving of our attention. The fine appearance of the
foliage floating on the surface, which is interspersed with beautiful
flowers, will render any piece of water very interesting: it should also
be observed that gold-fish are found to thrive best when they have the
advantage of the shade of these plants. It is difficult in deep water to
make them take root, being liable to float on the surface, in which
state they will not succeed. But if the plants are placed in some
strong clay or loam tied down in wicker baskets and then placed in the
water, there is no fear of their success: they should be placed where
the water is sufficiently deep to inundate the roots two feet or a
little more.

36. OPHRYS apifera. BEE ORCHIS.--There are few plants that are more
generally admired than all the Orchideae for their singular beauty and
uncommon structure. The one in question so very much resembles the
humble-bee in appearance, that I have known persons mistake this flower
for the animal. It is unfortunate for the amateurs of gardening that
most plants of this tribe are difficult of propagation, and are not of
easy culture. I have sometimes succeeded with this and other species, by
the following method:--to take up the roots from their native places of
growth as early as they can be found, and then procure some chalk and
sift it through a fine sieve, and also some good tenacious loam; mix
both in equal quantities in water; a large garden-pot should then be
filled with some rubble of chalk, about one third deep, and then the
above compost over it, placing the roots in the centre, at the usual
depth they grew before. As the water drains away, the loam and chalk
will become fixed closely round the bulbs, and they will remain alive
and grow. By this method I have cultivated these plants for some years

In this way all those kinds growing in chalk may be made to grow; but
such as the Orchis moryo, maculata, and pyramidalis, may be grown in
loam alone, planted in pots in the common way. Care should be taken that
the pots in which they are planted are protected from wet and frost in
the winter season.

37. ORNITHOGALUM latifolium and umbellatum are also ornamental, and are
often cultivated for their beautiful flower. The season for planting the
bulbs is about the month of September.

--These are made by culture into numerous varieties, and are very
beautiful; but the aroma, which is pregnant with opium, renders too many
of them unpleasant for the garden.

beautiful perennial, and claims the notice of the gardener. Its
variety, with white flowers, is also ornamental. It is raised
from seeds, which are sold in plenty in our seed-shops.

elatior. OXLIP. PRIMULA farinose. BIRD'S EYE.--All well known ornaments
of numerous varieties, double and single. The third species is the
parent of the celebrated Polyanthus. The last is also an interesting
little plant with a purple flower. It grows best in bog earth.

41. ROSA rubiginosa. SWEET BRIAR.--This lovely and highly extolled shrub
has long claimed a place in our gardens. We have several varieties with
double flowers, which are highly prized by the amateurs of gardening.

42. SAXIFRAGA umbrosa. LONDON PRIDE.---A beautiful little plant for
forming edgings to the flower garden, or for decorating rock-work.

43. SAXIFRAGA oppositifolia. PURPLE SAXIFRAGE.--Perhaps we have few
flowers early in the spring that deserve more attention than this. It
blooms in the months of February and March, and in that dreary season,
in company with the Snow-drop, Crocus, and Hepaticas, will form a most
delightful group of Flora's rich production. The Saxifrage is a native
of high mountains, and it can only be propagated by being continually
exposed to the open and bleakest part of the garden: it succeeds best in
pots. It should be parted every spring, and a small piece about the size
of a shilling planted in the centre of a small pot, and it will fill the
surface by the autumn. The soil bestsuited to it is loam.

44. SEDUM acre. STONE CROP. SEDUM rupestre. ROCK GINGER.--All the
species of Sedums are very ornamental plants, and are useful for
covering rocks or walls, where they will generally grow with little
trouble. The easiest mode of propagating and getting them to grow on
such places is first to make the place fit for their reception, by
putting thereon a little loam made with a paste of cow-dung; then
chopping the plants in small pieces, and strowing them on the place: if
this is done in the spring, the places will be well covered in a short

45. STATICE Armeria. THRIFT.--This plant is valuable for making edgings
to the flower garden. It should be parted, and planted for this purpose
either in the months of August and September, or April and May.

46. STIPA pinnata. FEATHER GRASS.--We have few plants of more interest
than this; its beautiful feathery bloom is but little inferior to the
plumage of the celebrated Bird of Paradise. It is frequently worn in the
head-dress of ladies.

