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The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, Volume 10 by Richard F. Burton

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Arabic metre so far resembles that of Greece and Rome that the
value of syllables depends upon the "quantity" or position of
their consonants, not upon accent as in English and the Neo-Latin
tongues. Al-Khalil was doubtless familiar with the classic
prosody of Europe, but he rejected it as unsuited to the genius
of Arabic and like a true Eastern Gelehrte he adopted a process
devised by himself. Instead of scansion by pyrrhics and spondees,
iambs and trochees, anapaests and similar simplifications he
invented a system of weights ("wuzun"). Of these there are
nine[FN#441] memorial words used as quantitive signs, all built
upon the root "fa'l" which has rendered such notable service to
Arabic and Hebrew[FN#442] grammar and varying from the simple
"fa'al," in Persian "fa'ul" (U _), to the complicated
"Mutafa'ilun"(UU - U -) , anapaest + iamb. Thus the prosodist
would scan the Shahnameh of Firdausi as

Fa'ulun, fa'ulun, fa'ulun, fa'al.
U - - U - - U - - -

These weights also show another peculiarity of Arabic verse. In
English we have few if any spondees: the Arabic contains about
three longs to one short; hence its gravity, stateliness and
dignity. But these longs again are peculiar, and sometimes strike
the European ear as shorts, thus adding a difficulty for those
who would represent Oriental metres by western feet, ictus and
accent. German Arabists can register an occasional success in
such attempts: Englishmen none. My late friend Professor Palmer
of Cambridge tried the tour de force of dancing on one leg
instead of two and notably failed: Mr. Lyall also strove to
imitate Arabic metre and produced only prose bewitched.[FN#443]
Mr. Payne appears to me to have wasted trouble in "observing the
exterior form of the stanza, the movement of the rhyme and (as
far as possible) the identity in number of the syllables
composing the beits." There is only one part of his admirable
version concerning which I have heard competent readers complain;
and that is the metrical, because here and there it sounds
strange to their ears.

I have already stated my conviction that there are two and only
two ways of translating Arabic poetry into English. One is to
represent it by good heroic or lyric verse as did Sir William
Jones; the other is to render it after French fashion, by
measured and balanced Prose, the little sister of Poetry. It is
thus and thus only that we can preserve the peculiar cachet of
the original. This old world Oriental song is spirit-stirring as
a "blast of that dread horn," albeit the words be thin. It is
heady as the "Golden Wine" of Libanus, to the tongue water and
brandy to the brain--the clean contrary of our nineteenth century
effusions. Technically speaking, it can be vehicled only by the
verse of the old English ballad or by the prose of the Book of
Job. And Badawi poetry is a perfect expositor of Badawi life,
especially in the good and gladsome old Pagan days ere Al-Islam,
like the creed which it abolished, overcast the minds of men with
its dull grey pall of realistic superstition. They combined to
form a marvellous picture--those contrasts of splendour and
squalor amongst the sons of the sand. Under airs pure as aether,
golden and ultramarine above and melting over the horizon into a
diaphanous green which suggested a resection of Kaf, that unseen
mountain-wall of emerald, the so-called Desert, changed face
twice a year; now brown and dry as summer-dust; then green as
Hope, beautified with infinite verdure and broad sheetings of
rain-water. The vernal and autumnal shiftings of camp,
disruptions of homesteads and partings of kith and kin, friends
and lovers, made the life many-sided as it was vigorous and
noble, the outcome of hardy frames, strong minds and spirits
breathing the very essence of liberty and independence. The day
began with the dawn-drink, "generous wine bought with shining
ore," poured into the crystal goblet from the leather bottle
swinging before the cooling breeze. The rest was spent in the
practice of weapons, in the favourite arrow game known as Al-
Maysar, gambling which at least had the merit of feeding the
poor; in racing for which the Badawin had a mania, and in the
chase, the foray and the fray which formed the serious business
of his life. And how picturesque the hunting scenes; the
greyhound, like the mare, of purest blood; the falcon cast at
francolin and coney; the gazelle standing at gaze; the desert ass
scudding over the ground-waves; the wild cows or bovine antelopes
browsing with their calves and the ostrich-chickens flocking
round the parent bird! The Musamarah or night-talk round the
camp-fire was enlivened by the lute-girl and the glee-man, whom
the austere Prophet described as "roving distraught in every
vale" and whose motto in Horatian vein was, "To day we shall
drink, to-morrow be sober, wine this day, that day work."
Regularly once a year, during the three peaceful months when war
and even blood revenge were held sacrilegious, the tribes met at
Ukadh (Ocaz) and other fairsteads, where they held high festival
and the bards strave in song and prided themselves upon doing
honour to women and to the successful warriors of their tribe.
Brief, the object of Arab life was to be--to be free, to be
brave, to be wise; while the endeavours of other peoples was and
is to have--to have wealth, to have knowledge, to have a name;
and while moderns make their "epitome of life" to be, to do and
to suffer. Lastly the Arab's end was honourable as his life was
stirring: few Badawin had the crowning misfortune of dying "the

The poetical forms in The Nights are as follows:--The Misra'ah or
hemistich is half the "Bayt" which, for want of a better word, I
have rendered couplet: this, however, though formally separated
in MSS., is looked upon as one line, one verse; hence a word can
be divided, the former part pertaining to the first and the
latter to the second moiety of the distich. As the Arabs ignore
blank verse, when we come upon a rhymeless couplet we know that
it is an extract from a longer composition in monorhyme. The
Kit'ah is a fragment, either an occasional piece or more
frequently a portion of a Ghazal (ode) or Kasidah (elegy), other
than the Matla, the initial Bayt with rhyming distichs. The
Ghazal and Kasidah differ mainly in length: the former is
popularly limited to eighteen couplets: the latter begins at
fifteen and is of indefinite number. Both are built upon
monorhyme, which appears twice in the first couplet and ends all
the others, e g., aa + ba + ca, etc.; nor may the same assonance
be repeated, unless at least seven couplets intervene. In the
best poets, as in the old classic verse of France, the sense must
be completed in one couplet and not run on to a second; and, as
the parts cohere very loosely, separate quotation can generally
be made without injuring their proper effect. A favourite form is
the Ruba'i or quatrain, made familiar to English ears by Mr.
Fitzgerald's masterly adaptation of Omar-i-Khayyam: the movement
is generally aa + ba, but it also appears as ab + cb, in which
case it is a Kit'ah or fragment. The Murabba, tetrastichs or four
fold-song, occurs once only in The Nights (vol.i. 98); it is a
succession of double Bayts or of four lined stanzas rhyming aa +
bc + dc + ec: in strict form the first three hemistichs rhyme
with one another only, independently of the rest of the poem, and
the fourth with that of every other stanza, e.g., aa + ab + cb +
db. The Mukhammas, cinquains or pentastichs (Night cmlxiv.),
represents a stanza of two distichs and a hemistich in monorhyme,
the fifth line being the "bob" or burden: each succeeding stanza
affects a new rhyme, except in the fifth line, e.g., aaaab +
ccccb + ddddb and so forth. The Muwwal is a simple popular song
in four to six lines; specimens of it are given in the Egyptian
grammar of my friend the late Dr. Wilhelm Spitta.[FN#444] The
Muwashshah, or ornamented verse, has two main divisions: one
applies to our acrostics in which the initials form a word or
words; the other is a kind of Musaddas, or sextines, which occurs
once only in The Nights (cmlxxxvii.). It consists of three
couplets or six-line strophes: all the hemistichs of the first
are in monorhyme; in the second and following stanzas the three
first hemistichs take a new rhyme, but the fourth resumes the
assonance of the first set and is followed by the third couplet
of No. 1, serving as bob or refrain, e.g., aaaaaa + bbbaaa +
cccaaa and so forth. It is the most complicated of all the
measures and is held to be of Morisco or Hispano-Moorish origin.

Mr. Lane (Lex.) lays down, on the lines of Ibn Khallikan (i. 476,
etc.) and other representative literati, as our sole authortties
for pure Arabic, the precedence in following order. First of all
ranks the Jahili (Ignoramus) of The Ignorance, the
: these pagans left hemistichs, couplets, pieces and elegies
which once composed a large corpus and which is now mostly
forgotten. Hammad al-Rawiyah, the Reciter, a man of Persian
descent (ob. A.H. 160=777) who first collected the Mu'allakat,
once recited by rote in a seance before Caliph Al-Walid two
thousand poems of prae-Mohammedan bards.[FN#445] After the Jahili
stands the Mukhadram or Muhadrim, the "Spurious," because half
Pagan half Moslem, who flourished either immediately before or
soon after the preaching of Mohammed. The Islami or full-blooded
Moslem at the end of the first century A.H ( = 720) began the
process of corruption in language; and, lastly he was followed by
the Muwallad of the second century who fused Arabic with non-
Arabic and in whom purity of diction disappeared.

I have noticed (I Section A.) that the versical portion of The Nights
may be distributed into three categories. First are the olden
poems which are held classical by all modern Arabs; then comes
the mediaeval poetry, the effusions of that brilliant throng which
adorned the splendid Court of Harun al-Rashid and which ended
with Al-Hariri (ob. A.H. 516); and, lastly, are the various
pieces de circonstance suggested to editors or scribes by the
occasion. It is not my object to enter upon the historical part
of the subject: a mere sketch would have neither value not
interest whilst a finished picture would lead too far: I must be
contented to notice a few of the most famous names.

Of the prae-Islamites we have Adi bin Zayd al-Ibadi the
"celebrated poet" of Ibn Khallikan (i. 188); Nabighat (the full-
grown) al-Zubyani who flourished at the Court of Al-Nu'man in AD.
580-602, and whose poem is compared with the
"Suspendeds,''[FN#446] and Al-Mutalammis the "pertinacious"
satirist, friend and intimate with Tarafah of the "Prize Poem."
About Mohammed's day we find Imr al-Kays "with whom poetry
began," to end with Zu al-Rummah; Amru bin Madi Karab al-Zubaydi,
Labid; Ka'b ibn Zuhayr, the father one of the Mu'al-lakah-poets,
and the son author of the Burdah or Mantle-poem (see vol. iv.
115), and Abbas bin Mirdas who lampooned the Prophet and had "his
tongue cut out" i.e. received a double share of booty from Ali.
In the days of Caliph Omar we have Alkamah bin Olatha followed by
Jamil bin Ma'mar of the Banu Ozrah (ob. A.H. 82), who loved Azza.
Then came Al-Kuthayyir (the dwarf, ironice), the lover of
Buthaynah, "who was so lean that birds might be cut to bits with
her bones :" the latter was also a poetess (Ibn Khall. i. 87),
like Hind bint al-Nu'man who made herself so disagreeable to
Al-Hajjaj (ob. A.H. 95) Jarir al-Khatafah, the noblest of the
Islami poets in the first century, is noticed at full length by
Ibn Khallikan (i. 294) together with his rival in poetry and
debauchery, Abu Firas Hammam or Homaym bin Ghalib al-Farazdak,
the Tamimi, the Ommiade poet "without whose verse half Arabic
would be lost:"[FN#447] he exchanged satires with Jarir and died
forty days before him (A.H. 110). Another contemporary, forming
the poetical triumvirate of the period, was the debauched
Christian poet Al-Akhtal al-Taghlibi. They were followed by Al-
Ahwas al-Ansari whose witty lampoons banished him to Dahlak
Island in the Red Sea (ob. A.H. 179 = 795); by Bashshar ibn Burd
and by Yunus ibn Habib (ob. A.H. 182).

