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The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, Volume 10 by Richard F. Burton

Part 9 out of 10

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k. Story of the Thief and the Woman . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...| I |...|...|...
l. Story of the Three Men and our Lord Jesus . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...| I |...|...|...
ll. The Disciple's Story . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...| I |...|...|...
m. Story of the Dethroned King whose kingdom
and good were restored to him . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...| I |...|...|...
n. Story of the Man whose caution was the cause
of his Death . . . . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...| I |...|...|...
o. Story of the Man who was lavish of his house
and his victual to one whom he knew not . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...| I |...|...|...
p. Story of the Idiot and the Sharper . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...| I |...|...|...
q. Story of Khelbes and his Wife and the
Learned Man . . . . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...| I |...|...|...
r. Story of the Pious Woman accused of lewdness |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |...|...|...|...|II |...|...|...
s. Story of the Journeyman and the Girl . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
t. Story of the Weaver who became a Physician
by his Wife's commandment . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
u. Story of the Two Sharpers who cheated each
his fellow . . . . . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
v. Story of the Sharpers with the Moneychanger
and the Ass . . . . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
w. Story of the Sharper and the Merchants . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
wa. Story of the Hawk and the Locust . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
x. Story of the King and his Chamberlain's Wife |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
xa. Story of the Old Woman and the Draper's
Wife . . . . . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
y. Story of the Foul-favoured Man and his Fair
Wife . . . . . . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
z. Story of the King who lost Kingdom and Wife
and Wealth, and God restored them to him . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
aa. Story of Selim and Selma . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
bb. Story of the King of Hind and his Vizier . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| |...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
182. El Melik Ez Zahir Rukneddin Bibers El
Bunducdari, and the Sixteen Officers of
Police . . . . . . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
a. The First Officer's Story . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
b. The Second Officer's Story . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
c. The Third Officer's Story . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
d. The Fourth Officer's Story . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |...|...|...|...|II |...|...|...
e. The Fifth Officer's Story . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
f. The Sixth Officer's Story . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |...|...|...|...|II |...|...|...
g. The Seventh Officer's Story . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
h. The Eighth Officer's Story . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
ha. The Thief's Story . . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
i. The Ninth Officer's Story . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
j. The Tenth Officer's Story . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
k. The Eleventh Officer's Story . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
l. The Twelfth Officer's Story . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
m. The Thirteenth Officer's Story . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
n. The Fourteenth Officer's Story . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
na. A Merry Jest of a Thief . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
nb. Story of the Old Sharper . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
o. The Fifteenth Officer's Story . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
p. The Sixteenth Officer's Story . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
183. Abdallah Ben Nafi, and the King's Son of
Cashgbar . . . . . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
a. Story of the Damsel Tuhfet El Culoub and
Khalif Haroun Er Reshid . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |14 |...|...|...|II |...|...|...
184. Women's Craft . . . . . . . . . |...|...| 2 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 4 |...|...|...|II | + |...|...
185. Noureddin Ali of Damascus and the Damsel Sitt
El Milah . . . . . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |15 |...|...|...|III|...|...|...
186. El Abbas and the King's Daughter of Baghdad . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |15 |...|...|...|III|...|...|...
187. The Two Kings and the Vizier's Daughters . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |15 |...|...|...|III|...|...|...
188. The Favourite and her Lover . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |15 |...|...|...|III|...|...|...
189. The Merchant of Cairo and the Favourite of the
Khalif El Mamoun El Hakim bi Amrillah . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| + |15 |...|...|...|III|...|...|...
190. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...| 4 | 3 |...| 3 | + | 3 | + |15 |...| + |...|{9&|...|...| 10
III}
*191. History of Prince Zeyn Alasnam . . . . . | 8 | 5 | 4 |...| 4 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 6 | 3 |...|...|...|...|...|...
*192. History of Codadad and his Brothers . . . | 8 | 5 | 4 |...| 4 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 6 | 3 |...|...|...|...|...|...
*a. History of the Princess of Deryabar . . | 8 | 5 | 4 |...| 4 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 6 | 3 |...|...|...|...|...|...
*193. Story of Aladdin, or the Wonderful Lamp . . |9,10|5,6| 4 |...|4,5|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|7,8| 3 |...|...|...|...|...|...
"194. Adventures of the Caliph Harun Al-Rashid . . | 10| 6 | 5 |...| 5 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 8 | 3 |...|...|...|...|...|...
*a. Story of the Blind Man, Baba Abdallah . . | 10| 6 | 5 |...| 5 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 8 | 3 |...|...|...|...|...|...
*b. Story of Sidi Numan . . . . . . | 10| 6 | 5 |...| 5 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 8 | 3 |...|...|...|...|...|...
*c. Story of Cogia Hassan Alhabbal . . . .|10,11| 6 | 5 |...| 5 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 8 | 3 |...|...|...|...|...|...
*195. Story of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves . . | 11| 6 | 5 |...| 5 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 9 | 3 |...|...|...|...|...|...
*196. Story of Ali Cogia, a Merchant of Baghdad . . | 11| 7 | 5 |...| 5 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 9 | 3 |...|...|...|...|...|...
*197. Story of Prince Ahmed and the Fairy Peri Banou . | 12| 7 | 5 |...| 5 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 9 | 3 |...|...|...|...|...|...
*198. Story of the Sisters who envied their younger
sister . . . . . . . . . . | 12| 7 | 5 |...| 5 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 10| 3 |...|...|...|...|...|...
199. (Anecdote of Jaafar the Barmecide = No.39) . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 2 |...|...|...|...|...|...
200. The Adventures of Ali and Zaher of Damascus. . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 4 |...|...|...|...|...|...
201. The Adventures of the Fisherman, Judar of Cairo,
and his meeting with the Moor Mahmood and the
Sultan Beibars . . . . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 4 |...|...|...|...|...|...
202. The Physician and the young man of Mosul . . |...|...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
203. Story of the Sultan of Yemen and his three sons |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
204. Story of the Three Sharpers and the Sultan . . |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
a. Adventures of the Abdicated Sultan . . . |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
b. History of Mahummud, Sultan of Cairo . . |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
c. Story of the First Lunatic . . . . . |...| 8 | 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
d. (Story of the Second Lunatic = No.184) . . |...|...| 2 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
e. Story of the Sage and his Pupil . . . . |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
f. Night adventure of the Sultan . . . . |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
g, Story of the first foolish man . . . . |...|...|...| 3 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
h. Story of the broken-backed Schoolmaster . . |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
i. Story of the wry-mouthed Schoolmaster . . |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
j. The Sultan's second visit to the Sisters . |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
k. Story of the Sisters and the Sultana, their
mother . . . . . . . . . |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
205. Story of the Avaricious Cauzee and his wife . |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
206. Story of the Bang-Eater and the Cauzee . . . |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
a. Story of the Bang-Eater and his wife . . |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
b. Continuation of the Fisherman, or
Bang-Eater's Adventures . . . . . |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
207. The Sultan and the Traveller Mhamood Al Hyjemmee |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
a. The Koord Robber (= No.33) . . . . . |...|...|...| 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
b. Story of the Husbandman . . . . . . |...|...|...| 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
c. Story of the Three Princes and Enchanting
Bird . . . . . . . . . . |...|...| 6 | 3 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
d. Story of a Sultan of Yemen and his three Sons |...|...| 6 | 4 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
e. Story of the first Sharper in the Cave . . |...|...|...| 4 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
f. Story of the second Sharper . . . . . |...|...|...| 4 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
g. Story of the third Sharper . . . . . |...|...|...| 4 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
h. History of the Sultan of Hind . . . . |...|...| 5 | 4 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|10 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
208. Story of the Fisherman's Son . . . . . |...|...|...| 4 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
209. Story of Abou Neeut and Abou Neeuteen . . . |...|...| 6 | 4 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
210. Story of the Prince of Sind, and Fatima, daughter
of Amir Bin Naomaun . . . . . . . |...|...| 6 | 4 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
211. Story of the Lovers of Syria, or the Heroine . |...|...| 6 | 4 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
212. Story of Hyjauje, the tyrannical Governor of
Confeh, and the young Syed . . . . . |...|...|...| 4 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
213. Story of the Sultan Haieshe . . . . . |...|...|...| 4 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
214. Story told by a Fisherman . . . . . . |...|...|...| 4 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
215. The Adventures of Mazin of Khorassaun . . . |...|...| 6 |4,5| 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|10 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
216. Adventure of Haroon Al Rusheed . . . . . |...|...| 6 | 5 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
a. Story of the Sultan of Bussorah . . . . |...|...|...| 5 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
b. Nocturnal adventures of Haroon Al Rusheed . |...|...|...| 5 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
e. Story related by Munjaub . . . . . |...|...|...| 5 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
d. Story of the Sultan, the Dirveshe and the
Barber's Son . . . . . . . . |...|...|...| 5 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
e. Story of the Bedouin's Wife . . . . . |...|...|...| 5 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
f. Story of the Wife and her two Gallants . . |...|...|...| 5 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
217. Adventures of Aleefa, daughter of Mherejaun,
Sultan of Hind, and Eusuff, son of Sohul,
Sultan of Sind . . . . . . . . |...|...| 6 | 5 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
218. Adventures of the three Princes, sons of the
Sultan of China . . . . . . . . |...|...| 5 | 5 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|10 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
219. Story of the Gallant Officer . . . . . |...|...|...| 5 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
220. Story of another officer . . . . . . |...|...|...| 5 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
221. Story of the Idiot and his Asses . . . . |...|...|...| 5 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
222. Story of the Lady of Cairo and the Three
Debauchees . . . . . . . . . |...|...|...| 5 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
223. Story of the Good Vizier unjustly imprisoned . |...|...| 6 | 5 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
224. Story of the Prying Barber and the young man of
Cairo . . . . . . . . . . |...|...|...| 5 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
225. Story of the Lady of Cairo and her four Gallants |...|...| 6 | 5 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
a. The Cauzee's Story . . . . . . . |...|...|...| 5 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
b. The Syrian . . . . . . . . . |...|...|...|5,6| - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
c. The Caim-makaum's Wife . . . . . . |...|...|...| 6 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
d. Story told by the Fourth Gallant . . . |...|...|...| 6 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
226. Story of a Hump-backed Porter . . . . . |...|...|...| 6 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
227. The Aged Porter of Cairo and the Artful Female
Thief . . . . . . . . . . |...|...|...| 6 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
228. Mhassun and his tried friend Mouseh . . . |...|...|...| 6 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
229. Mahummud Julbee, son to an Ameer of Cairo . . |...|...|...| 6 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
230. The Farmer's Wife . . . . . . . . |...|...|...| 6 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
231. The Artful Wife . . . . . . . . |...|...|...| 6 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
232. The Cauzee's Wife . . . . . . . . |...|...|...| 6 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
233. Story of the Merchant, his Daughter, and the
Prince of Eerauk . . . . . . . |...|...|...| 6 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
234. The Two Orphans . . . . . . . . |...|...|...| 6 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
235. Story of another Farmer's Wife . . . . . |...|...|...| 6 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
236. Story of the Son who attempted his Father's
Wives . . . . . . . . . . |...|...|...| 6 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
237. The Two Wits of Cairo and Syria . . . . |...|...|...| 6 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
238. Ibrahim and Mouseh . . . . . . . . |...|...|...| 6 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
239. The Viziers Ahmed and Mahummud . . . . . |...|...|...|6,7| - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
240. The Son addicted to Theft . . . . . . |...|...|...| 7 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
241. Adventures of the Cauzee, his Wife, &c. . . |...|...| 6 | 7 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
a. The Sultan's Story of Himself . . . . |...|...| 6 | 7 | 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|11 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
242. Story of Shaykh Nukheet the Fisherman, who
became favourite to a Sultan . . . . |...|...|...| 7 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
a. Story of the King of Andalusia . . . . |...|...|...| 7 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
243. Story of Teilone, Sultan of Egypt . . . . |...|...|...| 7 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
244. Story of the Retired Man and his Servant . . |...|...|...| 7 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
245. The Merchant's Daughter who married the Emperor
of China . . . . . . . . . |...|...|...| 7 | - |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*246. New Adventures of the Caliph Harun Al-Rashid . |...| 8 | 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|12 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*247. The Physician and the young Purveyor of Bagdad . |...| 8 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|13 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*248. The Wise Heycar . . . . . . . . |...| 8 | 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|13 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*249. Attaf the Generous . . . . . . . . |...| 9 | 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|13 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*250. Prince Habib and Dorrat-al-Gawas . . . . |...| 9 | 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|12 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*251. The Forty Wazirs . . . . . . . . |...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*a. Story of Shaykh Shahabeddin . . . . |...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*b. Story of the Gardener, his Son, and the Ass |...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*c. The Sultan Mahmoud and his Wazir . . . |...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*d. Story of the Brahman Padmanaba and the young
Fyquai . . . . . . . . . |...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*e. Story of Sultan Akshid . . . . . . |...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*f. Story of the Husband, the Lover and the
Thief . . . . . . . . . |...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*g. Story of the Prince of Carisme and the
Princess of Georgia . . . . . . |...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*h. The Cobbler and the King's Daughter . . |...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*i. The Woodcutter and the Genius . . . . |...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*j. The Royal Parrot . . . . . . . |...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...| 1 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*252. Story of the King and Queen of Abyssinia . . |...|...| 6 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|10 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*253. Story of Princes Amina . . . . . . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|12 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*a. Story of the Princess of Tartary . . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|12 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*b. Story told by the Old Man's Wife . . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|12 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*254. Story of Ali Johari . . . . . . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|12 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*255. Story of the two Princes of Cochin China . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|12 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*256. Story of the two Husbands . . . . . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|12 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*a. Story of Abdallah . . . . . . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|12 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*b. Story of the Favourite . . . . . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|12 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*257. Story of Yusuf and the Indian Merchant . . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|12 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*258. Story of Prince Benazir . . . . . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|12 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*259. Story of Selim, Sultan of Egypt . . . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|13 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*a. Story of the Cobbler's Wife . . . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|13 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*b. Story of Adileh . . . . . . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|13 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*c. Story of the scarred Kalender . . . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|13 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*d. Continuation of the story of Selim . . . |...|...| 7 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|13 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
*260. Story of Seif Sul Yesn . . . . . . . |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|14 |...|...|...|...|...|...|...
261. Story of the Labourer and the Chair . . . |...|...|...| A | A |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...
262. Story of Ahmed the Orphan . . . . . . |...|...|...| A | A |...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...|...

