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The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, Volume 10 by Richard F. Burton

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109. Abdallah the Fisherman and Abdallah the Merman dccclxxvii [877]
110. King Shah Bekht and his Vizier Er Rehwan dccclxxxv [885]
a. The Man of Khorassan, his Son and his Governor dccclxxxvi [886]
b. The Singer and the Druggist dccclxxxviii [888]
c. The King who knew the Quintessence of Things dcccxci [891]
d. The Rich Man who gave his Fair Daughter in Marriage to
the Poor Old Man dcccxcii [892]
e. The Rich Man and his Wasteful Son dcccxciii [893]
f. The King's Son who fell in Love with the Picture dcccxciv [894]
g. The Fuller and his Wife dcccxcvi [896]
h. The Old Woman, the Merchant and the King dcccxcvi [896]
i. The Credulous Husband dcccxcviii [898]
j. The Unjust King and the Tither dcccxcix [899]
ja. Story of David and Solomon dcccxcix [899]
k. The Thief and the Woman dcccxcix [899]
l. The Three Men and our Lord Jesus dcccci [901]
la. The Disciple's Story dcccci [901]
m. The Dethroned King whose Kingdom and Good were Restored
to Him dcccci [901]
n. The Man whose Caution was the Cause of his Death dcccciii [903]
o. The Man who was lavish of his House and his Victual to
one whom he knew not dcccciv [904]
p. The Idiot and the Sharper dccccv [905]
q. Khelbes and his Wife and the Learned Man dccccvi [906]
r. The Pious Woman accused of Lewdness dccccvii [907]
s. The Journeyman and the Girl dccccix [909]
t. The Weaver who became a Physician by his Wife's Commandment dccccix [909]
u. The Two Sharpers who cheated each his Fellow dccccxi [911]
v. The Sharpers with the Money-Changer and the Ass dccccxiv [914]
w. The Sharper and the Merchants dccccxv [915]
wa. The Hawk and the Locust dccccxvi [916]
x. The King and his Chamberlain's Wife dccccxvii [917]
xa. The Old Woman and the Draper's Wife dccccxvii [917]
y. The foul-favoured Man and his Fair Wife dccccxviii [918]
z. The King who lost Kingdom and Wife and Wealth and God
restored them to him dccccxvix [919]
za. Selim and Selma dccccxxii [922]
zb. The King of Hind and his Vizier dccccxxviii [928]
111. El Melik er Zahir Rukneddin Bibers el Bunducdari and
the Sixteen Officers of Police dccccxxx [930]
a. The First Officer's Story dccccxxx [930]
b. The Second Officer's Story dccccxxxii [932]
c. The Third Officer's Story dccccxxxii [932]
d. The Fourth Officer's Story dccccxxxiv [934]
e. The Fifth Officer's Story dccccxxxiv [934]
f. The Sixth Officer's Story dccccxxxiv [934]
g. The Seventh Officer's Story dccccxxxiv [934]
h. The Eighth Officer's Story dccccxxxv [935]
ha. The Thief's Story dccccxxxviii [938]
i. The Ninth Officer's Story dccccxxxviii [938]
j. The Tenth Officer's Story dccccxxxviii [938]
k. The Eleventh Officer's Story dccccxxxviii [938]
l. The Twelfth Officer's Story dccccxxxxix [939]
m. The Thirteenth Officer's Story dcccccxxxix [939]
n. The Fourteenth Officer's Story dccccxxxxix [939]
na. A Merry Jest of a Thief dccccxl [940]
nb. Story of the Old Sharper dccccxl [940]
o. The Fifteenth Officer's Story dccccxl [940]
p. The Sixteenth Officer's Story dccccxl [940]
112. Abdallah ben Nafi and the King's Son of Cashghar dccccxli [941]
a. Story of Tuhfet el Culoub and Haroun er Reshid dccccxlii [942]
113. Noureddin Ali and Sitt el Milah dcccclviii [958]
114. El Abbas and the King's Daughter of Baghdad dcccclxvi [966]
115. The Malice of Women dcccclxxix [979]
a. The King and his Vizier's Wife dcccclxxx [980]
b. The Merchant's Wife and the Parrot dcccclxxx [980]
c. The Fuller and his Son dcccclxxx [980]
d. The Lover's Trick against the Chaste Wife dcccclxxx [980]
e. The Niggard and the Loaves of Bread dcccclxxx [980]
f. The Lady and her Two Lovers dcccclxxx [980]
g. The King's Son and the Ogress dcccclxxxv [985]
h. The Drop of Honey dcccclxxxvi [986]
i. The Woman who make her Husband Sift Dust dcccclxxxvi [986]
j. The Enchanted Springs dcccclxxxvi [986]
k. The Vizier's Son and the Bathkeeper's Wife dcccclxxxviii [988]
1. The Wife's Device to Cheat her Husband dcccclxxxix [989]
m. The Goldsmith and the Cashmere Singing-Girl dccccxc [990]
n. The Man who never Laughed again dccccxci [991]
o. The King's Son and the Merchant's Wife dccccxciii [993]
p. The Man who saw the Night of Power dccccxciii [993]
q. The Stolen Necklace dccccxciv [994]
r. Prince Behram of Persia and the Princess Ed Detma dccccxciv [994]
s. The House with the Belvedere dccccxcv [995]
t. The Sandalwood Merchant and the Sharpers dccccxcviii [998]
u. The Debauchee and the Three-year-old Child dccccxcviii [998]
v. The Stolen Purse dccccxcix [999]
w. The Fox and the Folk[FN#467] m [1000]
116. The Two Kings and the Vizier's Daughters mi [1001]
117. The Favourite and her Lover mi [1001]
118. The Merchant of Cairo and the Favourite of the Khalif
El Mamoun El Hakim bi Amrillah mi [1001]



