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The Botanist's Companion, Vol. II by William Salisbury

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635. HYOSCYAMUS niger. HENBANE.--Henbane is a very dangerous poison. The
seeds, leaves, and root, received into the human stomach, are all

The root in a superior degree produces sometimes madness; and if taken
in large quantity, and the stomach does not reject it by vomiting, a
stupor and apopleptic symptoms, terminating in death, are the usual

A case of the bad effects of the roots of this plant, which occurred in
Ireland, is mentioned by Dr. Threlkeld. In the winter season, some men
working in a garden threw up some roots which were supposed to be
Skirrets, and those were cooked for dinner. About two hours after they
were eaten, a person who partook of them was taken with an unusual
lassitude, as if being much fatigued, heat and dryness both in the mouth
an the throat, a giddiness accompanied with dimness of sight, and a
partial stoppage in his urine. Several others who had eaten at the same
table, as also servants who had partaken, were subjected to the like
influence. Medical assistance being at hand, by the use of emetics they
were relieved; but it was many days before the whole of them had
recovered from those dreadful symptoms.

Two children having both eaten of the berries of this plant, the one a
boy (who recovered) being taken ill, vomitted, and was supposed to have
thrown them off his stomach: the other, a little girl, died in
convulsions the next morning. As mothers and kindred souls do not like
names to be made public in these cases, I cannot help feeling some
desire to suppress a publicity of a fact in which a near and dear
relative was materially interested. In justice, however, to the public,
I must mention that I can vouch for the fact, and trust it may not pass
without notice, so far as to let the berries be supposed anything but

Plantae affines.

The idea of Skirrets being confounded with this plant, is, I think,
erroneous, if it has leaves on, as they are not pinnated, and very
different from it. When the Hyoscyamus is in bloom, it has
curiously-formed flowers of an uncommonly disgusting hue. The scent of
this plant, on bruising it, and its general appearance, render it almost
impossible that any one should mistake it. The roots, in the winter
season, when destitute of leaves, may, however, be mistaken for those of
Parsnep, Parsley, Skirret, and many others of similar shape, and of
which it is out of our power to give a distinguishing character.

636. LACTUCA virosa. STRONG-SCENTED WILD LETTUCE.--The juice of this
plant is a very powerful opiate, and care should be taken how it is made
use of. I have not heard of any dangerous effects having been produced
by it. The strong and disagreeable scent and bitter nauseous taste will
most likely always operate as a preservative to its being used for food;
and as a medicine, it is hoped its use will be confined to the judicious
hand of a medical botanist.

Plantae affines.

All the kinds of garden lettuce; but it may be distinguished by its
spines on the back of the leaves. It may be remarked, that the milky
juice of all lettuce has similar properties to the above; but the juice
is not milky till such time as the plant produces seed-stalks, and then
the taste in general is too nauseous for it to be eaten.

637. SOLANUM Dulcamara. BITTERSWEET.--The berries of this plant have
been sometimes eaten by children, and have produced very alarming
effects. It is common in hedges, and should be at all times as much
extirpated as possible.

638. SOLANUM nigrum. DEADLY NIGHTSHADE.--Webfer has given us an account
of some children that were killed in consequence of having eaten the
berries of this plant for black currants. And others have spoken of the
direful effects of the whole plant so much, that, from the incontestable
proofs of its deleterious qualities, persons cannot be too nice in
selecting their pot-herbs, particularly those who make a practice of
gathering from dunghills and gardens Fat-Hen, &c. as there is some
distant similitude betwixt these plants, and their places of growth are
the same.--Curtis's Fl. Lond. fasc. 2.

Plantae affines.

All the Chenopodia grow with this plant wild, and are somewhat alike in
appearance; but the Solanum may at all times be distinguished by its
disagreeable strong scent.

* * * * *


These come near to the Stupefying Poisons; but they are not treated in
the same manner; for ether, wine, or acids combined with spirits, appear
the properest things to destroy their deleterious properties: spices are
then indicated, except for savine, which requires instead thereof acids.

639. CONIUM maculatum. HEMLOCK.--Two soldiers quartered at Waltham Abbey
collected in the fields adjoining to that town a quantity of herbs
sufficient for themselves and two others for dinner when boiled with
bacon. These herbs were accordingly dressed, and the poor men ate of the
broth with bread, and afterwards the herbs with bacon: in a short time
they were all seized with vertigo. Soon after they were comatose, two of
them became convulsed, and died in about three hours.

Plantae affines.

Parsley differs from this except in size and colour of the leaves.

Celery is also much like this plant, and particularly so if found wild;
but which, for reasons given before, should never be collected to be

Fool's parsley is very like it; and when the hemlock is in a small
state, and this plant luxuriant, I have been in some doubt as to
pointing out a perfect difference, especially when they are not in
fructification. The spots on hemlock form generally a distinguishing

640. DIGITALIS purpurea. FOXGLOVE.--A few months ago, a child was ill of
a pulmonary complaint, and the apothecary had desired the nurse to
procure a small quantity of Coltsfoot and make it a little tea; and
accordingly the good woman went to a shop in London, where she procured,
as she supposed, three pennyworth of that herb, and made a decoction, of
which she gave the patient a tea-cupful; a few minutes after which she
found symptoms of convulsions make their appearance, and sent for the
apothecary: but who, unfortunately, was so totally ignorant of botany as
not to know the plant, but supposing it to be Coltsfoot, after the
infant died, took his leave, without ay remark further, than that the
disorder which occasioned its death had arisen from some accidental and
unusual cause. The nurse, however, did not feel perfectly satisfied of
this fact, and carried the remainder of the herb to Apothecaries-Hall;
and having applied there for information, was referred to Mr. Leffler, a
gentleman who had from his botanical researches that season obtained the
Sloanean prize; who told her the mistake. He also went and saw the body,
and investigated the whole case in a way that has done that young
gentleman great credit; and from him I have been favoured with this
account. Had the medical attendant but known the difference between the
two plants when he was called in first, there was a chance of the child
being saved to its distressed parents. And here was certainly a striking
instance of medical men neglecting so far the study of botany, as not to
know one of the most useful as well as one of the most dangerous plants
of the present Pharmacopoeia.

641. HELLEBORUS foetidus. BEARSFOOT.--The country-people are in the habit
of chopping up the leaves of this plant and giving it to children for
removing worms; but it is a dangerous medicine, and should be made use
of with great caution. It is also recommended as a medicine for the same
purpose in horses. As much of the chopped leaves as will lie on a
crown-piece, given amongst a feed of corn for three days, and remitted
three days, and repeated thus for nine doses, has been known to remove
this disease.

"I heard a melancholy story of a mother in this city; viz. that a
Country Colleagh gave some of this plant to her two sons, one of six,
the other of four years of age, to kill worms; and that before four in
the afternoon they were both corpses."-Dr. Threlkeld, in a short account
of the plants in the neighbourhood of Dublin.

642. JUNIPERUS Salvina. SAVINE.--The expressed juice of this plant is
very poisonous, and often known to produce the most violent effects. It
is sometimes used by persons for expelling worms in children, but should
be used with great caution; for, if the quantity taken into the stomach
is more than it can digest, all the dreadful effects of the poisons of
this class are certain to be the immediate consequence.

643. SCROPHULARIA aquatica. WATER-BETONY.--Every part of this plant is
said to be violently narcotic; but its very disagreeable strong scent
and extremely bitter taste render it not likely to be used in mistake
for any culinary vegetable; and although we know what its effects are
from report, we do not think it of so dangerous a tendency as some of
our poisonous vegetables.

* * * * *


These purge both upwards and downwards with great violence by means of
their acrid poisonous resin, which also violently affects the throat and
passages. Although alkalies have been recommended in this case, in order
to divide this resin, and that a solution of soap is proper, yet the
vegetable acids are also very useful, and have a great effect in
diminishing the purgative effect. Besides this, it appears still more
advantageous to give astringents: Venice treacle, decoctions of bark or
cascarilla, pomegranate rind, and balaustines; all which certainly
precipitate this drastic principle.

644. ASCLEPIAS syriaca. SYRIAN DOGSBANE.--All the species of Asclepias
have a white acrid juice which is considered poisonous. It is observed
to be very acrid when applied to any sensible part of the mouth or

645. BRYONIA alba. WILD VINE, or WHITE BRYONY.--The berries of this
plant, when hanging on the hedges, have the appearance of white grapes,
and have been eaten by children. They are known to produce dreadful
effects; but it frequently happens that they produce nausea on the
stomach, by which they operate as an emetic of themselves.

646. EUPHORBIA Lathyris. CAPER SPURGE.--A plant common in old gardens,
but not indigenous. The seed-vessels are much in shape of caper-buds:
hence its name. People have been in the habit of pickling these berries,
from which some dangerous symptoms have arisen; it is probable that the
vinegar may have been the means of checking its bad effects. It should,
however, never be used as food.

647. EUPHORBIA amygdaloides. WOOD SPURGE.--The juice of this plant has
been known to produce very dangerous swellings in the mouth and throat
of persons who have occasionally put it into their mouths. We do not
know that it is very dangerous; and nothing is likely to tempt any
persons to use it as food or otherwise.

648. MERCURIALIS perennis. DOG'S MERCURY.--This plant is of a soporific
deleterious nature, and is said to be noxious to both man and beast.
Many instances are recorded of its fatal effects.

Mr. Ray acquaints us with the case of a man, his wife, and three
children, who were poisoned by eating it fried with bacon: and a
melancholy instance is related in the Philosophical Transactions, Number
CCIII., of its pernicious effects upon a family who ate at supper the
herb boiled and fried. It produced at first nausea and vomiting, and
comatose symptoms afterwards; two of the children slept twenty-four
hours; when they awoke, they vomited again, and recovered. The other
girl could not be awakened during four days; at the expiration of which
time she opened her eyes and expired.

Plantae affines.

It appears that the different species of Chenopodium have been mistaken
for this plant. I do not see myself any very near likeness: but as all
the species of Chenopodium have been called English Mercury, it is
possible that the name may have been the cause of the mistake.

649. MERCURIALIS annua. ANNUAL DOG'S MERCURY.--Persons who are in the
habit of gathering wild herbs to cook, should be careful of this. It
grows plentifully in all rich grounds, and is common with Fat Hen and
the other herbs usually collected for such purposes in the spring, and
from which it is not readily distinguished: at least, I cannot describe
a difference that a person ignorant of botany can distinguish it by.

650. PERIPLOCA graeca.--This is an ornamental creeping plant, and
commonly grown in gardens for covering verandas, and other places for

I once witnessed a distressing case. A nurse walking in a garden
gathered flower of this plant, and gave it to a child which she had in
her arms. The infant having put it to its mouth, it caused a
considerable swelling and inflammation, which came on so suddenly, that,
had it not been that one of the labourers had met with a similar
accident, no one would have known the cause. The child was several days
before it was out of danger, as the inflammation had reached the throat.