VHa (Full contents from Introd. to No. 4 not given: 3e and 4 are apparently wanting.)
VHb (Nos. 10-19 represented by 7 Fables.)
VHc (Would include subordinate tales.)

N.B.--In using this Table, some allowance must be made for differences in the titles of many of the tales in different editions.
For the contents of the printed text, I have followed the lists in Mr. Payne's "Tales from the Arabic," vol. iii.

And here I end this long volume with repeating in other words and
other tongue what was said in "L'Envoi":--

Hide thou whatever here is found of fault;
And laud The Faultless and His might exalt!

After which I have only to make my bow and to say

"Salam."

Arabian Nights, Volume 10
Footnotes

[FN#1] Arab. "Zarabin" (pl. of zarbun), lit. slaves' shoes or
sandals (see vol. iii. p. 336) the chaussure worn by Mamelukes.
Here the word is used in its modern sense of stout shoes or
walking boots.

[FN#2] The popular word means goodness, etc.

[FN#3] Dozy translates "'Urrah"=Une Megere: Lane terms it a
"vulgar word signifying a wicked, mischievous shrew." But it is
the fem. form of 'Urr=dung; not a bad name for a daughter of
Billingsgate.

[FN#4] i.e. black like the book of her actions which would be
shown to her on Doomsday.

[FN#5] The "Kunafah" (vermicelli-cake) is a favourite dish of
wheaten flour, worked somewhat finer than our vermicelli, fried
with samn (butter melted and clarified) and sweetened with honey
or sugar. See vol. v. 300.

[FN#6] i.e. Will send us aid. The Shrew's rejoinder is highly
impious in Moslem opinion.

[FN#7] Arab. Asal Katr; "a fine kind of black honey, treacle"
says Lane; but it is afterwards called cane-honey ('Asal Kasab).
I have never heard it applied to "the syrup which exudes from
ripe dates, when hung up."

[FN#8] Arab. "'Aysh," lit.=that on which man lives: "Khubz" being
the more popular term. "Hubz and Joobn" is well known at Malta.

[FN#9] Insinuating that he had better make peace with his wife by
knowing her carnally. It suggests the story of the Irishman who
brought over to the holy Catholic Church three several Protestant
wives, but failed with the fourth on account of the decline of
his "Convarter."

[FN#10] Arab. "Asal Kasab," i.e. Sugar, possibly made from
sorgho-stalks Holcus sorghum of which I made syrup in Central
Africa.

[FN#11] For this unpleasant euphemy see vol. iv. 215.

[FN#12] This is a true picture of the leniency with which women
were treated in the Kazi's court at Cairo; and the effect was
simply deplorable. I have noted that matters have grown even
worse since the English occupation, for history repeats herself;
and the same was the case in Afghanistan and in Sind. We govern
too much in these matters, which should be directed not changed,
and too little in other things, especially in exacting respect
for the conquerors from the conquered.

[FN#13] Arab. "Bab al-'Ali"=the high gate or Sublime Porte; here
used of the Chief Kazi's court: the phrase is a descendant of the
Coptic "Per-ao" whence "Pharaoh."

[FN#14] "Abu Tabak," in Cairene slang, is an officer who arrests
by order of the Kazi and means "Father of whipping" (=tabaka, a
low word for beating, thrashing, whopping) because he does his
duty with all possible violence in terrorem.

[FN#15] Bab al-Nasr the Eastern or Desert Gate: see vol. vi. 234.

[FN#16] This is a mosque outside the great gate built by Al-Malik
al-'Adil Tuman Bey in A.H. 906 (=1501). The date is not worthy of
much remark for these names are often inserted by the scribe--for
which see Terminal Essay.

[FN#17] Arab. "'Amir" lit.=one who inhabiteth, a peopler; here
used in technical sense. As has been seen, ruins and impure
places such as privies and Hammam-baths are the favourite homes
of the Jinn. The fire-drake in the text was summoned by the
Cobbler's exclamation and even Marids at times do a kindly
action.

[FN#18] The style is modern Cairene jargon.

[FN#19] Purses or gold pieces see vol. ix. 313.

[FN#20] i.e. I am a Cairene.

[FN#21] Arab. "Darb al-Ahmar," a street still existing near to
and outside the noble Bab Zuwaylah, for which see vol. i. 269.

[FN#22] Arab. "'Attar," perfume-seller and druggist; the word is
connected with our "Ottar" ('Atr).

[FN#23] Arab. "Mudarris" lit.=one who gives lessons or lectures
(dars) and pop. applied to a professor in a collegiate mosque
like Al-Azhar of Cairo.

[FN#24] This thoroughly dramatic scene is told with a charming
naivete. No wonder that The Nights has been made the basis of a
national theatre amongst the Turks.

[FN#25] Arab. "Taysh" lit.=vertigo, swimming of head.

[FN#26] Here Trebutien (iii. 265) reads "la ville de Khaitan (so
the Mac. Edit. iv. 708) capital du royaume de Sohatan." Ikhtiyan
Lane suggests to be fictitious: Khatan is a district of Tartary
east of Kashgar, so called by Sadik al-Isfahani p. 24.

[FN#27] This is a true picture of the tact and savoir faire of
the Cairenes. It was a study to see how, under the late Khedive
they managed to take precedence of Europeans who found themselves
in the background before they knew it. For instance, every Bey,
whose degree is that of a Colonel was made an "Excellency" and
ranked accordingly at Court whilst his father, some poor Fellah,
was ploughing the ground. Tanfik Pasha began his ill-omened rule
by always placing natives close to him in the place of honour,
addressing them first and otherwise snubbing Europeans who, when
English, were often too obtuse to notice the petty insults
lavished upon them.

[FN#28] Arab. "Kathir" (pron. Katir)=much: here used in its slang
sense, "no end."

[FN#29] i.e. "May the Lord soon make thee able to repay me; but
meanwhile I give it to thee for thy own free use."

[FN#30] Punning upon his name. Much might be written upon the
significance of names as ominous of good and evil; but the
subject is far too extensive for a footnote.

[FN#31] Lane translates "Anisa-kum" by "he hath delighted you by
his arrival"; Mr. Payne "I commend him to you."

[FN#32] Arab. "Faturat,"=light food for the early breakfast of
which the "Fatirah"-cake was a favourite item. See vol. i. 300.

[FN#33] A dark red dye (Lane).

[FN#34] Arab. "Jadid," see vol. viii. 121.

[FN#35] Both the texts read thus, but the reading has little
sense. Ma'aruf probably would say, "I fear that my loads will be
long coming."

[FN#36] One of the many formulas of polite refusal.

[FN#37] Each bazar, in a large city like Damascus, has its tall
and heavy wooden doors which are locked every evening and opened
in the morning by the Ghafir or guard. The "silver key," however,
always lets one in.

[FN#38] Arab. "Wa la Kabbata hamiyah," a Cairene vulgarism
meaning, "There came nothing to profit him nor to rid the people
of him."

[FN#39] Arab. "Kammir," i.e. brown it before the fire, toast it.

[FN#40] It is insinuated that he had lied till he himself
believed the lie to be truth--not an uncommon process, I may
remark.

[FN#41] Arab. "Rijal"=the Men, equivalent to the Walis, Saints or
Santons; with perhaps an allusion to the Rijal al-Ghayb, the
Invisible Controls concerning whom I have quoted Herklots in vol.
ii. 211.

[FN#42] A saying attributed to Al-Hariri (Lane). It is good
enough to be his: the Persians say, "Cut not down the tree thou
plantedst," and the idea is universal throughout the East.

[FN#43] A quotation from Al-Hariri (Ass. of the Badawin). Ash'ab
(ob. A.H. 54), a Medinite servant of Caliph Osman, was proverbial
for greed and sanguine, Micawber-like expectation of "windfalls."
The Scholiast Al-Sharishi (of Xeres) describes him in
Theophrastic style. He never saw a man put hand to pocket without
expecting a present, or a funeral go by without hoping for a
legacy, or a bridal procession without preparing his own house,
hoping they might bring the bride to him by mistake. * * * When
asked if he knew aught greedier than himself he said "Yes; a
sheep I once kept upon my terrace-roof seeing a rainbow mistook
it for a rope of hay and jumping to seize it broke its neck!"
Hence "Ash'ab's sheep" became a by-word (Preston tells the tale
in full, p. 288).

[FN#44] i.e. "Show a miser money and hold him back, if you can."

[FN#45] He wants L40,000 to begin with.

[FN#46] i.e. Arab. "Sabihat al-'urs" the morning after the
wedding. See vol. i. 269.

[FN#47] Another sign of modern composition as in Kamar al-Zaman
II.

[FN#48] Arab. "Al-Jink" (from Turk.) are boys and youths mostly
Jews, Armenians, Greeks and Turks, who dress in woman's dress
with long hair braided. Lane (M. E. chapts. xix. and xxv.) gives
same account of the customs of the "Gink" (as the Egyptians call
them) but cannot enter into details concerning these catamites.
Respectable Moslems often employ them to dance at festivals in
preference to the Ghawazi-women, a freak of Mohammedan decorum.
When they grow old they often preserve their costume, and a
glance at them makes a European's blood run cold.

[FN#49] Lane translates this, "May Allah and the Rijal retaliate
upon thy temple!"

[FN#50] Arab. "Ya aba 'l-lithamayn," addressed to his member.
Lathm the root means kissing or breaking; so he would say, "O
thou who canst take her maidenhead whilst my tongue does away
with the virginity of her mouth." "He breached the citadel"
(which is usually square) "in its four corners" signifying that
he utterly broke it down.

[FN#51] A mystery to the Author of Proverbs (xxx. 18-19),

There be three things which are too wondrous for me,
The way of an eagle in the air;
The way of a snake upon a rock;
And the way of a man with a maid.

[FN#52] Several women have described the pain to me as much
resembling the drawing of a tooth.

[FN#53] As we should say, "play fast and loose."

[FN#54] Arab. "Nahi-ka" lit.=thy prohibition but idiomatically
used=let it suffice thee!

[FN#55] A character-sketch like that of Princess Dunya makes
ample amends for a book full of abuse of women. And yet the
superficial say that none of the characters have much personal
individuality.

[FN#56] This is indeed one of the touches of nature which makes
all the world kin.

[FN#57] As we are in Tartary "Arabs" here means plundering
nomades, like the Persian "Iliyat" and other shepherd races.