INTRODUCTION.--Story of King Shehriyar and his Brother
a. Story of the Ox and the Ass
1. The Merchant and the Genie i [1]
a. The First Old Man's Story i [1]
b. The Second Old Man's Story ii [2]
c. The Third Old Man's Story ii [2]
2. The Fisherman and the Genie iii [3]
a. Story of the Physician Douban iv [4]
aa. Story of King Sindbad and his Falcon[FN#468] v [5]
ab. Story of the King's Son and the Ogress v [5]
b. Story of the Enchanted Youth vii [7]
3. The Porter and the Three Ladies of Baghdad ix [9]
a. The First Calender's Story xi [11]
b. The Second Calender's Story xii [12]
ba. Story of the Envier and the Envied[FN#469] xiii [13]
c. The Third Calender's Story xiv [14]
d. The Eldest Lady's Story xvii [17]
e. The Story of the Portress xviii [18]
4. The Three Apples xix [19]
5. Noureddin Ali of Cairo and his Son Bedreddin Hassan xx [20]
6. Story of the Hunchback xxv [25]
a. The Christian Broker's Story xxv [25]
b. The Controller's Story xxvii [27]
c. The Jewish Physician's Story xxviii [28]
d. The Tailor's Story xxix [29]
e. The Barber's Story xxxi [31]
ea. Story of the Barber's First Brother xxxi [31]
eb. Story of the Barber's Second Brother xxxi [31]
ec. Story of the Barber's Third Brother xxxii [32]
ed. Story of the Barber's Fourth Brother xxxii [32]
ee. Story of the Barber's Fifth Brother xxxii [32]
ef. Story of the Barber's Sixth Brother xxxiii [33]
7. Noureddin Ali and the Damsel Enis el Jelis xxxiv [34]
8. Ghanim ben Eyoub the Slave of Love xxxix [39]
a. Story of the Eunuch Bekhit xxxix [39]
b. Story of the Eunuch Kafour xxxix [39]
9. The History of King Omar ben Ennuman and his Sons Sherkan
and Zoulmekan xlv [45]
a. Story of Taj el Mulouk and the Princess Dunya cvii [107]
aa. Story of Aziz and Azizeh cvii [107]
b. Bakoun's Story of the Hashish-Eater cxliii [143]
c. Hemmad the Bedouin's Story cxliv [144]
10. The Birds and Beasts and the Son of Adam cxlvi [146]
11. The Hermits cxlviii [148]
12. The Waterfowl and the Tortoise cxlviii [148]
13. The Wolf and the Fox cxlviii [148]
a. The Hawk and the Partridge cxlix [149]
14. The Mouse and the Weasel cl [150]
15. The Cat and the Crow cl [150]
16. The Fox and the Crow cl [150]
a. The Mouse and the Flea cli [151]
b. The Falcon and the Birds clii [152]
c. The Sparrow and the Eagle clii [152]
17. The Hedgehog and the Pigeons clii [152]
a. The Merchant and the Two Sharpers clii [152]
18. The Thief and his Monkey clii [152]
a. The Foolish Weaver clii [152]
19. The Sparrow and the Peacock clii [152]
20. Ali ben Bekkar and Shemsennehar cliii [153]
21. Kemerezzeman and Budour clxx [170]
a. Nimeh ben er Rebya and Num his Slave-girl ccxxxvii [237]
22. Alaeddin Abou esh Shamat ccl [250]
23. Hatim et Taï; his Generosity after Death cclxx [270]
24. Maan ben Zaïdeh and the three Girls cclxxi [271]
25. Maan ben Zaïdeh and the Bedouin cclxxi [271]
26. The City of Lebtait cclxxii [272]
27. The Khalif Hisham and the Arab Youth cclxxii [272]
28. Ibrahim ben el Mehdi and the Barber-surgeon cclxxiii [273]
29. The City of Irem cclxxvi [276]
30. Isaac of Mosul's Story of Khedijeh and the Khalif Mamoun cclxxix [279]
31. The Scavenger and the Noble Lady of Baghdad cclxxxii [282]
32. The Mock Khalif cclxxxvi [286]
33. Ali the Persian and the Kurd Sharper ccxciv [294]
34. The Imam Abou Yousuf with Haroun er Reshid and his Vizier
Jaafer ccxcvi [296]
35. The Lover who feigned himself a Thief to save his Mistress's
Honour ccxcvii [297]
36. Jaafer the Barmecide and the Bean-Seller ccxcix [299]
37. Abou Mohammed the Lazy ccc [300]
38. Yehya ben Khalid and Mensour cccv [305]
39. Yehya ben Khalid and the Man who forged a Letter in his Name cccvi [306]
40. The Khalif El Mamoun and the Strange Doctor cccvii [307]
41. Ali Shar and Zumurrud cccviii [308]
42. The Loves of Jubeir ben Umeir and the Lady Budour cccxxvii [327]
43. The Man of Yemen and his six Slave-girls cccxxxiv [334]
44. Haroun er Reshid with the Damsel and Abou Nuwas cccxxxviii [338]
45. The Man who stole the Dog's Dish of Gold cccxl [340]
46. The Sharper of Alexandria and the Master of Police cccxli [341]
47. El Melik en Nasir and the three Masters of Police cccxliii [343]
a. Story of the Chief of the New Cairo Police cccxliii [343]
b. Story of the Chief of the Boulac Police cccxliv [344]
c. Story of the Chief of the Old Cairo Police cccxliv [344]
48. The Thief and the Money-Changer cccxliv [344]
49. The Chief of the Cous Police and the Sharper cccxlv [345]
50. Ibrahim ben el Mehdi and the Merchant's Sister cccxlvi [346]
51. The Woman whose Hands were cut off for Almsgiving cccxlviii [348]
52. The Devout Israelite cccxlviii [348]
53. Abou Hassan ez Ziyadi and the Man from Khorassan cccxlix [349]
54. The Poor Man and his Generous Friend cccli [351]
55. The Ruined Man who became Rich again through a Dream cccli [351]
56. El Mutawekkil and his Favourite Mehboubeh cccli [351]
57. Werdan the Butcher's Adventure with the Lady and the Bear cccliii [353]
58. The King's Daughter and the Ape ccclv [355]
59. The Enchanted Horse ccclvii [357]
60. Uns el Wujoud and the Vizier's Daughter Rose-in-bud ccclxxi [371]
61. Abou Nuwas with the three Boys and the Khalif Haroun er
Reshid ccclxxxi [381]
62. Abdallah ben Maamer with the Man of Bassora and his
Slave-girl ccclxxxiii [383]
63. The Lovers of the Benou Udhreh ccclxxxiii [383]
64. The Vizier of Yemen and his young Brother ccclxxxiv [384]
65. The Loves of the Boy and Girl at School ccclxxxv [385]
66. El Mutelemmis and his Wife Umeimeh ccclxxxv [385]
67. Haroun er Reshid and Zubeideh in the Bath ccclxxxv [385]
68. Haroun er Reshid and the three Poets ccclxxxvi [386]
69. Musab ben er Zubeir and Aaisheh his Wife ccclxxxvi [386]
70. Aboulaswed and his squinting Slave-girl ccclxxxvii [387]
71. Haroun er Reshid and the two Girls ccclxxxvii [387]
72. Haroun er Reshid and the three Girls ccclxxxvii [387]
73. The Miller and his Wife ccclxxxvii [387]
74. The Simpleton and the Sharper ccclxxxviii [388]
75. The Imam Abou Yousuf with Haroun er Reshid and Zubeideh ccclxxxviii [388]
76. The Khalif El Hakim and the Merchant ccclxxxix [389]
77. King Kisra Anoushirwan and the Village Damsel ccclxxxix [389]
78. The Water-Carrier and the Goldsmith's Wife cccxc [390]
79. Khusrau and Shirin and the Fisherman cccxci [391]
80. Yehya ben Khalid and the Poor Man cccxci [391]
81. Mohammed el Amin and Jaafer ben el Hadi cccxcii [392]
82. Said ben Salim and the Barmecides cccxcii [392]
83. The Woman's Trick against her Husband cccxciii [393]
84. The Devout Woman and the two Wicked Elders cccxciv [394]
85. Jaafer the Barmecide and the Old Bedouin cccxcv [395]
86. Omar ben el Khettab and the Young Bedouin cccxcv [395]
87. El Mamoun and the Pyramids of Egypt cccxcviii [398]
88. The Thief turned Merchant and the other Thief cccxcviii [398]
89. Mesrour and Ibn el Caribi cccxcix [399]
90. The Devout Prince cccci [401]
91. The Schoolmaster who Fell in Love by Report cccii [402]
92. The Foolish Schoolmaster cccciii [403]
93. The Ignorant Man who set up for a Schoolmaster cccciii [403]
94. The King and the Virtuous Wife cccciv [404]
95. Abdurrehman the Moor's Story of the Roc cccciv [404]
96. Adi ben Zeid and the Princess Hind ccccv [405]
97. Dibil el Khuzai with the Lady and Muslim ben el Welid ccccvii [407]
98. Isaac of Mosul and the Merchant ccccvii [407]
99. The Three Unfortunate Lovers[FN#470] ccccix [409]
100. The Lovers of the Benou Tai ccccx [410]
101. The Mad Lover ccccxi [411]
102. The Apples of Paradise ccccxii [412]
103. The Loves of Abou Isa and Curret el Ain ccccxiv [414]
104. El Amin and his Uncle Ibrahim ben el Mehdi ccccxviii [418]
105. El Feth ben Khacan and El Mutawekkil ccccxix [419]
106. The Man's Dispute with the Learned Woman of the relative
Excellence of the Sexes ccccxix [419]
107. Abou Suweid and the Handsome Old Woman ccccxxiii [423]
108. Ali ben Tahir and the Girl Mounis ccccxxiv [424]
109. The Woman who had a Boy and the other who had a Man to Lover ccccxxiv [424]
110. The Haunted House in Baghdad ccccxxiv [424]
111. The Pilgrim and the Old Woman who dwelt in the Desert ccccxxxiv [434]
112. Aboulhusn and his Slave-girl Taweddud ccccxxxvi [436]
113. The Angel of Death with the Proud King and the Devout Man cccclxii [462]
114. The Angel of Death and the Rich King cccclxii [462]
115. The Angel of Death and the King of the Children of Israel cccclxiii [463]
116. Iskender Dhoulkernein and a certain Tribe of Poor Folk cccclxiv [464]
117. The Righteousness of King Anoushirwan cccclxiv [464]
118. The Jewish Cadi and his Pious Wife cccclxv [465]
119. The Shipwrecked Woman and her Child cccclxvi [466]
120. The Pious Black Slave cccclxvii [467]
121. The Devout Platter-maker and his Wife cccclxviii [468]
122. El Hejjaj ben Yousuf and the Pious Man cccclxx [470]
123. The Blacksmith who could Handle Fire without Hurt cccclxxi [471]
124. The Saint to whom God gave a Cloud to serve Him and the
Devout King cccclxxiii [473]
125. The Muslim Champion and the Christian Lady cccclxxiv [474]
126. Ibrahim ben el Khawwas and the Christian King's Daughter cccclxxvii [477]
127. The Justice of Providence cccclxxviii [478]
128. The Ferryman of the Nile and the Hermit cccclxxix [479]
129. The King of the Island cccclxxix [479]
130. Abulhusn ed Durraj and Abou Jaafer the Leper cccclxxxi [481]
131. The Queen of the Serpents cccclxxxii [482]
a. The Adventures of Beloukiya cccclxxxvi [486]
b. The Story of Janshah ccccxcix [499]
132. Sindbad the Sailor and Sindbad the Porter dxxxvi [536]
a. The First Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor dxxxviii [538]
b. The Second Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor dxliii [543]
c. The Third Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor dxlvi [546]
d. The Fourth Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor dl [550]
e. The Fifth Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor dlvi [556]
f. The Sixth Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor dlix [559]
g. The Seventh Voyage of Sindbad the Sailor dlxiii [563]
133. The City of Brass dlxvi [566]
134. The Malice of Women dlxxviii [578]
a. The King and his Vizier's Wife dlxxviii [578]
b. The Merchant's Wife and the Parrot dlxxix [579]
c. The Fuller and his Son dlxxix [579]
d. The Lover's Trick against the Chaste Wife dlxxx [580]
e. The Niggard and the Loaves of Bread dlxxx [580]
f. The Lady and her Two Lovers dlxxxi [581]
g. The King's Son and the Ogress dlxxxi [581]
h. The Drop of Honey dlxxxii [582]
i. The Woman who made her Husband sift Dust dlxxxii [582]
j. The Enchanted Springs dlxxxii [582]
k. The Vizier's Son and the Bathkeeper's Wife dlxxxiv [584]
l. The Wife's Device to Cheat her Husband dlxxxiv [584]
m. The Goldsmith and the Cashmere Singing-girl dlxxxvi [586]
n. The Man who never Laughed again dlxxxvii [587]
o. The King's Son and the Merchant's Wife dxci [591]
p. The Page who feigned to know the Speech of Birds dxcii [592]
q. The Lady and her five Suitors dxciii [593]
r. The Man who saw the Night of Power dxcvi [596]
s. The Stolen Necklace dxcvi [596]
t. The two Pigeons dxcvii [597]
u. Prince Behram of Persia and the Princess Ed Detma dxcvii [597]
v. The House with the Belvedere dxcviii [598]
w. The King's Son and the Afrit's Mistress dcii [602]
x. The Sandal-wood Merchant and the Sharpers dciii [603]
y. The Debauchee and the Three-year-old Child dcv [605]
z. The Stolen Purse dcv [605]
135. Jouder and his Brothers dcvi [606]
136. The History of Gherib and his Brother Agib dcxxiv [624]
137. Otbeh and Reyya dclxxx [680]
138. Hind Daughter of En Numan and El Hejjaj dclxxxi [681]
139. Khuzeimeh ben Bishr and Ikrimeh el Feyyaz dclxxxii [682]
140. Younus the Scribe and the Khalif Welid ben Sehl dclxxxiv [684]
141. Haroun er Reshid and the Arab Girl dclxxxv [685]
142. El Asmai and the three Girls of Bassora dclxxxvi [686]
143. Ibrahim of Mosul and the Devil dclxxxvii [687]
144. The Lovers of the Benou Udhreh dclxxxviii [688]
145. The Bedouin and his Wife dcxci [691]
146. The Lovers of Bassora dcxciii [693]
147. Isaac of Mosul and his Mistress and the Devil dcxcv [695]
148. The Lovers of Medina dcxcvi [696]
149. El Melik en Nasir and his Vizier dcxcvii [697]
150. The Rogueries of Delileh the Crafty and her Daughter Zeyneb
the Trickstress dcxcviii [698]
151. The Adventures of Quicksilver Ali of Cairo: a Sequel to the
Rogueries of Delileh the Crafty dccviii [708]
152. Ardeshir and Heyat en Nufous dccxix [719]
153. Julnar of the Sea and her Son King Bedr Basim of Persia dccxxxviii [738]
154. King Mohammed ben Sebaik and the Merchant Hassan dcclvi [756]
a. Story of Prince Seif el Mulouk and the Princess Bediya
el Jemal dcclviii [758]
155. Hassan of Bassora and the King's Daughter of the Jinn dcclxxviii [778]
156. Khelifeh the Fisherman of Baghdad dcccxxxii [832]
157. Mesrour and Zein el Mewasif dcccxlv [845]
158. Ali Noureddin and the Frank King's Daughter dccclxiii [863]
159. The Man of Upper Egypt and his Frank Wife dcccxciv [894]
160. The Ruined Man of Baghdad and his Slave girl dcccxcvi [896]
161. King Jelyaad of Hind and his Vizier Shimas: whereafter ensueth
the History of King Wird Khan son of King Jelyaad and his
Women and Viziers dcccxcix [899]
a. The Cat and the Mouse dcccc [900]
b. The Fakir and his Pot of Butter dccccii [902]
c. The Fishes and the Crab dcccciii [903]
d. The Crow and the Serpent dcccciii [903]
e. The Fox and the Wild Ass dcccciv [904]
f. The Unjust King and the Pilgrim Prince dccccv [905]
g. The Crows and the Hawk dccccvi [906]
h. The Serpent-Charmer and his Wife dccccvii [907]
i. The Spider and the Wind dccccviii [908]
j. The Two Kings dccccix [909]
k. The Blind Man and the Cripple dccccx [910]
l. The Foolish Fisherman dccccxviii [918]
m. The Boy and the Thieves dccccxviii [918]
n. The Man and his Wilful Wife dccccxix [919]
o. The Merchant and the Thieves dccccxx [920]
p. The Foxes and the Wolf dccccxxi [921]
q. The Shepherd and the Thief dccccxxi [921]
r. The Heathcock and the Tortoises dccccxxiv [924]
162. Aboukir the Dyer and Abousir the Barber dccccxxx [930]
163. Abdallah the Fisherman and Abdallah the Merman dccccxl [940]
164. The Merchant of Oman dccccxlvi [946]
165. Ibrahim and Jemileh dcccclii [952]
166. Aboulhusn of Khorassan dcccclix [959]
167. Kemerezzeman and the Jeweller's Wife dcccclxiii [963]
168. Abdallah ben Fazil and his Brothers dcccclxxviii [978]
169. Marouf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimeh dcccclxxxix-mi [989-1001]



Introduction and

Nos. 1 to 6 of the preceding list from Volume I. of my Edition.

Nos. 7 to 9aa of the preceding list from Volume II. of my Edition.

Nos. 9aa to 21 of the preceding list from Volume III. of my Edition.

Nos. 21 to 58 of the preceding list from Volume IV. of my Edition.

Nos. 59 to 131 of the preceding list from Volume V. of my Edition.

Nos. 132 to 136 of the preceding list from Volume VI. of my Edition.

Nos. 136 to 154a of the preceding list from Volume VII. of my Edition.

Nos. 154a to 158 of the preceding list from Volume VIII. of my Edition.

Nos. 158 to 168 of the preceding list from Volume IX. of my Edition.

Nos. 169 and conclusion of the preceding list from Volume X. of my Edition.

For full details, see contents pages of each of the respective Volumes.

Appendix II


Author of "Ed-Dimiryaht: an Oriental Romance," "The New Arabian
Nights," &c.

The European editions of the Thousand and One Nights, even
excluding the hundreds of popular editions which have nothing
specially noticeable about them, are very numerous; and the
following Notes must, I am fully aware, be incomplete, though
they will, perhaps, be found useful to persons interested in the
subject. Although I believe that editions of most of the English,
French, and German versions of any importance have passed through
my hands, I have not had an opportunity of comparing many in
other languages, some of which at least may be independent
editions, not derived from Galland. The imitations and
adaptations of The Nights are, perhaps, more numerous than the
editions of The Nights themselves, if we exclude mere reprints of
Galland; and many of them are even more difficult of access.

In the following Notes, I have sometimes referred to tales by
their numbers in the Table.

Galland's Ms. and Translation.