651. VERATRUM album. WHITE HELLEBORE.--The roots of this plant, and also
of the Veratrum nigrum, have been imported mixed with the roots of
yellow gentian, and have proved poisonous.--Lewis's Materia Medica.

* * * * *


The deleterious effects of these generally show themselves soon after
they are in the stomach. Vomiting should be immediately excited, and
then the vegetable acids should be given; either vinegar, lemon-juice,
or that of apples; after which, give ether and antispasmodic remedies,
to stop the excessive bilious vomiting. Infusions of gall-nut, oak-bark,
and Peruvian bark, are recommended as capable of neutralizing the
poisonous principle of mushrooms. It is however the safest way not to
eat any of these plants until they have been soaked in vinegar. Spirit
of wine, and ether, extract some part of their poison; and tanning
matter decomposes the greatest part of it.

Agaricus bulbosus.
-------- necator.
-------- mamosus.
-------- piperitus.
-------- campanulatus.
-------- muscarius.

These are kown to be poisonous. But the fungi should all be used with
great caution; for I believe even the Champignon and Edible mushroom to
possess deleterious qualities when grown in certain places.

* * * * *


The foregoing lists of poisonous plants are most of them of less
dangerous tendency to cattle than to the human species: for although
many of them may be mistaken for wholesome, yet, when they are growing
wild, it will be observed, that the discriminating powers of the brute
creation in this point are so correct, that very few have been known to
be eaten by them.

The following are a few of a different class, which, as not containing
any thing particularly disagreeable to the taste of cattle, are
frequently eaten by them to their injury.

The agricultural student should make himself perfectly acquainted with

652. CICUTA virosa. COWBANE.--Linnaeus observes, that cattle have died in
consequence of eating the roots. It is fortunate that this plant is not
very plentiful: it is poisonous to all kinds of cattle except goats. The
flower of this plant is not unlike that of water-parsneps, which cows at
some seasons will eat great quantities of.

653. BEAR'S GARLICK. Allium ursinum.

654. CROW GARLICK. Allium vineale.

These plants very frequently occur in meadow-land, and have property of
giving a strong garlick flavour to the milk yielded by cows that feed
there; and which is often also communicated to the butter.

655. DARNELL GRASS. Lolium temulentum.--This grass has the faculty of
causing poultry or birds to become intoxicated, and so much so that it
causes their death.

656. LOUSEWORT. Pedicularis palustris.--This plant, which abounds in wet
meadows, is said to produce a lousy disease in cows if they eat of it.

657. MAYWEED. Anthemis cotula.--This is altogether of such an acrid
nature, that the hands of persons employed in weeding crops and reaping,
are often so blistered and corroded as to prevent their working. It also
has been known to blister the mouths and nostrils of cattle when feeding
where it grows.

658. COLCHICUM autumnale. MEADOW-SAFFRON.--This is a common plant in
pasture-land in Worcestershire, Herefordshire, and other counties. Many
are the instances that have occurred of the bad effects of it to cattle.
I have this last autumn known several cows that died in consequence of
eating this plant.

659. MELILOT. Trifolium officinale.--This plant when eaten by cows
communicates a disagreeable taste to milk and butter.

660. ROUND-LEAVED SUN-DEW. Drosera rotundifolia.--Very common on marshy
commons, and is said to be poisonous to sheep, and to give them the
disease called the rot.

661. SEA BARLEY-GRASS. Hordeum maritimum.--This grass has been known in
the Isle of Thanet and other places to produce a disease in the mouths
of horses, by the panicles of the grass penetrating the skin.

662. WATER-HEMLOCK. Phellandrium aquaticum.--Linnaeus informs us that the
horses in Sweden by eating of this plant are seized with a kind of
palsy, which he supposes is brought upon them, not so much by any
noxious qualities in the plant itself, as by a certain insect which
breeds in the stalks, called by him for that reason Curculio
paraplecticus [Syst. Nat. 510]. The Swedes give swine's dung for the

663. YEW. Taxus baccata.--This is poisonous to cattle: farmers and other
persons should be careful of this being thrown where sheep or cattle
feed in snowy weather. It is particularly dangerous to deer, for they
will eat of it with avidity when it comes in their way.

* * * * *


Annual Weeds, or such as grow wild in Fields, and that do not produce
any Food for Cattle.

Many weeds are troublesome to the farmer amongst his crops; but which,
by affording a little fodder at some season or other, in some degree
compensate for their intrusion. But as the following are not of this
description, they ought at all times to be extirpated: for it should be
recollected, that the space occupied by such a plant would, in many
instances, afford room for many ears of wheat, &c.

The following are annuals, and chiefly grow among arable crops, as corn,
&c. As these every year spring up from seeds, it is a very difficult
matter for the farmer to prevent their increase, especially since the
practice of fallowing land has become almost obsolete. It is a fact
worthy notice, that the seeds of most of the annual weeds will lie in
the ground for many years, if they happen to be place deep: so that all
land is more or less impregnated with them, and a fresh supply is
produced every time the land is ploughed. It is therefore proper that
annual weeds of every description should be prevented as much as
possible can be from going to seed, for one year's crop will take
several seasons to eradicate. The only effectual mode we are acquainted
with of getting rid of annual weeds is, either by hoeing them up when
young, or by cutting the plants over with any instrument whilst in
bloom; for it should be observed, that those never spring from the roots
if cut over at that period of their growth, which oftentimes may be
easily accomplished.

I once observed a crop of burnet, in which Bromus secalius (Lob Grass)
was growing, whose spike stood a considerable height above the crop, and
several acres of which a boy or woman might have cut over in a short
space of time: but it was not so: the grass seeds and burnet were
suffered to ripen together, and no means could be devised to separate
the two when threshed. For this reason the burnet seeds never could find
a market, and consequently the trouble of saving it, as well as the
crop, was lost to the grower. I mention this as an instance of many that
frequently occur. How many times do we see with crops of winter tares
wild oats seeding in them? or Carduus mutans standing so high above
those crops that they might be thus extirpated with great ease?

It may be observed, that it is in culture of this nature where annual
seeds multiply. A regular crop of wheat will, by its thickness on the
ground, retard their growth by smothering them; but the other gives them
every facility, and particularly autumnal-sown crops.

664. Blue-bottle - - - Centaurea Cyanus.
665. White-blite - - - Chenopodium album.
666. Charlock - - - Sinapis arvensis.
667. Chickweed - - - Alsine media.
668. Cockle - - - Agrostemma Githago.
669. Cleavers - - - Galium Aparine.
670. Corn Marigold - - - Chrysanthemum segetum.
671. Corn Crowfoot - - - Ranunculus arvensis.
672. Corn Chamomile - - - Matricaria Chamomilla.
673. Weak-scented do - - ---------- inodora.
674. Grass, Lob - - - Bromus secalinus.
675. ----- Bearded Oat - - Acena fatua.
676. ----- Field Foxtail - Alopecurus agrestis.
677. ----- Darnel - - - Lolium temulentum.
678. Groundsel, common - - Senecio vulgaris.
679. Wall Barley - - - Hordeum murinum.
680. Mallow, common - - - Malva sylvestris.
681. Mayweed, stinking - - Anthemis Cotula.
682. Melilot - - - Trifolium officinale.
683. Mustard, white - - - Sinapis alba.
684. -------, hedge - - - Erysimum Barbarea.
685. Nettle, Stinging, small - Urtica urens.
686. ------, Dead - - - Lamium albium.
687. Nipplewort - - - Lapsana communis.
688. Orach, wild - - - Atriplex hastata.
689. -----, spreading - - -------- patulata.
690. Pilewort - - - Ranunculus ficaria.
691. Persicaria, spotted-leaved Polygonum Ficaria.
692. ----------, pale-flowered --------- pensylvanicum.
693. ----------, climbing - --------- Convolvulus.
694. Pheasant-eye - - - Adonis autumnalis.
695. Poppy, common red - - Papaver Rhoeas.
696. Poppy, long rough-headed - Papaver Argemone.
697. Radish, wild - - - Raphanus Raphanistrum.
698. Shepherd's Needle - - Scandix Pecten Veneris.
699. Spearwort - - - Ranunculus Flammula.
700. Spurry, Corn - - - Spergula arvensis.
701. Thistle, Spear - - - Carduus lanceolatus.
702. ------- Star - - - Centaurea Calcitrapa.
703. ------- Marsh - - - Carduus palustris.
704. ------- Dwarf - - - ------- acaulis.
705. Tine Tare, smooth-podded - Ervum tetraspermum.

* * * * *

Creeping-rooted Weeds.

The following are such as are perennial, and are of the most troublesome
nature, being xtremely difficult to get rid of in consequence of their
creeping roots. It unfortunately appens that, where the land is the most
worked, and the roots the more broken thereby, the more the crop of
weeds increases on the land. Therefore, the only effectual mode of
extirpating plants of this nature, is by picking out the roots after the
plough, or by digging them up at every opportunity by some proper

Where weeds of this nature occur, there is too often thought to be more
labour than profit in their extirpation. And although this is an
argument of some propriety, where a farmer is tenant at will, or where
his strength is not proportionate to the land: yet if land is worth any
thing at all, that, whatever it may be, is lost, if it is suffered thus
to become barren. And as prevention is in most cases considered
preferable to cure, more care ought to be taken than generally is, of
all our hedges and waste pieces of land by road sides, &c. Many of these
plants are found growing in such places, and their seeds are of that
nature that they are calculated to fly to considerable distances,--a
contrivance in nature to fertilize the ground in her own way; but which,
as agriculturists, it is the business of men to check.

706. Bindweed, small - - Convolvulus arvensis.
707. Bindweed, large - - ----------- sepium.
708. Bistort - - - Polygonum bistorta.
709. Brakes - - - Pteris aquilina.
710. Clown's Woundwort - - Stachys palustris.
711. Cammock - - - Ononis arvensis.
712. Coltsfoot - - - Tussilago Farfara.
713. Crowfoot, creeping - - Ranunculus repens.
714. Goutweed - - - Aegopodium Podagraria.
715. Grass, Garden Couch - Triticum repens.
716. -----, Couchy-bent - Agrostis stolonifera.
717. -----, Couch Oat, or Knot Avena elatior.
718. -----, Creeping-soft - Holcus mollis.
719. Horsetail, Corn - - Equisetum arvense.
720. Persicaria, willow-leaved Polygonum amphibium.
721. Rest Harrow - - - Ononis spinosa.
722. Sow-Thistle, Corn - - Sonchus arvensis.
723. Spatling Poppy - - Cucubalus Behen.
724. Stinging-Nettle, large - Urtica dioica.
725. Silverweed - - - Potentilla anserina.
726. Sneezewort - - - Achillea Ptarmica.
727. Thistle, melancholy - Carduus heterophyllus.
728. -------, cursed - - ------- arvensis.
729. Water Horehound - - Lycopus europaeus.