The well known names of the Harun-cycle are Al-Asma'i,
rhetorician and poet, whose epic with Antar for hero is not
forgotten (ob. A.H. 2I6); Isaac of Mosul (Ishak bin Ibrahim of
Persian origin); Al-'Utbi "the Poet" (ob. A.H. 228); Abu al-Abbas
al-Rakashi; Abu al-Atahiyah, the lover of Otbah; Muslim bin al-
Walid al-Ansari; Abu Tammam of Tay, compiler of the Hamasah (ob.
A.H. 230), "a Muwallad of the first class" (says Ibn Khallikan i.
392); the famous or infamous Abu Nowas, Abu Mus'ab (Ahmad ibn
Ali) who died in A.H. 242; the satirist Dibil al-Khuzai (ob. A.H.
246) and a host of others quos nunc perscribere longum est. They
were followed by Al-Bohtori "the Poet" (ob. A.H. 286); the royal
author Abdullah ibn al-Mu'tazz (ob. A.H. 315); Ibn Abbad the
Sahib (ob. A.H. 334); Mansur al-Hallaj the martyred Sufi; the
Sahib ibn Abbad, Abu Faras al-Hamdani (ob. A.H. 357); Al-Nami
(ob. A.H. 399) who had many encounters with that model Chauvinist
Al-Mutanabbi, nicknamed Al-Mutanabbih (the "wide awake"), killed
A.H. 354; Al-Manazi of Manazjird (ob. 427); Al-Tughrai author of
the Lamiyat al-'Ajam (ob. A.H. 375); Al-Hariri the model
rhetorician (ob. A.H. 516); Al-Hajiri al-Irbili, of Arbela (ob.
A.H. 632); Baha al-Din al-Sinjari (ob. A.H. 622); Al-Katib or the
Scribe (ob. A.H. 656); Abdun al-Andalusi the Spaniard (our xiith
century) and about the same time Al-Nawaji, author of the Halbat
al-Kumayt or"Race course of the Bay horse"--poetical slang for

Of the third category, the pieces d'occasion, little need be
said: I may refer readers to my notes on the doggrels in vol. ii.
34, 35, 56, 179, 182, 186 and 261; in vol. v. 55 and in vol.
viii. 50.

Having a mortal aversion to the details of Arabic prosody, I have
persuaded my friend Dr. Steingass to undertake in the following
pages the subject as far as concerns the poetry of The Nights. He
has been kind enough to collaborate with me from the beginning,
and to his minute lexicographical knowledge I am deeply indebted
for discovering not a few blemishes which would have been "nuts
to the critic." The learned Arabist's notes will be highly
interesting to students: mine ( SectionV.) are intended to give a
superficial and popular idea of the Arab's verse mechanism.

"The principle of Arabic Prosody (called 'Aruz, pattern standard,
or 'Ilm al-'Aruz, science of the 'Aruz), in so far resembles that
of classical poetry, as it chiefly rests on metrical weight, not
on accent, or in other words a verse is measured by short and
long quantities, while the accent only regulates its rhythm. In
Greek and Latin, however, the quantity of the syllables depends
on their vowels, which may be either naturally short or long, or
become long by position, i.e. if followed by two or more
consonants. We all remember from our school-days what a fine
string of rules had to be committed to and kept in memory, before
we were able to scan a Latin or Greek verse without breaking its
neck by tripping over false quantities. In Arabic, on the other
hand, the answer to the question, what is metrically long or
short, is exceedingly simple, and flows with stringent cogency
from the nature of the Arabic Alphabet. This, strictly speaking,
knows only consonants (Harf, pl. Huruf). The vowels which are
required, in order to articulate the consonants, were at first
not represented in writing at all. They had to be supplied by the
reader, and are not improperly called "motions" (Harakat),
because they move or lead on, as it were, one letter to another.
They are three in number, a (Fathah), i (Kasrah), u (Zammah),
originally sounded as the corresponding English vowels in bat,
bit and butt respectively, but in certain cases modifying their
pronunciation under the influence of a neighbouring consonant.
When the necessity made itself felt to represent them in writing,
especially for the sake of fixing the correct reading of the
Koran, they were rendered by additional signs, placed above or
beneath the consonant, after which they are pronounced, in a
similar way as it is done in some systems of English shorthand. A
consonant followed by a short vowel is called a "moved letter"
(Muharrakah); a consonant without such vowel is called "resting"
or "quiescent" (Sakinah), and can stand only at the end of a
syllable or word.

And now we are able to formulate the one simple rule, which
determines the prosodical quantity in Arabic: any moved letter,
as ta, li, mu, is counted short; any moved letter followed by a
quiescent one, as taf, fun, mus, i.e. any closed syllable
beginning and terminating with a consonant and having a short
vowel between, forms a long quantity. This is certainly a relief
in comparison with the numerous rules of classical Prosody,
proved by not a few exceptions, which for instance in Dr. Smith's
elementary Latin Grammar fill eight closely printed pages.

Before I proceed to show how from the prosodical unities, the
moved and the quiescent letter, first the metrical elements, then
the feet and lastly the metres are built up, it will be necessary
to obviate a few misunderstandings, to which our mode of
transliterating Arabic into the Roman
character might give rise.

The line::

"Love in my heart they lit and went their ways," (vol. i. 232)

runs in Arabic:

"Akamu al-wajda fi kalbi wa saru" (Mac. Ed. i. 179).

Here, according to our ideas, the word akamu would begin with a
short vowel a, and contain two long vowels a and u; according to
Arabic views neither is the case. The word begins with "Alif,"
and its second syllable ka closes in Alif after Fathah (a), in
the same way, as the third syllable mu closes in the letter Waw
(w) after Zammah (u).

The question, therefore, arises, what is "Alif." It is the first
of the twenty-eight Arabic letters, and has through the medium of
the Greek Alpha nominally entered into our alphabet, where it now
plays rather a misleading part. Curiously enough, however, Greek
itself has preserved for us the key to the real nature of the
letter. In ' the initial a is preceded by the so called
spiritus lends ('), a sign which must be placed in front or at
the top of any vowel beginning a Greek word, and which represents
that slight aspiration or soft breathing almost involuntarily
uttered, when we try to pronounce a vowel by itself. We need not
go far to find how deeply rooted this tendency is and to what
exaggerations it will sometimes lead. Witness the gentleman who,
after mentioning that he had been visiting his "favourite haunts"
on the scenes of his early life, was sympathetically asked, how
the dear old ladies were. This spiritus lends is the silent h of
the French "homme" and the English "honour," corresponding
exactly to the Arabic Hamzah, whose mere prop the Alif is, when
it stands at the beginning of a word: a native Arabic Dictionary
does not begin with Bab al-Alif (Gate or Chapter of the Alif),
but with Bab al-Hamzah. What the Greeks call Alpha and have
transmitted to us as a name for the vowel a, is in fact nothing
else but the Arabic Hamzah-Alif,(~)moved by Fathah, i.e. bearing
the sign(~) for a at the top (~), just as it might have the sign
Zammah (~) superscribed to express u (~), or the sign Kasrah (~)
subjoined to represent i(~). In each case the Hamzah-Alif,
although scarcely audible to our ear, is the real letter and
might fitly be rendered in transliteration by the above mentioned
silent h, wherever we make an Arabic word begin with a vowel not
preceded by any other sign. This latter restriction refers to the
sign ', which in Sir Richard Burton's translation of The Nights,
as frequently in books published in this country, is used to
represent the Arabic letter ~ in whose very name 'Ayn it occurs.
The 'Ayn is "described as produced by a smart compression of the
upper part of the windpipe and forcible emission of breath,"
imparting a guttural tinge to a following or preceding vowel-
sound; but it is by no means a mere guttural vowel, as Professor
Palmer styles it. For Europeans, who do not belong to the
Israelitic dispensation, as well as for Turks and Persians, its
exact pronunciation is most difficult, if not impossible to

In reading Arabic from transliteration for the purpose of
scanning poetry, we have therefore in the first instance to keep
in mind that no Arabic word or syllable can begin with a vowel.
Where our mode of rendering Arabic in the Roman character would
make this appear to be the case, either Hamzah (silent h), or
'Ayn (represented by the sign') is the real initial, and the only
element to be taken in account as a letter. It follows as a self-
evident corollary that wherever a single consonant stands between
two vowels, it never closes the previous syllable, but always
opens the next one. Our word "Akamu," for instance, can only be
divided into the syllables: A (properly Ha)-ka-mu, never into
Ak-a-mu or Ak-am-u.

It has been stated above that the syllable ka is closed by the
letter Alif after Fathah, in the same way as the syllable mu is
closed by the letter Waw, and I may add now, as the word fi is
closed by the letter Ya (y). To make this perfectly clear, I must
repeat that the Arabic Alphabet, as it was originally written,
deals only with consonants. The signs for the short vowel-sounds
were added later for a special purpose, and are generally not
represented even in printed books, e.g. in the various editions
of The Nights, where only quotations from the Koran or poetical
passages are provided with the vowel-points. But among those
consonants there are three, called weak letters (Huruf
al-'illah), which have a particular organic affinity to these
vowel sounds: the guttural Hamzah, which is akin to a, the
palatal Ya, which is related to i, and the labial Waw, which is
homogeneous with u. Where any of the weak letters follows a vowel
of its own class, either at the end of a word or being itself
followed by another consonant, it draws out or lengthens the
preceding vowel and is in this sense called a letter of
prolongation (Harf al-Madd). Thus, bearing in mind that the
Hamzah is in reality a silent h, the syllable ka might be written
kah, similarly to the German word "sah," where the h is not
pronounced either, but imparts a lengthened sound to the a. In
like manner mu and fi are written in Arabic muw and fiy
respectively, and form long quantities not because they contain a
vowel long by nature, but because their initial "Muharrakah" is
followed by a "Sakinah," exactly as in the previously mentioned
syllables taf, fun, mus.[FN#449] In the Roman transliteration,
Akamu forms a word of five letters, two of which are consonants,
and three vowels; in Arabic it represents the combination
H(a)k(a)hm(u)w, consisting also of five letters but all
consonants, the intervening vowels being expressed in writing
either merely by superadded external signs, or more frequently
not at all. Metrically it represents one short and two long
quantities (U - -), forming in Latin a trisyllable foot, called
Bacchius, and in Arabic a quinqueliteral "Rukn" (pillar) or "Juz"
(part, portion), the technical designation for which we shall
introduce presently.