The first MS. of The Nights known in Europe was brought to Paris
by Galland at the close of the 17th century; and his translation
was published in Paris, in twelve small volumes, under the title
of "Les Mille et une Nuit: Contes Arabes, traduits en Francois
par M. Galland." These volumes appeared at intervals between 1704
and 1717. Galland himself died in 1715, and it is uncertain how
far he was responsible for the latter part of the work. Only the
first six of the twelve vols. are divided into Nights, vol. 6
completing the story of Camaralzaman, and ending with Night 234.
The Voyages of Sindbad are not found in Galland's MS., though he
has intercalated them as Nights 69-90 between Nos. 3 and 4. It
should be mentioned, however, that in some texts (Bresl., for
instance) No. 133 is placed much earlier in the series than in

The stories in Galland's last six vols. may be divided into two
classes, viz., those known to occur in genuine texts of The
Nights, and those which do not. To the first category belong Nos.
7, 8, 59, 153 and 170; and some even of these are not found in
Galland's own MS., but were derived by him from other sources.
The remaining tales (Nos. 191-198) do not really belong to The
Nights; and, strange to say, although they are certainly genuine
Oriental tales, the actual originals have never been found. I am
inclined to think that Galland may, perhaps, have written and
adapted them from his recollection of stories which he himself
heard related during his own residence in the East, especially as
most of these tales appear to be derived rather from Persian or
Turkish than from Arabian sources.

The following Preface appeared in vol. 9 which I translate from
Talander's German edition, as the original is not before me:

"The two stories with which the eighth volume concludes do not
properly belong to the Thousand and One Nights. They were added
and printed without the previous knowledge of the translator, who
had not the slightest idea of the trick that had been played upon
him until the eighth volume was actually on sale. The reader must
not, therefore, be surprised that the story of the Sleeper
Awakened, which commences vol. 9, is written as if Scheherazade
had related it immediately after the story of Ganem, which forms
the greater part of vol. 8. Care will be taken to omit these two
stories in a new edition, as not belonging to the work."

It is, perhaps, not to be wondered at that when the new edition
was actually published, subsequently to Galland's death, the
condemned stories were retained, and the preface withdrawn;
though No. 170 still reads as if it followed No. 8.

The information I have been able to collect respecting the
disputed tales is very slight. I once saw a MS. advertised in an
auction catalogue (I think that of the library of the late Prof.
H. H. Wilson) as containing two of Galland's doubtful tales, but
which they were was not stated. The fourth and last volume of the
MS. used by Galland is lost; but it is almost certain that it did
not contain any of these tales (compare Payne, ix. 265 note).

The story of Zeyn Alasnam (No. 191) is derived from the same
source as that of the Fourth Durwesh, in the well-known
Hindustani reading-book, the Bagh o Bahar. If it is based upon
this, Galland has greatly altered and improved it, and has given
it the whole colouring of a European moral fairy tale.

The story of Ali Baba (No. 195) is, I have been told, a Chinese
tale. It occurs under the title of the Two Brothers and the
Forty-nine Dragons in Geldart's Modern Greek Tales. It has also
been stated that the late Prof. Palmer met with a very similar
story among the Arabs of Sinai (Payne, ix. 266).

The story of Sidi Nouman (No 194b) may have been based partly
upon the Third Shaykh's Story (No. 1c), which Galland omits. The
feast of the Ghools is, I believe, Greek or Turkish, rather than
Arabic, in character, as vampires, personified plague, and
similar horrors are much commoner in the folk-lore of the former

Many incidents of the doubtful, as well as of the genuine tales,
are common in European folk-lore (versions of Nos. 2 and 198, for
instance, occur in Grimm's Kinder und Hausmärchen), and some of
the doubtful tales have their analogues in Scott's MS., as will
be noticed in due course.

I have not seen Galland's original edition in 12 vols.; but the
Stadt-Bibliothek of Frankfort-on-Main contains a copy, published
at La Haye, in 12 vols. (with frontispieces), made up of two or
more editions, as follows:--

Vol. i. (ed. 6) 1729; vols. ii. iii. iv. (ed. 5) 1729; vols. v.
vi. viii. (ed. 5) 1728; vol. vii. (ed. 6) 1731; vols. ix. to xi,
(ed. not noted) 1730; and vol. xii. (ed. not noted) 1731.

The discrepancies in the dates of the various volumes look (as
Mr. Clouston has suggested) as if separate volumes were reprinted
as required, independently of the others. This might account for
vols. v. vi. and viii. of the fifth edition having been
apparently reprinted before vols. ii. iii. and iv.

The oldest French version in the British Museum consists of the
first eight vols., published at La Haye, and likewise made up of
different editions, as follows:--

i. (ed. 5) 1714; ii. iii. iv. (ed. 4) 1714; v. vi. (ed. 5) 1728;
vii. (ed. 5) 1719; viii. ("suivant la copie imprimée à Paris")

Most French editions (old and new) contain Galland's Dedication,
"À Madame la Marquise d'O., Dame du Palais de Madame la Duchesse
de Bourgogne," followed by an "Avertissement." In addition to
these, the La Haye copies have Fontenelle's Approbation prefixed
to several volumes, but in slightly different words, and bearing
different dates. December 27th, 1703 (vol. i.); April 14th, 1704
(vol. vi.); and October 4th, 1705 (vol. vii.). This is according
to the British Museum copy; I did not examine the Frankfort copy
with reference to the Approbation. The Approbation is translated
in full in the old English version as follows: "I have read, by
Order of my Lord Chancellor, this Manuscript, wherein I find
nothing that ought to hinder its being Printed. And I am of
opinion that the Publick will be very well pleased with the
Perusal of these Oriental Stories. Paris, 27th December, 1705
[apparently a misprint for 1703] (Signed) FONTENELLE."

In the Paris edition of 1726 (vide infrà), Galland says in his
Dedication, "Il a fallu le faire venir de Syrie, et mettre en
François, le premier volume que voici, de quatre seulement qui
m'ont été envoyez." So, also, in a Paris edition (in eight vols.
12mo) of 1832; but in the La Haye issue of 1714, we read not
"quatre" but "six" volumes. The old German edition of Talander
(vide infrà) does not contain Galland's Dedication (Epitre) or

The earliest French editions were generally in 12 vols., or six;
I possess a copy of a six-volume edition, published at Paris in
1726. It may be the second, as the title-page designates it as
"nouvelle edition, corrigée."

Galland's work was speedily translated into various European
languages, and even now forms the original of all the numerous
popular editions. The earliest English editions were in six
volumes, corresponding to the first six of Galland, and ending
with the story of Camaralzaman; nor was it till nearly the end of
the 18th century that the remaining half of the work was
translated into English. The date of appearance of the first
edition is unknown to bibliographers; Lowndes quotes an edition
of 1724 as the oldest; but the British Museum contains a set of
six vols., made up of portions of the second, third and fourth
editions, as follows:--

Vols. i. ii. (ed. 4) 1713; vols. iii. iv. (ed. 2) 1712; and vols.
v. vi. (ed. 3) 1715.

Here likewise the separate volumes seem to have been reprinted
independently of each other; and it is not unlikely that the
English translation may have closely followed the French
publication, being issued volume by volume, as the French
appeared, as far as vol. vi. The title-page of this old edition
is very quaint:

"Arabian Nights Entertainments, consisting of One thousand and
one Stories, told by the Sultaness of the Indies to divert the
Sultan from the Execution of a Bloody Vow he had made, to marry a
Lady every day, and have her head cut off next Morning, to avenge
himself for the Disloyalty of the first Sultaness, also
containing a better account of the Customs, Manners and Religion
of the Eastern Nations, viz., Tartars, Persians and Indians, than
is to be met with in any Author hitherto published. Translated
into French from the Arabian MSS. by Mr. Galland of the Royal
Academy, and now done into English. Printed for Andrew Bell at
the Cross Keys and Bible, in Cornhill."

The British Museum has an edition in 4to published in 1772, in
farthing numbers, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday. It extends
to 79 numbers, forming five volumes.

The various editions of the Old English version appear to be
rare, and the set in the British Museum is very poor. The oldest
edition which I have seen containing the latter half of Galland's
version is called the 14th edition, and was published in London
in four volumes, in 1778. Curiously enough, the "13th edition,"
also containing the conclusion, was published at Edinburgh in
three volumes in 1780. Perhaps it is a reprint of a London
edition published before that of 1778. The Scotch appear to have
been fond of The Nights, as there are many Scotch editions both
of The Nights and the imitations.

Revised or annotated editions by Piguenit (4 vols., London, 1792)
and Gough (4 vols., Edinburgh, 1798) may deserve a passing

A new translation of Galland, by Rev. E. Forster, in five vols.
4to, with engravings from pictures by Robert Smirke, R.A.,
appeared in 1802, and now commands a higher price than any other
edition of Galland. A new edition in 8vo appeared in 1810. Most
of the recent popular English versions are based either upon
Forster's or Scott's.

Another translation from Galland, by G. S. Beaumont (four vols.
8vo), appeared in 1811. (Lowndes writes Wiliam Beaumont.)

Among the various popular editions of later date we may mention
an edition in two vols., 8vo, published at Liverpool (1813), and
containing Cazotte's Continuation; an edition published by
Griffin and Co., in 1866, to which Beckford's "Vathek" is
appended; an edition "arranged for the perusal of youthful
readers," by the Hon. Mrs. Sugden (Whittaker & Co., 1863); and
"Five Favourite Tales from The Arabian Nights in words of one
syllable, by A. & E. Warner" (Lewis, 1871).

Some of the English editions of Galland aim at originality by
arranging the tales in a different order. The cheap edition
published by Dicks in 1868 is one instance.

An English version of Galland was published at Lucknow, in four
vols., 8vo, in 1880.

I should, perhaps, mention that I have not noticed De Sacy's
"Mille et une Nuit," because it is simply a new edition of
Galland; and I have not seen either Destain's French edition
(mentioned by Sir R. F. Burton), nor Cardonne's Continuation
(mentioned in Cabinet des Fées, xxxvii. p. 83). As Cardonne died
in 1784, his Continuation, if genuine, would be the earliest of

The oldest German version, by Talander, seems to have appeared in
volumes, as the French was issued; and these volumes were
certainly reprinted when required, without indication of separate
editions, but in slightly varied style, and with alteration of
date. The old German version is said to be rarer than the French.
It is in twelve parts--some, however, being double. The set
before me is clearly made up of different reprints, and the first
title-page is as follows: "Die Tausend und eine Nacht, worinnen
seltzame Arabische Historien und wunderbare Begebenheiten,
benebst artigen Liebes-Intriguen, auch Sitten und Gewohnheiten
der Morgenländer, auf sehr anmuthige Weise, erzehlet werden;
Erstlich vom Hru. Galland, der Königl. Academie Mitgliede aus der
Arabischen Sprache in die Französische und aus selbiger anitzo
ins Deutsche übersetzt: Erster und Anderer Theil. Mit der Vorrede
Herru Talanders. Leipzig Verlegts Moritz Georg Weidmann Sr.
Konigl. Maj. in Hohlen und Churfürstl. Durchl. zu Sachsen
Buchhändler, Anno 1730." Talander's Preface relates chiefly to
the importance of the work as illustrative of Arabian manners and
customs, &c. It is dated from "Liegnitz, den 7 Sept., Anno 1710,"
which fixes the approximate date of publication of the first part
of this translation. Vols. i. and ii. of my set (double vol. with
frontispiece) are dated 1730, and have Talander's preface; vols.
iii. and iv. (divided, but consecutively paged, and with only one
title-page and frontispiece and reprint of Talander's preface)
are dated 1719; vols. v. and vi. (same remarks, except that
Talander's preface is here dated 1717) are dated 1737; vol. vii.
(no frontispiece; preface dated 1710) is dated 1721; vol. viii
(no frontispiece nor preface, nor does Talander's name appear on
the title-page) is dated 1729; vols. ix. and x. (divided, but
consecutively paged, and with only one title-page and
frontispiece; Talander's name and preface do not appear, but
Galland's preface to vol. ix., already mentioned, is prefixed)
are dated 1731; and vols. xi. and xii. (same remarks, but no
preface) are dated 1732.

Galland's notes are translated, but not his preface and

There is a later German translation (6 vols. 8vo, Bremen, 1781-
1785) by J. H. Voss, the author of the standard German
translation of Homer.

The British Museum has just acquired a Portuguese translation of
Galland, in 4 volumes: "As Mil e uma Noites, Contos Arabes,"
published by Ernesto Chardron, Editor, Porto e Braga, 1881.

There are two editions of a modern Greek work in the British
Museum (1792 and 1804), published at Venice in three small
volumes. The first volume contains Galland (Nos. 1-6 of the
table) and vols. ii. and iii. chiefly contain the Thousand and
One Days. It is, apparently, translated from some Italian work.

Several editions in Italian (Mille ed una Notte) have appeared at
Naples and Milan; they are said by Sir R. F. Burton to be mere
reprints of Galland.