* * * * *

Perennial Weeds.

This enumeration of noxious plants contains principally those which,
although they are very troublesome, are more easy of extirpation than
the last: for although the most of them are perennial, yet, as their
roots do not spread as those of the above list do, they are to be
effectually removed by taking up the plants by their roots. It should,
however, be always noticed, that it is to little account to endeavour to
clear any land of such incumbrances, if any waste places which are
separated only by a hedge are allowed to grow these things with
impunity; for the seeds will invariably find their way. The contrivance
of nature in their formation is a curious and pleasant subject for the
philosophical botanist; at the same time it is one of those curses which
was impelled on human labour.

730. Butter-bur - - - Tussilago Petasites.
731. Burdock - - - Arctium Lappa.
732. Bugloss, small - - Lycopis arvensis.
733. Crowfoot, round-rooted - Ranunculus bulbosus.
734. --------, tall - - Ranunculus acris.
735. Dock, curdled - - - Rumex crispus.
736. ----, broad-leaved - - ----- obtusifolius.
737. ----, sharp-pointed - ----- acutus.
738. Fleabane, common - - Inula dysenteria.
739. Garlick, crow - - - Allium vineale.
740. -------, bear - - - ------ ursinum.
741. Grass, turfy hair - - Aira caespitosa.
742. -----, meadow soft - - Holcus lanatus.
743. -----, carnation - - Carex caespitosa.
744. Knapweed, common - - Centaurea nigra.
745. --------, great - - --------- Scabiosa.
746. Mugwort - - - Artemisa vulgaris.
747. Meadow-sweet - - - Spiraea ulmaria.
748 Ox-eye Daisy Chrysanthemum Leucanthe-mum
749. Plantain, great - - Plantago major.
750. Ragwort, common - - Senecio Jacobaea.
751. -------, marsh - - ------- aquaticus.
752. Rush, common - - - Juncus conglomeratus.
753. ----, blueish - - - ------ glaucus.
754. ----, flat-jointed - - ------ squarrosus.
755. ----, round-jointed - ------ articulatus.
756. ----, bulbous - - - ------ bulbosus.
757. Scabious, common - - Scabiosa avensis.
758. Thistle, milk - - - Carduus marianus.
759. -------, meadow - - ------- pratensis.

* * * * *


The fashionable rage for planting ornamental trees and shrubs having so
much prevailed of late years, that we meet with them by the road sides,
&c. almost as common as we do those of our native soil, I have therefore
enumerated them in this section.

Our limits will not admit of giving any particular descriptions of each;
but as persons are often at a loss to know what soil each tree is known
to thrive in best, we have endeavoured to supply that information; which
will be understood by applying to the following


c.m. read common garden mould.
b.m. - bog mould.
l. - loam.
b.l. - bog and loam, the greater part bog.
l.b. - loam and bog, the greater part loam.
s. - sheltered situation.
a. - annual.
bi. - biennial.
p. - perennial.
shr. - tree or shrub.
c. - creeper.
w. - adapted to covering walls.

As the soils recommended may not be generally understood; a little
attention to the following rules will enable persons to discover what is
fit for their purposes.

Loam--the kind best adapted to the purpose of growing plants, is of a
moderately close texture, between clay and sand, differing from the
former in want of tenacity when wet; and not becoming hard when dry; nor
is it loose and dusty like the latter; but in both states possesses
somewhat of a saponaceous quality. It varies in colour from yellow to
brown, and is commonly found in old pastures: it may also be remarked,
that where any perennial species of Clover (Trifolium) are found wild,
it is almost a certain indication of a fertile loam, and such as
contains the proper food of plants in abundance.

Bog-mould--is frequently found on waste lands, where Heaths (Ericae) are
produced: it is composed of decayed vegetable matter and white sand. The
best sort is light when dry, of a black colour, and easily reduced to
powder. Care should be taken to distinguish it from Peat, which is hard
when dry, destitute in a great measure of the sand, and mostly of a red
colour. This contains in great quantities sulphureous particles and
mineral oil, which are known to be highly destructive to vegetation.

The mould formed from rotten leaves is a good substitute for bog-mould
if mixed with sand, and is often made use of for the same purposes.
These earths should be dug from the surface to the depth of a few inches
and laid in heaps, that the roots, &c. contained therein may be
decomposed: and before they are used should be passed through a coarse
screen, particularly if intended for plants in pots.

As loam has been found to contain the greatest portion of the real
pabulum of plants, it has long been used for such as are planted in
pots; and the component parts of bog-earth being of a light nature, a
mixture of the two in proper proportions will form a compost in which
most kinds of plants will succeed. Attention should be paid to the
consistence of the loam; as the more stiff it is, the greater portion of
the other is necessary.


1 JASMINUM officinale. w. Common white Jasmine c.m.
2 -------- v. argen. variegat. w. Silver-striped ditto c.m.
3 -------- v. aureo variegat. w. Gold-striped ditto c.m.
4 -------- fruticans, w. Yellow ditto c.m.
5 -------- humile, w. Dwarf yellow ditto b.l.
6 Phillyrea media, w. Privet-leaved Phillyrea c.m.
7 --------- v. virgata Twiggy ditto c.m.
8 --------- v. pendula Pendulous ditto c.m.
9 --------- oleaefolia Olive-leaved ditto c.m.
10 -------- buxifolia Box-leaved ditto c.m.
10 -------- angustifolia Narrow-leaved ditto c.m.
12 -------- v. rosmarinifolia Rosemary-leaved ditto c.m.
13 -------- brachiata Dwarf ditto c.m.
14 -------- v. latifolia Broad-leaved ditto c.m.
15 -------- v. laevis Smooth broad-leaved ditto c.m.
16 -------- v. spinosa Prickly broad-leaved ditto c.m.
17 -------- v. obliqua Hex-leaved ditto c.m.
18 Chionanthus virginicus Fringe Tree b.m.
19 Syringa vulgaris Blue lilac c.m.
20 ------- v. alba White ditto c.m.
21 -------- persica Persian ditto c.m.
22 -------- v. lacinita Cut-leaved ditto c.m.
23 -------- latifolia Broad-leaved ditto c.m.


24 Cephalanthus occidentalis Button-wood b.l.
25 Houstonia coccinea Scarlet Houstonia b.l.s.
26 Buddlea globosa Globe-flowered Buddlea b.l.s.
27 Cornus florida Great-flowering Dog-wood c.m.
28 ------ mascula Cornelian Cherry c.m.
29 ------ sericea Blue-berried ditto c.m.
30 ------ alba White-berried ditto c.m.
31 ------ stricta Upright ditto c.m.
32 ------ sibirica Siberian ditto c.m.
33 ------ paniculata Panicled ditto c.m.
34 ------ alternifolia Alternate-leaved ditto c.m.
35 ------ v. virescens Green-twigged ditto c.m.
36 Ptelea trifoliata Shrubby Bean-trefoil c.m.
37 Elaeagnus angustifolia Narrow-leaved Oleaster c.m.
38 -------- v. latifolia Broad-leaved ditto c.m.


39 Hamamelis virginica Witch Hazel c.m.


40 Ilex opaca Carolina Holly b.l.
41 ---- v. angustifolia Narrow-leaved ditto b.l.
42 ---- primoides Deciduous ditto b.l.
43 ---- Cassine Dahoon ditto l.
44 ---- vomitoria South Sea Tea Tree l.


45 Azalea pontica Yellow Azalea b.s.
46 ------ nudiflora Red ditto b.s.
47 ------ v. coccinea Scarlet ditto b.s.
48 ------ v. carnea Flesh-coloured ditto b.s.
49 ------ v. alba Early white ditto b.s.
50 ------ v. bicolor Red and white ditto b.s.
51 ------ v. papilionacea Variegated ditto b.s.
52 ------ v. partita Downy ditto b.s.
53 ------ v. aurantia Orange ditto b.s.
54 ------ v. viscosa Late white ditto b.s.
55 ------ v. vittata White striped ditto b.s.
56 ------ v. fissa Narrow petalled ditto b.s.
57 ------ v. floribunda Cluster-flowered ditto b.s.
58 ------ v. glauca Glaucus-leaved ditto b.s.
59 ------ v. scabra Rough-leaved ditto b.s.
60 Lonicera dioica. c. Glaucous Honeysuckle c.m.
61 -------- sempervirens. c. Trumpet ditto l.
62 -------- grata. c. Evergeen Honeysuckle c.m.
63 -------- implexa. c. Minorca ditto l.
64 -------- nigra Black-berried ditto c.m.
65 -------- tatarica Tartarian ditto c.m.
66 -------- pyrenaica Pyrenean ditto c.m.
67 -------- Alpigena Red-berried ditto c.m.
68 Lonicera caerulea Blue-berried ditto c.m.
69 -------- Symphoricarpos St. Peter's Wort c.m.
70 -------- Diervilla Yellow-flowered Honeysuckle c.m.
71 -------- Caprifolium c. Italian white ditto c.m.
72 -------- v. rubra c. Italian early red ditto c.m.
73 -------- Periclym. v. serotina c. Late red ditto c.m.
74 -------- v. quercifolia Oak-leaved ditto c.m.
75 -------- v. belgica Dutch ditto c.m.
76 Lycium barbarum. w. Willow-leaved Boxthorn c.m.
77 ------ europaeum. w. European ditto c.m.
78 Sideroxylon lycoides Willow-leaved Iron-wood b.l.
79 Rhamnus latifolius Broad-leaved ditto c.m.
80 ------- alpinus Alpine ditto b.m.
81 ------- theezans Tea ditto c.m.
82 ------- alnifolius Alder-leaved ditto c.m.
83 ------- Paliurus Christ's Thorn c.m.
84 ------- volubilis. c. Supple-jack Tree c.m.
85 ------- Ziziphus Shining-leaved ditto c.m.
86 ------- Alaternus Common Alaternus c.m.
87 ------- fol. argen. var. Silver-striped ditto c.m.s.
88 ------- fol. aureo var. Gold-striped ditto c.m.s.
89 ------- v. angustifolius Jagged-leaved ditto c.m.
90 Celastrus scandeus Climbing Staff-Tree c.m.
90 Ceanothus americanus New Jersey Tea Tree c.m.
92 Euonymus latifolius Broad-leaved Spindle-Tree c.m.
93 -------- verrucosus Warted ditto c.m.
94 -------- atro-purpureus Purple-flowered ditto c.m.
95 -------- americanus Evergreen ditto c.m.
96 Itea virginica Virginian Itea b.l.
97 ---- buxifolia Box-leaved ditto b.l.
98 Ribes glandulosum Glandulous Currant c.m.
99 ----- petraeum Rock ditto c.m.
100 ---- floridum Large-flowered ditto c.m.
101 ---- diacanthum Two-spined Gooseberry c.m.
102 ---- oxyacanthoides Hawthorn-leaved ditto c.m.
103 ---- canadense Canadian ditto c.m.
104 ---- Cynosbatea Prickly-fruited Currant c.m.
105 ---- prostratum Procumbent ditto c.m.
106 ---- alpinum Alpine ditto c.m.
107 Hedera quinquefolia. w. Virginian Creeper c.m.
108 ----- Helix v. latifolia Broad-leaved Ivy. c. c.m.
109 Vitis vitifera. c. Common Grape c.m.
110 ----- Labrusca. c. Downy-leaved ditto c.m.
111 ----- vulpina. c. Fox Grape c.m.
112 ----- laciniata. c. Parsley-leaved Vine c.m.
113 ----- arborea. c. Pepper Vine c.m.