[FN#58] The very cruelty of love which hates nothing so much as a
rejected lover. The Princess, be it noted, is not supposed to be
merely romancing, but speaking with the second sight, the
clairvoyance, of perfect affection. Men seem to know very little
upon this subject, though every one has at times been more or
less startled by the abnormal introvision and divination of
things hidden which are the property and prerogative of perfect
love.

[FN#59] The name of the Princess meaning "The World," not unusual
amongst Moslem women.

[FN#60] Another pun upon his name, "Ma'aruf."

[FN#61] Arab. "Naka," the mound of pure sand which delights the
eye of the Badawi leaving a town. See vol. i. 217, for the lines
and explanation in Night cmlxiv. vol. ix. p. 250.

[FN#62] Euphemistic: "I will soon fetch thee food." To say this
bluntly might have brought misfortune.

[FN#63] Arab. "Kafr"=a village in Egypt and Syria e.g. Capernaum
(Kafr Nahum).

[FN#64] He has all the bonhomie of the Cairene and will do a
kindness whenever he can.

[FN#65] i.e. the Father of Prosperities: pron. Aboosa'adat; as in
the Tale of Hasan of Bassorah.

[FN#66] Koran lxxxix. "The Daybreak" which also mentions Thamud
and Pharaoh.

[FN#67] In Egypt the cheapest and poorest of food, never seen at
a hotel table d'hote.

[FN#68] The beautiful girls who guard ensorcelled hoards: See
vol. vi. 109.

[FN#69] Arab. "Asakir," the ornaments of litters, which are
either plain balls of metal or tapering cones based on crescents
or on balls and crescents. See in Lane (M. E. chapt. xxiv.) the
sketch of the Mahmal.

[FN#70] Arab. "Amm"=father's brother, courteously used for
"father-in-law," which suggests having slept with his daughter,
and which is indecent in writing. Thus by a pleasant fiction the
husband represents himself as having married his first cousin.

[FN#71] i.e. a calamity to the enemy: see vol. ii. 87 and passim.

[FN#72] Both texts read "Asad" (lion) and Lane accepts it: there
is no reason to change it for "Hasid" (Envier), the Lion being
the Sultan of the Beasts and the most majestic.

[FN#73] The Cairene knew his fellow Cairene and was not to be
taken in by him.

[FN#74] Arab. "Hizam": Lane reads "Khizam"=a nose-ring for which
see appendix to Lane's M. E. The untrained European eye dislikes
these decorations and there is certainly no beauty in the hoops
which Hindu women insert through the nostrils, camel-fashion, as
if to receive the cord-acting bridle. But a drop-pearl hanging to
the septum is at least as pretty as the heavy pendants by which
some European women lengthen their ears.

[FN#75] Arab. "Shamta," one of the many names of wine, the
"speckled" alluding to the bubbles which dance upon the freshly
filled cup.

[FN#76] i.e. in the cask. These "merry quips" strongly suggest
the dismal toasts of our not remote ancestors.

[FN#77] Arab. "A'laj" plur. of "'Ilj" and rendered by Lane "the
stout foreign infidels." The next line alludes to the cupbearer
who was generally a slave and a non-Moslem.

[FN#78] As if it were a bride. See vol. vii. 198. The stars of
Jauza (Gemini) are the cupbearer's eyes.

[FN#79] i.e. light-coloured wine.

[FN#80] The usual homage to youth and beauty.

[FN#81] Alluding to the cup.

[FN#82] Here Abu Nowas whose name always ushers in some
abomination alluded to the "Ghulamiyah" or girl dressed like boy
to act cupbearer. Civilisation has everywhere the same devices
and the Bordels of London and Paris do not ignore the "she-boy,"
who often opens the door.

[FN#83] Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz, son of Al-Mu'tazz bi 'llah, the
13th Abbaside, and great-great-grandson of Harun al-Rashid. He
was one of the most renowned poets of the third century (A.H.)
and died A.D. 908, strangled by the partisans of his nephew
Al-Muktadir bi 'llah, 18th Abbaside.

[FN#84] Jazirat ibn Omar, an island and town on the Tigris north
of Mosul. "Some versions of the poem, from which these verses are
quoted, substitute El-Mutireh, a village near Samara (a town on
the Tigris, 60 miles north of Baghdad), for El-Jezireh, i.e.
Jeziret ibn Omar." (Payne.)

[FN#85] The Convent of Abdun on the east bank of the Tigris
opposite the Jezirah was so called from a statesman who caused it
to be built. For a variant of these lines see Ibn Khallikan, vol.
ii. 42; here we miss "the shady groves of Al-Matirah."

[FN#86] Arab. "Ghurrah" the white blaze on a horse's brow. In Ibn
Khallikan the bird is the lark.

[FN#87] Arab. "Tay'i"=thirsty used with Jay'i=hungry.

[FN#88] Lit. "Kohl'd with Ghunj" for which we have no better word
than "coquetry." But see vol. v. 80. It corresponds with the
Latin crissare for women and cevere for men.

[FN#89] i.e. gold-coloured wine, as the Vino d'Oro.

[FN#90] Compare the charming song of Abu Mijan translated from
the German of Dr. Weil in Bohn's Edit. of Ockley (p. 149),

When the Death-angel cometh mine eyes to close,
Dig my grave 'mid the vines on the hill's fair side;
For though deep in earth may my bones repose,
The juice of the grape shall their food provide.
Ah, bury me not in a barren land,
Or Death will appear to me dread and drear!
While fearless I'll wait what he hath in hand I
An the scent of the vineyard my spirit cheer.

The glorious old drinker!

[FN#91] Arab. "Rub'a al-Kharab" in Ibn al-Wardi Central Africa
south of the Nile-sources, one of the richest regions in the
world. Here it prob. alludes to the Rub'a al-Khali or Great
Arabian Desert: for which see Night dclxxvi. In rhetoric it is
opposed to the "Rub'a Maskun," or populated fourth of the world,
the rest being held to be ocean.

[FN#92] This is the noble resignation of the Moslem. What a
dialogue there would have been in a European book between man and
devil!

[FN#93] Arab. "Al-'iddah" the period of four months and ten days
which must elapse before she could legally marry again. But this
was a palpable wile: she was not sure of her husband's death and
he had not divorced her; so that although a "grass widow," a
"Strohwitwe" as the Germans say, she could not wed again either
with or without interval.

[FN#94] Here the silence is of cowardice and the passage is a
fling at the "timeserving" of the Olema, a favourite theme, like
"banging the bishops" amongst certain Westerns.

[FN#95] Arab. "Umm al-raas," the poll, crown of the head, here
the place where a calamity coming down from heaven would first
alight.

[FN#96] From Al-Hariri (Lane): the lines are excellent.

[FN#97] When the charming Princess is so ready at the voie de
faits, the reader will understand how common is such energetic
action among women of lower degree. The "fair sex" in Egypt has a
horrible way of murdering men, especially husbands, by tying them
down and tearing out the testicles. See Lane M. E. chapt. xiii.

[FN#98] Arab. "Sijn al-Ghazab," the dungeons appropriated to the
worst of criminals where they suffer penalties far worse than
hanging or guillotining.

[FN#99] According to some modern Moslems Munkar and Nakir visit
the graves of Infidels (non-Moslems) and Bashshir and Mubashshir
("Givers of glad tidings") those of Mohammedans. Petis de la
Croix (Les Mille et un Jours vol. iii. 258) speaks of the
"Zoubanya," black angels who torture the damned under their chief
Dabilah.

[FN#100] Very simple and pathetic is this short sketch of the
noble-minded Princess's death.

[FN#101] In sign of dismissal (vol. iv. 62) I have noted that
"throwing the kerchief" is not an Eastern practice: the idea
probably arose from the Oriental practice of sending presents in
richly embroidered napkins and kerchiefs.

[FN#102] Curious to say both Lane and Payne omit this passage
which appears in both texts (Mac. and Bul.). The object is
evidently to prepare the reader for the ending by reverting to
the beginning of the tale; and its prolixity has its effect as in
the old Romances of Chivalry from Amadis of Ghaul to the Seven
Champions of Christendom. If it provoke impatience, it also
heightens expectation; "it is like the long elm-avenues of our
forefathers; we wish ourselves at the end; but we know that at
the end there is something great."

[FN#103] Arab. "ala malakay bayti 'l-rahah;" on the two slabs at
whose union are the round hole and longitudinal slit. See vol. i.
221.

[FN#104] Here the exclamation wards off the Evil Eye from the
Sword and the wearer: Mr. Payne notes, "The old English
exclamation 'Cock's 'ill!' (i.e., God's will, thus corrupted for
the purpose of evading the statute of 3 Jac. i. against profane
swearing) exactly corresponds to the Arabic"--with a difference,
I add.

[FN#105] Arab. "Mustahakk"=deserving (Lane) or worth (Payne) the
cutting.

[FN#106] Arab. "Mashhad" the same as "Shahid"=the upright stones
at the head and foot of the grave. Lane mistranslates, "Made for
her a funeral procession."

[FN#107] These lines have occurred before. I quote Lane.

[FN#108] There is nothing strange in such sudden elevations
amongst Moslems and even in Europe we still see them
occasionally. The family in the East, however humble, is a model
and miniature of the state, and learning is not always necessary
to wisdom.

[FN#109] Arab. "Farid" which may also mean "union-pearl."

[FN#110] Trebutien (iii. 497) cannot deny himself the pleasure of
a French touch making the King reply, "C'est assez; qu'on lui
coupe la tete, car ces dernieres histoires surtout m'ont cause un
ennui mortel." This reading is found in some of the MSS.

[FN#111] After this I borrow from the Bresl. Edit. inserting
passages from the Mac. Edit.

[FN#112] i.e. whom he intended to marry with regal ceremony.

[FN#113] The use of coloured powders in sign of holiday-making is
not obsolete in India. See Herklots for the use of "Huldee"
(Haldi) or turmeric-powder, pp. 64-65.

[FN#114] Many Moslem families insist upon this before giving
their girls in marriage, and the practice is still popular
amongst many Mediterranean peoples.

[FN#115] i.e. Sumatran.

[FN#116] i.e. Alexander, according to the Arabs; see vol. v. 252.

[FN#117] These lines are in vol. i. 217.

[FN#118] I repeat the lines from vol. i. 218.

[FN#119] All these coquetries require as much inventiveness as a
cotillon; the text alludes to fastening the bride's tresses
across her mouth giving her the semblance of beard and
mustachios.

[FN#120] Repeated from vol. i. 218.

[FN#121] Repeated from vol. i. 218.

[FN#122] See vol. i. 219.

[FN#123] Arab. Sawad=the blackness of the hair.

[FN#124] Because Easterns build, but never repair.

[FN#125]i.e. God only knows if it be true or not.

[FN#126] Ouseley's Orient. Collect. I, vii.

[FN#127] This three-fold distribution occurred to me many years
ago and when far beyond reach of literary authorities, I was,
therefore, much pleased to find the subjoined three-fold
classification with minor details made by Baron von Hammer-
Purgstall (Preface to Contes Inedits etc. of G. S. Trebutien,
Paris, mdcccxxviii.) (1) The older stories which serve as a base
to the collection, such as the Ten Wazirs ("Malice of Women") and
Voyages of Sindbad (?) which may date from the days of Mahommed.
These are distributed into two sub-classes; (a) the marvellous
and purely imaginative (e.g. Jamasp and the Serpent Queen) and
(b) the realistic mixed with instructive fables and moral
instances. (2) The stories and anecdotes peculiarly Arab,
relating to the Caliphs and especially to Al- Rashid; and (3) The
tales of Egyptian provenance, which mostly date from the times of
the puissant "Aaron the Orthodox." Mr. John Payne (Villon
Translation vol. ix. pp. 367-73) distributes the stories roughly
under five chief heads as follows: (1) Histories or long
Romances, as King Omar bin Al-Nu'man (2) Anecdotes or short
stories dealing with historical personages and with incidents and
adventures belonging to the every-day life of the period to which
they refer: e.g. those concerning Al-Rashid and Hatim of Tayy.
(3) Romances and romantic fictions comprising three different
kinds of tales; (a) purely romantic and supernatural; (b)
fictions and nouvelles with or without a basis and background of
historical fact and (c) Contes fantastiques. (4) Fables and
Apologues; and (5) Tales proper, as that of Tawaddud.

[FN#128] Journal Asiatique (Paris, Dondoy-Dupre, 1826) "Sur
l'origine des Mille et une Nuits."