There are, also, several in Dutch, one of which, by C. Van der
Post, in 3 vols. 8vo, published at Utrecht in 1848, purports, I
believe, to be a translation from the Arabic, and has been
reprinted several times. The Dutch editions are usually entitled,
"Arabische Vertellinge." A Danish edition appeared at Copenhagen
in 1818, under the title of "Prindsesses Schehezerade.
Fortällinger eller de saakatle Tusende og een Nat. Udgivna paa
Dansk vid Heelegaan." Another, by Rasmassen, was commenced in
1824; and a third Danish work, probably founded on the Thousand
and One Nights, and published in 1816, bears the title, "Digt og
Eventyr fra Osterland, af arabiska og persischen utrykta kilder."

I have seen none of these Italian, Dutch or Danish editions; but
there is little doubt that most, if not all, are derived from
Galland's work.

The following is the title of a Javanese version, derived from
one of the Dutch editions, and published at Leyden in 1865,
"Eenige Vertellingen uit de Arabisch duizend en één Nacht. Naar
de Nederduitsche vertaling in het Javaansch vertaald, door

Mr. A. G. Ellis has shown me an edition of Galland's Aladdin (No.
193) in Malay, by M. Van der Lawan (?) printed in Batavia, A.D.


We shall speak elsewhere of the Cabinet des Fées; but the last
four volumes of this great collection (38 to 41), published at
Geneva from 1788 to 1793, contain a work entitled, "Les Veillées
du Sultan Schahriar avec la Sultane Scheherazade; histoires
incroyables, amusantes et morales, traduites de l'arabe par M.
Cazotte et D. Chavis. Faisant suite aux Mille et une Nuits." Some
copies bear the abridged title of "La suite des Mille et une
Nuits. Contes Arabes, traduits par Dom Chavis et M. Cazotte."

This collection of tales was pronounced to be spurious by many
critics, and even has been styled "a bare-faced forgery" by a
writer in the Edinburgh Review of July, 1886. It is, however,
certain that the greater part, if not all, of these tales are
founded on genuine Eastern sources, though very few have any real
claim to be regarded as actually part of the Thousand and One

Translations of the originals of most of these tales have been
published by Caussin de Perceval and Gauttier; and a comparison
clearly shows the great extent to which Chavis and Cazotte have
altered, amplified and (in a literary sense) improved their

It is rather surprising that no recent edition of this work seems
to have been issued, perhaps owing to the persistent doubts cast
upon its authenticity, only a few of the tales, and those not the
best, having appeared in different collections. My friend, Mr. A.
G. Ellis, himself an Oriental scholar, has remarked to me that he
considers these tales as good as the old "Arabian Nights"; and I
quite agree with him that Chavis and Cazotte's Continuation is
well worthy of re-publication in its entirety.

The following are the principal tales comprised in this
collection, those included in our Table from later authors being

1. The Robber Caliph, or the Adventures of Haroun Alraschid with
the Princess of Persia, and the beautiful Zutulbe. (No. 246.)

2. The Power of Destiny, being the History of the Journey of
Giafar to Damas, containing the Adventures of Chelih and his
Family. (No. 280.)

3. History of Halechalbe and the Unknown Lady. (No. 204c.)

4. Story of Xailoun the Idiot.

5. The Adventures of Simoustapha and the Princess Ilsetilsone.
(No. 247.)

6. History of Alibengiad, Sultan of Herak, and of the False Birds
of Paradise.

7. History of Sinkarib and his Two Viziers. (No. 249.)

8. History of the Family of the Schebandad of Surat.

9. Story of Bohetzad and his Ten Viziers. (No. 174.)

10. Story of Habib and Dorathil-Goase. (No. 251.)

11. History of the Maugraby, or the Magician.

Of these, Nos. 4, 6, 8 and 11 only are not positively known in
the original. No. 11 is interesting, as it is the seed from which
Southey's "Thalaba the Destroyer" was derived.

On the word Maugraby, which means simply Moor, Cazotte has the
following curious note: "Ce mot signifie barbare, barbaresque
plus proprement. On jure encore par lui en Provence, en
Languedoc, et en Gascogne Maugraby; ou ailleurs en France

The Domdaniel, where Zatanai held his court with Maugraby and his
pupilmagicians, is described as being under the sea near Tunis.
In Weil's story of Joodar and Mahmood (No. 201) the Magician
Mahmood is always called the Moor of Tunis.

No. 3 (=our No. 204c) contains the additional incident of the
door opened only once a year which occurs in our No. 9a, aa.

Moore probably took the name Namouna from Cazotte's No. 5, in
which it occurs. In the same story we find a curious name of a
Jinniyah, Setelpedour. Can it be a corruption of Sitt El Budoor?

For further remarks on Cazotte's Continuation, compare Russell's
History of Aleppo, i. p. 385; and Russell and Scott, Ouseley's
Oriental Collections, i. pp. 246, 247; ii. p. 25; and the
"Gentleman's Magazine" for February, 1779.

An English version under the title "Arabian Tales, or a
Continuation of the Arabian Nights' Entertainments," translated
by Robert Heron, was published in Edinburgh in 1792 in 4 vols.,
and in London in 1794 in 3 vols. It was reprinted in Weber's
"Tales of the East" (Edinburgh, 1812); and, as already mentioned,
is included in an edition of the Arabian Nights published in
Liverpool in 1813.

A German translation forms vols. 5 to 8 of the "Blaue
Bibliothek," published in Gotha in 1790 and 1791; and the British
Museum possesses vols. 3 and 4 of a Russian edition, published at
Moscow in 1794 and 1795, which is erroneously entered in the
catalogue as the Arabian Nights in Russian.

Respecting the work of Chavis and Cazotte, Sir R. F. Burton
remarks, "Dom Dennis Chavis was a Syrian priest of the order of
Saint Bazil, who was invited to Paris by the learned minister,
Baron Arteuil, and he was assisted by M. Cazotte, a French
author, then well known, but wholly ignorant of Arabic. These
tales are evidently derived from native sources; the story of
Bohetzad (King Bakhtiyar) and his Ten Wazirs is taken bodily from
the Bres. Edit. [not so; but the original Arabic had long been
known in the French libraries]. As regards the style and
treatment, it is sufficient to say that the authors out-Gallanded
Galland, while Heron exaggerates every fault of his original."

The first enlarged edition of Galland in French was published by
Caussin de Perceval, at Paris, in 9 vols., 8vo (1806). In
addition to Galland's version, he added four tales (Nos. 21a, 22,
32 and 37), with which he had been furnished by Von Hammer. He
also added a series of tales, derived from MSS. in the Parisian
libraries, most of which correspond to those of Cazotte.

The most important of the later French editions was published by
E. Gauttier in 7 vols. in 1822; it contains much new matter. At
the end, the editor gives a list of all the tales which he
includes, with arguments. He has rather oddly distributed his
material so as to make only 568 nights. The full contents are
given in our Table; the following points require more special
notice. Vol. i. Gauttier omits the Third Shaykh's story (No. 1c)
on account of its indecency, although it is really no worse than
any other story in The Nights. In the story of the Fisherman, he
has fallen into a very curious series of errors. He has
misunderstood King Yunan's reference to King Sindbad (Burton i.
p. 50) to refer to the Book of Sindibad (No. 135); and has
confounded it with the story of the Forty Vazirs, which he says
exists in Arabic as well as in Turkish. Of this latter,
therefore, he gives an imperfect version, embedded in the story
of King Yunan (No. 2a). Here it may be observed that another
imperfect French version of the Forty Vazirs had previously been
published by Petis de la Croix under the title of Turkish Tales.
A complete German version by Dr. Walter F. A. Behrnauer was
published at Leipzig in 1851, and an English version by Mr. E. J.
W. Gibb has appeared while these sheets are passing through the

Vol. ii. After No. 6 Gauttier places versions of Nos. 32 and 184
by Langlès. The Mock Caliph is here called Aly-Chah. The other
three tales given by Caussin de Perceval from Von Hammer's MSS.
are omitted by Gauttier. Vol. v. (after No. 198) concludes with
two additional tales (Nos. 207h and 218) from Scott's version.
But the titles are changed, No. 207h being called the Story of
the Young Prince and the Green Bird, and No. 218 the Story of
Mahmood, although there is another story of Mahmood in vol. 1.
(==No. 135m) included as part of the Forty Vazirs.

Vol. vi. includes the Ten Vazirs (No. 174), derived, however, not
from the Arabic, but from the Persian Bakhtyar Nameh. Three of
the subordinate tales in the Arabic version are wanting in
Gauttier's, and another is transferred to his vol. vii., but he
includes one, the King and Queen of Abyssinia (No. 252), which
appears to be wanting in the Arabic. The remainder of the volume
contains tales from Scott's version, the title of Mazin of
Khorassaun (No. 215) being altered to the Story of Azem and the
Queen of the Genii.

Vol. vii. contains a series of tales of which different versions
of six only (Nos. 30, 174, 246, 248, 249 and 250) were previously
published. Though these have no claim to be considered part of
The Nights, they are of sufficient interest to receive a passing
mention, especially as Gauttier's edition seems not to have been
consulted by any later writer on The Nights, except Habicht, who
based his own edition mainly upon it. Those peculiar to
Gauttier's edition are therefore briefly noticed.

Princess Ameny (No. 253)--A princess who leaves home disguised as
a man, and delivers another princess from a black slave. The
episode (253b) is a story of enchantment similar to Nos. 1a-c.

Aly Djohary (No. 254)--Story of a young man's expedition in
search of a magical remedy.

The Princes of Cochin China (No. 255)--The princes travel in
search of their sister who is married to a Jinni, who is under
the curse of Solomon. The second succeeds in breaking the spell,
and thus rescues both his brother, his sister, and the Jinni by
killing a bird to which the destiny of the last is attached.
(This incident is common in fiction; we find it in the genuine
Nights in Nos. 154a and 201.)

The Wife with Two Husbands (No. 256)--A well-known Eastern story;
it may be found in Wells' "Mehemet the Kurd," pp. 121-127, taken
from the Forty Vazirs. Compare Gibbs, the 24th Vazir's Story, pp.

The Favourite (No. 257)--One of the ordinary tales of a man
smuggled into a royal harem in a chest (compare Nos. 6b and 166).

Zoussouf and the Indian Merchant (No. 258)--Story of a ruined man
travelling to regain his fortune.

Prince Benazir (No. 258)--Story of a Prince promised at his
birth, and afterwards given up by his parents to an evil Jinni,
whom he ultimately destroys. (Such promises, especially, as here,
in cases of difficult labour, are extremely common in folk-tales;
the idea probably originated in the dedication of a child to the
Gods.) Gauttier thinks that this story may have suggested that of
Maugraby to Cazotte; but it appears to me rather doubtful whether
it is quite elaborate enough for Cazotte to have used it in this

Selim, Sultan of Egypt (No. 261)--This and its subordinate tales
chiefly relate to unfaithful wives; that of Adileh (No. 261b) is
curious; she is restored to life by Jesus (whom Gauttier, from
motives of religious delicacy, turns into a Jinni!) to console
her disconsolate husband, and immediately betrays the latter.
These tales are apparently from the Forty Vazirs; cf. Gibbs, the
10th Vazir's Story, pp. 122-129 (= our No. 261) and the Sixth
Vazir's Story, pp. 32-84 (= No. 261b.)

The bulk of the tales in Gauttier's vol. vii. are derived from
posthumous MSS. of M. Langlès, and several have never been
published in English. Gauttier's version of Heycar (No. 248) was
contributed by M. Agoub.

The best-known modern German version (Tausend und Eine Nacht,
Arabische Erzahlungen, Deutsch von Max. Habicht, Fr. H. von der
Hagen und Carl Schall. Breslau, 15 vols. 12mo) is mainly based
upon Gauttier's edition, but with extensive additions, chiefly
derived from the Breslau text. An important feature of this
version is that it includes translations of the prefaces of the
various editions used by the editors, and therefore supplies a
good deal of information not always easily accessible elsewhere.
There are often brief notes at the end of the volumes.

The fifth edition of Habicht's version is before me, dated 1840;
but the preface to vol. i. is dated 1824, which may be taken to
represent the approximate date of its first publication. The
following points in the various vols. may be specially noticed:--

Vol. i. commences with the preface of the German editor, setting
forth the object and scope of his edition; and the prefaces of
Gauttier and Galland follow. No. 1c, omitted by Gauttier, is
inserted in its place. Vols. ii. and iii. (No. 133), notes,
chiefly from Langlès, are appended to the Voyages of Sindbad; and
the destinations of the first six are given as follows:--

I. Voyage to Sumatra. IV. Voyage to the Sunda Islands.
II. Voyage to Ceylon. V. Voyage to the Sunda Islands.
III. Voyage to Selahath. VI. Voyage to Zeilan.