47. SWERTIA perennis. MARSH SWERTIA.--This is a beautiful little plant,
and worth the attention of all persons who are fond of flowers that will
grow in boggy land. It is a perennial, and of easy culture.

48. TROLLIUS europaeus. GLOBE FLOWER.--This is also a fine plant:
when cultivated in a moist soil its beautiful yellow flowers afford a
pleasing accompaniment to the flower border and parterre in the spring
of the year. It is easily raised by parting its roots.

49. TULIPA sylvestris.--This beautiful flower is also an inhabitant of
our flower-gardens; it is called the Sweet-scented Florentine Tulip. It
has a delightful scent when in bloom, and is highly worthy the attention
of amateurs of flower gardens. It should be planted in September, and
will grow in almost any soil or situation.

50. TYPHA latifolia. TYPHA angustifolia. TYPHA minor.--These are all
very fine aquatics, and worth a place in all pieces of water; the
foliage forms a fine shelter for water-fowl.

51. VIOLA tricolor. HEART'S-EASE.--Is an annual of singular beauty, and
forms many pleasing and interesting varieties.

52. VIOLA odorata must not be passed over among our favourite native
flowers. This is of all other plants in its kind the most interesting.
It forms also several varieties; as Double purple, Double white, and the
Neapolitan violet. The latter one is double, of a beautiful light blue
colour, and flowers early; it is rather tender, and requires the
protection of a hot-bed frame during winter. It is best cultivated in

53. VINCA minor. LESSER PERIWINKLE.--This is also a beautiful little
evergreen, of which the gardeners have several varieties in cultivation;
some with double flowers, others with white and red-coloured corols,
which form a pleasing diversity in summer.

54. VINCA major. GREAT PERIWINKLE.-I know of no plant of more beauty,
when it is properly managed, than this. It is an evergreen of the most
pleasing hue, and will cover any low fences or brick-work in a short
space of time. The flowers, which are purple, form a pleasing variety in
the spring months.

* * * * *


53. BETA vulgaris. I have noticed this plant before, both as to its
culinary uses and for feeding cattle: but having received a
communication from a friend of mine who resides in the interior of
Russia, relative to his establishment for extracting sugar from this
root, I cannot omit relating it here, as it appears to be an interesting
part of agricultural oeconomy.

"I have here two extensive fabrics for the purpose of making sugar from
the Red Beet, and we find that it yields us that useful article in great
abundance; i. e. from every quarter of the root (eight bushels
Winchester measure) I obtain ten pounds weight of good brown sugar; and
this when refined produces us four pounds of the finest clarified lump
sugar, and the molasses yield good brandy on distillation. This is not
all; for while we are now working the article the cows are stall-fed on
the refuse from the vats after mashing; and those animals give us milk
in abundance, and the butter we are making is equal to any that is made
in the summer, when those animals are foraging our best meads."--
Dashkoff, in the government of Orel, 1500 miles from St. Petersburgh,
Jan 7, 1816.

The above account, which is so extremely flattering, may no doubt lead
persons to imagine that the culture of the beet for the same purpose in
this country might be found to answer: and as it is our aim in this
little work to give the best information on these subjects without
prejudice, I shall beg leave to make use of the following observation,
which is not my own, but one that was made on this subject by a Russian
gentleman, whom I have long had the honour of enumerating among my best
friends; and who is not less distinguished for his application both to
the arts and oeconomy, than he is for his professional duties, and his
readiness at all times to communicate information for the general good.

"The land where the Beet is grown is of an excellent quality, very deep
and fertile, and such as will grow any crop for a series of years
without manure. Such soils are seldom found in this country but what may
be cultivated to more advantage. In such land, and such alone, will this
vegetable imbibe a large quantity of the saccharine fluid; for it would
be in vain to look for it in such Beet roots as have been grown on poor
land made rich by dint of manure.

"It may also be a circumstance worth remarking, that although the sugar
thus obtained is very good for common use, it by no means answers the
purpose of the confectioner, as it is not fit for preserving; and for
this purpose the cane sugar alone is used; so that although great merit
may attach to the industry of a person who in times of scarcity can
produce such an useful article as sugar from a vegetable so easily
grown, yet when cane sugar can be imported at a moderate rate, it will
always supersede the use of the other."