There is one important remark more to be made with regard to the
Hamzah: at the beginning of a word it is either conjunctive,
Hamzat al-Wasl, or disjunctive, Hamzat al-Kat'. The difference is
best illustrated by reference to the French so-called aspirated
h, as compared with the above-mentioned silent h. If the latter,
as initial of a noun, is preceded by the article, the article
loses its vowel, and, ignoring the silent h altogether, is read
with the following noun almost as one word: le homme becomes
l'homme (pronounced lomme) as le ami becomes l'ami. This
resembles very closely the Arabic Hamzah Wasl. If, on the other
hand, a French word begins with an aspirated h, as for instance
heros, the article does not drop its vowel before the noun, nor
is the h sounded as in the English word "hero," but the effect of
the aspirate is simply to keep the two vowel sounds apart, so as
to pronounce le eros with a slight hiatus between, and this is
exactly what happens in the case of the Arabic Hamzah Kat'.

With regard to the Wasl, however, Arabic goes a step further than
French. In the French example, quoted above, we have seen it is
the silent h and the preceding vowel which are eliminated; in
Arabic both the Hamzah and its own Harakah, i.e. the short vowel
following it, are supplanted by their antecedent. Another example
will make this clear. The most common instance of the Hamzah Wasl
is the article al (for h(a)l=the Hebrew hal), where it is moved
by Fathah. But it has this sound only at the beginning of a
sentence or speech, as in "Al-Hamdu" at the head of the Fatihah,
or in "Allahu" at the beginning of the third Surah. If the two
words stand in grammatical connection, as in the sentence "Praise
be to God," we cannot say "Al-Hamdu li-Allahi," but the junction
(Wasl) between the dative particle li and the noun which it
governs must take place. According to the French principle, this
junction would be effected at the cost of the preceding element
and li Allahi would become l'Allahi; in Arabic, on the contrary,
the kasrated l of the particle takes the place of the following
fathated Hamzah and we read li 'llahi instead. Proceeding in the
Fatihah we meet with the verse "Iyyaka na'budu wa iyyaka
nasta'inu," Thee do we worship and of Thee do we ask aid. Here
the Hamzah of iyyaka (properly hiyyaka with silent h) is
disjunctive, and therefore its pronunciation remains the same at
the beginning and in the middle of the sentence, or, to put it
differently, instead of coalescing with the preceding wa into
wa'yyaka, the two words are kept separate by the Hamzah, reading
wa iyyaka, just as it was the case with the French Le heros.

If the conjunctive Hamzah is preceded by a quiescent letter, this
takes generally Kasrah: "Talat al-Laylah," the night was
longsome, would become Talati 'l-Laylah. If, however, the
quiescent letter is one of prolongation, it mostly drops out
altogether, and the Harakah of the next preceding letter becomes
{he connecting vowel between the two words, which in our parlance
would mean that the end vowel of the first word is shortened
before the elided initial of the second. Thus "fi al-bayti," in
the house, which in Arabic is written f(i)y h(a)l-b(a)yt(i) and
which we transliterate fi 'l-bayti, is in poetry read fil-bayti,
where we must remember that the syllable fil, in spite of its
short vowel, represents a long quantity, because it consists of a
moved letter followed by a quiescent one. Fil would be overlong
and could, according to Arabic prosody, stand only in certain
cases at the end of a verse, i.e. in pause, where a natural
tendency prevails to prolong a sound.

The attentive reader will now be able to fix the prosodical value
of the line quoted above with unerring security. For metrical
purposes it syllabifies into: A-ka-mul-vaj-da fi kal-bi wa sa-ru,
containing three short and eight long quantities. The initial
unaccented a is short, for the same reason why the syllables da
and wa are so, that is, because it corresponds to an Arabic
letter, the Hamzah or silent h, moved by Fathah. The syllables
ka, fi, bi, sa, ru are long for the same reason why the syllables
mul, waj, kal are so, that is, because the accent in the
transliteration corresponds to a quiescent Arabic letter,
following a moved one. The same simple criterion applies to the
whole list, in which I give in alphabetical order the first lines
and the metre of all the poetical pieces contained in the Mac.
edition, and which will be found at the end of this volume. {This
appendix is not included in the electronic text}

The prosodical unities, then, in Arabic are the moved and the
quiescent letter, and we are now going to show how they combine
into metrical elements, feet, and metres.

i. The metrical elements (Usul) are:

1. The Sabab,[FN#450] which consists of two letters and is
either khafif (light) or sakil (heavy). A moved letter followed
by a quiescent, i.e. a closed syllable, like the afore-mentioned
taf, fun, mus, to which we may now add fa=fah, 'i='iy, 'u='uw,
form a Sabab khafif, corresponding to the classical long quantity
(-). Two moved letters in succession, like mute, 'ala, constitute
a Sabab sakil, for which the classical name would be Pyrrhic (U
U). As in Latin and Greek, they are equal in weight and can
frequently interchange, that is to say, the Sabab khafif can be
evolved into a sakil by moving its second Harf, or the latter
contracted into the former, by making its second letter

2. The Watad, consisting of three letters, one of which is
quiescent. If the quiescent follows the two moved ones, the Watad
is called majmu' (collected or joined), as fa'u (=fa'uw), mafa
(=mafah), 'ilun, and it corresponds to the classical Iambus (U -
). If, on the contrary, the quiescent intervenes or separates
between the two moved letters, as in fa'i ( = fah'i), latu
(=lahtu), taf'i, the Watad is called mafruk (separated), and has
its classical equivalent in the Trochee (- U)

3. The Fasilah,[FN#451] containing four letters, i.e.
three moved ones followed by a quiescent, and which, in fact, is
only a shorter name for a Sabab sakil followed by a Sabab khafif,
as mute + fa, or 'ala + tun, both of the measure of the classical
Anapaest (U U -)

ii. These three elements, the Sabab, Watad and Fasilah, combine
further into feet Arkaan, pl. of Rukn, or Ajzaa, pl. of Juz, two
words explained supra p. 236. The technical terms by which the
feet are named are derivatives of the root fa'l, to do, which, as
the student will remember, serves in Arabic Grammar to form the
Auzan or weights, in accordance with which words are derived from
roots. It consists of the three letters Fa (f), 'Ayn ('), Lam
(l), and, like any other Arabic root, cannot strictly speaking be
pronounced, for the introduction of any vowel-sound would make it
cease to be a root and change it into an individual word. The
above fa'l, for instance, where the initial Fa is moved by Fathah
(a), is the Infinitive or verbal noun, "to do," "doing." If the
'Ayn also is moved by Fathah, we obtain fa'al, meaning in
colloquial Arabic "he did" (the classical or literary form would
be fa'ala). Pronouncing the first letter with Zammah (u), the
second with Kasrah (i), i.e., fu'il, we say "it was done"
(classically fu'ila). Many more forms are derived by prefixing,
inserting or subjoining certain additional letters called Huruf
al-Ziyadah (letters of increase) to the original radicals: fa'il,
for instance, with an Alif of prolongation in the first syllable,
means "doer"; maf'ul (=maf'uwl), where the quiescent Fa is
preceded by a fathated Mim (m), and the zammated 'Ayn followed by
a lengthening Waw, means "done"; Mufa'alah, where, in addition to
a prefixed and inserted letter, the feminine termination ah is
subjoined after the Lam, means "to do a thing reciprocally."
Since these and similar changes are with unvarying regularity
applicable to all roots, the grammarians use the derivatives of
Fa'l as model-forms for the corresponding derivations of any
other root, whose letters are in this case called its Fa, 'Ayn
and Lam. From a root, e.g., which has Kaf (k) for its first
letter or Fa, Ta (t) for its second letter or 'Aye, and Ba (b)
for its third letter or Lam

fa'l would be katb =to write, writing;
fa'al would be katab =he wrote;
fu'il would be kutib =it was written;
fa'il would be katib =writer, scribe;
maf'ul would be maktub=written, letter;
mufa'alah would be mukatabah = to write reciprocally,

The advantage of this system is evident. It enables the student,
who has once grasped the original meaning of a root, to form
scores of words himself, and in his readings, to understand
hundreds, nay thousands, of words, without recourse to the
Dictionary, as soon as he has learned to distinguish their
radical letters from the letters of increase, and recognises in
them a familiar root. We cannot wonder, therefore, that the
inventor of Arabic Prosody readily availed himself of the same
plan for his own ends. The Taf'il, as it is here called, that is,
the representation of the metrical feet by current derivatives of
fa'l, has in this case, of course, nothing to do with the
etymological meaning of those typical forms. But it proves none
the less useful in another direction: in simply naming a
particular foot it shows at the same time its prosodical measure
and character, as will now be explained in detail.

We have seen supra p. 236 that the word Akamu consists of a short
syllable followed by two long ones (U - -), and consequently
forms a foot, which the classics would call Bacchius. In Latin
there is no connection between this name and the metrical value
of the foot: we must learn both by heart. But if we are told that
its Taf'il in Arabic is Fa'ulun, we understand at once that it is
composed of the Watad majmu' fa'u (U -) and the Sabab khafif lun
(-), and as the Watad contains three, the Sabab two letters, it
forms a quinqueliteral foot or Juz khamasi.