114 Periploca graeca. c. Virginian Silk-Tree c.m.
115 Salsola prostrata Trailing Saltwort c.m.
116 Ulmus americana American Elm c.m.
117 ----- v. alba White American ditto c.m.
118 ----- v. pendula Drooping ditto c.m.
119 ----- nemoralis Twiggy ditto c.m.
120 ----- pumila Dwarf ditto c.m.
121 ----- crispa Curled-leaved ditto c.m.
122 Bupleurum fruticosum Shrubby Hare's-ear c.m.


123 Rhus Typhinum Virginian Sumach c.m.
124 ---- glabrum Smooth ditto c.m.
125 ---- Vernix Varnish Tree c.m.
126 ---- copallinum Lentiscus-leaved Sumach c.m.
127 ---- radicans. c. Upright Poison Ash c.m.
128 ---- Toxicodendron. c. Trailing or officinal ditto c.m.
129 ---- Cotinus Venus's Sumach c.m.
130 ---- Coriaria Elm-leaved ditto c.m.
131 Viburnum Tinus Laurustinus c.m.
132 -------- fol. variegat. Striped-leaved ditto c.m.
133 -------- lucidum Shining-leaved ditto c.m.
134 -------- strictum Upright ditto c.m.
135 -------- nudum Oval-leaved Viburnum c.m.
136 -------- cassinoides Thick-leaved ditto l.s.
137 -------- nitidum Shining-leaved ditto b.l.
138 -------- laevigatum Cassioberry Bush b.l.
139 -------- prunifolium Thick-leaved Viburnum c.m.
140 -------- Lentago Pear-leaved ditto c.m.
141 -------- dentatum Tooth-leaved ditto c.m.
142 -------- v. pubescens Downy-leaved ditto c.m.
143 ------- -acerifolium Maple-leaved ditto c.m.
144 -------- Opulus v. americana American Gelder Rose c.m.
145 -------- v. rosea Snow-ball ditto c.m.
146 -------- alnifolium Alder-leaved ditto c.m.
147 Sambucus canadensis Canadian Elder c.m.
148 -------- nigra v. laciniata Cut-leaved ditto c.m.
149 -------- racemosa Clustered-flowered ditto c.m.
150 Staphylea trifolia Three-leaved Bladder-Nut c.m.
151 Tamarix germanica German Tamarisk c.m.


152 Aralia spinosa Angelica Tree b.l.


153 Zanthorhiza Apifolium Parsley-leaved Zanthorhiza b.


154 Prinos verticillatus Whorl-leaved Winter-berry b.l.
155 ------ glaber Smooth ditto b.l.
156 ------ lanceolatus Lanceolate-leaved ditto b.l.
157 ------ laevigatus Spear-leaved ditto b.l.
158 Berberis canadensis Canadian Barberry b.l.
159 -------- cretica Cretan ditto b.l.
160 -------- sibirica Siberian ditto b.l.


161 Aesculus Hippocastanum Common Horse Chesnut c.m.
162 ------- flava Yellow-flowered ditto c.m.
163 ------- Pavia Scarlet-flowered ditto c.m.
164 ------- parviflora Small-flowered ditto c.m.


165 Koelreuteria paniculata Panicled Koelreuteria b.l.
166 Vaccinium stamineum Green-twigged Bleaberry b.m.
167 --------- diffusum Shining-leaved ditto b.m.
168 --------- fuscatum Brown ditto b.m.
169 --------- angustifolium Narrow-leaved ditto b.m.
170 --------- frondosum Obtuse-leaved ditto b.m.
171 --------- venustum Red-twigged ditto b.m.
172 --------- resinosum Clammy ditto b.m.
173 --------- amoenum Broad-leaved ditto b.m.
174 --------- virgatum Twiggy-leaved ditto b.m.
175 --------- tenellum Gale-leaved ditto b.m.
176 --------- macrocarpon Large-fruited ditto b.m.
177 --------- nitidum Shining-leaved ditto b.m.
178 --------- ligustrinum Privet-leaved ditto b.m.
179 --------- pumilum Dwarf ditto b.m.
180 Erica ciliaris Ciliated Heath b.m.s.
181 ----- mediterranea Mediterranean ditto b.m.s.
182 ----- australis Spanish ditto b.m.s.
183 ----- herbacea Herbaceous ditto b.m.
184 ----- arborea Tree ditto b.m.s.
185 Daphne alpina Alpine Daphne b.l.
186 ------ pontica Two-flowered ditto b.l.s.
187 ------ Cneorum Trailing ditto b.l.
188 ------ Tartonraira Silver-leaved Daphne b.l.s.
189 ------ collina Hairy ditto b.l.s.
190 ------ Gnidium Flax-leaved ditto b.l.s.
191 Dirca palustris Marsh Leatherwood b.m.


192 Polygonum frutescens Shrubby Polygonum b.s.


193 Laurus Benzoin Benjamin Tree c.m.
194 ------ nobilis Sweet Bay c.m.
195 Sassafras Sassafras Tree b.l.


196 Sophora japonica Japan Sophora c.m.
197 Cercis Siliquastrum European Judas Tree c.m.
198 ------ canadensis American ditto c.m.
199 Guilandina dioica Canadian Bonduc c.m.
200 Ruta graveolens Common Rue c.m.
201 ---- montana Mountain ditto c.m.
202 Kalmia latifolia Broad-leaved Kalmia b.s.
203 ------ angustifolia Narrow-leaved ditto b.s.
204 ------ v. carnea Pale-flowered ditto b.s.
205 ------ glauca Glaucus-leaved ditto b.s.
206 Ledum palustre Marsh Rosemary b.s.
207 ----- v. decumbens Dwarf ditto b.s.
208 ----- latifolium Labrador Tea b.s.
209 ----- buxifolium Box-leaved Ledum b.s.
210 Rhodora canadensis Canadian Rhodora b.m.
211 Rhodorendron ferrugineum Rusty-leaved Rhododendron b.m.
212 ------------ dauricum Dauric ditto b.m.
213 ------------ hirsutum Hairy ditto b.m.
214 ------------ ponticum Pontic ditto b.m.
215 ------------ fol. variegat. Striped-leaved ditto b.m.
216 ------------ cataubiense Large ditto b.m.
217 ------------ maximum Large-leaved ditto b.m.
218 ------------ punctatum Dotted ditto b.m.
219 Andromeda mariana Maryland Andromeda b.m.
220 --------- v. oblonga Oval-leaved ditto b.m.
221 --------- ferruginea Rusty-leaved ditto b.m.
222 --------- polyfolia, v. major Broad-leaved rusty ditto b.m.
223 --------- paniculata Panicled ditto b.m.
224 --------- arborea Tree ditto b.m.
225 --------- racemosa Branching ditto b.m.
226 --------- axillaris Notch-leaved ditto b.m.
227 --------- coriacea Thick-leaved ditto b.m.
228 --------- acuminata Acute-leaved ditto b.m.
229 --------- calyculata Globe-flowered ditto b.m.
230 --------- v. latifolia Broad Box-leaved ditto b.m.
231 --------- v. angustifolia Narrow-leaved ditto b.m.
232 --------- Catesbaei Catesby's ditto b.m.
233 Epigaea repens Creeping Epigaea b.s.
234 Gualtheria procumbens Procumbent Gualtheria b.s.
235 Arbutus Unedo Common Strawberry Tree b.l.
236 ------- v. fl. rubro Scarlet-flowered ditto b.l.
237 ------- v. flore pleno Double-flowered ditto b.l.
238 ------- v. angustifolia Narrow-leaved ditto b.l.
239 ------- v. crispa Curled-leaved ditto b.l.
240 ------- Andrachne Eastern ditto b.l.
241 Clethra alnifolia Alder-leaved Clethra b.l.
242 ------- v. pubescens Pubescent ditto b.l.
243 Styrax officinale Officinal Styrax b.l.
244 ------ grandifolium Large-leaved ditto l.
245 ------ laevigatum Smooth-leaved ditto l.


246 Hydrangea arborescens Tree Hydrangea c.m.
247 --------- hortensis Changeable-flowered ditto c.m.
248 --------- glauca Glaucous-leaved ditto b.l.
249 --------- radiata Rayed-flowered ditto b.l.


250 Halesia tetraptera Wing-seeded Snow-drop Tree c.m.


251 Euphorbia spinosa Shrubby Euphorbia b.l.
252 Aristotelia Macqui Shining-leaved Aristotelia b.s.


253 Philadelphus coronarius Common Syringa c.m.
254 ------------ nanus Dwarf ditto c.m.
255 Punica Granatum. w. Pomegranata l.w.s.
256 ------ flore pleno. w. Double-flowered ditto l.w.s.
257 ------ flore luteo. w. Yellow-flowered ditto l.w.s.
258 ------ flore albo. w. White-flowered ditto l.w.s.
259 ------ nana. w. Dwarf ditto l.w.s.
260 Amygdalus Persica Peach Tree c.m.
261 --------- v. flore pleno Double-flowering ditto c.m.
262 --------- v. Nectarina Nectarine c.m.
263 --------- nana Rough-leaved Almond c.m.
264 --------- pumila Dwarf ditto c.m.
265 --------- communis Common ditto c.m.
266 --------- fol. variegat. Striped-leaved ditto c.m.
267 --------- chinensis Chinese ditto c.m.
268 --------- orientalis Silvery-leaved ditto c.m.
269 --------- sibirica Siberian ditto c.m.
270 Prunus virginiana Virginian Bird-Cherry c.m.
271 ------ caroliniana Carolinian ditto c.m.
272 ------ lusitanica Portugal Laurel c.m.
273 Lauro-Cerasus Common Laurel c.m.
274 ----- Maheleb Perfumed Cherry c.m.
275 ----- Armeniaca Apricot Tree c.m.
276 ----- pumila Dwarf Bird-Cherry c.m.
277 ----- pendula Weeping Cherry c.m.
278 ----- pennsylvanica Pennsylvanian Bird-Cherry c.m.
279 ----- nigra Black ditto c.m.
280 ----- cerasifera Mirobalum Plum-Tree c.m.
281 ----- rubra Cornish Bird-Cherry c.m.
282 ----- Cerasus, v. flore pleno Double-flowering ditto c.m.
283 ----- domestica Common Plum c.m.
284 ----- v. flore pleno Double-flowering ditto c.m.
285 ----- sibirica Siberian ditto c.m.