Vol. v. contains an unimportant notice from Galland, with
additional remarks by the German editors, respecting the division
of the work into Nights.

Vol. vi. contains another unimportant preface respecting Nos. 191
and 192.

Vol. x. Here the preface is of more importance, relating to the
contents of the volume, and especially to the Ten Vazirs (No.

Vol. xi. contains tales from Scott. The preface contains a full
account of his MSS., and the tales published in his vol. vi. This
preface is taken partly from Ouseley's Oriental Collections, and
partly from Scott's own preface.

Vol. xii. contains tales from Gauttier, vol. vii. The preface
gives the full contents of Clarke's and Von Hammer's MSS.

Vol. xiii. includes Caussin de Perceval's Preface, the remaining
tales from Gauttier's vol. vii. (ending with Night 568), and four
tales from Caussin which Gauttier omits (Nos. 21a, 22, 37 and

Vols. xiv. and xv. (extending from Night 884 to Night 1001)
consist of tales from the Breslau edition, to which a short
preface, signed by Dr. Max. Habicht, is prefixed. The first of
these tales is a fragment of the important Romance of Seyf Zul
Yesn (so often referred to by Lane), which seems to have been
mixed with Habicht's MS. of The Nights by mistake. (Compare
Payne, Tales, iii. 243.)

In this fragment we have several incidents resembling The Nights;
there is a statue which sounds an alarm when an enemy enters a
city (cf. Nos. 59 and 137); Seyf himself is converted to the
faith of Abraham, and enters a city where a book written by
Japhet is preserved. The text of this story has lately been
published; and Sir R. F. Burton informs me that he thinks he has
seen a complete version in some European language; but I have not
succeeded in obtaining any particulars concerning it.

On account of the interest and importance of the work, I append
to this section an English version of the fragment translated
into German by Habicht. (From the extreme simplicity of the
style, which I have preserved, I suspect that the translation is
considerably abridged.)

There is an Icelandic version of The Nights (púsund og ein Nott.
Arabiskar Sögur. Kaupmannahöfn, 1857, 4 vols. roy. 8vo), which
contains Galland's tales, and a selection of others, distributed
into 1001 Nights, and apparently taken chiefly from Gauttier, but
with the addition of two or three which seem to be borrowed from
Lane (Nos. 9a, 163, 165, &c.). It is possibly derived immediately
from some Danish edition.

There is one popular English version which may fairly be called a
composite edition; but it is not based upon Gauttier. This is the
"Select Library Edition. Arabian Nights' Entertainments, selected
and revised for general use. To which are added other specimens
of Eastern Romance. London: James Burns, 1847. 2 vols."

It contains the following tales from The Nights: Nos. 134, 3,
133, 162, 1, 2, 155, 191, 193, 192, 194, 194a, 194c, 21, 198,
170, 6.

No. 134 is called the City of Silence, instead of the City of
Brass, and is certainly based partly upon Lane. In No. 155, Manar
Al Sana is called Nur Al Nissa. One story, "The Wicked Dervise,"
is taken from Dow's "Persian Tales of Inatulla;" another "The
Enchanters, or the Story of Misnar," is taken from the "Tales of
the Genii." Four other tales, "Jalaladdeen of Bagdad," "The two
Talismans," "The Story of Haschem," and "Jussof, the Merchant of
Balsora," clearly German imitations, are said to be translated
from the German of Grimm, and there are two others, "Abdullah and
Balsora," and "The King and his Servant," the origin of which I
do not recognise, although I think I have read the last before.

Grimm's story of Haschem concludes with the hero's promotion to
the post of Grand Vizier to Haroun Al-Rashid, in consequence of
the desire of the aged "Giafar" to end his days in peaceful
retirement! The principal incident in Jalaladdeen, is that of the
Old Woman in the Chest, borrowed from the wellknown story of the
Merchant Abudah in the "Tales of the Genii," and it is thus an
imitation of an imitation,


In very ancient times, long before the age of Mohammed, there
lived a King of Yemen, named Zul Yezn. He was a Himyarite of the
race of Fubbaa (Tabbá') and had large armies and a great capital.
His Minister was named Yottreb (Yathrab == Medinat), and was well
skilled in the knowledge of the ancients. He once had a vision in
which the name of the Prophet was revealed to him, with the
announcement of his mission in later times; and he was also
informed that he would be the last of the Prophets. In
consequence of this vision he believed in the Prophet before his
advent; but he concealed his faith. One day the King held a
review of his troops, and was delighted with their number and
handsome appearance. He said to the Wazir, "Is there any person
on earth whose power can compare with mine?" "O yes," answered
the Wazir, "there is King Baal-Beg, whose troops fill the deserts
and the cultivated lands, the plains and the valleys." "I must
make war upon him, then," exclaimed the King, "and destroy his
power." He immediately ordered the army to prepare to march, and
after a few days the drums and trumpets were heard. The King and
his Wazir set forth in magnificent array, and after a rapid
march, they arrived before the holy city Medina, which may God
keep in high renown! The Wazir then said to the King, "Here is
the holy house of God, and the place of great ceremonies. No one
should enter here who is not perfectly pure, and with head and
feet bare. Pass around it with your companions, according to the
custom of the Arabs." The King was so pleased with the place that
he determined to destroy it, to carry the stones to his own
country, and to rebuild it there, that the Arabs might come to
him on pilgrimage, a nd that he might thus exalt himself above
all Kings. He pondered over this plan all night, but next morning
he found his body fearfully swollen. He immediately sent for his
Wazir, and lamented over his misfortune. "This is a judgment sent
upon you," replied the Wazir, "by the Lord of this house. If you
alter your intention of destroying the temple, you will be healed
at once." The King gave up his project, and soon found himself
cured. Soon afterwards he said to himself, "This misfortune
happened to me at night, and left me next day of its own accord;
but I will certainly destroy the house." But next morning his
face was so covered with open ulcers that he could no longer be
recognised. The Wazir then approached him and said, "O King,
renounce your intention, for it would be rebellion against the
Lord of Heaven and Earth, who can destroy every one who opposes
him." When the King heard this, he reflected awhile and said,
"What would you wish me to do?" The Wazir replied, "Cover the
house with carpets from Yemen." The King resolved to do this, and
when night came he retired to rest. He then saw an apparition
which ordered him not to march further into the country of King
Baal-Beg, but to turn towards Abyssinia and Nigritia, adding,
"Remain there, and choose it as thy residence, and assuredly one
of thy race will arise through whom the threat of Noah shall be
fulfilled." When the King awoke next morning he related this to
the Wazir, who advised him to use his own judgment about it. The
King immediately gave orders to march. The army set forth, and
after ten days they arrived at a country the soil of which seemed
to consist of chalk, for it appeared quite white. The Wazir
Yottreb then went to the King and requested his permission to
found a city here for his people. "Why so?" asked the King.
"Because," replied the Wazir, "this will one day be the place of
Refuge of the Prophet Mohammed, who will be sent at the end of
time." The King then gave his consent, and Yottreb immediately
summoned architects and surveyors, who dug out the ground, and
reared the walls, and erected beautiful palaces. They did not
desist from the work until the Wazir ordered a number of his
people to remove to this city with their families. This was done,
and their posterity inhabit the city to this day. He then gave
them a scroll, and said, "He who comes to you as a fugitive to
this house will be the ruler of this city." He then called the
city Yottreb after his own name, and the scroll descended from
father to son till the Apostle of God arrived as a fugitive from
Mecca, when the inhabitants went out to meet him, and presented
him with it. They afterwards became his auxiliaries and were
known as the Ansar. But we must now return to King Zul Yezn. He
marched several days toward Abyssinia, and at last arrived in a
beautiful and fertile country where he informed his Wazir that he
would like to build a city for his subjects. He gave the
necessary orders, which were diligently executed; canals were dug
and the surrounding country cultivated; and the city was named
Medinat El-Hamra, the Red. At last the news reached the King of
Abyssinia, whose name was Saif Ar-Raad (Thunder-sword), and whose
capital was called Medinat ad-Durr (the Rich in Houses). Part of
this city was built on solid land and the other was built in the
sea. This prince could bring an army of 600,000 men into the
field, and his authority extended to the extremity of the then
known world. When he was informed of the invasion of Zul Yezn, he
summoned his two Wazirs, who were named Sikra Divas and Ar-Ryf.
The latter was well versed in ancient books, in which he had
discovered that God would one day send a Prophet who would be the
last of the series. He believed this himself, but concealed it
from the Abyssinians, who were still worshippers of Saturn. When
the Wazirs came before the King, he said to them,"See how the
Arabs are advancing against us; I must fight them." Sikra Divas
opposed this design, fearing lest the threat of Noah should be
fulfilled. "I would rather advise you," said he, "to make the
King a present and to send with it the most beautiful maiden in
your palace. But give her poison secretly, and instruct her to
poison the King when she is alone with him. If he is once dead,
his army will retire without a battle." The King adopted this
advice, and prepared rich presents, and summoned a beautiful
girl, whose artfulness and malice were well known. Her name was
Kamrya (Moonlight). The King said to her, "I have resolved to
send you as a present, for a secret object. I will give you
poison, and when you are alone with the Prince to whom I will
send you, drop it into his cup, and let him take it. As soon as
he is dead, his army will leave us in peace." "Very well, my
master," replied the girl, "I will accomplish your wish." He then
sent her with the other presents and a letter to the city of Zul
Yezn. But the Wazir Ar-Ryf had scarcely left the King's presence
when he wrote a letter, and commanded a slave to carry it to Zul
Yezn. "If you can give it to him before the arrival of the slave-
girl," added he, "I will give you your freedom." The slave made
all possible haste to the Arab King, but yet the presents arrived
before him. A chamberlain went to the King and informed him that
a messenger had arrived at the gate with presents from the King
of Abyssinia, and requested permission to enter. Zul Yezn
immediately ordered that he should be admitted, and the presents
and the maiden were at once delivered to him. When he saw her, he
was astonished at her beauty, and was greatly delighted. He
immediately ordered her to be conveyed to his palace, and was
very soon overcome with love for her. He was just about to
dissolve the assembly to visit Kamrya, when the Wazir Yottreb
detained him, saying, "Delay a while, O King, for I fear there is
some treachery hidden behind this present. The Abyssinians hate
the Arabs exceedingly, but are unwilling to make war with them,
lest the threat of Noah should be fulfilled. It happened one day
that Noah was sleeping when intoxicated with wine, and the wind
uncovered him. His son Ham laughed, and did not cover him; but
his other son Seth (sic) came forward, and covered him up. When
Noah awoke, he exclaimed to Ham, ‘May God blacken thy face!' But
to Seth he said, ‘May God make the posterity of thy brother the
servants of thine until the day of Resurrection!' This is the
threat which they dread as the posterity of Ham." While the King
was still conversing with his Wazir, the Chamberlain announced
the arrival of a messenger with a letter. He was immediately
admitted, and delivered the letter, which was read by the Wazir
Yottreb. Ar-Ryf had written, "Be on your guard against Kamrya, O
King, for she hath poison with her, and is ordered to kill you
when she is alone with you." The King now began loudly to praise
the acuteness of his Wazir, and went immediately to Kamrya with
his drawn sword. When he entered, she rose and kissed the ground,
but he exclaimed, "You have come here to poison me!" She was
confounded, and took out the poison, and handed it to the King,
full of artifice, and thinking, "If I tell him the truth, he will
have a better opinion of me, and if he confides in me, I can kill
him in some other manner than with this poison." It fell out as
she expected, for the King loved her, gave her authority over his
palace and his female slaves, and found himself very happy in her
possession. But she herself found her life so pleasant that,
although King Ar-Raad frequently sent to ask her why she had not
fulfilled her commission, she always answered, "Wait a little; I
am seeking an opportunity, for the King is very suspicious." Some
time passed over, and at length she became pregnant. Six months
afterwards Zul Yezn fell ill; and as his sickness increased, he
assembled the chief men of his Court, informed them of the
condition of Kamrya, and after commending her to their
protection, he ordered that if she bore a son, he should succeed
him. They promised to fulfil his commands, and a few days
afterwards Zul Yezn died. Kamrya now governed the country, till
she brought forth a son. He was a child of uncommon beauty, and
had a small mole on his cheek. When she saw the child she envied
him, and said to herself, "What, shall he take away the kingdom
from me? No, it shall never be;" and from this time forward she
determined to put him to death. After forty days, the people
requested to see their King. She showed him to them, and seated
him on the throne of the kingdom, whereupon they did homage to
him, and then dispersed. His mother took him back into the
Palace, but her envy increased so much that she had already
grasped a sword to kill him, when her nurse entered and asked
what she was going to do. "I am about to kill him," answered she.
"Have you not reflected," said the nurse, "that if you kill him
the people will revolt, and may kill you also?" "Let me kill
him," persisted she, "for even should they kill me, too, I should
at least be released from my envy." "Do not act thus," warned the
nurse, "or you may repent it, when repentance cannot help you."
"It must be done," said Kamrya. "Nay, then," said the nurse, "if
it cannot be avoided, let him at least be cast into the desert,
and if he lives, so much the better for him; but if he dies, you
are rid of him for ever." She followed this advice and set out on
the way at night time with the child, and halted at a distance of
four days' journey, when she sat down under a tree in the desert.
She took him on her lap, and suckled him once more, and then laid
him on a bed, putting a purse under his head, containing a
thousand gold pieces and many jewels. "Whoever finds him," said
she, "may use the money to bring him up;" and thus she left him.