In combining into feet, the Watad has the precedence over the
Sabab and the Fasilah, and again the Watad majmu' over the Watad
mafruk. Hence the Prosodists distinguish between Ajza asliyah or
primary feet (from Asl, root), in which this precedence is
observed, and Ajza far'iyah or secondary feet (from Far'=
branch), in which it is reversed. The former are four in number:-

1. Fa'u.lun, consisting,as we have just seen, of a Watad majmu'
followed by a Sabab khafif = the Latin Bacchius (U - -).

2. Mafa.'i.lun, i.e. Watad majmu' followed by two Sabab khafif
= the Latin Epitritus primus (U - - -).

3. Mufa.'alatun, i.e. Watad majmu' followed by Fasilah = the
Latin Iambus followed by Anapaest (U - UU -).

4. Fa'i.la.tun, i.e. Watad mafruk followed by two Sabab khafif
= the Latin Epitritus secundus (-U- -).

The number of the secondary feet increases to six, for as Nos. 2
and 4 contain two Sabab, they "branch out" into two derived feet
each, according to both Sabab or only one changing place with
regard to the Watad. They are:

5. Fa.'ilun, i.e. Sabab khafif followed by Watad majmu'= the
Latin Creticus (-U-). The primary Fa'u.lun becomes by
transposition Lun.fa'u. To bring this into conformity with a
current derivative of fa'l, the initial Sabab must be made to
contain the first letter of the root, and the Watad the two
remaining ones in their proper order. Fa is therefore substituted
for lun, and 'ilun for fa'u, forming together the above Fa.'ilun.
By similar substitutions, which it would be tedious to specify in
each separate case, Mafa.'i.lun becomes:

6. Mus.taf.'ilun, for 'I.lun.mafa, i.e. two Sabab khafif,
followed by Watad majmu' = the Latin Epitritus tertius (- -U-),

7. Fa.'ila.tun, for Lun.mafa.'i, i.e. Watad majmu' between two
Sabab khafif = the Latin Epitritus secundus (-U- -).

8. Mutafa.'ilun (for 'Alatun.mufa, the reversed Mufa.'alatun),
i.e. Fasilah followed by Watad majmu'=the Latin Anapaest
succeeded by Iambus (UU-U-). The last two secondary feet are
transpositions of No. 4, Fa'i.la.tun, namely:

9. Maf.'u.latu, for La.tun.fa'i, i.e. two Sabab khafif,
followed by Watad mafruk = the Latin Epitritus quartus (- - -U).

10. Mus.taf'i.lun, for Tun.fa'i.la, i.e. Watad mafruk between
two Sabab khafif=the Latin Epitritus tertius (- -U-).[FN#452]

The "branch"-foot Fa.'ilun (No. 5), like its "root" Fa'u.lun (No.
1), is quinqueliteral. All other feet, primary or secondary,
consist necessarily of seven letters, as they contain a
triliteral Watad (see supra i. 2) with either two biliteral Sabab
khafif (i. 1) or a quadriliteral Fasilah (i. 3). They are,
therefore, called Saba'i = seven lettered.

iii. The same principle of the Watad taking precedence over
Sabab and Fasilah, rules the arrangement of the Arabic metres,
which are divided into five circles (Dawair, pl. of Dairah), so
called for reasons presently to be explained. The first is named:

A. Dairat al-Mukhtalif, circle of "the varied" metre, because
it is composed of feet of various length, the five-lettered
Fa'ulun (supra ii. 1) and the seven-lettered Mafa'ilun (ii. 2)
with their secondaries Fa'ilun, Mustaf.'ilun and Fa.'ilatun (ii.
5-7), and it comprises three Buhur or metres (pi. of Bahr, sea),
the Tawil, Madid and Basit.

1. Al-Tawil, consisting of twice

Fa'u.lun Mafa.'ilun Fa'u.lun Mafa.'ilun,

the classical scheme for which would be

U - - | U - - - | U - - | U - - - |

If we transfer the Watad Fa'u from the beginning of the line to
the end, it would read:

Lun.mafa'i Lun.fa'u Lun.mafa'i Lun.fa'u which, after the
substitutions indicated above (ii. 7 and 5), becomes:

2. Al-Madid, consisting of twice

Fa.'ilatun Fa.'ilun Fa.'ilatun Fa.'ilun.

which may be represented by the classical scheme

- U - - | - U - | - U - - | - U - |

If again, returning to the Tawil, we make the break after the
Watad of the second foot we obtain the line:

'Ilun.fa'u. Lum.mafa 'Ilun.fa'u Lun.mafa, and as metrically

'Ilun.fa'u (two Sabab followed by Watad) and Lun.mafa (one
Sabab followed by Watad) are='Ilun.mafa and Lun.fa'u
respectively, their Taf'il is effected by the same substitutions
as in ii. 5 and 6, and they become:

3. Basit, consisting of twice

Mustaf.'ilun Fa.'ilun Mustaf.'ilun Fa.'ilun,

in conformity with the classical scheme:

- - U - | - U - | - - U - | - U - |

Thus one metre evolves from another by a kind of rotation, which
suggested to the Prosodists an ingenious device of representing
them by circles (hence the name Dairah), round the circumference
of which on the outside the complete Taf'il of the original metre
is written, while each moved letter is faced by a small loop,
each quiescent by a small vertical stroke[FN#453] inside the
circle. Then, in the case of this present Dairat al-Mukhtalif for
instance, the loop corresponding to the initial f of the first
Fa'ulun is marked as the beginning of the Tawil, that
corresponding to its l (of the Sabab fun) as the beginning of the
Madid, and that corresponding to the 'Ayn of the next Mafa'ilun
as the beginning of the Basit. The same process applies to all
the following circles, but our limited space compels us simply to
enumerate them, together with their Buhur, without further
reference to the mode of their evolution.

B. Dairat al-Mutalif, circle of "the agreeing" metre, so called
because all its feet agree in length, consisting of seven letters
each. It contains:

1. Al-Wafir, composed of twice

Mufa.'alatun Mufa.'alatun Mufa.'alatun (ii. 3)

= U - U U - | U - U U - | U - U U - |

where the Iambus in each foot precedes the Anapaest, and
its reversal:

2. Al-Kamil, consisting of twice

Mutafa.'ilun Mutafa.'ilun Mutafa.'ilun (ii. 8)

= U U - U - | U U - U - | U U - U - |

where the Anapaest takes the first place in every foot.

C. Dairat al-Mujtalab, circle of "the brought on" metre, so
called because its seven-lettered feet are brought on from the
first circle.

1. Al-Hazaj, consisting of twice

Mafa.'ilun Mafa.'ilun Mafa.'ilun (ii. 2)

= U - - - | U - - - | U - - - | U - - - |

2. Al-Rajaz, consisting of twice

Mustaf.'ilun Mustaf.'ilun Mustaf.'ilun,

and, in this full form, almost identical with the Iambic Trimeter
of the Greek Drama:

- - U - | - - U - | - - U - |

3. Al-Ramal, consisting of twice

Fa.'ilatun Fa.'ilatun Fa.'ilatun,

the trochaic counterpart of the preceding metre

= - U - - | - U - - | - U - - |

D. Dairat al-Mushtabih, circle of "the intricate" metre, so
called from its intricate nature, primary mingling with secondary
feet, and one foot of the same verse containing a Watad majmu',
another a Watad mafruk, i.e. the iambic rhythm alternating with
the trochaic and vice versa. Its Buhur are:

1. Al-Sari', twice

Mustaf.'ilun Mustaf.'ilun Maf'u.latu (ii. 6 and 9)
= - - U - | - - U - | - - - U |

2. Al-Munsarih, twice

Mustaf.'ilun Mafu.latu Mustaf.'ilun (ii. 6. 9. 6)
= - - U - | - - - U | - - U - |

3. Al-Khafif, twice

Fa.'ilatun Mustaf'i.lun Fa.'ilatun (ii. 7.10.7)
= - U - - | - - U - | - U - - |

4. Al-Muzari', twice

Mafa.'ilun Fa'i.latun Mafa.'ilun (ii. 2.4.2)
= U - - - | - U - - | U - - - |

5. Al-Muktazib, twice

Maf'u.latu Mustaf.'ilun Maf'u.latu (ii. 9.6.9)
= - - - U | - - U - | - - - U |

6. Al-Mujtass, twice

Mustaf'i.lun Fa.'ilatun Mustaf' i.lun (ii. 10.7.10)
= - - U - | - U - - | - - U - |

E. Dairat al-Muttafik, circle of "the concordant" metre, so
called for the same reason why circle B is called "the agreeing,"
i.e. because the feet all harmonise in length, being here,
however, quinqueliteral, not seven-lettered as in the Matalif.
Al-Khalil the inventor of the ''Ilm al-'Aruz, assigns to it only
one metre:

1. Al-Mutakarib, twice

Fa'ulun Fa'ulun Fa'ulun Fa'ulun (ii. 1)
= U - - | U - - | U - - |

Later Prosodists added:

2. Al-Mutadarak, twice

Fa'ilun Fa'ilun Fa'ilun Fa'ilun (ii. 5)
= - U - | - U - | - U - |

The feet and metres as given above are, however, to a certain
extent merely theoretical; in practice the former admit of
numerous licenses and the latter of variations brought about by
modification or partial suppression of the feet final in a verse.
An Arabic poem (Kasidah, or if numbering less than ten couplets,
Kat'ah) consists of Bayts or couplets, bound together by a
continuous rhyme, which connects the first two lines and is
repeated at the end of every second line throughout the poem. The
last foot of every odd line is called 'Aruz (fem. in
contradistinction of Aruz in the sense of Prosody which is
masc.), pl. A'airiz, that of every even line is called Zarb, pl.
Azrub, and the remaining feet may be termed Hashw (stuffing),
although in stricter parlance a further distinction is made
between the first foot of every odd and even line as well.

Now with regard to the Hashw on the one hand, and the 'Aruz and
Zarb on the other, the changes which the normal feet undergo are
of two kinds: Zuhaf (deviation) and 'Illah (defect). Zuhaf
applies, as a rule, occasionally and optionally to the second
letter of a Sabab in those feet which compose the Hashw or body-
part of a verse, making a long syllable short by suppressing its
quiescent final, or contracting two short quantities in a long
one, by rendering quiescent a moved letter which stands second in
a Sabab sakil. In Mustaf'ilun (ii. 6. = - - U -), for instance,
the s of the first syllable, or the f of the second, or both may
be dropped and it will become accordingly Mutaf'ilun, by
substitution Mafa'ilun (U - U -), or Musta'ilun, by substitution,
Mufta'ilun (- U U -), or Muta'ilun, by substitution Fa'ilatun (U
U U -).[FN#454] This means that wherever the foot Mustaf.'ilun
occurs in the Hashw of a poem, we can represent it by the scheme
U U U - i.e. the Epitritus tertius can, by poetical licence,
change into Diiambus, Choriambus or Paeon quartus. In Mufa'alatun
(ii. 3. = U - U U -) and Mutafa'ilun (ii. 8. = U U - U -), again,
the Sabab 'ala and mute may become khafif by suppression of their
final Harakah and thus turn into Mufa'altun, by substitution
Mafa'ilun (ii. 2. = U - - -), and Mutfa'ilun, by substitution
Mustaf'ilun (ii 6.= - - U U as above). In other words the two
feet correspond to the schemes U_U-U_ and U-U-U-, where a Spondee
can take the place of the Anapaest after or before the Iambus

'Illah, the second way of modifying the primitive or normal feet,
applies to both Sabab and Watad, but only in the 'Aruz and Zarb
of a couplet, being at the same time constant and obligatory.
Besides the changes already mentioned, it consists in adding one
or two letters to a Sabab or Watad, or curtailing them more or
less, even to cutting them off altogether. We cannot here exhaust
this matter any more than those touched upon until now, but must
be satisfied with an example or two, to show the proceeding in
general and indicate its object.

We have seen that the metre Basit consists of the two lines:

Mustaf.'ilun Fa.'ilun Mustaf'ilun Fa'ilun
Mustaf'ilun Fa'ilun Mustaf'ilun Fa'ilun.