[FN#129] Baron von Hammer-Purgstall's chateau is near Styrian
Graz, and, when I last saw his library, it had been left as it
was at his death.

[FN#130] At least, in Trebutien's Preface, pp. xxx.-xxxi.,
reprinted from the Journ. Asiat. August, 1839: for corrections
see De Sacy's "Memoire." p. 39.

[FN#131] Vol. iv. pp. 89-90, Paris mdccclxv. Trebutien quotes,
chapt. lii. (for lxviii.), one of Von Hammer's manifold
inaccuracies.

[FN#132] Alluding to Iram the Many-columned, etc.

[FN#133] In Trebutien "Siha," for which the Editor of the Journ.
Asiat. and De Sacy rightly read "Sabil-ha."

[FN#134] For this some MSS. have "Fahlawiyah" = Pehlevi

[FN#135] i.e. Lower Roman, Grecian, of Asia Minor, etc., the word is still applied throughout
Marocco, Algiers and Northern Africa to Europeans in general.

[FN#136] De Sacy (Dissertation prefixed to the Bourdin Edition)
notices the "thousand and one," and in his Memoire "a thousand:"
Von Hammer's MS. reads a thousand, and the French translation a
thousand and one. Evidently no stress can be laid upon the
numerals.

[FN#137] These names are noticed in my vol. i. 14, and vol. ii.
3. According to De Sacy some MSS. read "History of the Wazir and
his Daughters."

[FN#138] Lane (iii. 735) has Wizreh or Wardeh which guide us to
Wird Khan, the hero of the tale. Von Hammer's MS. prefers
Djilkand (Jilkand), whence probably the Isegil or Isegild of
Langles (1814), and the Tseqyl of De Sacy (1833). The mention of
"Simas" (Lane's Shemmas) identifies it with "King Jali'ad of
Hind," etc. (Night dcccxcix.) Writing in A.D. 961 Hamzah Isfahani
couples with the libri Sindbad and Schimas, the libri Baruc and
Barsinas, four nouvelles out of nearly seventy. See also Al-
Makri'zi's Khitat or Topography (ii. 485) for a notice of the
Thousand or Thousand and one Nights.

[FN#139] alluding to the "Seven Wazirs" alias "The Malice of
Women" (Night dlxxviii.), which Von Hammer and many others have
carelessly confounded with Sindbad the Seaman We find that two
tales once separate have now been incorporated with The Nights,
and this suggests the manner of its composition by accretion.

[FN#140] Arabised by a most "elegant" stylist, Abdullah ibn al-
Mukaffa (the shrivelled), a Persian Guebre named Roz-bih (Day
good), who islamised and was barbarously put to death in A.H. 158
(= 775) by command of the Caliph al-Mansur (Al-Siyuti p. 277).
"He also translated from Pehlevi the book entitled Sekiseran,
containing the annals of Isfandiyar, the death of Rustam, and
other episodes of old Persic history," says Al-Mas'udi chapt.
xxi. See also Ibn Khallikan (1, 43) who dates the murder in A.H.
142 (= 759-60).

[FN#141] "Notice sur Le Schah-namah de Firdoussi," a posthumous
publication of M. de Wallenbourg, Vienna, 1810, by M. A. de
Bianchi. In sect. iii. I shall quote another passage of Al-
Mas'udi (viii. 175) in which I find a distinct allusion to the
"Gaboriaudetective tales" of The Nights.

[FN#142] Here Von Hammer shows his customary inexactitude. As we
learn from Ibn Khallikan (Fr. Tr. I. 630), the author's name was
Abu al-Faraj Mohammed ibn Is'hak pop. known as Ibn Ali Ya'kub al-
Warrak, the bibliographe, librarian, copyist. It was published
(vol. i Leipzig, 1871) under the editorship of G. Fluegel, J.
Roediger, and A. Mueller.

[FN#143] See also the Journ. Asiat., August, 1839, and Lane iii.
736-37

[FN#144] Called "Afsanah" by Al-Mas'udi, both words having the
same sense = tale story, parable, "facetiae." Moslem fanaticism
renders it by the Arab "Khurafah" = silly fables, and in
Hindostan it = a jest: "Bat-ki bat, khurafat-ki khurafat" (a word
for a word, a joke for a joke).

[FN#145] Al-Mas'udi (chapt. xxi.) makes this a name of the Mother
of Queen Humai or Humayah, for whom see below.

[FN#146] The preface of a copy of the Shah-nameh (by Firdausi,
ob. A.D. 1021), collated in A.H. 829 by command of Bayisunghur
Bahadur Khan (Atkinson p. x.), informs us that the Hazar Afsanah
was composed for or by Queen Humai whose name is Arabised to
Humayah This Persian Marguerite de Navarre was daughter and wife
to (Ardashir) Bahman, sixth Kayanian and surnamed Diraz-dast
(Artaxerxes Longimanus), Abu Sasan from his son, the Eponymus of
the Sassanides who followed the Kayanians when these were
extinguished by Alexander of Macedon. Humai succeeded her husband
as seventh Queen, reigned thirty-two years and left the crown to
her son Dara or Darab 1st = Darius Codomanus. She is better known
to Europe (through Herodotus) as Parysatis = Peri-zadeh or the
Fairy-born.

[FN#147] i.e. If Allah allow me to say sooth.

[FN#148] i.e. of silly anecdotes: here speaks the good Moslem!

[FN#149] No. 622 Sept. 29, '39, a review of Torrens which
appeared shortly after Lane's vol. i. The author quotes from a
MS. in the British Museum, No. 7334 fol. 136.

[FN#150] There are many Spaniards of this name: Mr. Payne (ix.
302) proposes Abu Ja'afar ibn Abd al-Hakk al-Khazraji, author of
a History of the Caliphs about the middle of the twelfth century.

[FN#151] The well-known Rauzah or Garden-island, of old Al-
Sana'ah (Al-Mas'udi chapt. xxxi.) which is more than once noticed
in The Nights. The name of the pavilion Al-Haudaj = a camel-
litter, was probably intended to flatter the Badawi girl.

[FN#152] He was the Seventh Fatimite Caliph of Egypt: regn. A.H.
495-524 (= 1101 1129).

[FN#153] Suggesting a private pleasaunce in Al-Rauzah which has
ever been and is still a succession of gardens.

[FN#154] The writer in The Athenaeum calls him Ibn Miyvah, and
adds that the Badawiyah wrote to her cousin certain verses
complaining of her thraldom, which the youth answered abusing the
Caliph. Al-Amir found the correspondence and ordered Ibn Miyah's
tongue to be cut out, but he saved himself by a timely flight.

[FN#155] In Night dccclxxxv. we have the passage "He was a wily
thief: none could avail against his craft as he were Abu Mohammed
Al-Battal": the word etymologically means The Bad; but see infra.

[FN#156] Amongst other losses which Orientals have sustained by
the death of Rogers Bey, I may mention his proposed translation
of Al-Makrizi's great topographical work.

[FN#157] The name appears only in a later passage.

[FN#158] Mr. Payne notes (viii. 137) "apparently some famous
brigand of the time" (of Charlemagne). But the title may signify
The Brave, and the tale may be much older.

[FN#159] In his "Memoire sur l'origine du Recueil des Contes
intitule Les Mille et une Nuits" (Mem. d'Hist. et de Litter.
Orientale, extrait des tomes ix., et x. des Memoires de l'Inst.
Royal Acad. des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Paris, Imprimerie
Royale, 1833). He read the Memoir before the Royal Academy on
July 31, 1829. Also in his Dissertation "Sur les Mille et une
Nuits" (pp. i. viii.) prefixed to the Bourdin Edit. When first
the Arabist in Europe landed at Alexandria he could not exchange
a word with the people the same is told of Golius the
lexicographer at Tunis.

[FN#160] Lane, Nights ii. 218.

[FN#161] This origin had been advocated a decade of years before
by Shaykh Ahmad al-Shirawani; Editor of the Calc. text (1814-18):
his Persian preface opines that the author was an Arabic speaking
Syrian who designedly wrote in a modern and conversational style,
none of the purest withal, in order to instruct non-Arabists.
Here we find the genus "Professor" pure and simple.

[FN#162] Such an assertion makes us enquire, Did De Sacy ever
read through The Nights in Arabic?

[FN#163] Dr. Jonathan Scott's "translation" vi. 283.

[FN#164] For a note on this world-wide Tale see vol. i. 52.

[FN#165] In the annotated translation by Mr. I. G. N. Keith-
Falconer, Cambridge University Press. I regret to see the
wretched production called the "Fables of Pilpay" in the "Chandos
Classics" (London, F. Warne). The words are so mutilated that few
will recognize them, e.g. Carchenas for Kar-shinas, Chaschmanah
for Chashmey-e-Mah (Fountain of the Moon), etc.

[FN#166] Article Arabia in Encyclop. Brit., 9th Edit., p. 263,
colt 2. I do not quite understand Mr. Palgrave, but presume that
his "other version" is the Bresl. Edit., the MS. of which was
brought from Tunis; see its Vorwort (vol. i. p. 3).

[FN#167] There are three distinct notes according to De Sacy
(Mem., p. 50). The first (in MS. 1508) says "This blessed book
was read by the weak slave, etc. Wahabah son of Rizkallah the
Katib (secretary, scribe) of Tarabulus al-Sham (Syrian Tripoli),
who prayeth long life for its owner (li maliki-h). This tenth day
of the month First Rabi'a A.H. 955 (= 1548)." A similar note by
the same Wahabah occurs at the end of vol. ii. (MS. 1507) dated
A.H. 973 (= 1565) and a third (MS. 1506) is undated. Evidcntly M.
Caussin has given undue weight to such evidence. For further
information see "Tales of the East" to which is prefixed an
Introductory Dissertation (vol. i. pp. 24-26, note) by Henry
Webber, Esq., Edinburgh, 1812, in 3 vols.

[FN#168] "Notice sur les douze manuscrits connus des Milles et
une Nuits, qui existent en Europe." Von Hammer in Trebutien,
Notice, vol. i.

[FN#169] Printed from the MS. of Major Turner Macan, Editor of
the Shahnamah: he bought it from the heirs of Mr. Salt, the
historic Consul-General of England in Egypt and after Macan's
death it became the property of the now extinct Allens, then of
Leadenhall Street (Torrens, Preface, i.). I have vainly enquired
about what became of it.

[FN#170] The short paper by "P. R." in the Gentleman's Magazine
(Feb. 19th, 1799, vol. lxix. p. 61) tells us that MSS. of The
Nights were scarce at Aleppo and that he found only two vols.
(280 Nights) which he had great difficulty in obtaining leave to
copy. He also noticed (in 1771) a MS., said to be complete, in
the Vatican and another in the "King's Library" (Bibliotheque
Nationale), Paris.

[FN#171] Aleppo has been happy in finding such monographers as
Russell and Maundrell while poor Damascus fell into the hands of
Mr. Missionary Porter, and suffered accordingly.

[FN#172] Vol. vi. Appendix, p.452.

[FN#173] The numbers, however, vary with the Editions of Galland:
some end the formula with Night cxcvii; others with the ccxxxvi.
: I adopt that of the De Sacy Edition.

[FN#174] Contes Persans, suivis des Contes Turcs. Paris; Bechet
Aine, 1826.

[FN#175] In the old translation we have "eighteen hundred years
since the prophet Solomon died," (B.C. 975) = A.D. 825.

[FN#176] Meaning the era of the Seleucides. Dr. Jonathan Scott
shows (vol. ii. 324) that A.H. 653 and A.D. 1255 would correspond
with 1557 of that epoch; so that the scribe has here made a
little mistake of 5,763 years. Ex uno disce.

[FN#177] The Saturday Review (Jan. 2nd '86) writes, "Captain
Burton has fallen into a mistake by not distinguishing between
the names of the by no means identical Caliphs Al-Muntasir and
Al-Mustansir." Quite true: it was an ugly confusion of the
melancholy madman and parricide with one of the best and wisest
of the Caliphs. I can explain (not extenuate) my mistake only by
a misprint in Al-Siyuti (p. 554).

[FN#178] In the Galland MS. and the Bresl. Edit. (ii. 253), we
find the Barber saying that the Caliph (Al-Mustansir) was at that
time (yaumaizin) in Baghdad, and this has been held to imply that
the Caliphate had fallen. But such conjecture is evidently based
upon insufficient grounds.