It happened by the gracious decree of God, that hunters who were
chasing gazelles surprised a female with a fawn; the former took
to flight, and the hunters carried off the little one. When the
mother returned from the pasture, and found her fawn gone, she
traversed the desert in all directions in search of it, and at
length the crying of the deserted child attracted her. She lay
down by the child, and the child sucked her. The gazelle left him
again to go to graze, but always returned to the little one when
she was satisfied. This went on till it pleased God that she
should fall into the net of a hunter. But she became enraged,
tore the net, and fled. The hunter pursued her, and overtook her
when she reached the child, and was about to give him suck. But
the arrival of the hunter compelled the gazelle to take to
flight, and the child began to cry, because he was not yet
satisfied. The hunter was astonished at the sight, and when he
lifted the child up, he saw the purse under his head, and a
string of jewels round his neck. He immediately took the child
with him, and went to a town belonging to an Abyssinian king
named Afrakh, who was a dependent of King Saif Ar-Raad. He handed
over the child to him, saying that he had found it in the lair of
a gazelle. When the King took the child into his care, it smiled
at him, and God awakened a feeling of love towards him in the
King's heart; and he then noticed the mole on his cheek. But when
his Wazir Sikar Diun, the brother of Sikar Divas, who was Wazir
to King Saif Ar-Raad, entered and saw the child, God filled his
heart with hate towards him. "Do not believe what this man told
you," he said, when the King told him the wonderful story of the
discovery, "it can only be the child of a mother who has come by
it wrongly, and has abandoned it in the desert, and it would be
better to kill it." "I cannot easily consent to this," said the
King. But he had hardly spoken, when the palace was filled with
sounds of rejoicing, and he was informed that his wife had just
been safely delivered of a child. On this news he took the boy on
his arm, and went to his wife, and found that the new-born child
was a girl, and that she had a red mole on her cheek. He wondered
when he saw this, and said to Sikar Diun, "See how beautiful they
are!" But when the Wazir saw it, he slapped his face, and cast
his cap on the ground, exclaiming, "Should these two moles unite,
I prophesy the downfall of Abyssinia, for they presage a great
calamity. It would be better to kill either the boy or your
daughter." "I will kill neither of them," replied the King, "for
they have been guilty of no crime." He immediately provided
nurses for the two children, naming his daughter Shama (Mole) and
the boy Wakhs[FN#471] El Fellat (Lonely one, or Desert); and he
reared them in separate apartments, that they might not see each
other. When they were ten years old, Wakhs El Fellat grew very
strong, and soon became a practised horseman, and surpassed all
his companions in this accomplishment, and in feats of arms. But
when he was fifteen, he was so superior to all others, that Sikar
Diun threatened the King that he would warn King Saif Ar-Raad
that he was nurturing his enemy in his house, if he did not
immediately banish him from the country; and this threat caused
King Afrakh great alarm. It happened that he had a general, who
was called Gharag El Shaker (Tree-splitter), because he was
accustomed to hurl his javelin at trees, and thus to cleave them
asunder. He had a fortress three days' journey from the town; and
the King said to him, "Take Wakhs El Fellat to your castle, and
never let him return to this neighbourhood." He added privately,
"Look well after him and preserve him from all injury, and have
him instructed in all accomplishments." The general withdrew, and
took the boy with him to his castle, and instructed him
thoroughly in all accomplishments and sciences. One day he said
to him, "One warlike exercise is still unknown to you." "What is
that?" said Wakhs El Fellat. "Come and see for yourself," replied
he. The general then took him to a place where several trees were
growing, which were so thick that a man could not embrace the
trunk. He then took his javelin, hurled it at one of them, and
split the trunk. Wakhs El Fellat then asked for the javelin, and
performed the same feat, to the astonishment of his instructor.
"Woe to thee!" exclaimed he, "for I perceive that you are the man
through whom the threat of Noah will be fulfilled against us.
Fly, and never let yourself be seen again in our country, or I
will kill you." Wakhs El Fellat then left the town, not knowing
where to go. He subsisted for three days on the plants of the
earth, and at last he arrived at a town encircled by high walls,
the gates of which were closed. The inhabitants were clothed in
black, and uttered cries of lamentation. In the foreground he saw
a bridal tent, and a tent of mourning. This was the city of King
Afrakh who had reared him, and the cause of the mourning of the
inhabitants was as follows. Sikar Diun was very angry that the
King had refused to follow his advice, and put the boy to death,
and had left the town to visit one of his friends, who was a
magician, to whom he related the whole story. "What do you
propose to do now?" asked the magician. "I will attempt to bring
about a separation between him and his daughter," said the Wazir.
"I will assist you," was the answer of the magician. He
immediately made the necessary preparations, and summoned an evil
Jinni named Mukhtatif (Ravisher) who inquired, "What do you
require of me?" "Go quickly to the city of King Afrakh, and
contrive that the inhabitants shall leave it." In that age men
had intercourse with the more powerful Jinn, and each attained
their ends by means of the other. The Jinn did not withdraw
themselves till after the advent of the Prophet. The magician
continued, "When the inhabitants have left the city, they will
ask you what you want. Then say, ‘Bring me out Shama, the
daughter of your King, adorned with all her jewels, and I will
come to-morrow and carry her away. But if you refuse, I will
destroy your city, and destroy you all together.'" When Mukhtatif
heard the words of this priest of magic, he did as he was
commanded, and rushed to the city. When Sikar Diun saw this, he
returned to King Afrakh to see what would happen; but he had
scarcely arrived when the voice of Mukhtatif resounded above the
city. The inhabitants went to the King, and said, "You have heard
what is commanded, and if you do not yield willingly, you will be
obliged to do so by force." The King then went weeping to the
mother of the Princess, and informed her of the calamity. She
could scarcely contain herself for despair, and all in the palace
wept at parting from the Princess. Meantime Shama was richly
attired, torn from her parents, and hurried to the bridal tent
before the town, to he carried away by the evil Jinni. The
inhabitants were all assembled on the walls of the city, weeping.
It was just at this moment that Wakhs El Fellat arrived from the
desert, and entered the tent to see what was going on. When King
Afrakh, who was also on the wall, saw him, he cried out to him,
but he did not listen, and dismounted, fastened his horse to a
tent-stake, and entered. Here he beheld a maiden of extraordinary
beauty and perfection, but she was weeping. While he was
completely bewildered by her beauty, she was no less struck by
his appearance. "Who art thou?" said the maiden to him. "Tell me
rather who art thou?" returned he. "I am Shama, the daughter of
King Afrakh." "Thou art Shama?" he exclaimed, "and I am Wakhs El
Fellat, who was reared by thy father." When they were thus
acquainted, they sat down together to talk over their affairs,
and she took this opportunity of telling him what had passed with
the Jinni, and how he was coming to carry her away. "O, you shall
see how I will deal with him," answered he, but at this moment
the evil Jinni approached, and his wings darkened the sun. The
inhabitants uttered a terrible cry, and the Jinni darted upon the
tent, and was about to raise it when he saw a man there, talking
to the daughter of the King. "Woe to thee, O son of earth," he
exclaimed, "what authority have you to sit by my betrothed?" When
Wakhs El Fellat saw the terrible form of the Jinni, a shudder
came over him, and he cried to God for aid. He immediately drew
his sword, and struck at the Jinni, who had just extended his
right hand to seize him, and the blow was so violent that it
struck off the hand. "What, you would kill me?" exclaimed
Mukhtatif, and he took up his hand, put it under his arm, and
flew away. Upon this there was a loud cry of joy from the walls
of the city. The gates were thrown open, and King Afrakh
approached, companied by a crowd of people with musical
instruments, playing joyful music; and Wakhs El Fellat was
invested with robes of honour; but when Sikar Diun saw it it was
gall to him. The King prepared an apartment expressly for Wakhs
El Fellat, and while Shama returned to her palace, he gave a
great feast in honour of her deliverance from the fiend. After
seven days had passed, Shama went to Wakhs El Fellat, and said to
him, "Ask me of my father tomorrow, for you have rescued me, and
he will not be able to refuse you." He consented very willingly,
and went to the King early next morning. The King gave him a very
favourable reception, and seated him with him on the throne; but
Wakhs El Fellat had not courage to prefer his suit, and left him
after a short interview. He had not long returned to his own
room, when Shama entered, saluted him, and asked, "Why did you
not demand me?" "I was too bashful," he replied. "Lay this
feeling aside," returned she, "and demand me." "Well, I will
certainly do so to-morrow," answered he. Thereupon she left him,
and returned to her own apartment. Early next morning Wakhs El
Fellat went again to the King, who gave him a friendly reception,
and made him sit with him. But he was still unable to prefer his
suit, and returned to his own room. Soon after Shama came to him
and said, "How long is this bashfulness to last? Take courage,
and if not, request some one else to speak for you." She then
left him, and next morning he repeated his visit to the King.
"What is your request?" asked the latter. "I am come as a
suitor," said Wakhs El Fellat, "and ask the hand of your noble
daughter Shama." When Sikar Diun heard this, he slapped his face.
"What is the matter with you?" asked the King. "This is what I
have foreseen," answered he, "for if these two moles unite, the
destruction of Abyssinia is accomplished." "How can I refuse
him?" replied the King, "when he has just delivered her from the
fiend." "Tell him," answered Sikar Diun, "that you must consult
with your Wazir." The King then turned to Wakhs El Fellat, and
said, "My son, your request is granted as far as I am concerned,
but I leave my Wazir to arrange it with you, so you must consult
him about it." Wakhs El Fellat immediately turned to the Wazir,
and repeated his request to him. Sikar Diun answered him in a
friendly manner. "The affair is as good as arranged, no one else
is suited for the King's daughter, but you know that the
daughters of the Kings require a dowry." "Ask what you please,"
returned Wakhs El Fellat. "We do not ask you for money or money's
worth," said the Wazir, "but for the head of a man named Sudun,
the Ethiopian." "Where can I find him?" said the prince. The
Wazir replied, "He is said to dwell in the fortress of Reg, three
days' journey from here." "But what if I fail to bring the head
of Sudun?" asked he. "But you will have it," returned the Wazir;
and after this understanding the audience ceased, and each
returned to his dwelling.