This complete form, however, is not in use amongst Arab poets. If
by the Zuhaf Khabn, here acting as 'Illah, the Alif in the final
Fa'ilun is suppressed, changing it into Fa'ilun (U U -), it
becomes the first 'Aruz, called makhbunah, of the Basit, the
first Zarb of which is obtained by submitting the final Fa'ilun
of the second line to the same process. A second Zarb results, if
in Fa'ilun the final n of the 'Watad 'ilun is cut off and the
preceding l made quiescent by the 'Illah Kat' thus giving Fa'il
and by substitution Fa'lun (- -). Thus the formula becomes:--

Mustaf'ilun Fa'ilun Mustaf'ilun Fa'ilun
Mustaf'ilun Fa'ilun Mustaf'ilun{Fa'ilun

As in the Hashw, i.e. the first three feet of each line, the
Khabn can likewise be applied to the medial Fa'ilun, and for
Mustaf'ilun the poetical licences, explained above, may be
introduced, this first 'Aruz or Class of the Basit with its two
Zarb or subdivisions will be represented by the scheme

U U | U | U U |
- - U - | - U - | - - U U | U U -

U U | U { U U -
- - U - | - U - { - -

that is to say in the first subdivision of this form of the Basit
both lines of each couplet end with an Anapaest and every second
line of the other subdivision terminates in a Spondee.

The Basit has four more A'ariz, three called majzuah, because
each line is shortened by a Juz or foot, one called mashturah
(halved), because the number of feet is reduced from four to two,
and we may here notice that the former kind of lessening the
number of feet is frequent with the hexametrical circles (B. C.
D.), while the latter kind can naturally only occur in those
circles whose couplet forms an octameter (A. E.). Besides being
majzuah, the second 'Aruz is sahihah (perfect) consisting of the
normal foot Mustaf'ilun. It has three Azrub: 1. Mustaf'ilan (- -
U -', with an overlong final syllable, see supra p. 238),
produced by the 'Illah Tazyil, i.e. addition of a quiescent
letter at the end (Mustaf'ilunn, by substitution Mustaf'ilan); 2.
Mustaf'ilun, like the 'Aruz; 3. Maf'ulun (- - -), produced by the
'Illah Kat' (see the preceding page; Mustaf'ilun, by dropping the
final n and making the l quiescent becomes Mustaf'il and by
substitution Maf'ulun). Hence the formula is:

Mustaf'ilun Fa'ilun Mustaf'ilun
{ Mustaf'il n
Mustaf'ilun Fa'ilun{ Mustaf'ilun
{ Maf'uulun,

which, with its allowable licenses, may be represented by the

U U | U |
- - U - | - U - | - - U -

{ U U
U U | U { - - U -
- - U - | - U - { - - U -
{ U
{ - - -

The above will suffice to illustrate the general method of the
Prosodists, and we must refer the reader for the remaining
classes and subdivisions of the Basit as well as the other metres
to more special treatises on the subject, to which this Essay is
intended merely as an introduction, with a view to facilitate the
first steps of the student in an important, but I fear somewhat
neglected, field of Arabic learning.

If we now turn to the poetical pieces contained in The Nights, we
find that out of the fifteen metres, known to al-Khalil, or the
sixteen of later Prosodists, instances of thirteen occur in the
Mac. N. edition, but in vastly different proportions. The total
number amounts to 1,385 pieces (some, however, repeated several
times), out of which 1,128 belong to the first two circles,
leaving only 257 for the remaining three. The same
disproportionality obtains with regard to the metres of each
circle. The Mukhtalif is represented by 331 instances of Tawil
and 330 of Basit against 3 of Madid; the Mutalif by 321 instances
of Kamil against 143 of Wafir; the Mujtalab by 32 instances of
Ramal and 30 of Rajaz against 1 of Hazaj; the Mushtabih by 72
instances of Khafif and 52 of Sari' against 18 of Munsarih and 15
of Mujtass; and lastly the Muttafik by 37 instances of Mutakarib.
Neither the Mutadarak (E. 2), nor the Muzari' and Muktazib (D.
4.5) are met with.

Finally it remains for me to quote a couplet of each metre,
showing how to scan them, and what relation they bear to the
theoretical formulas exhibited on p. 242 to p. 247.

It is characteristic for the preponderance of the Tawil over all
the other metres, that the first four lines, with which my
alphabetical list begins, are written in it. One of these belongs
to a poem which has for its author Baha al-Din Zuhayr (born A.D.
1186 at Mekkah or in its vicinity, ob. 1249 at Cairo), and is to
be found in full in Professor Palmer's edition of his works, p.
164. Sir Richard Burton translates the first Bayt (vol. i. 290):

An I quit Cairo and her pleasances * Where can I hope
to find so gladsome ways?

Professor Palmer renders it:

Must I leave Egypt where such joys abound?
What place can ever charm me so again ?

In Arabic it scans:

U - U | U - - - | U - U | U - U - |
A-arhalu'en Misrin wa tibi na'imihil[FN#455]
U - U | U - - - | U - U | U - U - |
Fa-ayyu makanin ba'daha li-ya shaiku.

In referring to iii. A. I. p. 242, it will be seen that in the
Hashw Fa'ulun (U - -) has become Fa'ulu (U - U) by a Zuhaf called
Kabz (suppression of the fifth letter of a foot if it is
quiescent) and that in the 'Aruz and Zarb Mafa'ilun (U - - -) has
changed into Mafa'ilun (U - U -) by the same Zuhaf acting as
'Illah. The latter alteration shows the couplet to be of the
second Zarb of the first 'Aruz of the Tawil. If the second line
did terminate in Mafa'ilun, as in the original scheme, it would
be the first Zarb of the same 'Aruz; if it did end in Fa'ulun (U
- -) or Mafa'il (U - -) it would represent the third or fourth
subdivision of this first class respectively. The Tawil has one
other 'Aruz, Fa'ulun, with a twofold Zarb, either Fa'ulun also,
or Mafa'ilun.

The first instance of the Basit occurring in The Nights are the
lines translated vol. i. p. 25:

Containeth Time a twain of days, this of blessing, that of bane *
And holdeth Life a twain of halves, this of pleasure, that
of pain.

In Arabic (Mac. N. i. II):

- - U - | - U - | - - U - | U U - |
Al-Dahru yaumani za amnun wa za hazaru

- - U - | - U - | - - U - | U U - |
Wa'l-'Ayshu shatrani za safwun wa za kadaru.

Turning back to p. 243, where the A'ariz and Azrub of the Basit
are shown, the student will have no difficulty to recognise the
Bayt as one belonging to the first Zarb of the first 'Aruz.

As an example of the Madid we quote the original of the lines
(vol. v. 131):--

I had a heart, and with it lived my life * 'Twas seared with fire
and burnt with loving-lowe.

They read in Arabic:--

- U - - | - U - | U U - |
Kana li kalbun a'ishu bihi

- U - - | - U - | U - |
Fa'ktawa bi'l-nari wa'htarak.

If we compare this with the formula (iii. A. 2. p. 242), we find
that either line of the couplet is shortened by a foot; it is,
therefore, majzu. The first 'Aruz of this abbreviated metre is
Fa'ilatun (- U - -), and is called sahihah (perfect) because it
consists of the normal third foot. In the second 'Aruz, Fa'ilatun
loses its end syllable tun by the 'Illah Hafz (suppression of a
final Sabab khafif), and becomes Fa'ila (- U -), for which
Fa'ilun is substituted. Shortening the first syllable of Fa'ilun,
i.e. eliminating the Alif by Khabn, we obtain the third 'Aruz
Fa'ilun (U U -) as that of the present lines, which has two
Azrub: Fa'ilun, like the 'Aruz, and Fa'lun (- -), here, again by
Khabn, further reduced to Fa'al (U -).

Ishak of Mosul, who improvises the piece, calls it "so difficult
and so rare, that it went nigh to deaden the quick and to quicken
the dead"; indeed, the native poets consider the metre Madid as
the most difficult of all, and it is scarcely ever attempted by
later writers. This accounts for its rare occurrence in The
Nights, where only two more instances are to be found, Mac. N.
ii. 244 and iii.

The second and third circle will best be spoken of together, as
the Wafir and Kamil have a natural affinity to the Hazaj and
Rajaz. Let us revert to the line:--

U - - - | U - - - | U - - |
Akamu 'l-wajda fi kalbi wa saru.

Translated, as it were, into the language of the Prosodists it
will be:--

Mafa'ilun[FN#456] 'Mafa'ilun Fa'ulun,

and this, standing by itself, might prima facie be taken for a
line of the Hazaj (iii. C. I), with the third Mafa'ilun shortened
by Hafz (see above) into Mafa'i for which Fa'ulun would be
substituted. We have seen (p. 247) that and how the foot
Mufa'alatun can change into Mafa'ilun, and if in any poem which
otherwise would belong to the metre Hazaj, the former measure
appears even in one foot only along with the latter, it is
considered to be the original measure, and the poem counts no
longer as Hazaj but as Wafir. In the piece now under
consideration, it is the second Bayt where the characteristic
foot of the Wafir first appears:--

U - - - | U - U U | U - - |
Naat 'anni'l-rubu'u wa sakiniha

U - U U - | U - U U - | U - - |
Wa kad ba'uda 'l-mazaru fa-la mazaru.

Anglice (vol. iii. 296):--

Far lies the camp and those who camp therein; * Far is her tent
shrine where I ne'er shall tent.

It must, however, be remarked that the Hazaj is not in use as a
hexameter, but only with an 'Aruz majzuah or shortened by one
foot. Hence it is only in the second 'Aruz of the Wafir, which is
likewise majzuah, that the ambiguity as to the real nature of the
metre can arise;[FN#457] and the isolated couplet:--

U - - - | U - - - | U - - |
Yaridu 'l-mar-u an yu'ta munahu

U - - - | U - - - | U - - |
Wa yaba 'llahu illa ma yuridu

Man wills his wish to him accorded be, * But Allah naught accords
save what he wills (vol. iv. 157),

being hexametrical, forms undoubtedly part of a poem in Wafir
although it does not contain the foot Mufa'alatun at all. Thus
the solitary instance of Hazaj in The Nights is Abu Nuwas'
abomination, beginning with:--

U - - - | U - - - |

Fa-la tas'au ila ghayri

U - - - | U - - - |
Fa-'indi ma'dinu 'l-khayri (Mac. N. ii. 377).

Steer ye your steps to none but me * Who have a mine of luxury
(vol. v. 65).