286 Crataegus Crus galli Cockspur Thorn c.m.
287 -------- v. pyracanthifolia Pyracanthus-leaved ditto c.m.
288 -------- salicifolia Willow-leaved ditto c.m.
289 -------- Aria, v. suecica Swedish White Beam Tree c.m.
290 -------- coccinea American Hawthorn c.m.
291 -------- sanguinea Bloody ditto c.m.
292 -------- cordata Maple-leaved ditto c.m.
293 -------- pyrifolia Pear-leaved ditto c.m.
294 -------- elliptica Oval-leaved ditto c.m.
295 -------- glandulosa Hollow-leaved ditto c.m.
296 -------- flava Yellow-berried ditto c.m.
297 -------- parviflora Gooseberry-leaved ditto c.m.
298 -------- punctata Great-fruited ditto c.m.
299 -------- v. aurea Great Yellow-fruited ditto c.m.
300 -------- Azarolus Parsley-leaved ditto c.m.
301 -------- monogynia, v. coc. Scarlet Thorn c.m.
302 -------- tomentosa Woolly-leaved ditto c.m.
303 -------- odoratissima Sweet-scented ditto c.m.


304 Mespillus Pyracantha Evergreen Thorn c.m.
305 --------- Chamae Mespillus Bastard Quince c.m.
306 --------- canadensis Snowy Service c.m.
307 --------- Cotoneaster Dwarf Mespilus c.m.
308 --------- arbutifolia Arbutus-leaved ditto c.m.
309 --------- fructu rubro Red-fruited ditto c.m.
310 --------- fructu albo White-fruited ditto c.m.
311 --------- tomentosa Woolly ditto c.m.
312 --------- Amelanchier Alpine ditto c.m.
313 --------- pennsylvanica Pennsylvanian ditto c.m.
314 Pyrus Pollveria Woolly-leaved Pear-tree c.m.
315 ----- spectabilis Chinese Apple-tree c.m.
316 ----- prunifolia Large Siberian Crab c.m.
317 Pyrus baccata Small Siberian Crab c.m.
318 ----- coronaria Sweet-scented ditto c.m.
319 ----- angustifolia Narrow-leaved ditto c.m.
320 ----- Cydonia Common Quince c.m.
321 ----- salicifolia Willow-leaved Crab c.m.
322 ----- praecox Early-flowering ditto c.m.
323 Spiraea laevigata Smooth-leaved Spiraea c.m.
324 ------ salicifolia Willow-leaved ditto c.m.
325 ------ v. paniculata Panicled ditto c.m.
326 ------ v. latifolia Broad-leaved ditto c.m.
327 ------ tomentosa Woolly-leaved ditto c.m.
328 ------ Hypericifolia Hypericum-leaved ditto c.m.
329 ------ crenata Crenated ditto c.m.
330 ------ chamaedrifolia Germander-leaved ditto c.m.
331 ------ thalictroides Meadow Rue leaved ditto l.
332 ------ Opulifolia Guelder Rose leaved ditto c.m.
333 ------ sorbifolia Mountain Ash-leaved ditto b.m.
334 ------ sibirica Siberian ditto c.m.


335 Rosa Lutea Single Yellow Rose l.
336 ---- bicolor Red and Yellow Austrian ditto l.
337 ---- sulphurea Double Yellow ditto l.s.
338 ---- blanda Hudson's Bay ditto l.
339 ---- cinnamonema. fl. pl. Double cinnamon ditto c.m.
340 ---- pimpinellifolia Small Burnet-leaved ditto c.m.
341 ---- spinosissima v. Striped-flowered Scotch Rose c.m.
342 ---- v. ruberrima Red Scotch ditto c.m.
343 ---- v. flore pleno Double Scotch ditto c.m.
344 ---- v. altissima Tall Scotch ditto c.m.
345 ---- v. versicolor Marbled Scotch ditto c.m.
346 ---- carolina Single Burnet-leaved ditto c.m.
347 ---- v. flore-pleno Double Burnet-leaved ditto c.m.
348 ---- v. pimpinellifolia Single Pennsylvanian ditto c.m.
349 ---- v. pimpinellifol. fl. pl. Double Pennsylvanian ditto b.m.
350 ---- v. diffusa Spreading Carolina ditto c.m.
351 ---- v. stricta Upright Carolina Rose c.m.
352 ---- villosa, v. flore pleno Double Apple-bearing ditto c.m.
353 ---- provincialis Common Provins ditto c.m.
354 ---- v. ruberrima Scarlet Provins ditto c.m.
355 ---- v. pallida Blush Provins ditto c.m.
356 ---- v. alba White Provins ditto c.m.
357 ---- v. multiflora Rose de Meaux c.m.
358 ---- v. bicolor Rose de Pompone c.m.
359 ---- v. humilis Rose de Rheims c.m.
360 ---- v. prolifera Childing's Provins ditto c.m.
361 ---- v. lusitanica Blandford or Portugal ditto c.m.
363 ---- v. ---------- Rose St. Francis c.m.
363 Rosa provincialis v. ---- Shailer's Provins ditto c.m.
364 ---- ferox Hedgehog ditto c.m.
365 ---- brancteata Ld. Macartney's White Rose c.m.
366 ---- centifolia Dutch Hundred-leaved ditto c.m.
367 ---- v. rubicans Blush Hundred-leaved ditto c.m.
368 ---- v. Singletoniae Singleton's Hundred-leaved do. c.m.
369 ---- v. holosericea Single Velvet ditto c.m.
370 ---- v. holoserica fl. pl. Double Velvet ditto c.m.
371 ---- v. sultana Sultan Rose c.m.
372 ---- v. stebennensis Stepney ditto c.m.
373 ---- v. ------------ Lisbon ditto c.m.
374 ---- v. ------------ Bishop ditto c.m.
375 ---- v. ------------ Cardinal ditto c.m.
376 ---- v. ------------ Blush Royal ditto c.m.
377 ---- v. ------------ Petit Hundred-leaved ditto c.m.
378 ---- v. ------------ Pluto ditto c.m.
379 ---- v. ------------ Monstrous Hundred-leaved do. c.m.
380 ---- v. ------------ Fringe ditto c.m.
381 ---- v. ------------ Plicate ditto c.m.
382 ---- v. ------------ Two-coloured Hund.-leaved do. c.m.
383 ---- v. ------------ Shell ditto c.m.
384 ---- parvifolia Burgundy Rose b.m.
385 ---- gallica Red officinal Rose c.m.
386 ---- v. versicolor Rosa mundi c.m.
387 ---- v. marmorea Marbled Rose c.m.
388 ---- v. Royal Virgin ditto c.m.
389 ---- v. major Giant ditto c.m.
390 ---- damascena Red Damask ditto c.m.
391 ---- v. rubicans Blush Damask ditto c.m.
392 ---- v. versicolor York and Lancaster ditto c.m.
393 ---- v. menstrualis Red Monthly ditto c.m.
394 ---- v. menstrualis alba White Monthly ditto c.m.
395 ---- v. Belgica Blush Belgic ditto c.m.
396 ---- v. ------- Great Royal ditto c.m.
397 ---- v. ------- Blush Monthly ditto c.m.
398 ---- v. ------- Red Belgic ditto c.m.
399 ---- v. ------- Goliah Rose c.m.
400 ---- v. ------- Imperial Blush ditto c.m.
401 ---- multiflora Many-flowered ditto c.m.
402 ---- sempervirens. c. Evergreen Rose c.m.
403 ---- turbinata Frankfort ditto c.m.
404 ---- rubiginosa v. Semidoule Sweet Briar c.m.
405 ---- v. muscosa Mossy ditto c.m.
406 ---- v. sempervirens Manning's Blush ditto c.m.
407 ---- v. flore pleno Double Red ditto c.m.
408 ---- v. Royal ditto c.m.
409 ---- muscosa Moss Provence Rose c.m.
410 ---- moschata Single Musk ditto c.m.
411 Rosa v. flore pleno Double Musk Rose c.m.
412 ---- alpina Alpine Rose c.m.
413 ---- v. rubro Red Alpine ditto c.m.
414 ---- canina, v. flore pleno Double Dog-rose c.m.
415 ---- pendulina Rose without Thorns c.m.
416 ---- alba Single White Rose c.m.
417 ---- v. flore pleno Double White ditto c.m.
418 ---- v. prolifera Cluster Maiden's Blush ditto c.m.
419 ---- v. major Great Maiden's Blush ditto c.m.
420 ---- procera Tall Rose c.m.
421 ---- americana American Yellow ditto c.m.
422 Rubus occidentalis American Bramble c.m.
423 ----- odoratus Flowering ditto c.m.
424 ----- fruticosus inermis. c. Bramble without Thorns c.m.
425 ----- v. laciniata. c. Cut-leaved Bramble c.m.
426 ----- v. flore pleno Double-flowered ditto c.m.
427 Calycanthus floridus Carolina Allspice l.
428 ----------- v. oblongus Long-leaved ditto l.
429 ----------- praecox. w. Early-flowered Chinese ditto l.s.


430 Tilia americana Broad-leaved American Lime c.m.
431 ----- v. corallina Red-twigged ditto c.m.
432 ----- pubescens Pubescent ditto c.m.
433 ----- alba White-leaved ditto c.m.
434 Cistus populifolius Poplar-leaved Cistus l.s.
435 ------ v. minor Small Poplar-leaved ditto l.s.
436 ------ laurifolius Laurel-leaved ditto l.s.
437 ------ Ladaniferus Gum Cistus c.m.
438 ------ monspeliensis Montpellier Cistus l.s.
439 ------ laxus Waved-leaved ditto l.s.
440 ------ salvifolius Sage-leaved ditto l.s.
441 ------ incanus Hoary ditto l.s.
442 ------ albidus White-leaved ditto l.s.
443 ------ crispus Curled-leaved ditto l.s.
444 ------ halimifolius Sea Purslane-leaved ditto l.s.
445 ------ halimifol. v. angustifol. Narrow-leaved Cistus l.s.
446 ------ umbellatus Umbelled-flowered ditto l.s.
447 ------ roseus Red-leaved ditto l.s.
448 ------ marifolius Marum-leaved ditto l.s.
449 ------ Tuberaria Plantain-leaved ditto l.s.
450 ------ apenninus Apennine ditto c.m.
451 ------ mutabilis Changeable ditto l.s.