Now this Sudun had built his fortress on the summit of a high
hill. It was very secure, and he defended it with the edge of the
sword. It was his usual resort, from whence he sallied forth on
plundering expeditions, and rendered the roads unsafe. At length
the news of him reached King Saif Ar-Raad, who sent against him
three thousand men, but he routed and destroyed them all. Upon
this, the King sent a larger number against him, who experienced
the same fate. He then despatched a third army, upon which Sudun
fortified himself afresh, and reared the walls of his fortress so
high that an eagle could scarcely pass them. We will now return
to Shama, who went to Wakhs El Fellat, and reproached him with
the conditions he had agreed to, and added, "It would be better
for you to leave this place, and take me with you, and we will
put ourselves under the protection of some powerful king." "God
forbid," replied he, "that I should take you with me in so
dishonourable a manner." As he still positively refused to
consent, she grew angry, and left him. Wakhs El Fellat lay down
to rest, but he could not sleep. So he rose up, mounted his
horse, and rode away at midnight; and in the morning he met a
horseman who stationed himself in his path, but who was so
completely armed that his face was concealed. When Wakhs El
Fellat saw him, he cried to him, "Who are you, and where are you
going?" But instead of replying, he pressed upon him, and aimed a
blow which Wakhs El Fellat successfully parried. A fight then
commenced between them, which lasted till nearly evening. At last
the difference in their strength became perceptible, and Wakhs El
Fellat struck his adversary so violent a blow with his javelin
that his horse fell to the ground. He then dismounted, and was
about to slay him, when the horseman cried to him, "Do not kill
me, O brave warrior, or you will repent when repentance will no
more avail you." "Tell me who you are?" returned Wakhs El Fellat.
"I am Shama, the daughter of King Afrakh," replied the horseman.
"Why have you acted thus?" asked he. "I wished to try whether you
would be able to hold your own against Sudun's people," she
replied. "I have tried you now, and found you so valiant that I
fear no longer on your account. Take me with you, O hero." "God
forbid that I should do so," he returned; "what would Sikar Diun
and the others say? They would say that if Shama had not been
with him, he would never have been able to prevail against
Sudun." She then raised her eyes to heaven, and said, "O God,
permit him to fall into some danger from which I alone may
deliver him!" Upon this Wakhs El Fellat pursued his journey,
without giving any attention to her words. On the third day he
arrived at the valley where the fortress of Sudun was situated,
when he began to work his way along behind the trees; and towards
evening he arrived at the fortress itself, which he found to be
surrounded with a moat; and the gates were closed. He was still
undecided what course to take, when he heard the sound of an
approaching caravan; and he hid himself in the fosse of the
fortress to watch it. He then saw that it was driven forward by a
large body of men, and that the merchants were bound on their
mules. When they arrived at the castle, they knocked at the gate;
and when the troop entered, Wakhs El Fellat entered with them;
and they unloaded the goods and bound the prisoners without
noticing him. When the armed men had finished their work, they
ascended to the castle, but he remained below. After a time, he
wished to follow them, but when he trod on the first step, it
gave way under him, and a dagger flew out, which struck him in
the groin. Upon this his eyes filled with tears, and he already
looked upon his destruction as certain, when a form came towards
him from the entrance of the castle, to deliver him; and as it
drew nearer, he perceived that it was Shama. He was filled with
astonishment, and cried out, "God has heard your prayer! How did
you come here?" "I followed your traces," she replied, "till you
entered the castle, when I imitated your example, and mingled
with the troops. I have now saved your life, although you have
refused to take me with you; but if you wish to advance further,
do not neglect to try whether each step is fixed, with the point
of your sword." He now again began to ascend, feeling the way
before him, and Shama followed, till they arrived at the last
stair, when they saw that the staircase ended in a revolving
wheel. "Spring higher," advised Shama, "for I see a javelin which
magic art has placed here." They sprang over it, and pursued
their way till they reached a large anteroom, lighted by a high
cupola. They stopped here awhile, and examined everything
carefully. At last they approached the door of a room, and on
looking through the crevices, they saw about a hundred armed
negroes, among whom was a black slave who looked as savage as a
lion. The room was lighted by wax candles, placed on gold and
silver candlesticks. At this moment, the black said, "Slaves,
what have you done with the prisoners belonging to the caravan?"
"We have chained them in the prison below, and left them in the
safest place," was the reply. But he continued, "If one of them
was carelessly bound, he might be able to release himself and the
others, and to gain possession of the stairs. Let one of you
therefore go down, examine them carefully, and tighten their
bonds." One of them therefore came out, and the two strangers hid
themselves in the anteroom. When he had passed them, Wakhs El
Fellat stepped forward and pierced him through with his sword;
Shama dragged his body aside, and they both remained quiet for a
time. But as the slave remained away from his companions too
long, Sudun exclaimed, "Go and see why he does not return, for I
have been in great alarm ever since we entered the castle to-
day." A second then rose and took his sword, and as he came into
the anteroom, Wakhs El Fellat clove him in twain at one blow and
Shama dragged his body also on one side. They again waited
quietly for a time, when Sudun said, "It seems as if hunters are
watching our slaves, and are killing them one after another." A
third then hastened out, and Wakhs El Fellat struck him such a
blow that he fell dead to the ground, and Shama dragged him also
away. But as he likewise remained absent so long, Sudun himself
stood up and all the others with him, and he said, "Did I not
warn and caution you? There is a singing in my ears, and my heart
trembles, for there must be people here who are watching our
men." He himself now came out, and the others followed him with
lights and holding their hands on their swords, when one of the
foremost suddenly stopped. "Why do you not advance!" cried the
others. "How shall I go forward," said he, "when he who has slain
our friends stands before us." This answer was repeated to Sudun
when he called on them in a voice of thunder to advance. When he
heard this, he forced his way through them till he perceived
Wakhs El Fellat. "Who are you, Satan?" cried he, "and who brought
you here?" "I came here," replied he, "to cut off your head, and
destroy your memory." "Have you any blood-feud against me?" asked
Sudun, "or any offence to revenge upon me?" "I have no enmity
against you in my heart," said Wakhs El Fellat, "and you have
never injured me; but I have asked Shama in marriage of her
father, and he has demanded of me your head as a condition. Be on
your guard, that you may not say I acted foully towards you."
"Madman," cried Sudun, "I challenge you to a duel. Will you fight
inside or outside the fortress?" "I leave that to you," returned
Wakhs El Fellat. "Well, then, await me here," was the reply.
Sudun then went in, clothed himself in gilded armour, girt on a
saw-like sword, and came out holding a shining club in his hand.
He was so enraged that he knew not what to say, and at once
attacked Wakhs El Fellat, who threw himself on his adversary like
a raging lion, and they fought together like hungry wolves; but
both despaired of victory. The swords spake a hard language on
the shields, and each of the combatants wished that he had never
been born. When this desperate fight had lasted a long time,
Shama was greatly troubled lest Sudun should prove victorious. So
she seized a dagger and struck at Sudun, wounding the nerves of
his hand, so that he dropped his sword, while she exclaimed to
Wakhs El Fellat, "Make an end of him." "No," replied Wakhs El
Fellat, "I will make him my prisoner, for he is a brave and
valiant man." "With whom are you speaking?" asked Sudun. "With
Shama," answered he. "What," said Sudun, "did she come with you?"
"Yes," replied he. "Then let her come before me." She came
forward, and Sudun said, "Is the world too narrow for your father
that he could demand nothing as your dowry but my head?" "This
was his desire," answered she. Wakhs El Fellat then said, "Take
your sword and defend yourself, for I will not fight with you,
now that it has fallen out of your hand." But Sudun replied , "I
will not fight with you, for I am wounded, so take my head, and
go in peace with your bride." He then sat down and bowed his
head. "If you speak truly," said Wakhs El Fellat, "separate
yourself from your people." "Why so?" "Because I fear lest they
may surround me, and compel me to fight with them, and there is
no need for me to shed their blood." Sudun then left the castle,
bowed his head, and said, "Finish your work." But Wakhs El Fellat
said, "If you speak truth, come with me across the fosse of the
castle into the open ground." He did so, carefully barring the
castle behind him, and said, "Now take my head."

When the slaves saw this, they mounted the walls, and wept and
lamented. But Shama cried out, "Take his head, and let us hasten
our return before morning dawns." "What," said Wakhs El Fellat,
"should I kill so brave a man in so treacherous a manner, when he
is so noble and magnanimous?" He then went up to Sudun, kissed
his head, and said, "Rise up, O warrior of the age, for you and
your companions are safe from me." They now all embraced each
other, and made an offensive and defensive compact. "Take me with
you alive, O brave man," said Sudun, "and hand me over to the
King as his daughter's dowry. If he consents, well; but if not,
take my head, and woo your wife." "God forbid," said Wakhs El
Fellat, "that I should act thus after your magnanimity. Rather
return to the castle, and assure your companions of your safety."
All this passed under the eyes of the other armed men. They
rejoiced at the knightly conduct of both , and now came down,
fell at the feet of Sudun and embraced him. They then did the
same to Wakhs El Fellat, whose hands they kissed and loaded him
with praises. After this, they all returned to the castle, and
agreed to set out presently. They took with them whatever
treasures there were, and Wakhs El Fellat commanded them to
release the prisoners and restore them their goods. They now all
mounted their horses and journeyed to the country of King Afrakh,
greatly rejoiced at the mutual love of the warriors. When they
approached the town, Shama parted from them, that nothing should
be known of her absence in the company. During this time, King
Afrakh and Sikar Diun had amused themselves with hunting,
jesting, and sporting, and sent out scouts daily to look for
Wakhs El Fellat. "What can have become of him?" said the King
once to Sikar Diun. "Sudun has certainly killed him," replied the
latter, "and you will never see him again." While they were thus
talking, they observed a great cloud of dust, and as it drew
nearer, they could see the armed men more distinctly. The company
was led by a black knight, by whose side rode a younger white
horseman. When the King saw this, he exclaimed, "Wakhs El Fellat
has returned, in company with Sudun and his host." "Wait a
little," replied Sikar Dian, "till we are certain of it." But
when they drew nearer, and they could doubt no longer, Sikar Diun
mounted his horse and fled, accompanied by the King and his
followers, till they reached the town, and barred the gates. They
then watched from the walls, to see what would happen. When they
saw that the strangers dismounted and pitched tents, the King
thought it was a good sign. He therefore ordered the town to be
decorated, and the gates to be opened, and rode out, attended by
a considerable escort, and approached the tents. The other party
now mounted their horses to go to meet them. When they approached
each other, King Afrakh was about to dismount, but Wakhs El
Fellat would not allow it, and the King embraced him, and
congratulated him on his safety. He then saluted Sudun also, but
the latter did not return his salutation. He invited him to enter
the town, but he declined, as did Wakhs El Fellat likewise, who
did not wish to part from his companions. The King returned
accompanied only by his own people, and prepared the best
reception for the new-comers. On the following morning the King
held a general council, at which Sikar Diun appeared greatly
depressed. "Did I not warn you beforehand," said he to the King,
"what you now see for yourself of this evil-doer? Did we not send
him to bring the head of Sudun, and he returns with him safe and
sound, and on the best of terms, while our hearts are oppressed
with anxiety?" "You may be right," replied the King, "but what
are we to do now?"