If in the second 'Aruz of the Wafir, Maf'ailun (U - - -) is
further shortened to Mafa'ilun (U - U -), the metre resembles the
second 'Aruz of Rajaz, where, as we have seen, the latter foot
can, by licence, take the place of the normal Mustaf'ilun (- - U

The Kamil bears a similar relation to the Rajaz, as the Wafir
bears to the Hazaj. By way of illustration we quote from Mac. N.
ii. 8 the first two Bayts of a little poem taken from the 23rd
Assembly of Al Hariri:--

- - U - | - - U - | U U - U - |
Ya khatiba 'l-dunya 'l-daniyyati innaha

U U - U - | U U - U - | - - - |
Sharaku 'l-rada wa kararatu 'l-akdari

- - U - | - - U - | - - U - |
Darun mata ma azhakat fi yaumiha

- - U - | - - U - | - - - |
Abkat ghadan bu'dan laha min dari.

In Sir Richard Burton's translation (vol. iii. 319):--

O thou who woo'st a World unworthy, learn * 'Tis house of evils,
'tis Perdition's net:
A house where whoso laughs this day shall weep * The next; then
perish house of fume and fret.

The 'Aruz of the first couplet is Mutafa'ilun, assigning the
piece to the first or perfect (sahihah) class of the Kamil. In
the Hashw of the opening line and in that of the whole second
Bayt this normal Mutafa'ilun has, by licence, become Mustaf'ilun,
and the same change has taken place in the 'Aruz of the second
couplet; for it is a peculiarity which this metre shares with a
few others, to allow certain alterations of the kind Zuhaf in the
'Aruz and Zarb as well as in the Hashw. This class has three
subdivisions: the Zarb of the first is Mutafa'ilun, like the
'Aruz the Zarb of the second is Fa'alatun (U U - -), a
substitution for Mutafa'il which latter is obtained from
Mutafa'ilun by suppressing the final n and rendering the l
quiescent; the Zarb of the third is Fa'lun (- - -) for Mutfa,
derived from Mutafa'ilun by cutting off the Watad 'ilun and
dropping the medial a of the remaining Mutafa.

If we make the 'Ayn of the second Zarb Fa'alatun also quiescent
by the permitted Zuhaf Izmar, it changes into Fa'latun, by
substitution Maf 'ulun (- - -) which terminates the rhyming lines
of the foregoing quotation. Consequently the two couplets taken
together, belong to the second Zarb of the first 'Aruz of the
Kamil, and the metre of the poem with its licences may be
represensed by the scheme:

- | - | - |
U U - U - | U U - U - | U U - U - |

- | - | - |
U U - U - | U U - U - | U U - - |

Taken isolated, on the other hand, the second Bayt might be of
the metre Rajaz, whose first 'Aruz Mustaf'ilun has two Azrub: one
equal to the Aruz, the other Maf'ulun as above, but here
substituted for Mustaf'il after applying the 'Illah Kat' (see p
247) to Mustaf'ilun. If this were the metre of the poem
throughout the scheme with the licences peculiar to the Rajaz
would be:

U U | U U | U U |
- - U U | - - U - | - - U - |

U U | U U | U |
- - U - | - - U - | - - - |

The pith of Al-Hariri's Assembly is that the knight errant not to
say the arrant wight of the Romance, Abu Sayd of Saruj accuses
before the Wali of Baghdad his pretended pupil, in reality his
son, to have appropriated a poem of his by lopping off two feet
of every Bayt. If this is done in the quoted lines, they read:

- - U - | - - U - |
Ya khatiba 'l-dunya 'l-dandy.

U U - U | U U - U - |
Yati innaha sharaku 'l-rada

- - U - | - - U - |
Darun mata ma azhakat,

- - U - | - - U - |
Fi yaumiha abkat ghada,

with a different rhyme and of a different variation of metre. The
amputated piece belongs to the fourth Zarb of the third 'Aruz of
Kamil, and its second couplet tallies with the second subdivision
of the second class of Rajaz.

The Rajaz, an iambic metre pure and simple, is the most popular,
because the easiest, in which even the Prophet was caught napping
sometimes, at the dangerous risk of following the perilous
leadership of Imru 'l-Kays. It is the metre of improvisation, of
ditties, and of numerous didactic poems. In the latter case, when
the composition is called Urjuzah, the two lines of every Bayt
rhyme, and each Bayt has a rhyme of its own. This is the form in
which, for instance, Ibn Malik's Alfiyah is written, as well as
the remarkable grammatical work of the modern native scholar,
Nasif al-Yaziji, of which a notice will be found in Chenery's
Introduction to his Translation of Al-Hariri.

While the Hazaj and Rajaz connect the third circle with the first
and second, the Ramal forms the link between the third and fourth
Dairah. Its measure Fa'ilatun (- U - -) and the reversal of it,
Maf'ulatu (- - - U), affect the trochaic rhythm, as opposed to
the iambic of the two first-named metres. The iambic movement has
a ring of gladness about it, the trochaic a wail of sadness: the
former resembles a nimble pedestrian, striding apace with an
elastic step and a cheerful heart; the latter is like a man
toiling along on the desert path, where his foot is ever and anon
sliding back in the burning sand (Raml, whence probably the name
of the metre). Both combined in regular alternation, impart an
agitated character to the verse, admirably fit to express the
conflicting emotions of a passion stirred mind.

Examples of these more or less plaintive and pathetic metres are
numerous in the Tale of Uns al-Wujud and the Wazir's Daughter,
which, being throughout a story of love, as has been noted, vol.
v. 33, abounds in verse, and, in particular, contains ten out of
the thirty two instances of Ramal occurring in The Nights. We

Ramal, first Zarb of the first 'Aruz (Mac. N. ii. 361):

- U - - | U U - - | - U - |
Inna li 'l-bulbuli sautan fi 'l-sahar

- U - - | U U - - | - U - |
Ashghala 'l-ashika 'an husni 'l-water

The Bulbul's note, whenas dawn is nigh * Tells the lover from
strains of strings to fly (vol. v. 48).

Sari', second Zarb of the first 'Aruz (Mac. N. ii. 359):

U - U - | - - U - | - U - |
Wa fakhitin kad kala fi nauhihi

- - U - | - - U - | - U - |
Ya Daiman shukran 'ala balwati

I heard a ringdove chanting soft and plaintively, * "I thank
Thee, O Eternal for this misery" (vol. v. 47).

Khafif, full or perfect form (sahih), both in Zarb and 'Aruz
(Mac. N. ii. 356):

- U - - | U - U - | - U - - |
Ya li-man ashtaki 'l-gharama 'llazi bi

U U - - | U - U - | - U - - |
Wa shujuni wa furkati 'an habibi

O to whom now of my desire complaining sore shall I * Bewail my
parting from my fere compelled thus to fly (vol. v. 44).

Mujtass, the only 'Aruz (majzuah sahihah, i.e. shortened by one
foot and perfect) with equal Zarb (Mac. N. ii. 367):

- - U - | U U - - |
Ruddu 'alayya habibi

- - U - | - U - - |
La hajatan li bi-malin

To me restore my dear * I want not wealth untold (vol. v. 55).

As an instance of the Munsarih, I give the second occurring in
The Nights, because it affords me an opportunity to show the
student how useful a knowledge of the laws of Prosody frequently
proves for ascertaining the correct reading of a text. Mac. N. i.
33 we find the line:

- U U - | - U U - | - U U - |
Arba'atun ma 'jtama'at kattu iza.

This would be Rajaz with the licence Mufta'ilun for Mustaf'ilun.
But the following lines of the fragment evince, that the metre is
Munsarih; hence, a clerical error must lurk somewhere in the
second foot. In fact, on page 833 of the same volume, we find the
piece repeated, and here the first couplet reads

- U U - | - U - U | - U U - |
Arba'atun ma 'jtama'na kattu siwa

U - U - | - U - U | - U U - |
Ala aza mujhati wa safki dami

Four things which ne'er conjoin unless it be * To storm my vitals
and to shed my blood (vol. iii. 237).

The Mutakarib, the last of the metres employed in The Nights, has
gained a truly historical importance by the part which it plays
in Persian literature. In the form of trimetrical double-lines,
with a several rhyme for each couplet, it has become the
"Nibelungen"-stanza of the Persian epos:
Firdausi's immortal "Book of Kings" and Nizami's Iskander-namah
are written in it, not to mention a host of Masnawis in which
Sufic mysticism combats Mohammedan orthodoxy. On account of its
warlike and heroical character, therefore, I choose for an
example the knightly Jamrakan's challenge to the single fight in
which he conquers his scarcely less valiant adversary Kaurajan,
Mac. N. iii. 296:

U - - | U - U | U - - | U - - |
Ana 'l-Jamrakanu kawiyyn 'l-janani

U - - | U - U | U - - | U - - |
Jami'u 'l-fawarisi takhsha kitali.

Here the third syllable of the second foot in each line is
shortened by licence, and the final Kasrah of the first line,
standing in pause, is long, the metre being the full form of the
Mutakarib as exhibited p. 246, iii. E. 1. If we suppress the
Kasrah of al-Janani, which is also allowable in pause, and make
the second line to rhyme with the first, saying, for instance:

U - - | U - U | U - - | U -
Ana 'l-Jamrakanu kawiyyu 'l-janan

U - - | U - - | U - - | U -
La-yaksha kitali shija'u 'l-zaman,

we obtain the powerful and melodious metre in which the Shahnamah
sings of Rustam's lofty deeds, of the tender love of Rudabah and
the tragic downfall of Siyawush

Shall I confess that in writing the foregoing pages it has been
my ambition to become a conqueror, in a modest way, myself: to
conquer, I mean, the prejudice frequently entertained, and shared
even by my accomplished countryman, Rueckert, that Arabic Prosody
is a clumsy and repulsive doctrine. I have tried to show that it
springs naturally from the character of the language, and,
intimately connected, as it is, with the grammatical system of
the Arabs, it appears to me quite worthy of the acumen of a
people, to whom, amongst other things, we owe the invention of
Algebra, the stepping-stone of our whole modern system of
Mathematics I cannot refrain, therefore, from concluding with a
little anecdote anent al-Khalil, which Ibn Khallikan tells in the
following words. His son went one day into the room where his
father was, and on finding him scanning a piece of poetry by the
rules of Prosody he ran out and told the people that his father
had lost his wits. They went in immediately and related to
al-Khalil what they had heard, on which he addressed his son in
these terms:

"Had you known what I was saying, you would have excused me, and
had you known what you said, I should have blamed you But you did
not understand me, so you blamed me, and I knew that you were
ignorant, so I pardoned you."


Here end, to my sorrow, the labours of a quarter-century, and
here I must perforce say with the "poets' Poet,"

"Behold! I see the haven nigh at hand,
To which I mean my wearie course to bend;
Vere the main shete, and bear up with the land
The which afore is fairly to be ken'd."

Nothing of importance now indeed remains for me but briefly to
estimate the character of my work and to take cordial leave of my
readers, thanking them for the interest they have accorded to
these volumes and for enabling me thus successfully to complete
the decade.