[FN#179] De Sacy makes the "Kalandar" order originate in A.D.
1150, but the Shaykh Sharif bu Ali Kalandar died in A.D. 1323-24.
In Sind the first Kalandar, Osman-i-Marwandi surnamed Lal
Shahbaz, the Red Goshawk, from one of his miracles, died and was
buried at Sehwan in A D. 1274: see my "History of Sindh" chapt.
viii. for details. The dates therefore run wild.

[FN#180] In this same tale H. H. Wilson observes that the title
of Sultan of Egypt was not assumed before the middle of the xiith
century.

[FN#181] Popularly called Vidyanagar of the Narsingha.

[FN#182] Time-measurers are of very ancient date. The Greeks had
clepsydrae and the Romans gnomons, portable and ring-shaped,
besides large standing town-dials as at Aquileja and San Sabba
near Trieste. The "Saracens" were the perfecters of the
clepsydra: Bosseret (p. 16) and the Chronicon Turense (Beckmann
ii. 340 et seq.) describe the water-clock sent by Al-Rashid to
Karl the Great as a kind of "cockoo-clock." Twelve doors in the
dial opened successively and little balls dropping on brazen
bells told the hour: at noon a dozen mounted knights paraded the
face and closed the portals. Trithonius mentions an horologium
presented in A.D. 1232 by Al-Malik al-Kamil the Ayyubite Soldan
to the Emperor Frederick II: like the Strasbourg and Padua clocks
it struck the hours, told the day, month and year, showed the
phases of the moon, and registered the position of the sun and
the planets. Towards the end of the fifteenth century Gaspar
Visconti mentions in a sonnet the watch proper (certi orologii
piccioli e portativi); and the "animated eggs" of Nurembourg
became famous. The earliest English watch (Sir Ashton Lever's)
dates from 1541: and in 1544 the portable chronometer became
common in France.

[FN#183] An illustrated History of Arms and Armour etc. (p. 59);
London: Bell and Sons, 1877. The best edition is the Guide des
Amateurs d'Armes, Paris: Renouard, 1879.

[FN#184] Chapt. iv. Dr. Gustav Oppert "On the Weapons etc. of the
Ancient Hindus;" London: Truebner and Co., 1880. :

[FN#185] I have given other details on this subject in pp. 631-
637 of "Camoens, his Life and his Lusiads."

[FN#186] The morbi venerei amongst the Romans are obscure because
"whilst the satirists deride them the physicians are silent."
Celsus, however, names (De obscenarum partium vitiis, lib.
xviii.) inflammatio coleorum (swelled testicle), tubercula
glandem (warts on the glans penis), cancri carbunculi (chancre or
shanker) and a few others. The rubigo is noticed as a lues
venerea by Servius in Virg. Georg.

[FN#187] According to David Forbes, the Peruvians believed that
syphilis arose from connection of man and alpaca; and an old law
forbade bachelors to keep these animals in the house. Francks
explains by the introduction of syphilis wooden figures found in
the Chinchas guano; these represented men with a cord round the
neck or a serpent devouring the genitals.

[FN#188] They appeared before the gates of Paris in the summer of
1427, not "about July, 1422": in Eastern Europe, however, they
date from a much earlier epoch. Sir J. Gilbert's famous picture
has one grand fault, the men walk and the women ride: in real
life the reverse would be the case.

[FN#189] Rabelais ii. c. 30.

[FN#190] I may be allowed to note that syphilis does not confine
itself to man: a charger infected with it was pointed out to me
at Baroda by my late friend, Dr. Arnott (18th Regiment, Bombay
N.I.) and Tangier showed me some noticeable cases of this hippic
syphilis, which has been studied in Hungary. Eastern peoples have
a practice of "passing on" venereal and other diseases, and
transmission is supposed to cure the patient; for instance a
virgin heals (and catches) gonorrhoea. Syphilis varies greatly
with climate. In Persia it is said to be propagated without
contact: in Abyssinia it is often fatal and in Egypt it is
readily cured by sand baths and sulphur-unguents. Lastly in lands
like Unyamwezi, where mercurials are wholly unknown, I never saw
caries of the nasal or facial bones.

[FN#191] For another account of the transplanter and the
casuistical questions to which coffee gave rise, see my "First
Footsteps in East Africa" (p. 76).

[FN#192] The first mention of coffee proper (not of Kahwah or old wine in vol. ii. 260) is in Night
cdxxvi. vol. v. 169, where the coffee-maker is called Kahwahjiyyah, a mongrel term showing the
modern date of the passage in Ali the Cairene. As the work advances notices become thicker, e.g.
in Night dccclxvi. where Ali Nur al-Din and the Frank King's daughter seems to be a modernisation
of the story "Ala al-Din Abu al-Shamat" (vol. iv. 29); and in Abu Kir and Abu Sir (Nights cmxxx.
and cmxxxvi.) where coffee is drunk with sherbet after present fashion. The use culminates in
Kamar al-Zaman II. where it is mentioned six times (Nights cmlxvi. cmlxx. cmlxxi. twice; cmlxxiv.
and cmlxxvii.), as being drunk after the dawn-breakfast and following the meal as a matter of
course. The last notices are in Abdullah bin Fazil, Nights cmlxxviii. and cmlxxix.

[FN#193] It has been suggested that Japanese tobacco is an
indigenous growth and sundry modern travellers in China contend
that the potato and the maize, both white and yellow, have there
been cultivated from time immemorial.

[FN#194] For these see my "City of the Saints," p. 136.

[FN#195] Lit. meaning smoke: hence the Arabic "Dukhan," with the
same signification.

[FN#196] Unhappily the book is known only by name: for years I have vainly troubled friends and
correspondents to hunt for a copy. Yet I am sanguine enough to think that some day we shall
succeed: Mr. Sidney Churchill, of Teheran, is ever on the look-out.

[FN#197] In Section 3 I shall suggest that this tale also is mentioned
by Al-Mas'udi.

[FN#198] I have extracted it from many books, especially from
Hoeffer's Biographie Generale, Paris, Firmin Didot, mdccclvii.;
Biographie Universelle, Paris, Didot, 1816, etc. etc. All are
taken from the work of M. de Boze, his "Bozzy."

[FN#199] As learning a language is an affair of pure memory,
almost without other exercise of the mental faculties, it should
be assisted by the ear and the tongue as well as the eyes. I
would invariably make pupils talk, during lessons, Latin and
Greek, no matter how badly at first; but unfortunately I should
have to begin with teaching the pedants who, as a class, are far
more unwilling and unready to learn than are those they teach.

[FN#200] The late Dean Stanley was notably trapped by the wily
Greek who had only political purposes in view. In religions as a
rule the minimum of difference breeds the maximum of disputation,
dislike and disgust.

[FN#201] See in Trebutien (Avertissement iii.) how Baron von
Hammer escaped drowning by the blessing of The Nights.

[FN#202] He signs his name to the Discours pour servir de
Preface.

[FN#203] I need not trouble the reader with their titles, which
fill up nearly a column and a half in M. Hoeffer. His collection
of maxims from Arabic, Persian and Turkish authors appeared in
English in 1695.

[FN#204] Galland's version was published in 1704-1717 in 12 vols.
12mo., (Hoeffer's Biographie; Grasse's Tresor de Livres rares and
Encyclop. Britannica, ixth Edit.)

[FN#205] See also Leigh Hunt "The Book of the Thousand Nights and
one Night," etc., etc. London and Westminster Review Art. iii.,
No. 1xiv. mentioned in Lane, iii., 746.

[FN#206] Edition of 1856 vol. xv.

[FN#207] To France England also owes her first translation of the
Koran, a poor and mean version by Andrew Ross of that made from
the Arabic (No. iv.) by Andre du Reyer, Consul de France for
Egypt. It kept the field till ousted in 1734 by the learned
lawyer George Sale whose conscientious work, including
Preliminary Discourse and Notes (4to London), brought him the
ill-fame of having "turned Turk."

[FN#208] Catalogue of Printed Books, 1884, p. 159, col. i. I am
ashamed to state this default in the British Museum, concerning
which Englishmen are apt to boast and which so carefully mulcts
modern authors in unpaid copies. But it is only a slight
specimen of the sad state of art and literature in England,
neglected equally by Conservatives, Liberals and Radicals. What
has been done for the endowment of research? What is our
equivalent for the Prix de Rome? Since the death of Dr. Birch,
who can fairly deal with a Demotic papyrus? Contrast the Societe
Anthropologique and its palace and professors in Paris with our
"Institute" au second in a corner of Hanover Square and its
skulls in the cellar!

[FN#209] Art. vii. pp. 139-168, "On the Arabian Nights and
translators, Weil, Torrens and Lane (vol. i.) with the Essai of
A. Loisseleur Deslongchamps." The Foreign Quarterly Review, vol.
xxiv., Oct. 1839-Jan. 1840. London, Black and Armstrong, 1840.

[FN#210] Introduction to his Collection "Tales of the East," 3
vols. Edinburgh, 1812. He was the first to point out the
resemblance between the introductory adventures of Shahryar and
Shah Zaman and those of Astolfo and Giacondo in the Orlando
Furioso (Canto xxviii.). M. E. Leveque in Les Mythes et les
Legendes de l'Inde et la Perse (Paris, 1880) gives French
versions of the Arabian and Italian narratives, side by side in
p. 543 ff. (Clouston).

[FN#211] Notitiae Codicis MI. Noctium. Dr. Pusey studied Arabic
to familiarise himself with Hebrew, and was very different from
his predecessor at Oxford in my day, who, when applied to for
instruction in Arabic, refused to lecture except to a class.

[FN#212] This nephew was the author of "Recueil des Rits et
Ceremonies des Pilgrimages de La Mecque," etc. etc. Paris and
Amsterdam, 1754, in 12mo.

[FN#213] The concluding part did not appear, I have said, till
1717: his "Comes et Fables Indiennes de Bidpai et de Lokman,"
were first printed in 1724, 2 vols. in 12mo. Hence, I presume,
Lowndes' mistake.

[FN#214] M. Caussin (de Perceval), Professeur of Arabic at the
Imperial Library, who edited Galland in 1806, tells us that he
found there only two MSS., both imperfect. The first (Galland's)
is in three small vols. 4to. each of about pp. 140. The stories
are more detailed and the style, more correct than that of other
MS., is hardly intelligible to many Arabs, whence he presumes
that it contains the original (an early?) text which has been
altered and vitiated. The date is supposed to be circa A.D.
1600. The second Parisian copy is a single folio of some 800
pages, and is divided into 29 sections and cmv. Nights, the last
two sections being reversed. The MS. is very imperfect, the
12th, 15th, 16th, 18th, 20th, 21st-23rd, 25th and 27th parts are
wanting; the sections which follow the 17th contain sundry
stories repeated, there are anecdotes from Bidpai, the Ten Wazirs
and other popular works, and lacunae everywhere abound.

[FN#215] Mr. Payne (ix. 264) makes eleven, including the Histoire
du Dormeur eveille = The Sleeper and the Waker, which he
afterwards translated from the Bresl. Edit. in his "Tales from
the Arabic" (vol. i. 5, etc.)

[FN#216] Mr. E. J. W. Gibb informs me that he has come upon this
tale in a Turkish storybook, the same from which he drew his
"Jewad."

[FN#217] A litterateur lately assured me that Nos. ix. and x.
have been found in the Bibliotheque Nationale (du Roi) Paris; but
two friends were kind enough to enquire and ascertained that it
was a mistake. Such Persianisms as Codadad (Khudadad), Baba
Cogia (Khwajah) and Peri (fairy) suggest a Persic MS.

[FN#218] Vol. vi. 212. "The Arabian Nights' Entertainments
(London: Longmans, 1811) by Jonathan Scott, with the Collection
of New Tales from the Wortley Montagu MS. in the Bodleian." I
regret to see that Messieurs Nimmo in reprinting Scott have
omitted his sixth Volume.

[FN#219] Dr. Scott who uses Fitnah (iv. 42) makes it worse by
adding "Alcolom (Al-Kulub?) signifying Ravisher of Hearts" and
his names for the six slave-girls (vol. iv. 37) such as "Zohorob
Bostan" (Zahr al-Bustan), which Galland rightly renders by "Fleur
du Jardin," serve only to heap blunder upon blunder. Indeed the
Anglo-French translations are below criticism: it would be waste
of time to notice them. The characteristic is a servile suit
paid to the original e.g. rendering hair "accomode en boucles" by
"hair festooned in buckles" (Night ccxiv.), and Ile d'Ebene
(Jazirat al-Abnus, Night xliii.) by "the Isle of Ebene." A
certain surly old litterateur tells me that he prefers these
wretched versions to Mr. Payne's. Padrone! as the Italians say:
I cannot envy his taste or his temper.