56. PYRUS malus. THE APPLE.--This useful fruit, now growing so much to
decay in this country, which was once so celebrated for its produce, is
grown in great perfection in all the northern provinces of France; and
she supplied the London markets with apples this season, for which she
was paid upwards of 50,000 l.; and can most likely offer us good cyder
on moderate terms.

The French people, ever alive to improvement and invention, having
discovered a mode of extracting sugar in considerable quantity from this
fruit, I shall transcribe the particulars of it.

On the Preparation of Liquid Sugar from Apples or Pears. By M. DUBUC.
(Ann. de Chim. vol. lxviii.)--"Several establishments have been made in
the South of France for making sugar from grapes; it is therefore
desired to communicate the same advantage to the North of France, as
apples and pears will produce sugar whose taste is equally agreeable as
that of grapes, and equally cheap.

"Eight quarts of the full ripe juice of the Orange Apples was boiled for
a quarter of an hour, and forty grammes of powdered chalk added to it,
and the boiling continued for ten minutes longer. The liquor was
strained twice through flannel, and afterwards reduced by boiling to one
half of its former bulk, and the operation finished by a slow heat until
a thick pellicle rose on the surface, and a quart of the syrup weighed
two pounds. By this method two pounds one ounce of liquid sugar was
obtained, very agreeable in flavour, and which sweetened water very
well, and even milk, without curdling it.

"Eight quarts of the juice of apples called Doux levesque, yielded by
the same process two pounds twelve ounces of liquid sugar.

"Eight quarts of the juice of the sour apples called Blanc mollet,
yielded two pounds ten ounces of good sugar.

"Eight quarts of the juice of the watery apples called Girard, yielded
two pounds and a half.

"Twenty-five chilogrammes, or fifty-pounds of the above four apples,
yielded nearly fourty-two pounds of juice; which took three ounces of
chalk and the white of six eggs, and produced more than six pounds of
excellent liquid sugar.

"In order to do without the white of eggs, twenty pounds of the juice of
the above apples were saturated with eleven drachms of chalk, and
repeatedly strained through flannel, but it was still thick and
disagreeable to the taste; twelve drachms of charcoal powder were then
added, and the whole boiled for about ten minutes, and then strained
through flannel; it was then clear, but higher-coloured than usual;
however, it produced very good sugar. Six quarts of apple-juice were
also treated with seven drachms of chalk, and one ounce of baker's
small-coal previously washed until it no longer coloured the water, with
the same effect.

"Eight quarts of apple juice, of several different kinds and in
different stages of ripeness, of which one-third was still sour, were
saturated with twelve drachms of chalk, and clarified with the whites of
six eggs; some malate of lime was deposited in small crystals towards
the end, and separated by passing the syrup very hot through the
flannel. Very near two pounds of sugar were obtained.

"Ten pounds of bruised apples, similar to the last, were left to
macerate for twenty-four hours, and four quarts of the juice were
treated with five drachms of chalk and the white of an egg: it yielded
one pound six ounces of liquid sugar; so that the maceration had been of

"Twenty-four pounds of the pear called Pillage, yielded nine quarts of
juice, which required eighteen drachms of chalk and the whites of two
eggs, and yielded about twenty-four ounces of sugar, which was less
agreeable to the taste than that of ripe apples.

"Six quarts of juice from one part of the above pears, and two of ripe
apples, (orange and girard,) treated with eight drachms of chalk and the
whites of two eggs, yielded twenty-six ounces of very fine-tasted sugar,
superior to the preceding.

"Six quarts of juice, of an equal quantity of apples and pears, treated
with ten drachms of chalk and thirteen of prepared charcoal, deposited
some malate of lime, and yielded a sugar rather darker than the
preceding, but very well tasted.

"Cadet de Vaux says, that apple juice does not curdle milk, and that a
small quantity of chalk added to it destroys some part of the saccharine
principle. But eight quarts of juice from ripe apples called orange,
which was evidently acid, as it curdled milk and reddened infusion of
turnsole and that of violet, were treated with four drachms of chalk and
the white of an egg: it yielded twenty-two ounces of syrup, between
thirty-two and thirty-three degrees of the hydrometer, which did not
curdle milk. Another eight quarts of the same juice evaporated to
three-fourths of its volume, and strained, yielded twenty-three ounces
of clear syrup, which curdled milk, and was browner than that of the
neutralized juice, and approached towards treacle in smell and taste.
Perhaps the apple called Jean-hure, used by Mr. Cadet, possesses the
valuable properties of furnishing good sugar by mere evaporation. It is
necessary to observe, that unless the fire is slackened towards the end
the syrup goes brown, and acquires the taste and smell of burnt sugar.