Without pudor malus or over-diffidence I would claim to have
fulfilled the promise contained in my Foreword. The
anthropological notes and notelets, which not only illustrate and
read between the lines of the text, but assist the student of
Moslem life and of Arabo-Egyptian manners, customs and language
in a multitude of matters shunned by books, form a repertory of
Eastern knowledge in its esoteric phase, sexual as well as

To assert that such lore is unnecessary is to state, as every
traveller knows, an "absurdum." Few phenomena are more startling
than the vision of a venerable infant, who has lived half his
long life in the midst of the wildest anthropological vagaries
and monstrosities, and yet who absolutely ignores all that India
or Burmah enacts under his very eyes. This is crass ignorance,
not the naive innocence of Saint Francis who, seeing a man and a
maid in a dark corner, raised his hands to Heaven and thanked the
Lord that there was still in the world so much of Christian

Against such lack of knowledge my notes are a protest; and I may
claim success despite the difficulty of the task. A traveller
familiar with Syria and Palestine, Herr Landberg, writes, "La
plume refuserait son service, la langue serait insuffisante, si
celui qui connait la vie de tous les jours des Orientaux, surtout
des classes elevees, voulait la devoiler. L'Europe est bien loin
d'en avoir la moindre idee."

In this matter I have done my best, at a time too when the
hapless English traveller is expected to write like a young lady
for young ladies, and never to notice what underlies the most
superficial stratum. And I also maintain that the free treatment
of topics usually taboo'd and held to be "alekta"--unknown and
unfitted for publicity--will be a national benefit to an "Empire
of Opinion," whose very basis and buttresses are a thorough
knowledge by the rulers of the ruled. Men have been crowned with
gold in the Capitol for lesser services rendered to the

That the work contains errors, shortcomings and many a lapsus, I
am the first and foremost to declare. Yet in justice to myself I
must also notice that the maculae are few and far between; even
the most unfriendly and interested critics have failed to point
out an abnormal number of slips. And before pronouncing the "Vos
plaudite!" or, as Easterns more politely say, "I implore that my
poor name may be raised aloft on the tongue of praise," let me
invoke the fair field and courteous favour which the Persian poet
expected from his readers.

(Veil it, an fault thou find, nor jibe nor jeer:--
None may be found of faults and failings clear!)


Athenaeum Club, September 30, '86.



I make no apology for the number and extent of bibliographical
and other lists given in this Appendix: they may cumber the book
but they are necessary to complete my design. This has been to
supply throughout the ten volumes the young Arabist and student
of Orientalism and Anthropology with such assistance as I can
render him; and it is my conviction that if with the aid of this
version he will master the original text of the "Thousand Nights
and a Night," he will find himself at home amongst educated men
in Egypt and Syria, Najd and Mesopotamia, and be able to converse
with them like a gentleman; not, as too often happens in Anglo-
India, like a "Ghorawala" (groom). With this object he will
learn by heart what instinct and inclination suggest of the
proverbs and instances, the verses, the jeux d'esprit and
especially the Koranic citations scattered about the text; and my
indices will enable him to hunt up the tale or the verses which
he may require for quotation wven when writing an ordinary letter
to a "native" correspondent. Thus he will be spared the wasted
labour of wading through volumes in order to pick up a line.

The following is the list of indices:--

Appendix I.

I. Index to the Tales in the ten Volumes.
II. Alphabetical Table of the Notes (Anthropological, etc.)
prepared by F. Steingass, Ph.D.
III. Alphabetical Table of First Lines (metrical portion) in
English and Arabic, prepared by Dr. Steingass.
IV. Tables of Contents of the various Arabic texts.
A. The Unfinished Calcutta Edition (1814-18).
B. The Breslau Text (1825-43) from Mr. Payne's Version.
C. The MacNaghten or Turner-Macan Text (A.D. 1839-42) and
the Bulak Edition (A.H. 1251 = A.D. 1835-36), from Mr.
Payne's Version.
D. The same with Mr. Lane's and my Version.

Appendix II.

Contributions to the Bibliography of the Thousand and One Nights,
and their Imitations, with a Table shewing the contents of the
principal editions and translations of The Nights. By W. F.
Kirby, Author of "Ed-Dimiryaht, and Oriental Romance"; "The New
Arabian Nights," $c.

Appendix I

Index I

Index to the Tales and Proper Names.