This conversation was interrupted by a tumult caused by the
arrival of Wakhs El Fellat and Sudun, who came to pay their
respects to the King. The King invited them to sit down, but
Sudun remained standing, and when he asked him again, he replied,
"You craven, was the world too narrow for you that you desired my
head as your daughter's dowry?" "Sit down," said the King, "for I
know that you are angry." "How can I sit down," returned Sudun,
"when you have ordered my death?" "God forbid that I should act
so unjustly," said the King; "it was Sikar Diun." "What," said
he, "do you accuse me of such an action in my presence?" "Did you
not make this condition with Wakhs El Fellat," said the King,
"and send him on his errand?" Sikar Diun then turned to Sudun,
and said, "Sit down, brave warrior, for we only did so from love
to you, that we might be able to make a treaty with you, and that
you might join our company." After this answer, Sudun concealed
his anger, and sat down. Refreshments were now brought in, and
after partaking of them, Wakhs El Fellat and Sudun returned to
their tents. Several days passed in this manner, and at length
Sudun said to Wakhs El Fellat, "O my master, it is time for you
to demand Shama in marriage, now you have won her with the edge
of the sword. You have fulfilled their conditions long since by
bringing them my head, but you have made no further progress at
present. Ask for her once more, and if they will not give her up,
I will fall upon them with the sword, and we will carry Shama
off, and then lay waste the city." "I will demand her as my wife
again to-morrow," replied the other. When he went to the palace
next day, he found the King and all the court assembled. When
they saw him, they all rose from their seats, and when they sat
down again, he alone remained standing. "Why do you not sit
down," said the King, "for all your wishes are now fulfilled?" "I
have still to ask for Shama," he replied. "You know," returned
the King, "that ever since her birth I have allowed Sikar Diun to
make all arrangements for her." He now turned to Sikar Diun, who
replied in a friendly tone, "She is yours, for you have fulfilled
the conditions, and you have only now to give her ornaments."
"What kind of ornaments?" asked he. "Instead of ornaments,"
replied the traitor, "we desire to receive a book containing the
history of the Nile. If you bring it us, she is wholly yours, but
if not, there is no marriage to be thought of." "Where is it to
be found?" "I cannot tell you myself." "Well, then," returned
Wakhs El Fellat, "if I do not bring you the book, Shama is lost
to me; all present are witnesses to this." He went out with these
words, pushing his way through the crowded assembly, and Sudun
behind him, till they reached their tents. "Why did you promise
that," said Sudun, "let us rather overcome them with the sword,
and take Shama from them." "Not so," replied Wakhs El Fellat, "I
will only possess her honourably." "And yet you do not even know
how to find the book," said Sudun; "rather listen to my advice,
retire to my fortress, and leave me in their power." "I would
never act thus," said Wakhs El Fellat, "though I should suffer
death." After these and similar speeches, supper was brought in,
and each retired to his sleeping apartment. But Wakhs El Fellat
had scarcely entered his room when Shama came in. "What have you
done," said she, "and what engagement have you undertaken? How
can you fulfil this condition? Do you not see that their only
object is to destroy you, or at least to get rid of you? I have
come to warn you again, and I say to you once more, take me with
you to Sudun's castle, where we can live at peace, and do not act
as they tell you." "I will carry out my engagement," he replied;
"I will not possess you like a coward, even though I should be
cut to pieces with swords." Upon this, Shama was angry and left
him, while he lay down to rest, but could not sleep. He therefore
rose up, saddled and mounted his horse and rode away, without
knowing where, abandoning himself wholly to the will of God. He
wandered about thus for several days, until he reached a lonely
tower. He knocked at the door, and a voice answered, "Welcome, O
thou who hast separated thyself from thy companions; enter
without fear, O brave Saif, son of Zul Yezn." When he pushed the
door it opened, and his eyes beheld a noble and venerable old
man, from whose appearance it was at once obvious that he busied
himself with the strictest life and fear of God. "Welcome," cried
he again; "if you had travelled from east to West you would have
found no one who could show you how to obtain the book you seek
as well as I can, for I have dwelt here awaiting your arrival for
sixty years." "But that was before I was born," said Wakhs El
Fellat to himself. He then asked aloud, "By what name did you
address me just now?" "O Saif," answered the old man, "that is
your true name, for you are a sword (Saíf) to the Abyssinians;
but whom do you worship?" "O my master," was the reply, "the
Abyssinians worship Saturn (Sukhal) but I am in perplexity, and
know not whom to worship." "My son," replied the old man,
"worship Him who has reared the heavens over us without pillars,
and who has rested the earth on water; the only and eternal God,
the Lord who is only and alone to be reverenced. I worship Him
and none other beside him, for I follow the religion of Abraham."
"What is your name?" asked Wakhs El Fellat. "I am called Shaikh
Gyat." "What declaration must I make," he asked the old man, "to
embrace your religion?" "Say ‘There is no God but God, and
Abraham is the Friend of God.' If you make this profession, you
will be numbered among the believers." He at once repeated the
formula, and Shaikh Gyat was much pleased, and devoted the night
to teaching him the history of Abraham and his religion, and the
forms of worship. Towards morning he said, "O my son, whenever
you advance to battle, say, ‘God is great, grant me victory, O
God, and destroy the infidels,' and help will be near you. Now
pursue your journey, but leave your horse here until your return.
Enter the valley before you, under the protection of God, and
after three days you will meet some one who will aid you." Wakhs
El Fellat set out on that road, and after three days he met a
horseman who saluted him, and exclaimed, "Welcome, Saif Zul Yezn,
for you bring happiness to this neighbourhood." Saif returned his
salutation, and asked, "How do you know me, and how do you know
my name?" "I am not a brave or renowned warrior," was the answer,
"but one of the maidens of this country and my mother taught me
your name." "What is your name and that of your mother?" "My
mother's name is Alka," answered she, "and I am called Taka."
When he heard this he was greatly rejoiced, for he remembered
that Shaikh Gyat had said to him, "O thou, whose destiny will be
decided by Alka and Taka." "O noble virgin," said he, "where is
your mother, Alka?" "Look round," she replied; and he saw a very
large and lofty city at some distance. "Know," said she, "that
360 experienced philosophers dwell in that city. My mother Alka
is their superior, and directs all their affairs and actions. She
knew that you would come to this neighbourhood in search of a
book concerning the Nile, which was written by Japhet, the son of
Noah, and she wishes you to attain your end by her means. She
also informed me of your coming, and promised me to you, saying,
‘You shall have no other husband but him.' We expected you to-
day, and she sent me to meet you, adding, ‘Warn him not to enter
the town by daylight, or it will be his destruction.' Wait here,
therefore, till nightfall, and only approach the city after dark.
Turn to the right along the wall, and stand still when you reach
the third tower, where we will await you. As soon as we see you
we will throw you a rope; bind it round your waist, and we will
draw you up. The rest will be easy." "But why need you give
yourselves all this trouble?" said Saif Zul Yezn. "Know," replied
she, "that the inhabitants of this city have been informed of
your approaching arrival by their books, and are aware that you
are about to carry away their book, which they hold in
superstitious reverence. On the first day of each month they
repair to the building where it is preserved; and they adore it
and seek counsel from it respecting their affairs. They have also
a king whose name is Kamrun. When they knew that you were coming
for the book they constructed a talisman against you. They have
made a copper statue, and fixed a brazen horn in its hand, and
have stationed it at the gate of the city. If you enter, the
statue will sound the horn, and it will only do so upon your
arrival. They would then seize you and put you to death. On this
account we desire to baffle their wisdom by drawing you up to the
walls of the city at another place." "May God reward you a
thousandfold," replied he; "but go now, and announce my arrival
to your mother." She went away, and he approached the city in the
darkness of night, and turned towards the third tower on the
right, where he found Alka and Taka. When they recognised him,
they immediately threw him the rope, which he fastened about him.
When he was drawn up, they descended from the wall, and were
about to proceed to Alka's house, when the talisman suddenly
acted, and the statue blew the horn loudly. "Hasten to our
house," cried Alka; and they succeeded in reaching it safely and
barred the doors, when the noise increased. The whole population
of the city rose up, and the streets were filled. "What is this
disturbance about?" asked Saif. "This is all due," replied Alka,
"to the alarm sounded by the statue, because you have entered the
town. There will be a great meeting held to-morrow, where all the
wise men will assemble, to attempt to discover the whereabouts of
the intruder; but by God's help, I will guide them wrong, and
confuse their counsels. Go to our neighbour the fisherman," added
she to her daughter, "and see what he has caught." She went, and
brought news that he had taken a large fish, of the size of a
man. "Take this piece of gold," said her mother, "and bring us
the fish;" and when she did so, she told her to clean it, which
was done. Food was then brought in, and they ate and talked. The
night passed quietly, but on the following morning Alka ordered
Saif Zul Yezn to undress, and to hide in the skin of the fish.
She put her mouth to the mouth of the fish, and took a long rope,
which she fastened under Saif's armpits. She then let him down
into a deep well, and fastened him there, saying, "Remain here,
till I come back." She then left him, and went to the great hall
of the King, where the divan was already assembled, and the King
had taken his seat on the throne. All rose up when she entered,
and when she had seated herself, the King said to her, "O mother,
did you not hear the blast of the horn yesterday, and why did you
not come out with us?" "I did hear it," she replied, "but I did
not heed it." "But you know," said he, "that the sound can only
be heard upon the arrival of the stranger who desires to take the
book." "I know it, O King; but permit me to choose forty men from
among those assembled here." She did so, and selected ten from
among the forty again. She then said to them, "Take a Trakhtramml
(sandboard on which the Arabs practise geomancy and notation) and
look and search." They did so, but had scarcely finished when
they looked at each other in amazement. They destroyed their
calculation, and began a second, and confused this, too, and
began a third, upon which they became quite confounded. "What are
you doing there?" asked the King at last. "You go on working and
obliterating your work; what have you discovered?" "O King,"
replied they, "we find that the stranger has entered the town,
but not by any gate. He appears to have passed in between Heaven
and earth, like a bird. After this, a fish swallowed him, and
carried him down into some dark water." "Are you fools?" asked
the King angrily; and turning to Alka, continued, "Have you ever
seen a man flying between Heaven and earth, and afterwards
swallowed by a fish, which descends with him into dark water?" "O
King," replied she, "I always forbid the wise men to eat heavy
food, for it disturbs their understanding and weakens their
penetration; but they will not heed me." At this the King was
angry, and immediately drove them from the hall. But Alka said,
"It will be plain to-morrow what has happened." She left the
hall, and when she reached home, she drew Saif Zul Yezn out of
the well, and he dressed himself again. They sat down, and Alka
said, "I have succeeded in confounding their deliberations to-
day! and there will be a great assembly to-morrow, when I must
hide you in a still more out-of-the-way place." After this they
supped, and went to rest. Next morning Alka called her daughter,
and said, "Bring me the gazelle." When it was brought her, she
said, "Bring me the wings of an eagle." Taka gave them to her,
and she bound them on the back of the gazelle. She then took a
pair of compasses, which she fixed in the ceiling of the room.
She next took two other pairs of compasses, which she fixed in
the ceiling of the room. She next took two other pairs of
compasses, and tied one between the fore feet, and the other
between the hind feet of the gazelle. She then tied a rope to the
compasses in the roof, and the two ends to the other pairs. But
she made Saif Zul Yezn lie down in such a position that his head
was between the feet of the gazelle. She then said to him,
"Remain here till I come back"; and went to the King, with whom
she found a very numerous assemblage of the wise men. As soon as
she entered, the King made her sit beside him on the throne. "O
my mother Alka," he said, "I could not close an eye last night
from anxiety concerning yesterday's events." "Have you no wise
men," returned she, "who eat the bread of the divan?" She then
turned to them, saying, "Select the wisest among you!" and they
chose the wisest among them. She ordered them to take the
sandboard again, but they became so confused that they were
obliged to begin again three times from the beginning. "What do
you discover?" said the King angrily. "O our master," replied
they, "he whom we seek has been carried away by a beast of the
desert, which is flying with him between Heaven and earth." "How
is this?" said the King to Alka; "have you ever seen anything
like it?" He seized his sword in a rage, and three fled, and he
killed four of the others. When Alka went home, she released
Saif, and told him what had happened. Next morning Alka took the
gazelle, and slaughtered it in a copper kettle. She then took a
golden mortar, and reversed it over it, and said to Saif Zul
Yezn, "Sit on this mortar till I come back." She then went to the
divan, and chose out six wise men, who again took the sandboard,
and began again three times over in confusion. "Alas," said the
King, in anger, "What misfortune do you perceive?" "O our
master," they exclaimed in consternation, "our understanding is
confused, for we see him sitting on a golden mountain, which is
in the midst of a sea of blood, surrounded by a copper wall." The
King was enraged, and broke up the assembly, saying, "O Alka, I
will now depend on you alone." "To-morrow I will attempt to show
you the stranger," she replied. When she came home, she related
to Saif what had happened, and said, "I shall know by to-morrow
what to tell the King to engage his attention, and prevent him
from pursuing you." Next morning she found Taka speaking to Saif
Zul Yezn alone; and she asked her, "What does he wish?" "Mother,"
replied Taka, "he wishes to go to the King's palace, to see him
and the divan." "What you wish shall be done," said she to Saif,
"but you must not speak." He assented to the condition, and she
dressed him as her attendant, gave him a sandboard, and went with
him to the King, who said to her, "I could not sleep at all last
night, for thinking of the stranger for whom we are seeking."
"Now that the affair is in my hands," returned she, "you will
find me a sufficient protection against him." She immediately
ordered Saif to give her the sandboard. She took it, and when she
had made her calculations, she said joyfully to the King, "O my
lord, I can give you the welcome news of the flight of the
stranger, owing to his dread of you and your revenge." When the
King heard this, he rent his clothes, slapped his face, and said,
"He would not have departed, without having taken the book." "I
cannot see if he has taken anything," replied she. "This is the
first of the month," said the King, "come and let us see if it is
missing." He then went with a large company to the building where
the book was kept. Alka turned away from the King for a moment to
say to Saif, "Do not enter with us, for if you enter, the case
will open of itself, and the book will fall into your hands. This
would at once betray you, and you would be seized and put to
death, and all my labour would have been in vain." She then left
him, and rejoined the King. When they reached the building, the
doors were opened, and when the King entered, they found the
book. They immediately paid it the customary honours, and
protracted this species of worship, while Saif stood at the door,
debating with himself whether to enter or not. At last his
impatience overcame him, and he entered, and at the same instant
the casket was broken to pieces, and the book fell out. The King
then ordered all to stand up, and the book rolled to Saif Zul
Yezn. Upon this all drew their swords, and rushed upon him. Saif
drew his sword also, and cried "God is great!" as Shaikh Gyat had
taught him. He continued to fight and defend himself, and
struggled to reach the door. The entire town arose in tumult to
pursue him, when he stumbled over a dead body, and was seized.
"Let me not see his face," cried the King, "but throw him into
the mine." This mine was eighty yards deep, and had not been
opened for sixty years. It was closed by a heavy leaden cover,
which they replaced, after they had loaded him with chains, and
thrown him in. Saif sat there in the darkness, greatly troubled,
and lamenting his condition to Him who never sleeps. Suddenly, a

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