"A hundred weight of apples yield about eighty-four pounds of juice,
which produce nearly twelve pounds of liquid sugar. Supposing,
therefore, the average price of apples to be one franc twenty cents
(tenpence) the hundred-weight, and the charge amounts to forty cents
(four-pence), good sugar may be prepared for three or four sols (two-
pence) per pound [Footnote: A gramme, fifteen grains English.-A drachm,
one-eighth of an ounce.]. The only extra apparatus necessary is a couple
of copper evaporating pans."--Retrospect, vol. vi. p. 14.

The distressed state of our orchards in the Cider counties has lately
much engaged the attention of all persons who are accustomed to travel
through them; and no one can possibly view the miserable condition of
the trees, without being forcibly struck with their bad appearance: the
principal case of which, I am sorry to say, has arisen from
mismanagement [Footnote: Vide Observations on Orchards, lately published
by the author of this work.]; and it certainly does in a great measure
tarnish the laurels of our boasted agriculturists, when we find such
great quantities of this useful fruit produced in France, that very
country which we have been taught to believe so greatly behind us in the
general oeconomy of life.

57. SPERGULA arvensis.--This plant has been recommended as a crop for
feeding cattle, and is stated to be cultivated for that purpose in some
parts of Germany and Flanders: but I believe we have many other plants
better calculated for the purpose here.

58. VIOLA odorata.--This is a very useful plant in medicine, affording
a syrup which has long been used in the practice. It is however
discarded from the London Pharmacopoeia.

59. URTICA canadensis. CANADIAN HEMP NETTLE.--During the late war,
when, from unfortunate circumstances and misunderstandings amongst the
potentates of Europe, the commercial intercourse was checked, great
speculations were made among the people to discover substitutes for such
articles as were of certain demand; and one of the principal was of
course the article Hemp, which, although it can be partially cultivated
in this country, is a plant of that nature that we should find the
article at a most enormous price were we dependent on our own supply
alone. The great growth that supplies all the markets in the world is
Russia, where land is not only cheap, but of better quality than here;
but with which country we were once unhappily deprived of the advantage
of trade. This caused persons to seek for substitutes: and I once saw
one that was made from bean-stalks, not to be despised; but it is
probable that none has reached so high in perfection as that produced
from the plant above named. A person has grown and manufactured this
article in Canada, and has exhibited some samples in London, which it is
said have obtained the sanction of government, and that the same person
is now engaged in growing in North America a considerable quantity of
this article. As this, therefore, is a subject of great interest to us
as a maritime nation, I shall insert the following account that is given
of this plant. I am, however, quite unacquainted with its culture or
manufacture, and cannot pledge myself for the accuracy of the detail.

"PERENNIAL HEMP. Cultivation.--Affects wet mellow land, but may be
cultivated with advantage on upland black mould or loam, if moist and of
middling good quality. Manure will assist the produce. It may be planted
from the beginning of October to the latter end of March, in drills
about fifteen inches asunder and nine inches distance in the drills.

"Propagation.--Sow the seeds in a bed in the month of March, and
transplant the roots next autumn twelvemonth, as above directed; or
divide the old roots, which is the quickest way of obtaining a crop.

"Time of Harvesting.--If a fine quality of Hemp is desired, mow the
crop when it is in full bloom; but should a greater produce of inferior
quality be more desirable, it should stand until the seeds are nearly
ripe. It should remain in the field about a week after it is mown, and
when sufficiently dry gathered in bundles and stacked as Hemp.

"Separation of Hemp from the Pulps.--Rot it in water, as practised with

"The Perennial Hemp grows to the height of from four to six feet.

"The root inclines horizontally with numerous fleshy fibres at the

"The buds many, and resembling the buds of the Lily of the Valley.

"It is the Urtica canadensis of Kalm, one of which was brought over and
planted by the side of this plant, and we could not find any difference."