[FN#220] De Sacy (Memoire p. 52) notes that in some MSS., the
Sultan, ennuye by the last tales of Shahrazad, proposes to put
her to death, when she produces her three children and all ends
merrily without marriage-bells. Von Hammer prefers this version
as the more dramatic, the Frenchman rejects it on account of the
difficulties of the accouchements. Here he strains at the gnat--
a common process.

[FN#221] See Journ. Asiatique, iii. serie, vol. viii., Paris,
1839.

[FN#222] "Tausend und Eine Nacht: Arabische Erzaehlungen. Zum
ersten mal aus einer Tunisischen Handschrift ergaenzt und
vollstandig uebersetzt," Von Max Habicht, F. H. von der Hagen und
Karl Schatte (the offenders?).

[FN#223] Dr. Habicht informs us (Vorwort iii., vol. ix. 7) that
he obtained his MS. with other valuable works from Tunis, through
a personal acquaintance, a learned Arab, Herr M. Annagar
(Mohammed Al-Najjar?) and was aided by Baron de Sacy, Langles and
other savants in filling up the lacunae by means of sundry MSS.
The editing was a prodigy of negligence: the corrigenda (of which
brief lists are given) would fill a volume; and, as before
noticed, the indices of the first four tomes were printed in the
fifth, as if the necessity of a list of tales had just struck the
dense editor. After Habicht's death in 1839 his work was
completed in four vols. (ix.-xii.) by the well-known Prof. H. J.
Fleischer who had shown some tartness in his "Dissertatio Critica
de Glossis Habichtianis." He carefully imitated all the
shortcomings of his predecessor and even omitted the Verzeichniss
etc., the Varianten and the Glossary of Arabic words not found in
Golius, which formed the only useful part of the first eight
volumes.

[FN#224] Die in Tausend und Eine Nacht noch nicht uebersetzten
Naechte, Erzaehlungen und Anekdoten, zum erstenmal aus dem
Arabischen in das Franzoesische uebersetzt von J. von Hammer, und
aus dem Franzoesischen in das Deutsche von A. E. Zinserling,
Professor, Stuttgart und Tubingen, 1823. Drei Bde. 80 .
Trebutien's, therefore, is the translation of a translation of a
translation.

[FN#225] Tausend und Eine Nacht Arabische Erzaehlungen. Zum
erstenmale aus dem Urtexte vollstaendig und treu uebersetze von
Dr. Gustav Weil. He began his work on return from Egypt in 1836
and completed his first version of the Arabische Meisterwerk in
1838-42 (3 vols. roy. oct.). I have the Zweiter Abdruck der
dritten (2d reprint of 3d) in 4 vols. 8vo., Stuttgart, 1872. It
has more than a hundred woodcuts.

[FN#226] My learned friend Dr. Wilhelm Storck, to whose admirable
translations of Camoens I have often borne witness, notes that
this Vorhalle, or Porch to the first edition, a rhetorical
introduction addressed to the general public, is held in Germany
to be valueless and that it was noticed only for the Bemerkung
concerning the offensive passages which Professor Weil had toned
down in his translation. In the Vorwort of the succeeding
editions (Stuttgart) it is wholly omitted.

[FN#227] The most popular are now "Mille ed una notte. Novelle
Arabe." Napoli, 1867, 8vo illustrated, 4 francs; and "Mille ed
une notte. Novelle Arabe, versione italiana nuovamente emendata
e corredata di note"; 4 vols. in 32 (dateless) Milano, 8vo, 4
francs.

[FN#228] These are; (l) by M. Caussin (de Perceval), Paris, 1806,
9 vols. 8vo. (2) Edouard Gauttier, Paris, 1822-24: 7 vols. 12mo;
(3) M. Destain, Paris, 1823-25, 6 vols. 8vo, and (4) Baron de
Sacy, Paris. 1838 (?) 3 vols. large 8vo, illustrated (and vilely
illustrated).

[FN#229] The number of fables and anecdotes varies in the
different texts, but may be assumed to be upwards of four
hundred, about half of which were translated by Lane.

[FN#230] I have noticed these points more fully in the beginning
of chapt. iii. "The Book of the Sword."

[FN#231] A notable instance of Roman superficiality,
incuriousness and ignorance. Every old Egyptian city had its
idols (images of metal, stone or wood), in which the Deity became
incarnate as in the Catholic host; besides its own symbolic
animal used as a Kiblah or prayer-direction (Jerusalem or
Meccah), the visible means of fixing and concentrating the
thoughts of the vulgar, like the crystal of the hypnotist or the
disk of the electro-biologist. And goddess Diana was in no way
better than goddess Pasht. For the true view of idolatry see
Koran xxxix. 4. I am deeply grateful to Mr. P. le Page Renouf
(Soc. of Biblic. Archaeology, April 6, 1886) for identifying the
Manibogh, Michabo or Great Hare of the American indigenes with
Osiris Unnefer ("Hare God"). These are the lines upon which
investigation should run. And of late years there is a notable
improvement of tone in treating of symbolism or idolatry: the
Lingam and the Yoni are now described as "mystical
representations, and perhaps the best possible impersonal
representatives of the abstract expressions paternity and
maternity" (Prof. Monier Williams in "Folk-lore Record" vol. iii.
part i. p. 118).

[FN#232] See Jotham's fable of the Trees and King Bramble
(Judges lxi. 8) and Nathan's parable of the Poor Man and his
little ewe Lamb (2 Sam. ix. 1).

[FN#233] Herodotus (ii. c. 134) notes that "AEsop the fable-writer
( ) was one of her (Rhodopis) fellow slaves".
Aristophanes (Vespae, 1446) refers to his murder by the Delphians
and his fable beginning, "Once upon a time there was a fight;"
while the Scholiast finds an allusion to The Serpent and the Crab
in Pax 1084; and others in Vespae 1401, and Aves 651.

[FN#234] There are three distinct Lokmans who are carefully
confounded in Sale (Koran chapt. xxxi.) and in Smith's Dict. of
Biography etc. art. AEsopus. The first or eldest Lokman, entitled
Al-Hakim (the Sage) and the hero of the Koranic chapter which
bears his name, was son of Ba'ura of the Children of Azar,
sister's son of Job or son of Job's maternal aunt; he witnessed
David's miracles of mail-making and when the tribe of 'Ad was
destroyed, he became King of the country. The second, also called
the Sage, was a slave, an Abyssinian negro, sold to the
Israelites during the reign of David or Solomon, synchronous with
the Persian Kay Kaus and Kay Khusrau, also Pythagoras the Greek
(!) His physique is alluded to in the saying, "Thou resemblest
Lokman (in black ugliness) but not in wisdom" (Ibn Khallikan i.
145). This negro or negroid, after a godly and edifying life,
left a volume of "Amsal," proverbs and exempla (not fables or
apologues); and Easterns still say, "One should not pretend to
teach Lokman"--in Persian, "Hikmat ba Lokman amokhtan." Three of
his apothegms dwell in the public memory: "The heart and the
tongue are the best and worst parts of the human body." "I
learned wisdom from the blind who make sure of things by touching
them" (as did St. Thomas); and when he ate the colocynth offered
by his owner, "I have received from thee so many a sweet that
'twould be surprising if I refused this one bitter." He was
buried (says the Tarikh Muntakhab) at Ramlah in Judaea, with the
seventy Prophets stoned in one day by the Jews. The youngest
Lokman "of the vultures" was a prince of the tribe of Ad who
lived 3,500 years, the age of seven vultures (Tabari). He could
dig a well with his nails; hence the saying, "Stronger than
Lokman" (A. P. i. 701); and he loved the arrow-game, hence, "More
gambling than Lokman" (ibid. ii. 938). "More voracious than
Lokman" (ibid i. 134) alludes to his eating one camel for
breakfast and another for supper. His wife Barakish also appears
in proverb, e.g. "Camel us and camel thyself" (ibid. i. 295) i.e.
give us camel flesh to eat, said when her son by a former husband
brought her a fine joint which she and her husband relished.
Also, "Barakish hath sinned against her kin" (ibid. ii. 89). More
of this in Chenery's Al-Hariri p. 422; but the three Lokmans are
there reduced to two.

[FN#235] I have noticed them in vol. ii. 47-49. "To the Gold
Coast for Gold."

[FN#236] I can hardly accept the dictum that the Katha Sarit
Sagara, of which more presently, is the "earliest representation
of the first collection."

[FN#237] The Pehlevi version of the days of King Anushirwan (A.D.
531-72) became the Humayun-nameh ("August Book") turned into
Persian for Bahram Shah the Ghaznavite: the Hitopadesa
("Friendship-boon") of Prakrit, avowedly compiled from the
"Panchatantra," became the Hindu Panchopakhyan, the Hindostani
Akhlak-i-Hindi ("Moralities of Ind") and in Persia and Turkey the
Anvar-i-Suhayli ("Lights of Canopus"). Arabic, Hebrew and Syriac
writers entitle their version Kalilah wa Damnah, or Kalilaj wa
Damnaj, from the name of the two jackal-heroes, and Europe knows
the recueil as the Fables of Pilpay or Bidpay (Bidya-pati, Lord
of learning?) a learned Brahman reported to have been Premier at
the Court of the Indian King Dabishlim.

[FN#238] Diet. Philosoph. S. V. Apocrypha.

[FN#239] The older Arab writers, I repeat, do not ascribe fables
or beast-apologues to Lokman; they record only "dictes" and
proverbial sayings.

[FN#240] Professor Taylor Lewis: Preface to Pilpay.

[FN#241] In the Katha Sarit Sagara the beast-apologues are more
numerous, but they can be reduced to two great nuclei; the first
in chapter lx. (Lib. x.) and the second in the same book chapters
lxii-lxv. Here too they are mixed up with anecdotes and acroamata
after the fashion of The Nights, suggesting great antiquity for
this style of composition.

[FN#242] Brugsch, History of Egypt, vol. i. 266 et seq. The
fabliau is interesting in more ways than one. Anepu the elder
(Potiphar) understands the language of cattle, an idea ever
cropping up in Folk-lore; and Bata (Joseph), his "little
brother," who becomes a "panther of the South (Nubia) for rage"
at the wife's impudique proposal, takes the form of a bull--
metamorphosis full blown. It is not, as some have called it, the
"oldest book in the world;" that name was given by M. Chabas to a
MS. of Proverbs, dating from B.C. 2200. See also the "Story of
Saneha," a novel earlier than the popular date of Moses, in the
Contes Populaires of Egypt.

[FN#243] The fox and the jackal are confounded by the Arabic
dialects not by the Persian, whose "Rubah" can never be mistaken
for "Shaghal." "Sa'lab" among the Semites is locally applied to
either beast and we can distinguish the two only by the fox being
solitary and rapacious, and the jackal gregarious and a
carrion-eater. In all Hindu tales the jackal seems to be an
awkward substitute for the Grecian and classical fox, the Giddar
or Kola (Cants aureus) being by no means sly and wily as the
Lomri (Vulpes vulgaris). This is remarked by Weber (Indische
Studien) and Prof. Benfey's retort about "King Nobel" the lion is
by no means to the point. See Katha Sarit Sagara, ii. 28.

I may add that in Northern Africa jackal's gall, like jackal's
grape (Solanum nigrum = black nightshade), ass's milk and melted
camel-hump, is used aphrodisiacally as an unguent by both sexes.
See. p. 239, etc., of Le Jardin parfume du Cheikh Nefzaoui, of
whom more presently.

[FN#244] Rambler, No. lxvii.

[FN#245] Some years ago I was asked by my old landlady if ever in
the course of my travels I had come across Captain Gulliver.

[FN#246] In "The Adventurer" quoted by Mr. Heron, "Translator's
Preface to the Arabian Tales of Chaves and Cazotte."

[FN#247] "Life in a Levantine Family" chapt. xi. Since the able
author found his "family" firmly believing in The Nights, much
has been changed in Alexandria; but the faith in Jinn and Ifrit,
ghost and vampire is lively as ever.

[FN#248] The name dates from the second century A. H. or before
A. D. 815.

[FN#249] Dabistan i. 231 etc.