452 Fothergillia alnifolia Alder-leaved Fothergillia b.s.


453 Liriodendron Tulipifera Common Tulip Tree c.m.
454 Magnolia grandiflora Laurel-leaved Magnolia b.l.s.
455 -------- v. obovata Broad-leaved ditto b.l.s.
456 -------- v. lanceolata Long-leaved ditto b.l.s.
457 -------- v. ferruginea Ferrugineous ditto b.l.s.
458 -------- glauca Swamp ditto b.l.s.
459 -------- acuminata Blue-flowering ditto b.l.s.
460 -------- tripetala Umbrella Tree b.l.s.
461 -------- auriculata Large-leaved ditto b.l.s.
462 -------- purpurea Purple Chinese ditto b.l.s.
463 Annona triloba Trifid-fruited Custard Apple b.l.s.
464 Atragena alpina. c. Alpine Atragena b.l.
465 -------- austriaca. c. Austrian ditto b.l.
466 Clematis cirrhosa. c. Evergreen Virgin's Bower b.l.
467 -------- florida. c. Large-flowered ditto b.l.
468 -------- flore pleno Double ditto c.m.
469 -------- viticella. c. Purple-flowered ditto b.l.
470 -------- v. fl. pleno. c. Double Purple-flowered ditto c.m.
471 -------- crispa. c. Curled-flowered ditto b.l.
472 -------- orientalis. c. Eastern ditto b.l.
473 -------- virginiana. c. Virginian ditto c.m.
474 -------- flammula. c. Sweet-scented ditto c.m.


475 Teucrium flavum Yellow Teucrium l.s.
476 Satureja montana Winter Savory c.m.
477 Hyssopus officinalis Common Hyssop c.m.
478 Lavandula Spica Lavender c.m.
479 --------- v. flore albo White-flowered ditto c.m.
480 --------- Stoechas French ditto c.m.s.
481 Phlomis fruticosa Jerusalem Sage c.m.
482 Thymus vulgaris Common Thyme c.m.
483 ------ v. fol. variegat. Silver Thyme c.m.
484 ------ vulgaris. latifolia Broad-leaved Thyme c.m.
485 ------ Zygis Linear-leaved ditto c.m.


486 Bignonia Catalpa Common Catalpa c.m.
487 -------- radicans Great trumpet Flower c.m.
488 -------- v. minor Small ditto c.m.
489 -------- capreolata Four-leaved ditto l.s.
490 Vitex Agnus Castus Chaste Tree c.m.
491 ----- v. latifolia Broad-leaved ditto c.m.


492 Vella Pseudo-cytisus Shrubby Vella l.s.


493 Hibiscus Syriacus Althaea Frutex c.m.
494 -------- v. ruber Red-flowered ditto c.m.
495 -------- v. albus White-flowered ditto c.m.
496 -------- v. fol. variegat. Striped-leaved ditto c.m.
497 -------- v. flore pleno Double White-flowered ditto c.m.
498 Stuartia Malacodendron Common Stuartia b.l.s.
499 -------- marilandia Maryland ditto b.l.s.
500 Gordonia pubescens Loblolly Bay b.l.s.


501 Polygala Chamaebuxus Box-leaved Milkwort b.m.


502 Spartium Junceum Spanish Broom c.m.
503 -------- flore pleno Double-flowered ditto l.s.
504 -------- decumbens Trailing Broom c.m.
505 -------- Scorpius Scorpion ditto c.m.
506 -------- multiflorum Portugal White ditto c.m.
507 -------- patens Woolly-podded ditto c.m.
508 -------- purgans Purging ditto c.m.
509 -------- radiatum Starry ditto b.m.
510 Genista candicans Evergreen genista c.m.
511 ------- triquetra Triangular ditto c.m.
512 ------- sagittalis Jointed ditto l.
513 ------- sibirica Siberian ditto c.m.
514 ------- germanica German ditto l.
515 ------- hispanica Spanish ditto l.
516 ------- lusitanica Portugal ditto l.
517 Amorpha fruticosa Bastard Indigo c.m.
518 Ononis rotundifolia Round-leaved Rest-Harrow l.
519 ------ fruticosa Shrubby ditto l.
520 Glycine frutescens Shrubby Kidney-bean Tree c.m.
521 Cytisus Laburnum Common Laburnum c.m.
522 ------- v. latifolium Scotch ditto c.m.
523 ------- alpinus Alpine Cytisus c.m.
524 ------- nigricans Black ditto c.m.
525 ------- divaricatus Divaricated ditto c.m.
526 ------- sessifolius Sessile-leaved ditto c.m.
527 ------- hirsutus Hairy Evergreen ditto c.m.s.
528 ------- purpureus Purple-flowered ditto b.l.
529 ------- austriacus Austrian ditto l.
530 ------- supinus Trailing ditto l.
531 ------- capitatus Large Yellow-flowered ditto c.m.
532 ------- biflorus Two-flowered ditto c.m.
533 Robinia Pseudo-Acacia Common Acacia c.m.
534 ------- hispida Rose Acacia c.m.
535 Robinia glutinosa Glutinous Acacia c.m.
536 ------- Caragana Caragana ditto c.m.
537 ------- Altagana Siberian ditto l.
538 ------- Chamlagu Shining-leaved ditto l.
539 ------- spinosa Thorny ditto l.
540 ------- Halodendron Salt Tree l.
541 ------- frutescens Shrubby Robinia l.
542 ------- pygmea Dwarf ditto l.
543 ------- jubata Bearded ditto l.
544 Colutea arborescens Common Bladder Senna c.m.
545 ------- cruenta Eastern ditto c.m.
546 ------- Pococki Pocock's ditto c.m.
547 Coronilla Emeris Scorpion Senna c.m.
548 Astralagus tragacantha Goat's Thorn l.


549 Hypericum calycinum Great-flowered St. John's-wort c.m.
550 --------- hircinum Foetid ditto c.m.
551 --------- v. minus Lesser Foetid ditto c.m.
552 --------- elatum Tall ditto c.m.
553 --------- prolificum Proliferous ditto c.m.
554 --------- olympicum Olympian ditto l.s.
555 --------- Kalmianum Kalmia-leaved ditto c.m.


556 Santolina Chamaecyparissus Lavender cotton c.m.
557 --------- rosmarinifolius Rosemary-leaved ditto c.m.


558 Gnaphalium Stoechas Narrow-leaved Everlasting l.s.
559 Baccharis halimifolia Groundsel tree c.m.
560 Cineraria maritima Sea Rag-wort l.s.


561 Passiflora caerulea. c. Blue Passion Flower c.m.s.


562 Aristolochia Sipho. c. Tree Birthwort l.


563 Axyris Ceratoides Shrubby Axyris l.s.
564 Comptonia asplenifolia Fern-leaved Gale b.s.


565 Aucuba japonica Blotched-leaved Aucuba l.b.s.
566 Betula populifolia Poplar-leaved Birch c.m.
567 ------ nigra Black ditto c.m.
568 ------ papyracea Paper ditto c.m.
569 ------ pumila Hairy-leaved Dwarf ditto b.m.
570 ------ oblongata Oblong-leaved ditto c.m.
571 ------ laciniata Cut-leaved Alder c.m.
572 ------ incana Glaucous-leaved Alder c.m.
573 ------ v. angulata Elm-leaved ditto c.m.
574 Buxus balearicus Minorca Box l.s.
575 ----- semperv. v. variegat. Striped-leaved ditto c.m.
576 ----- v. angustifolia Narrow-leaved ditto c.m.
577 Morus alba White Mulberry c.m.
578 ----- nigra Black ditto c.m.
579 ----- papyracea Paper ditto c.m.
580 ----- rubra Red ditto c.m.


581 Iva frutescens Bastard Jesuit's-Bark Tree c.m.


582 Quercus Phellos Willow-leaved Oak l.
583 ------- v. serioea Dwarf Willow-leaved ditto l.
584 ------- Ilex Evergreen Oak c.m.
585 ------- v. serrata Sawed-leaved Evergreen ditto c.m.
586 ------- v. oblonga Oblong-leaved Evergreen do. c.m.
587 ------- Suber Cork tree c.m.
588 ------- virens Live Oak c.m.
589 ------- Prinos Chesnut-leaved Oak l.s.
590 ------- v. oblonga Long-leaved ditto l.
591 ------- aquatica Water Oak l.
592 ------- v. heterophylla Various-leaved Water Oak l.
593 ------- v. elongata Long-leaved Water ditto l.
594 ------- v. indivisa Entire-leaved Water ditto l.
595 ------- v. attenuata Narrow-leaved Water ditto l.
596 ------- nigra Black Oak c.m.
597 ------- rubra Red ditto c.m.
598 ------- v. coccinea Scarlet ditto c.m.
599 ------- v. montana Mountain Red ditto c.m.
600 ------- discolor Downy-leaved ditto c.m.
601 ------- alba White Oak c.m.
602 ------- aegilops Large prickly-cupped ditto l.
603 ------- Cerris Turkey Oak c.m.
604 Fagus pumila Chinquapin Chesnut l.s.
605 ----- ferruginea Copper Beech c.m.
606 ----- sylvatica v. purpurea Purple ditto c.m.
607 ----- v. asplenifolia Fern-leaved ditto c.m.
608 Carpinus virginiana Virginian Hornbeam c.m.
609 Carpinus Ostrya Hop Hornbeam c.m.
610 Corylus rostrata American Cuckold Nut c.m.
611 ------- Colurna Constantinople ditto c.m.
612 Platanus orientalis Palmated Plane Tree c.m.
613 -------- v. acerifolia Maple-leaved ditto c.m.
614 -------- v. undulata Waved-leaved ditto c.m.
615 -------- occidentalis Lobed-leaved ditto c.m.
616 Liquidamber Styraciflua Maple-leaved Gum Tree l.


617 Pinus pinaster Pinaster c.m.
618 ----- Inops Jersey Pine l.
619 ----- resinosa Pitch ditto l.
620 ----- halepensis Aleppo Pine l.
621 ----- Pinea Stone Pine l.
622 ----- Taeda Frankincense ditto l.
623 ----- v. rigida Three-leaved ditto l.
624 ----- v. variabilis Two and three-leaved ditto l.
625 ----- v. alopecuroides Fox-tail ditto l.
626 ----- v. Cembra Siberian stone ditto c.m.
627 ----- Strobus Weymouth ditto c.m.
628 ----- Cedrus Cedar of Lebanon c.m.
629 ----- Larix Red Larch c.m.
630 ----- v. pendula Black Larch c.m.
631 ----- Picea Silver Fir c.m.
632 ----- Balsamea Balm of Gilead Fir c.m.
633 ----- canadensis Hemlock Spruce Fir c.m.
634 ----- nigra Black ditto c.m.
635 ----- alba White ditto c.m.
636 ----- Abies Red or Common ditto c.m.
637 ----- sylvestris v. tatarica Tartarian Pine l.
638 ----- v. montana Mountain ditto l.
639 ----- v. divaricata Hudson's Bay ditto l.
640 ----- v. maritima Sea Pine l.
641 Thuja occidentalis American Arbor-Vitae c.m.
642 ----- orientalis Chinese ditto c.m.
643 Cupressus sempervirens Upright Cypress c.m.
644 --------- v. horizontalis Male Spreading ditto c.m.
645 --------- disticha Deciduous ditto c.m.
646 --------- v. nutans Long-leaved Deciduous ditto l.
647 --------- thyoides Arbor-Vitae-leaved ditto c.m.
648 --------- pendula Cedar of Goa l.s.