60. LAPSANA communis. NIPPLE-WORT.--This plant is considered by the
country people as a sovereign remedy for the piles. The plant is
immersed in boiling water, and the cure is effected by applying the
steam arising therefrom to the seat of the disease; and this, with
cooling medicine and proper regimen, is seldom known to fail in curing
this troublesome disease.

61. DAPHNE laureola. WOOD LAUREL.--The leaves of this plant have little
or no smell but a very durable nauseous acrid taste. If taken internally
in small doses, as ten or twelve grains, they are said to operate with
violence by stool and sometimes by vomit, so as not to be ventured on
with safety, unless their virulence be previously abated by long
boiling, and even then they are much to precarious to be trusted to. The
flowers are of a different nature, being in taste little other than
mucilaginous and sweetish, and of a light pleasant smell. The pulpy part
of the berries appears also to be harmless. The bark macerated in water
has of late been much employed in France as a topical application to the
skin for the purpose of excoriating and exciting a discharge.

62. RUMEX acutus. SHARP-POINTED DOCK.--The root of this plant has long
been used in medicine, and considered as useful in habitual costiveness,
obstructions of the viscera, and in scorbutic and cutaneous maladies; in
which case both external and internal applications have been made of it.
A decoction of half or a whole drachm of the dry roots has been
considered a dose.--Lewis's Mat. Medica.

63. ELYMUS arenarius. ELYMUS geniculatus. LIME GRASS.--The foliage of
these grasses make excellent mats and baskets; and where they grow in
quantity afford a livelihood to many industrious persons who manufacture
these articles.

64. SALSOLA Kali. GLASS-WORT, or KELP. Soda and Barilla are yielded by
this plant. The ashes of this vegetable yield an alkaline salt, which is
of considerable use for making glass, soap, &c. The small quantity grown
in this country is by no means equal to the demand, and Spain has the
advantage of trade in this article, where the plant grows wild in the
greatest abundance. An impure alkali similar to these is obtained from
the combustion of other marine plants, as the Fuci, &c. by the people in

65. BORAGO officinalis. BORAGE--A fine cooling beverage is made from
this herb, called Cool Tankard. It is merely an infusion of the leaves
and flowers put into water, with the addition of wine, nutmeg, &c. &c.

* * * * *

OBSERVATIONS on the BLEEDING TREES, and procuring the Sap for making
Wine, and brewing Ale.

In the article BIRCH TREE, (p. 34, No. 107, of this volume,) we have
mentioned the abstracting the sap for the purpose of making wine; and as
this is practicable, and may be obtained in some places at little
expense and trouble, I shall take the liberty of transcribing the
following curious paper on the subject.

"To obtain the greatest store of sap in the shortest time from the body
of a tree, bore it quite through the pith, and the very inner rind on
the other side, leaving only the bark unpierced on the north-east side.
This hole to be made sloping upwards with a large auger, and that under
a large arm near the ground. This way the tree will in a short time
afford liquor enough to brew with; and with some of these sweet saps,
one bushel of malt will make as good ale as four bushels with ordinary
water. The Sycamore yields the best brewing sap.

"The change of weather has a great effect on the bleeding of plants.
When the weather changes from warm to cold, Birch ceases to bleed, and
upon the next warmth begins again: but the contrary obtains in the
Walnut-tree, and frequently in the Sycamore, which upon a fit of cold
will bleed plentifully, and, as that remits, stop. A morning sun after
frost will make the whole bleeding tribe bleed afresh.

"From the latter end of January to the middle of May trees will bleed.
Those that run first, are the Poplar, Asp, Abele, Maple, Sycamore. Some,
as Willows and the Birch, are best to tap about the middle of the
season, and the Walnut towards the latter end of March.

"When a large Walnut will bleed no longer in the body or branches, it
will run at the root, and longer on the south or sunny side than on the
north or shady side.

"A culinary fire will have the same or greater effect than the sun, and
immediately set trees a-bleeding in the severest weather. Branches of
Maple or Willow cut off at both ends, will bleed and cease at pleasure
again and again as you approach them to or withdraw them from the fire,
provided you balance them in your hand, and often invert them to prevent
the falling and expence of the sap; but at length they cease.

"A Birch will not bleed however deeply the bark only may be wounded: it
is necessary to pierce into the substance of the wood."--Dr. Tonge in
Phil. Trans. No. 43.


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