[FN#250] Because Si = thirty and Murgh = bird. In McClenachan's
Addendum to Mackay's Encyclopaeedia of Freemasonry we find the
following definition: "Simorgh. A monstrous griffin, guardian of
the Persian mysteries."

[FN#251] For a poor and inadequate description of the festivals
commemorating this "Architect of the Gods" see vol. iii. 177,
"View of the History etc. of the Hindus" by the learned Dr. Ward,
who could see in them only the "low and sordid nature of
idolatry." But we can hardly expect better things from a
missionary in 1822, when no one took the trouble to understand
what "idolatry" means.

[FN#252] Rawlinson (ii. 491) on Herod. iii. c. 102. Nearchus saw
the skins of these formicae Indicae, by some rationalists explained
as "jackals," whose stature corresponds with the text, and by
others as "pengolens" or ant-eaters (manis pentedactyla). The
learned Sanskritist, H. H. Wilson, quotes the name Pippilika =
ant-gold, given by the people of Little Thibet to the precious
dust thrown up in the emmet heaps.

[FN#253] A writer in the Edinburgh Review (July, '86), of whom
more presently, suggests that The Nights assumed essentially
their present shape during the general revival of letters, arts
and requirements which accompanied the Kurdish and Tartar
irruptions into the Nile Valley, a golden age which embraced the
whole of the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and
ended with the Ottoman Conquest in A. D. 1527.

[FN#254] Let us humbly hope not again to hear of the golden prime
of

"The good (fellow?) Haroun Alrasch'id,"

a mispronunciation which suggests only a rasher of bacon. Why
will not poets mind their quantities, in lieu of stultifying
their lines by childish ignorance? What can be more painful than
Byron's

"They laid his dust in Ar'qua (for Arqua) where he
died?"

[FN#255] See De Sacy's Chrestomathie Arabe (Paris, 1826), vol. i.

[FN#256] See Le Jardin Parfume du Cheikh Nefzaoui Manuel
d'Erotologie Arabe Traduction revue et corrigee Edition privee,
imprime a deux cent.-vingt exemplaires, par Isidore Liseux et ses
Amis, Paris, 1866. The editor has forgotten to note that the
celebrated Sidi Mohammed copied some of the tales from The Nights
and borrowed others (I am assured by a friend) from Tunisian MSS.
of the same work. The book has not been fairly edited: the notes
abound in mistakes, the volume lacks an index, &c., &c. Since
this was written the Jardin Parfume has been twice translated
into English as "The Perfumed Garden of the Cheikh Nefzaoui, a
Manual of Arabian Erotology (sixteenth century). Revised and
corrected translation, Cosmopoli: mdccclxxxvi.: for the Kama
Shastra Society of London and Benares and for private circulation
only." A rival version will be brought out by a bookseller whose
Committee, as he calls it, appears to be the model of literary
pirates, robbing the author as boldly and as openly as if they
picked his pocket before his face.

[FN#257] Translated by a well-known Turkish scholar, Mr. E. J. W.
Gibb (Glasgow, Wilson and McCormick, 1884).

[FN#258] D'Herbelot (s. v. "Asmai"): I am reproached by a dabbler
in Orientalism for using this admirable writer who shows more
knowledge in one page than my critic does in a whole volume.

[FN#259] For specimens see Al-Siyuti, pp. 301 and 304, and the
Shaykh al Nafzawi, pp. 134-35

[FN#260] The word "nakh" (to make a camel kneel) is explained in
vol. ii. 139.

[FN#261] The present of the famous horologium-clepsydra-cuckoo
clock, the dog Becerillo and the elephant Abu Lubabah sent by
Harun to Charlemagne is not mentioned by Eastern authorities and
consequently no reference to it will be found in my late friend
Professor Palmer's little volume "Haroun Alraschid," London,
Marcus Ward, 1881. We have allusions to many presents, the clock
and elephant, tent and linen hangings, silken dresses, perfumes,
and candelabra of auricalch brought by the Legati (Abdalla
Georgius Abba et Felix) of Aaron Amiralmumminim Regis Persarum
who entered the Port of Pisa (A. D. 801) in (vol. v. 178) Recueil
des Histor. des Gaules et de la France, etc., par Dom Martin
Bouquet, Paris, mdccxliv. The author also quotes the lines:--

Persarum Princeps illi devinctus amore
Praecipuo fuerat, nomen habens Aaron.
Gratia cui Caroli prae cunctis Regibus atque
Illis Principibus tempora cara funit.

[FN#262] Many have remarked that the actual date of the decease
is unknown.

[FN#263] See Al-Siyuti (p. 305) and Dr. Jonathan Scott's "Tales,
Anecdotes, and Letters," (p. 296).

[FN#264] I have given (vol. i. 188) the vulgar derivation of the
name; and D'Herbelot (s. v. Barmakian) quotes some Persian lines
alluding to the "supping up." Al-Mas'udi's account of the
family's early history is unfortunately lost. This Khalid
succeeded Abu Salamah, first entitled Wazir under Al-Saffah (Ibn
Khallikan i. 468).

[FN#265] For his poetry see Ibn Khallikan iv. 103.

[FN#266] Their flatterers compared them with the four elements.

[FN#267] Al-Mas'udi, chapt. cxii.

[FN#268] Ibn Khallikan (i. 310) says the eunuch Abu Hashim
Masrur, the Sworder of Vengeance, who is so pleasantly associated
with Ja'afar in many nightly disguises; but the Eunuch survived
the Caliph. Fakhr al-Din (p. 27) adds that Masrur was an enemy of
Ja'afar; and gives further details concerning the execution.

[FN#269] Bresl. Edit., Night dlxvii. vol. vii. pp. 258-260;
translated in the Mr. Payne's "Tales from the Arabic," vol. i.
189 and headed "Al-Rashid and the Barmecides." It is far less
lively and dramatic than the account of the same event given by
Al-Mas'udi, chapt. cxii., by Ibn Khallikan and by Fakhr al-Din.

[FN#270] Al-Mas'udi, chapt. cxi.

[FN#271] See Dr. Jonathan Scott's extracts from Major Ouseley's
"Tarikh-i-Barmaki."

[FN#272] Al-Mas'udi, chapt. cxii. For the liberties Ja'afar took
see Ibn Khallikan, i. 303.

[FN#273] Ibid. chapt. xxiv. In vol. ii. 29 of The Nights, I find
signs of Ja'afar's suspected heresy. For Al-Rashid's hatred of
the Zindiks see Al-Siyuti, pp. 292, 301; and as regards the
religious troubles ibid. p. 362 and passim.

[FN#274] Biogr. Dict. i. 309.

[FN#275] This accomplished princess had a practice that suggests
the Dame aux Camelias.

[FN#276] i. e. Perdition to your fathers, Allah's curse on your
ancestors.

[FN#277] See vol. iv. 159, "Ja'afar and the Bean-seller;" where
the great Wazir is said to have been "crucified;" and vol. iv.
pp. 179, 181. Also Roebuck's Persian Proverbs, i. 2, 346, "This
also is through the munificence of the Barmecides."

[FN#278] I especially allude to my friend Mr. Payne's admirably
written account of it in his concluding Essay (vol. ix.). From
his views of the Great Caliph and the Lady Zubaydah I must differ
in every point except the destruction of the Barmecides.

[FN#279] Bresl. Edit., vol. vii. 261-62.

[FN#280] Mr. Grattan Geary, in a work previously noticed, informs
us (i. 212) "The Sitt al-Zobeide, or the Lady Zobeide, was so
named from the great Zobeide tribe of Arabs occupying the country
East and West of the Euphrates near the Hindi'ah Canal; she was
the daughter of a powerful Sheik of that Tribe." Can this explain
the "Kasim"?

[FN#281] Vol. viii. 296.

[FN#282] Burckhardt, "Travels in Arabia" vol. i. 185.

[FN#283] The reverse has been remarked by more than one writer;
and contemporary French opinion seems to be that Victor Hugo's
influence on French prose, was on the whole, not beneficial.

[FN#284] Mr. W. S. Clouston, the "Storiologist," who is preparing
a work to be entitled "Popular Tales and Fictions; their
Migrations and Transformations," informs me the first to adapt
this witty anecdote was Jacques de Vitry, the crusading bishop of
Accon (Acre) who died at Rome in 1240, after setting the example
of "Exempla" or instances in his sermons. He had probably heard
it in Syria, and he changed the day-dreamers into a Milkmaid and
her Milk-pail to suit his "flock." It then appears as an
"Exemplum" in the Liber de Donis or de Septem Donis (or De Dono
Timoris from Fear the first gift) of Stephanus de Borbone, the
Dominican, ob. Lyons, 1261: it treated of the gifts of the Holy
Spirit (Isaiah xi. 2 and 3), Timor, Pietas, Scientia, Fortitudo,
Consilium, Intellectus et Sapientia; and was plentifully
garnished with narratives for the use of preachers.

[FN#285] The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register (new series,
vol. xxx. Sept.-Dec. 1830, London, Allens, 1839); p. 69 Review of
the Arabian Nights, the Mac. Edit. vol. i., and H. Torrens.

[FN#286] As a household edition of the "Arabian Nights" is now
being prepared, the curious reader will have an opportunity of
verifying this statement.

[FN#287] It has been pointed out to me that in vol. ii. p. 285,
line 18 "Zahr Shah" is a mistake for Sulayman Shah.

[FN#288] I have lately found these lovers at Schloss Sternstein
near Cilli in Styria, the property of my excellent colleague, Mr.
Consul Faber, dating from A. D. 1300 when Jobst of Reichenegg and
Agnes of Sternstein were aided and abetted by a Capuchin of
Seikkloster.

[FN#289] In page 226 Dr. Steingass sensibly proposes altering the
last hemistich (lines 11-12) to

At one time showing the Moon and Sun.

[FN#290] Omitted by Lane for some reason unaccountable as usual.
A correspondent sends me his version of the lines which occur in
The Nights (vol. v. 106 and 107):--

Behold the Pyramids and hear them teach
What they can tell of Future and of Past:
They would declare, had they the gift of speech,
The deeds that Time hath wrought from first to last
* * * *
My friends, and is there aught beneath the sky
Can with th' Egyptian Pyramids compare?
In fear of them strong Time hath passed by
And everything dreads Time in earth and air.

[FN#291] A rhyming Romance by Henry of Waldeck (flor. A. D. 1160)
with a Latin poem on the same subject by Odo and a prose version
still popular in Germany. (Lane's Nights iii. 81; and Weber's
"Northern Romances.")

[FN#292] e. g. 'Ajaib al-Hind (= Marvels of Ind) ninth century,
translated by J. Marcel Devic, Paris, 1878; and about the same
date the Two Mohammedan Travellers, translated by Renaudot. In
the eleventh century we have the famous Sayyid al-ldrisi, in the
thirteenth the 'Ajaib al-Makhlukat of Al-Kazwini and in the
fourteenth the Kharidat al-Ajaib of Ibn Al-Wardi. Lane (in loco)
traces most of Sindbad to the two latter sources.

[FN#293] So Hector France proposed to name his admirably
realistic volume "Sous le Burnous" (Paris, Charpentier, 1886).

[FN#294] I mean in European literature, not in Arabic where it is
a lieu commun. See three several forms of it in one page (505) of
Ibn Kallikan, vol. iii.

[FN#295] My attention has been called to the resemblance between
the half-lie and Job (i. 13- 19).

[FN#296] Boccaccio (ob. Dec. 2, 1375), may easily have heard of
The Thousand Nights and a Night or of its archetype the Hazar
Afsanah. He was followed by the Piacevoli Notti of Giovan
Francisco Straparola (A. D. 1550), translated into almost all
European languages but English: the original Italian is now rare.
Then came the Heptameron ou Histoire des amans fortunez of
Marguerite d'Angouleme, Reyne de Navarre and only sister of
Francis I. She died in 1549 before the days were finished: in
1558 Pierre Boaistuan published the Histoire des amans fortunez
and in 1559 Claude Guiget the "Heptameron." Next is the Hexameron
of A. de Torquemada, Rouen, 1610; and, lastly, the Pentamerone or
El Cunto de li Cunte of Giambattista Basile (Naples 1637), known
by the meagre abstract of J. E. Taylor and the caricatures of
George Cruikshank (London 1847-50). I propose to translate this
Pentamerone direct from the Neapolitan and have already finished
half the work.