649 Salix phylicaefolia Phylica-leaved Willow c.m.
650 ----- babylonica Weeping Willow c.m.
651 ----- retusa Blunt-leaved ditto c.m.
652 Salix incubacea Spreading Willow c.m.
653 ----- ulmifolia Elm-leaved ditto c.m.
654 ----- hastata Halbert-leaved ditto c.m.
655 ----- myrtilloides Myrtle-leaved ditto c.m.
656 ----- Lapponum Lapland ditto c.m.
657 ----- tristis Narrow-leaved American ditto c.m.


658 Empetrum rubrum Red Crow Berry b.m.
659 Hippophae canadensis Canada Sea Buck-thorn b.l.s.
660 Myrica cerifera Candleberry Myrtle b.l.
661 ------ v. latifolia Broad-leaved ditto b.l.


662 Pistachia Terebinthus Pistachia Nut Tree l.s.
663 Xanthoxylum Clava Herculis Tooth-ach Tree c.m.


664 Smilax aspera. c. Rough Bindweed l.b.
665 ------ lanceolata. c. Spear-leaved ditto l.b.
666 ------ rotundifolia. c. Round-leaved ditto l.b.
667 ------ Bona Nox. c. Ciliated ditto l.b.
668 ------ laurifolia. c. Laurel-leaved ditto l.b.
669 ------ sassaparilla. c. Sassaparilla ditto l.b.
670 ------ tamnoides. c. Briony-leaved ditto l.b.
671 ------ caduca. c. Deciduous ditto l.b.


672 Populus dilatata Lombardy Poplar c.m.
673 ------- balsamifera Tacamahac ditto c.m.
674 ------- candicans White-leaved ditto c.m.
675 ------- laevigata Smooth-leaved ditto c.m.
676 ------- monilifera Canadian ditto c.m.
677 ------- graeca Athenian ditto c.m.
678 ------- heterophylla Various-leaved ditto c.m.
679 ------- angulata Carolina ditto c.m.


680 Coriaria myrtifolia Myrtle-leaved Sumach c.m.


681 Menispermum canadense. c. Canada Moon-seed l.b.
682 ----------- carolinianum. c. Carolina ditto l.b.


683 Juniperus thuifera Spanish Juniper c.m.
684 --------- Sabina Common Savin c.m.
685 --------- v. tamariscifolia Tamarisk-leaved ditto c.m.
686 Juniperus v. fol. variegat. Variegated Savin c.m.
687 --------- virginiana Red Cedar c.m.
688 --------- repens Creeping ditto c.m.
689 --------- Oxycedrus Brown-berried ditto l.b.s.
690 --------- phoenicea Phoenicean ditto l.b.s.
691 --------- bermudiana Bermudian ditto l.b.s.
692 --------- communis v. suecica Swedish ditto c.m.
693 --------- montana Alpine ditto l.b.
694 Ephedra monostachya Shrubby Horse tail l.b.
695 ------- distachya Greater ditto l.b.
696 Cissampelos smilacina Smilax-leaved Cissampelos l.b.


697 Ruscus Hypoglossum Broad-leaved Alexandrian Laurel c.m.
698 ------ Hypophyllum Double-leaved ditto b.m.
699 ------ racemosus Common ditto b.m.


700 Atriplex Halimus Sea Purslane c.m.
701 Acer tataricum Tartarian Maple c.m.
702 ---- rubrum Scarlet ditto c.m.
703 ---- v. pallidum Pale ditto c.m.
704 ---- saccharinum Sugar Maple c.m.
705 ---- platanoides Plane-leaved ditto c.m.
706 ---- v. laciniatum Cut-leaved ditto c.m.
707 ---- montanum Mountain ditto c.m.
708 ---- pensylvanicum Pennsylvanian ditto c.m.
709 ---- monspessulanum Montpellier ditto c.m.
710 ---- creticum Cretan ditto c.m.
711 ---- Negundo Ash-leaved ditto c.m.
712 ---- Opalus Italian ditto c.m.


713 Gleditsia triacanthos Three-thorned Acacia c.m.
714 --------- v. horrida Strong-spined ditto c.m.
715 --------- v. monosperma Single-seeded ditto c.m.
716 Fraxinus rotundifolia Round-leaved Ash c.m.
717 -------- excelsior v. crispa Curled-leaved ditto c.m.
718 -------- v. diversifolia Various-leaved ditto c.m.
719 -------- v. pendula Weeping Ash c.m.
720 -------- v. striata Striped-barked ditto c.m.
721 -------- v. variegata Blotch-leaved ditto c.m.
722 -------- Ornus Flowering ditto c.m.
723 -------- americana American ditto c.m.
724 -------- chinensis Chinese ditto c.m.
725 -------- rotundifolia Round-leaved ditto c.m.
726 Diospyrus Lotus Date Plum Tree c.m.
727 Diospyrus virginiana Virginian Plum Tree c.m.
728 Nyssa integrifolia Mountain Tupello l.b.
729 ----- denticulata Water ditto l.b.


730 Ficus Garica Common Fig-Tree c.m.

* * * * *


In enumerating the foregoing, as well as the plants of the present
section, I have had more than one object in view; being desirous to put
in only such plants as were ornamental or curious, at the same time to
insert none but what are perfectly hardy; yet, independently of this, to
make it sufficiently general, to give to such persons who might wish to
study plants scientifically, a sufficient number for examples in every
genus. For this purpose I have retained a portion of the Umbelliferous
and other plants. Although not to be distinguished for their general
beauty or appearance, yet they are calculated to afford the student the
best plants for comparison, and for that reason I have arranged them
according to the Linnaean System.


1 Veronica sibirica Siberian Speedwell c.m.
2 -------- virginica Virginian ditto c.m.
3 -------- spuria Bastard ditto c.m.
4 -------- maritima Blue-flowered Sea ditto c.m.
5 -------- longifolia Long-leaved ditto c.m.
6 -------- incana Hoary ditto c.m.
7 -------- incicisa Cut-leaved ditto c.m.
8 -------- Allioni Creeping ditto c.m.
9 -------- Teucrium Hungarian ditto c.m.
10 -------- urticaefolia Nettle-leaved ditto c.m.
11 -------- orientalis Oriental ditto c.m.
12 -------- candida White-leaved ditto c.m.
13 -------- multifida Multifid ditto c.m.
14 -------- latifolia Broad-leaved ditto c.m.
15 Verinoca prostrata Trailing Sea Speedwell c.m.
16 -------- austriaca Austrian ditto c.m.
17 -------- pinnata Wing'd-leaved ditto c.m.
18 -------- paniculata Panicled ditto c.m.
19 -------- Gentianoides Gentian-leaved ditto c.m.
20 Gratiola officinalis Hedge-Hyssop c.m.
21 Verbena urticaefolia Nettle-leaved Vervain c.m.
22 Lycopus virginicus Virginian Lycopus c.m.
23 Monarda fistulosa Hollow-stalked Monarda l.
24 ------- didyma Scarlet ditto l.
25 ------- purpurea Purple ditto l.
26 Salvia lyrata Lyre-leaved Sage l.b.
27 ------ virgata Twiggy-branched ditto c.m.
28 ------ sylvestris Spotted-stalked ditto c.m.
29 ------ nemorosa Spear-leaved ditto c.m.
30 ------ austriaca Austrian ditto c.m.
31 ------ Disermas Long-spiked ditto c.m.
32 ------ verticillata Whorl-flowered ditto c.m.
33 ------ glutinosa Yellow-flowered ditto c.m.
34 ------ lineata Flax-leaved ditto l.b.
35 Collinsonia canadensis Nettle-leaved Collinsonia c.m.


36 Valeriana Phu Garden Valerian c.m.
37 Ixia chinensis Chinese Ixia l.b.
38 Galdiolus communis Common red Corn-Flag c.m.
39 --------- byzantinus Larger ditto c.m.
40 Iris susiana Chalcedonian Iris l.b.
41 ---- florentina Florentine ditto c.m.
42 ---- germanica German ditto c.m.
43 ---- lurida Dingy ditto c.m.
44 ---- sambucina Elder-scented ditto c.m.
45 ---- dalmatica Dalmatian ditto c.m.
46 ---- variegata Variegated-flowered ditto c.m.
47 ---- biflora Two-flowered ditto l.b.
48 ---- pumila Dwarf ditto c.m.
49 ---- sibirica Siberian ditto c.m.
50 ---- squalens Brown-flowered ditto c.m.
51 ---- versicolor Various coloured ditto c.m.
52 ---- spuria Spurious ditto c.m.
53 ---- ochroleuca Pale Yellow ditto c.m.
54 ---- graminea Grass-leaved ditto c.m.
55 ---- ephium Spanish Bulbous ditto c.m.
56 ---- ephioides English Bulbous ditto c.m.
57 ---- persica Persian ditto l.b.
58 ---- halophila Long-leaved ditto c.m.
59 ---- subbiflora One- and Two-flowered ditto c.m.
60 ---- virginica Virginian ditto c.m.
61 Iris aphylla Naked-stalked Iris c.m.
62 ---- flexuosa Bending-stalked ditto c.m.
63 Commelina erecta Upright Commelina c.m.


64 Scabiosa alpina Alpine Scabious c.m.
65 -------- leucantha Snowy ditto c.m.
66 -------- sylvatica Broad-leaved ditto c.m.
67 -------- ochroleuca Pale white ditto c.m.
68 Crucianella anomala Anomalous Crucianella c.m.
69 Asperula Taurina Broad-leaved Woodroof c.m.
70 Plantago maxima Broad-leaved Plantain c.m.
71 -------- v. rosea Rose ditto c.m.
72 -------- altissima Tall ditto c.m.
73 -------- asiatica Asiatic ditto c.m.
74 Sanguisorba media Short-spiked Burnet-saxifrage c.m.
75 -------- canadensis Canadian ditto c.m.


76 Anchusa angustifolia Narrow-leaved Bugloss c.m.
77 Pulmonaria angustifolia Narrow-leaved Lungwort l.b.
78 ---------- virginica Virginian ditto l.b.
79 Borago orientalis Eastern Borage l.b.
80 Symphytum orientale Eastern Comfrey l.b.
81 --------- asperrimum Siberian ditto c.m.
82 Hydrophyllum virginicum Virginian Water-leaf l.b.
83 ------------ canadense Canadian ditto l.b.
84 Lysimachia Ephemeron Willow-leaved Loose-strife l.
85 ---------- stricta Bulb-bearing ditto b.s.
86 ---------- ciliata Ciliated ditto c.m.
87 Plumbago europaea European Lead-wort c.m.
88 Phlox paniculata Panicled Lychnidea c.m.
89 ----- undulata Wave-leaved ditto c.m.
90 ----- suaveolens White-flowered ditto c.m.
91 ----- carolina Carolina ditto c.m.
92 ----- maculata Spotted-stalked ditto c.m.
93 ----- glaberrima Smooth-stalked ditto c.m.
94 Convolvulus americanus American Bind-weed c.m.
95 Polemonium reptans Creeping Greek Valerian c.m.
96 Campanula persicifolia Peach-leaved Campanula l.
97 --------- pyramidalis Pyramidal ditto l.
98 --------- lilifolia Lily ditto c.m.
99 --------- rapunculoides Nettle-leaved ditto c.m.
100 -------- americana American ditto l.
101 -------- versicolor Various-coloured ditto l.b.
102 -------- sibirica Siberian ditto l.b.
103 Phyteuma spicata Spike-flowered Horn-Rampion c.m.
104 Triosteum perfoliatum Fever Wort l.b.
105 Verbascum ferrugineum Rusty-leaved Mullein l.
106 -------- phoeniceum Purple-flowered ditto l.
107 Hyoscyamus Scopolia Nightshade-leaved Henbane b.
108 Physalis Alkekengi Winter Cherry c.m.
109 Atropa Mandragora Mandrake l.s.
110 Viola montana Mountain Violet c.m.
111 Tabernamonta Amsonia Alternate-leaved Taberna montana
112 ------------ angustifolia Narrow-leaved ditto l.s.


113 Apocynum venetum Spear-leaved Dog's-bane c.m.
114 -------- androsaemifolium Fly-catching ditto l.b.
115 -------- cannabium Hemp-leaved ditto c.m.
116 Asclepius syriaca Syrian Swallow-wort c.m.
117 --------- amoena Oval-leaved ditto c.m.
118 --------- incarnata Flesh-coloured ditto c.m.
119 --------- sibirica Siberian ditto l.b.
120 --------- Vincetoxicum Officinal ditto c.m.
121 --------- exaltata Tall ditto l.b.
122 --------- tuberosa Orange Apocynum or ditto l.b.
123 --------- nigra Black ditto c.m.
124 Heuchera americana American Spanicle c.m.
125 Gentiana lutea Yellow Gentian l.b.
126 -------- saponaria Soapwort-leaved ditto l.b.
127 --------- cruciata Cross-wort ditto l.b.
128 Eryngium planum Flat-leaved Eryngo l.
129 -------- amethystinum Amethystian ditto l.
130 -------- Bourgati Cut-leaved ditto l.
131 -------- alpinum Alpine ditto l.
132 Astrantia major Great Black Masterwort c.m.
133 Ferrula communis Gigantic Fennel l.
134 ------- nodiflora Knotted ditto l.
135 Laserpitium latifolium Broad-leaved Laser-wort l.
136 Heracleum elegans Elegant-leaved Cow Parsnep c.m.
137 Ligusticum laevisticum Common Lovage c.m.
138 ---------- peloponnese Hemlock-leaved ditto c.m.
139 Angelica archangelica Garden Angelica c.m.
140 Sium Falcaria Creeping-rooted Skirret l.b.
141 Phellandrium Mutellina Mountain Phellandrium l.b.
142 Chaerophyllum bulbosum Bulbous-rooted Chaerophyllum c.m.
143 ------------ hirsutum Hairy ditto c.m.
144 ------------ aromaticum Sweet-scented ditto c.m.
145 Sesseli montanum Long-leaved Meadow-saxifrage c.m.
146 Thapsia villosa Deadly carrot c.m.
147 Smyrnium aureum Golden Alexanders l.b.


148 Aralia racemosa Berry-bearing Aralia c.m.
149 Aralia nudicaulis Naked-stalk'd Atalia l.b.
150 Statice Cephalotes Large single-stalk'd Statice l.
151 ------- speciosa Plaintain-leaved ditto l.
152 ------- tatarica Tartarian ditto l.


153 Tradescantia virginica Virginian Spider-wort c.m.
154 Narcissus angustifolius Narrow-leaved Narcissus c.m.
155 --------- biflorus Two-flowered ditto c.m.
156 --------- majalis Late-flowering white ditto c.m.
157 Narcissus incomparabilis Peerless Daffodil c.m.
158 --------- major Large ditto c.m.
159 --------- orientalis Oriental ditto c.m.
160 --------- Tazetta Polyanthus Narcissus c.m.
161 --------- odorus Sweet-scented ditto c.m.
162 --------- Jonquilla Jonquil c.m.
163 --------- hispanicus Spanish-white ditto c.m.
164 --------- Bulbocodium Hoop Petticoat ditto l.b.
165 --------- minor Lesser daffodil c.m.
166 Amaryllis lutea Yellow Amaryllis l.
167 Allium victorialis Long rooted Garlick c.m.
168 ------ sphaerocephalon Small round-headed ditto c.m.
169 ------ descendens Purple-headed ditto c.m.
170 ------ nutans Nodding ditto c.m.
171 ------ senescens Narcissus-leaved Garlick c.m.
172 ------ multibulbosum Broad-leaved ditto c.m.
173 ------ flavum Yellow Garlick c.m.
174 ------ Moly Yellow Moly c.m.
175 ------ tartaricum Tartarian Garlick c.m.
176 ------ subhirsutum Hairy ditto c.m.
177 ------ pallens Pale-flowered ditto c.m.
178 Lilium candidum White Lilly c.m.
179 ------ bulbiferum Orange ditto c.m.
180 ------ pomponium Pomponian ditto b.m.
181 ------ chalcedonium Scarlet Martagon ditto c.m.
182 ------ superbum Superb ditto b.m.
183 ------ martagon Common Martagon ditto c.m.
184 ------ canadense Canada-Martagon ditto b.m.
185 ------ tigrinum Tiger Lily l.b.
186 ------ philadelphicum Philadelphia Lily b.m.s.
187 ------ Catesbaei Catesby's Lily b.m.s.
188 Fritillaria imperialis Crown Imperial c.m.
189 ----------- persica Persian Fritillary l.
190 ----------- pyrenaica Pyrenean Fritillary c.m.
191 Uvularia perfoliata Perfoliate Uvularia l.b.
192 -------- amplexifolia Heart-leaved ditto l.b.
193 -------- grandiflora Large-flowered ditto c.m.
194 Erythronium Dens Canis Dog's-tooth Violet c.m.
195 Tulipa sylvestris Italian Yellow Tulip c.m.
196 ------ Gesneriana Common Garden ditto c.m.
196 Hypoxis erecta Upright Hypoxis c.m.
197 Ornithogalum nutans Nodding Star of Bethlehem c.m.
198 ------------ pyrenaicum Pyrenean ditto c.m.
199 ------------ latifolium Broad-leaved ditto c.m.
200 Scilla peruviana Peruvian-Hyacinth c.m.
201 ------ campanulata Spansh Squill c.m.
202 ------ bifolia Two-leaved ditto l.b.
203 ------ praecox Siberian ditto l.b.
204 ------ italica Italian ditto c.m.
205 ------ amoena Early-flowering ditto c.m.
206 Asphodelus luteus Yellow Asphodel c.m.
207 ---------- ramosus Branching ditto c.m.
208 Anthericum ramosum Branching Anthericum c.m.
209 ---------- Liliago Grass-leaved ditto c.m.
210 ---------- Liliastrum St. Bruno's Lily c.m.
211 Convallaria verticillata Verticillate Solomon's Seal l.
212 ----------- racemosa Branching ditto l.
213 ----------- stellata Starry ditto l.
214 Hyacinthus orientalis Garden Hyacinth c.m.
215 ---------- romanus Roman ditto l.
216 ---------- cernuus Nodding ditto c.m.
217 ---------- Muscaria Musk ditto c.m.
218 ---------- monstrosus Feathered ditto c.m.
219 ---------- comosus Purple-Grape or Tassel ditto c.m.
220 ---------- botryoides Blue-Grape ditto c.m.
221 ---------- racemosus Starch ditto c.m.
222 Aletris Uvaria Orange-flowered Aletris l.s.
223 Yucca gloriosa Superb Adam's Needle l.s.
224 ----- filamentosa Thready ditto c.m.
225 Hemerocallis flava Yellow Day Lily c.m.
226 ------------ coerulea Blue ditto l.s.
227 ------------ alba White ditto l.s.
228 ------------ fulva Tawny ditto c.m.
229 ------------ graminea Grass-leaved ditto c.m.


230 Rumex Patentia Patience Dock c.m.
231 ----- italicus Italian ditto c.m.
232 ----- alpinus Alpine ditto c.m.


233 Saururus cernuus Lizard's Tail c.m.
234 -------- lucidus Shining-leaved ditto c.m.


235 Oenothera fruticosa Shrubby Oenothera c.m.
236 Oenothera Misouriensis Misour Oenothera l.b.
237 --------- Fraseri Fraser's ditto l.b.
238 --------- angustifolia Narrow-leaved Shrubby ditto c.m.
239 Epilobium angustissimum Narrowest-leaved Willow-herb c.m.
240 --------- Dodonaei Dodonaeus's ditto l.b.


241 Polygonum divaricatum Divaricated Polygonum c.m.
242 --------- scandens Climbing ditto c.m.
243 --------- undulatum Waved-leaved ditto c.m.
244 --------- ochreatum Spear-leaved ditto c.m.
245 --------- virginicum Virginian ditto c.m.


246 Rheum Rhaponticum Rhapontic Rhubarb c.m.
247 ----- undulatum Waved-leaved ditto c.m.
248 ----- palmatum Palmated-leaved ditto c.m.
249 ----- tataricum Tartarian ditto c.m.
250 ----- hybridum Bastard ditto c.m.
251 ----- compactum Compact ditto c.m.


252 Sophora flavescens Siberian Sophora l.b.
253 ------- alopecuroides Fox-tail ditto l.b.
254 ------- australis Blue Australian ditto l.b.
255 ------- alba White ditto l.b.
256 Cassia marilandica Maryland Cassia l.
257 Dictamnus rubra Fraxinella c.m.


258 Saxifraga crassifolia Oval-leaved Saxifrage c.m.
259 --------- cordifolia Heart-leaved ditto c.m.
260 --------- Geum Kidney-leaved ditto c.m.
261 --------- geranoides Crane's-bill-leaved ditto c.m.
262 --------- pensylvanica Pennsylvanian ditto l.b.

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