[FN#297] Translated and well annotated by Prof. Tawney, who,
however, affects asterisks and has considerably bowdlerised
sundry of the tales, e. g. the Monkey who picked out the Wedge
(vol. ii. 28). This tale, by the by, is found in the Khirad Afroz
(i. 128) and in the Anwar-i-Suhayli (chapt. i.) and gave rise to
the Persian proverb, "What has a monkey to do with carpentering?"
It is curious to compare the Hindu with the Arabic work whose
resemblances are as remarkable as their differences, while even
more notable is their correspondence in impressioning the reader.
The Thaumaturgy of both is the same: the Indian is profuse in
demonology and witchcraft; in transformation and restoration; in
monsters as wind-men, fire-men and water-men, in air-going
elephants and flying horses (i. 541-43); in the wishing cow,
divine goats and laughing fishes (i. 24); and in the speciosa
miracula of magic weapons. He delights in fearful battles (i.
400) fought with the same weapons as the Moslem and rewards his
heroes with a "turband of honour" (i. 266) in lieu of a robe.
There is a quaint family likeness arising from similar stages and
states of society: the city is adorned for gladness, men carry
money in a robe-corner and exclaim "Ha! good!" (for "Good, by
Allah!"), lovers die with exemplary facility, the "soft-sided"
ladies drink spirits (i. 61) and princesses get drunk (i. 476);
whilst the Eunuch, the Hetaira and the bawd (Kuttini) play the
same preponderating parts as in The Nights. Our Brahman is strong
in love-making; he complains of the pains of separation in this
phenomenal universe; he revels in youth, "twin-brother to mirth,"
and beauty which has illuminating powers; he foully reviles old
age and he alternately praises and abuses the sex, concerning
which more presently. He delights in truisms, the fashion of
contemporary Europe (see Palmerin of England chapt. vii), such as
"It is the fashion of the heart to receive pleasure from those
things which ought to give it," etc. etc. What is there the wise
cannot understand? and so forth. He is liberal in trite
reflections and frigid conceits (i. 19, 55, 97, 103, 107, in fact
everywhere); and his puns run through whole lines; this in fine
Sanskrit style is inevitable. Yet some of his expressions are
admirably terse and telling, e. g. Ascending the swing of Doubt:
Bound together (lovers) by the leash of gazing: Two babes looking
like Misery and Poverty: Old Age seized me by the chin: (A lake)
first assay of the Creator's skill: (A vow) difficult as standing
on a sword-edge: My vital spirits boiled with the fire of woe:
Transparent as a good man's heart: There was a certain convent
full of fools: Dazed with scripture-reading: The stones could not
help laughing at him: The Moon kissed the laughing forehead of
the East: She was like a wave of the Sea of Love's insolence (ii.
127), a wave of the Sea of Beauty tossed up by the breeze of
Youth: The King played dice, he loved slave-girls, he told lies,
he sat up o' nights, he waxed wroth without reason, he took
wealth wrongously, he despised the good and honoured the bad (i.
562); with many choice bits of the same kind. Like the Arab the
Indian is profuse in personification; but the doctrine of
pre-existence, of incarnation and emanation and an excessive
spiritualism ever aiming at the infinite, makes his imagery run
mad. Thus we have Immoral Conduct embodied; the God of Death;
Science; the Svarga-heaven; Evening; Untimeliness, and the
Earth-bride, while the Ace and Deuce of dice are turned into a
brace of Demons. There is also that grotesqueness which the
French detect even in Shakespeare, e. g. She drank in his
ambrosial form with thirsty eyes like partridges (i. 476) and it
often results from the comparison of incompatibles, e. g. a row
of birds likened to a garden of nymphs; and from forced
allegories, the favourite figure of contemporary Europe. Again,
the rhetorical Hindu style differs greatly from the sobriety,
directness and simplicity of the Arab, whose motto is Brevity
combined with precision, except where the latter falls into "fine
writing." And, finally, there is a something in the atmosphere of
these Tales which is unfamiliar to the West and which makes them,
as more than one has remarked to me, very hard reading.

[FN#298] The Introduction (i. 1-5) leads to the Curse of
Pushpadanta and Malyavan who live on Earth as Vararuchi and
Gunadhya and this runs through lib. i. Lib. ii. begins with the
Story of Udayana to whom we must be truly grateful as our only
guide: he and his son Naravahanadatta fill up the rest and end
with lib. xviii. Thus the want of the clew or plot compels a
division into books, which begin for instance with "We worship
the elephantine proboscis of Ganesha" (lib. x. i.) a reverend and
awful object to a Hindu but to Englishmen mainly suggesting the
"Zoo." The "Bismillah" of The Nights is much more satisfactory.

[FN#299] See pp. 5-6 Avertissement des Editeurs, Le Cabinet des
Fees, vol. xxxviii: Geneva 1788. Galland's Edit. of mdccxxvi ends
with Night ccxxxiv and the English translations with ccxxxvi and
cxcvii. See retro p. 82.

[FN#300] There is a shade of difference in the words; the former
is also used for Reciters of Traditions--a serious subject. But
in the case of Hammad surnamed Al-Rawiyah (the Rhapsode) attached
to the Court of Al-Walid, it means simply a conteur. So the
Greeks had Homeristae = reciters of Homer, as opposed to the
Homeridae or School of Homer.

[FN#302] Vol. i, Preface p. v. He notes that Mr. Dallaway
describes the same scene at Constantinople where the Story-teller
was used, like the modern "Organs of Government" in newspaper
shape, for "reconciling the people to any recent measure of the
Sultan and Vizier." There are women Rawiyahs for the Harems and
some have become famous like the Mother of Hasan al-Basri (Ibn
Khall. i, 370).

[FN#302] Hence the Persian proverb, "Baki-e-dastan farda = the
rest of the tale to-morrow," said to askers of silly questions.

[FN#303] The scene is excellently described in, "Morocco: Its
People and Places," by Edmondo de Amicis (London: Cassell, 1882),
a most refreshing volume after the enforced platitudes and
commonplaces of English travellers.

[FN#304] It began, however, in Persia, where the celebrated
Darwaysh Mukhlis, Chief Sofi of Isfahan in the xviith century,
translated into Persian tales certain Hindu plays of which a MS.
entitled Alfaraga Badal-Schidda (Al-faraj ba'd al-shiddah = Joy
after annoy) exists in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. But to
give an original air to his work, he entitled it "Hazar o yek
Ruz" = Thousand and One Days, and in 1675 he allowed his friend
Petis de la Croix, who happened to be at Isfahan, to copy it. Le
Sage (of Gil Blas) is said to have converted many of the tales of
Mukhlis into comic operas, which were performed at the Theatre
Italien. I still hope to see The Nights at the Lyceum.

[FN#305] This author, however, when hazarding a change of style
which is, I think, regretable, has shown abundant art by filling
up the frequent deficiencies of the text after the fashion of
Baron McGuckin de Slane in Ibn Khallikan. As regards the tout
ensemble of his work, a noble piece of English, my opinion will
ever be that expressed in my Foreword. A carping critic has
remarked that the translator, "as may be seen in every page, is
no Arabic scholar." If I be a judge, the reverse is the case: the
brilliant and beautiful version thus traduced is almost entirely
free from the blemishes and carelessness which disfigure Lane's,
and thus it is far more faithful to the original. But it is no
secret that on the staff of that journal the translator of Villon
has sundry enemies, vrais diables enjuppones, who take every
opportunity of girding at him because he does not belong to the
clique and because he does good work when theirs is mostly sham.
The sole fault I find with Mr. Payne is that his severe grace of
style treats an unclassical work as a classic, when the romantic
and irregular would have been a more appropriate garb. But this
is a mere matter of private judgment.

[FN#306] Here I offer a few, but very few, instances from the
Breslau text, which is the greatest sinner in this respect. Mas.
for fem., vol. i. p. 9, and three times in seven pages, Ahna and
nahna for nahnu (iv. 370, 372); Ana ba-ashtari = I will buy (iii.
109): and Ana 'Amil = I will do (v. 367). Alayki for Alayki (i.
18), Anti for Anti (iii. 66) and generally long i for short .
'Ammal (from 'amala = he did) tahlam = certainly thou dreamest,
and 'Ammalin yaakulu = they were about to eat (ix. 315): Aywa for
Ay wa'llahi = yes, by Allah (passim). Bita' = belonging to, e.g.
Sara bita'k = it is become thine (ix. 352) and Mata' with the
same sense (iii. 80). Da 'l-khurj = this saddle-bag (ix. 336) and
Di (for hazah) = this woman (iii. 79) or this time (ii. 162).
Fayn as raha fayn = whither is he gone? (iv. 323). Kama badri =
he rose early (ix. 318): Kaman = also, a word known to every
European (ii. 43): Katt = never (ii. 172): Kawam (pronounced
'awam) = fast, at once (iv. 385) and Rih asif kawi (pron. 'awi) =
a wind, strong very. Laysh, e.g. bi tasalni laysh (ix. 324) = why
do you ask me? a favourite form for li ayya shayyin: so Mafish =
ma fihi shayyun (there is no thing) in which Herr Landberg (p.
425) makes "Sha, le present de pouvoir." Min ajali = for my sake;
and Li ajal al-taudi'a = for the sake of taking leave (Mac. Edit.
i. 384). Rijal nautiyah = men sailors when the latter word would
suffice: Shuwayh (dim. of shayy) = a small thing, a little (iv.
309) like Moyyah (dim. of Ma) a little water: Wadduni = they
carried me (ii. 172) and lastly the abominable Wahid gharib = one
(for a) stranger. These few must suffice: the tale of Judar and
his brethren, which in style is mostly Egyptian, will supply a
number of others. It must not, however, be supposed, as many have
done, that vulgar and colloquial Arabic is of modern date: we
find it in the first century of Al-Islam, as is proved by the
tale of Al-Hajjaj and Al-Shabi (Ibn Khallikan, ii. 6). The former
asked "Kam ataa-k?' (= how much is thy pay?) to which the latter
answered, "Alfayn!" (= two thousand!). "Tut," cried the Governor,
"Kam atau-ka?" to which the poet replied as correctly and
classically, "Alfani."

[FN#307] In Russian folk-songs a young girl is often compared
with this tree e.g.--

Ivooshka, ivooshka zelonaia moia!
(O Willow, O green Willow mine!)

[FN#308] So in Hector France ("La vache enragee") "Le sourcil en
accent circonflexe et l'oeil en point d'interrogation."

[FN#309] In Persian "Ab-i-ru" in India pronounced Abru.

FN#310] For further praises of his poetry and eloquence see the
extracts from Fakhr al-Din of Rayy (an annalist of the xivth
century A.D.) in De Sacy's Chrestomathie Arabe, vol. i.

[FN#311] After this had been written I received "Babylonian, das
reichste Land in der Vorzeit und das lohnendste Kolonisationsfeld
fuer die Gegenwart," by my learned friend Dr. Aloys Sprenger,
Heidelberg, 1886.

[FN#312] The first school for Arabic literature was opened by Ibn
Abbas, who lectured to multitudes in a valley near Meccah; this
rude beginning was followed by public teaching in the great
Mosque of Damascus. For the rise of the "Madrasah," Academy or
College' see Introduct. to Ibn Khallikan pp. xxvii-xxxii.

[FN#313] When Ibn Abbad the Sahib (Wazir) was invited to visit
one of the Samanides, he refused, one reason being that he would
require 400 camels to carry only his books.

[FN#314] This "Salmagondis" by Francois Beroalde de Verville was
afterwards worked by Tabarin , the pseudo-Bruscambille d'Aubigne
and Sorel.

[FN#315] I prefer this derivation to Strutt's adopted by the
popular, "mumm is said to be derived from the Danish word mumme,
or momme in Dutch (Germ. = larva), and signifies disguise in a
mask, hence a mummer." In the Promptorium Parvulorum we have
"Mummynge, mussacio, vel mussatus": it was a pantomime in dumb
show, e.g. "I mumme in a mummynge;" "Let us go mumme (mummer) to
nyghte in women's apparayle." "Mask" and "Mascarade," for
persona, larva or vizard, also derive, I have noticed, from an
Arabic word--Maskharah.

[FN#316] The Pre-Adamite doctrine has been preached with but
scant success in Christendom. Peyrere, a French Calvinist,
published (A.D. 1655) his "Praadamitae, sive exercitatio supra
versibus 12, 13, 14, cap. v. Epist. Paul. ad Romanos," contending
that Adam was called the first man because with him the law

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