N.B.--The Roman numerals denote the volume {page numbers have
been omitted}

Abdullah the Fisherman and Abdullah the Merman, ix.
Abdullah bin Fazl and his brothers, ix.
Abdullah bin Ma'amar with the Man of Bassorah and his slave-girl,
Abd al-Rahman the Moor's story of the Rukh, v.
Abu Hasan al-Ziyadi and the Khorasan Man, iv.
Abu Hasan, how he brake Wind, v.
Abu Isa and Kurrat al-Aye, The Loves of, v.
Abu Ja'afar the Leper, Abu al-Hasan al-Durraj and, v.
Abu Kir the Dyer and Abu Sir the Barber, ix.
Abu al-Aswad and his squinting slave-girl, v.
Abu al Husn and his slave-girl Tawaddud, v.
Abu al Hasan al-Durraj and Abu Ja'afar the Leper, v.
Abu al Hasan of Khorasan, ix.
Abu Mohammed highs Lazybones, iv.
Abu Nowas, Harun al-Rashid with the damsel and, iv.
Abu Nowas and the Three Boys, v.
Abu Sir the Barber, Abu Kir the Dyer and, ix.
Abu Suwayd and the handsome old woman, v.
Abu Yusuf with Harun al-Rashid and his Wazir Ja'afar, The Imam,
Abu Yusuf with Al-Rashid and Zubaydah, The Imam, iv.
Adam, The Birds and Beasts and the Son of, iii.
Adi bin Zayd and the Princess Hind, v.
Ajib, The History of Gharib and his brother, vi.
Ala al-Din Abu al-Shamat, iv.
Alexandria (The Sharper of) and the Master of Police, iv.
Ali bin Bakkar and Shams al-Nahar, iii.
Ali of Cairo, The Adventures of Mercury, vii.
Ali Nur al-Din and Miriam the Girdle-Girl, viii.
Ali the Persian and the Kurd Sharper, iv.
Ali Shar and Zumurrud, iv.
Ali bin Tahir and the girl Muunis, v.
Al Malik al-Nasir (Saladin) and the Three Chiefs of Police, iv.
Almsgiving, The Woman whose hands were cut off for, iv.
Amin (Al-) and his uncle Ibrahim bin al-Mahdi, v.
Anushirwan, Kisra, and the village damsel, v.
Anushirwan, The Righteousness of King, v.
Angel of Death and the King of the Children of Israel, The, v
Angel of Death with the Proud King and the Devout Man, The, v.
Angel of Death and the Rich King, The, v.
Anis al-Jalis, Nur al-Din Ali and the damsel, ii.
Ape, The King's daughter and the, iv.
Apples, The Three, i.
Arab Girl, Harun al-Rashid and the, vii.
Arab Youth, The Caliph Hisham and the, iv.
Ardashir and Hayat al-Nufus, vii.
Asma'i (Al-) and the three girls of Bassorah, vii.
Ass, The Ox and the, i.
Ass, The Wild, The Fox and, ix.
Ayishah, Musab bin al-Zubayr and his wife, v.
Aziz and Azizah, Tale of, ii.
Azizah, Aziz and. ii.
Badawi, Ja'afar the Barmecide and the old, v.
Badawi, Omar bin al-Khattab and the young, v.
Badawi, and his Wife, The, vii.
Badi'a al-Jamal, Sayf al-Muluk and, vii.
Badr Basim of Persia, Julnar the Sea-born, and her Son King, vii.
Badr al-Din Hasan, Nur al-Din Ali of Cairo and his son, i.
Baghdad, The Haunted House in, v.
Baghdad, Khalifah the Fisherman of, viii.
Baghdad, The Porter and the Three Ladies of, i.
Baghdad, (The ruined man of) and his slave-girl, ix.
Baghdad, The Sweep and the noble Lady of, iv.
Bakun's Story of the Hashish-Eater, ii.
Banu Tayy, The Lovers of the, v.
Banu Ozrah, The Lovers of the, v.
Barber's Tale of himself, The, i.
Barber's First Brother, Story of the, i.
Barber's Second Brother, Story of the, i
Barber's Third Brother, Story of the, i.
Barber's Fourth Brother, Story of the, i.
Barber's Fifth Brother, Story of the, i.
Barber's Sixth Brother, Story of the, i.
Barber, Abu Kir the Dyer and Abu Sir the, ix.
Barber-Surgeon, Ibrahim bin al-Mahdi and the, iv.
Barmecide. Ja'afar the, and the old Badawi, v
Bassorah (the man of ) and his slave-girl, Abdullah bin Ma'amar
with, v.
Bassorah, Al-Asma'i and the three girls of, vii.
Bassorah, (Hasan of) and the King's daughter of the Jinn, viii.
Bassorah, The Lovers of, vii.
Bath, Harun al-Rashid and Zubaydah in the, v.
Bathkeeper's Wife, The Wazir's Son and the, vi.
Beanselller, Ja'afar the Barmecide and the, iv.
Bear, Wardan the Butcher's adventure with the Lady and the, iv.
Beasts and the Son of Adam, The Birds and, iii.
Behram, Prince of Persia, and the Princess Al-Datma, vi.
Belvedere, The House with the, vi.
Birds and Beasts and the Carpenter, The, iii.
Birds, The Falcon and the, iii.
Birds (the Speech of), The page who feigned to know, vi.
Black Slave, The pious, v.
Blacksmith who could handle fire without hurt, The, v.
Blind Man and the Cripple, The, ix.
Boys, Abu Nowas and the Three, v.
Boy and Girl at School, The Loves of the, v.
Boy and the Thieves, The, ix.
Boy (The woman who had to lover a) and the other who had to lover
a man, v.
Brass, The City of, vi.
Broker's Story, The Christian, i.
Budur and Jubayr bin Umayr, The Loves of, iv.
Budur, Kamar al-Zaman and, iii.
Bukhayt, Story of the Eunuch, ii.
Bulak Police, Story of the Chief of the, iv.
Bull and the Ass (Story of), i.
Bulukiya, Adventures of, v.
Butcher's adventure with the Lady and the Bear, Wardan the, iv.
Butter, The Fakir and his pot of, ix.
Cairo (New) Police, Story of the Chief of the, iv.
Cairo (Old) Police, Story of the Chief of the, iv.
Cairo, The Adventures of Mercury Ali of, vii.
Caliph Al-Maamun and the Strange Doctor, iv.
Caliph, The mock, iv.
Cashmere Singing-girl, The Goldsmith and the, vi.
Cat and the Crow, The, iii.
Cat and the Mouse, The, ix.
Champion (The Moslem) and the Christian Lady, v.
Chaste Wife, The Rake's Trick against the, vi.
Christian Broker's Story, The, i.
City of Labtayt, The, vi.
Cloud (The saint to whom Allah gave a) to serve him, v.
Cobbler (Ma'aruf the) and his wife Fatimah, x.
Confectioner, his Wife and the Parrot, The, vi.
Crab, The Fishes and the, ix.
Craft and Malice of Women, The, vi.
Cripple, The Blind Man and the, ix.
Crow, The Fox and the, iii.
Crow and the Serpent, The, ix.
Crow, The Cat and the, iii.
Crows and the Hawk, The, ix.
Dalilah the Crafty and her daughter Zaynab the Coney-catcher, The
Rogueries of, vii.
Datma (The Princess Al-), Prince Behram of Persia and, vi.
Death (The Angel of) and the King of the Children of Israel, v.
Death (The Angel of) with the Proud King and the Devout Man, v.
Death (The Angel of) and the Rich King, v.
Debauchee and the Three-year-old Child, The, vi.
Desert (The old woman who dwelt in the) and the pilgrim, v.
Device (The Wife's) to cheat her husband, vi.
Devil, Ibrahim of Mosul and the, vii.
Devil, Isaac of Mosul and his mistress and the, vii.
Devout Israelite, The, iv.
Devout Tray-maker and his wife, The, v.
Devout Prince, The, v.
Devout woman and the two wicked elders, The, v.
Dibil al-Khazai and Muslim bin al-Walid, v.
Dish of Gold, The man who stole the Dog's, iv.
Doctor (The strange) and the Caliph Al-Maamun, iv
Dog's Dish of Gold, The man who stole the, iv.
Dream, The ruined man who became rich through a, iv.
Drop of Honey, The, vi.
Duban, The Physician, i.
Dunya, Taj al-Muluk and the Princess, ii.
Durraj (Abu al-Hasan al-) and Abu Ja'afar the Leper, v.
Dust, The woman who made her husband sift, vi.
Dyer, Abu Sir the Barber and Abu Kir the, ix
Eagle, The Sparrow and the, iii.
Ebony Horse, The, v.
Egypt (The man of Upper) and his Frankish wife, ix.
Elders, The Devout woman and the two wicked, v.
Eldest Lady's Story, The, i.
Enchanted Spring, The, vi.
Enchanted Youth, The, i.
Envied, The Envier and the, i.
Envier and the Envied, The, i.
Eunuch Bukhayt, Tale of the, ii.
Eunuch Kafur, Tale of the, ii.
Fakir and his jar of butter, The, ix.
Falcon and the Partridge, The, iii.
Falcon, King Sindibad and his, i.
Fatimah, Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his wife, x.
Fath bin Khakan (Al-) and Al-Mutawakkil, v.
Ferryman of the Nile and the Hermit, The, v.
First Old Man's Story, i.
Fisherman, Abdullah the Merman and Abdullah the, ix.
Fisherman of Baghdad, Khalifah the, viii.
Fisherman, The Foolish, ix.
Fisherman and the Jinni, The, i.
Fisherman, Khusrau and Shirin and the, v.
Fishes and the Crab, The, ix.
Five Suitors, The Lady and her, vi.
Flea and the Mouse, The, iii.
Folk, The Fox and the, vi.
Forger, Yahya bin Khalid and the, iv.
Fox and the Crow, The, iii.
Fox and the Folk, The, vi.
Fox, The Wolf and the, iii.
Francolin and the Tortoises, The, ix.
Frank King's Daughter, Ali Nur al-Din and the, viii.
Frank wife, The man of Upper Egypt and his, ix.
Fuller and his son, The, vi.
Generous friend, The poor man and his, iv.
Ghanim bin Ayyub the Thrall o' Love, ii.
Gharib and his brother Ajib, The History of, vi.
Girl, Harun al-Rashid and the Arab, vii.
Girl at School, The Loves of the Boy and, v.
Girls of Bassorah, Al-Asma'i and the three, vii.
Girls, Harun al-Rashid and the three, v.
Girls, Harun al-Rashid, and the two, v.
Goldsmith and the Cashmere Singing Girl, The, vi.
Goldsmith's wife, The water-carrier and the, v.
Hajjaj (Al-) Hind daughter of Al Nu'uman and, vii.
Hajjaj (Al-) and the pious man, v.
Hakim (The Caliph Al-) and the Merchant, v.
Hammad the Badawi, Tale of, ii.
Hariri (Al ) Abu Zayd's lament for his impotency. Final Note to
vol. viii
Harun al-Rashid and the Arab girl, vii.
Harun al-Rashid and the Slave-Girl and the Imam Abu Yusuf, iv.
Harun al-Rashid with the Damsel and Abu Nowas, iv.
Harun al-Rashid and Abu Hasan the Merchant of Oman, ix.
Harun al-Rashid and the three girls, v.
Harun al-Rashid and the two girls, v.
Harun al-Rashid and the three poets, v.
Harun al-Rashid and Zubaydah in the Bath, v.
Hashish-Eater, Bakun's tale of the, ii.
Hasan of Bassorah and the King's daughter of the Jinn, vii.
Hasan, King Mohammed bin Sabaik and the Merchant, vii.
Hatim al-Tayyi: his generosity after death, iv.
Haunted House in Baghdad, The, v.
Hawk, The Crows and the, ix.
Hayat al-Nufus, Ardashir and, vii.
Hedgehog and the wood Pigeons, The, iii.
Hermit, The Ferryman of the Nile and the, v.
Hermits, The, iii.
Hind, Adi bin Zayd and the Princess, v.
Hind daughter of Al-Nu'uman and Al-Hajjaj, vii.
Hind (King Jali'ad of ) and his Wazir Shimas, ix.
Hisham and the Arab Youth, The Caliph, iv.
Honey, The Drop of, vi.
Horse, The Ebony, v.
House with the Belvedere, The, vi.
Hunchback's Tale, The, i.
Husband and the Parrot, The, i.
Ibn al-Karibi, Masrur and, v.
Ibrahim al-Khawwas and the Christian King's Daughter, v.
Ibrahim.bin al-Khasib and Jamilah, ix.
Ibrahim.of Mosul and the Devil, vii.
Ibrahim.bin al-Mahdi and Al-Amin, v.
Ibrahim.bin al-Mahdi and the Barber Surgeon, iv.
Ibrahim.bin al-Mahdi and the Merchant's Sister, iv.
Ifrit's mistress and the King's Son, The, vi.
Ignorant man who set up for a Schoolmaster, The, v.
Ikrimah al-Fayyaz, Khuzaymah bin Bishr and, vii.
Imam Abu Yusuf with Al-Rashid and Zubaydah, The, iv.
Introduction. Story of King Shahryar and his brother, i.
Iram, The City of, iv.
Isaac of Mosul's Story of Khadijah and the Caliph Maamun, iv.
Isaac of Mosul and the Merchant, v.
Isaac of Mosul and his Mistress and the Devil, vii.
Island, The King of the, v.
Iskandar Zu Al-Karnayn and a certain Tribe of poor folk, v.
Israelite, The Devout, iv.
Jackals and the Wolf, The, ix.
Ja'afar the Barmecide and the Beanseller, iv.
Ja'afar the Barmecide and the old Badawi, v.
Ja'afar bin al-Had), Mohammed al-Amin, and, v.
Jamilah, Ibrahim bin al-Khasib, and, ix.
Janshah, The Story of, v.
Jali'ad of Hind and his Wazir Shimas, King, ix.
Jeweller's Wife, Kamar al-Zaman and the, ix.
Jewish Kazi and his pious Wife, The, v.
Jewish Doctor's Tale, The, i.
Jinni, The Fisherman and the, i.
Jinni, The Trader and the, i.
Jubayr bin Umayr and Budur, The Loves of, iv.
Judar and his brethren, vi.
Julnar the Sea-born and her son King Badr Basim of Persia, vii.
Justice of Providence, The, v.
Kafur, Story of the Eunuch, ii.
Kalandar's Tale, The first, i.
Kalandar's Tale The second, i.
Kalandar's Tale The third, i.
Kamar al-Zaman and Budur, iii.
Kamar al-Zaman and the Jeweller's Wife, ix.
Kazi, the Jewish, and his pious wife, v.
Khadijah and the Caliph Maamun, Isaac of Mosul's Story of, iv.
Khalif the Fisherman of Baghdad (note from Bresl. Edit.), viii.
Khalifah the Fisherman of Baghdad, viii.
Khawwas (Ibrahim al-) and the Christian King's daughter,v.
Khorasan, Abu Hasan al-Ziyadi and the man from, iv.
Khorasan, Abu al-Hasan of, ix.
Khusrau and Shirin and the Fisherman, v.
Khuzaymah bin Bishr and Ikrimah al-Fayyaz, vii.
King Jali'ad, Shimas his Wazir and his son Wird Khan, ix.
King of the Island, The, v.
King and the Pilgrim Prince, The Unjust, ix.
King and the virtuous wife, The, v.
King and his Wazir's wife, The, vi.
King's Daughter and the Ape, The, iv.
King's son and the Ifrit's Mistress, The, vi.
King's son and the Merchant's Wife, The, vi.
King's son and the Ghulah, The, vi.
Kings, The Two, ix.
Kisra Anushirwan and the Village Damsel,v.
Kurd Sharper, Ali the Persian and the, iv.
Kurrat al-Aye and Abu Isa, v.
Kus Police and the Sharper, Chief of the, iv
Labtayt, The City of, iv.
Lady of Baghdad, The Sweep and the noble, iv.
Lady's Story, The Eldest, i.
Lady and her five suitors, The, vi.
Do. and her two Lovers, The, vi.
Ladies of Baghdad, The Porter and the Three, i.
Laughed again, The man who never, vi.
Lazybones, Abu Mohammed highs, iv.
Leper, Abu al-Hasan al-Durraj and Abu Ja'afar the, v.
Lover, The mad, v.
Lover who feigned himself a thief (to save his mistress' honour),
The, iv.
Lover's trick against the chaste Wife, The, vi.
Lovers of Bassorah, The, vii.
Lovers of the Banu Tayy, The, v.
Lovers of the Banu Ozrah, The, v.
Lovers The Lady and her two, vi.
Lovers of Al-Medinah, The, vii.
Lovers The Three unfortunate, v.
Loves of the Boy and Girl at School, The, v.
Loves of Abu Isa and Kurrat al-Ayn, The, v.
Maamun, Isaac of Mosul's Story of Khadijah and the Caliph, iv.
Maamun (Al-) and the Pyramids of Egypt, v.
Maamun and the strange Scholar, The Caliph, iv.
Ma'an bin Zaidah and the Badawi, iv.
Ma'an the son of Zaidah and the Three Girls, iv.
Mad Lover, The, vii.
Magic Horse, The, v.
Mahbubah, Al-Mutawakkil and his favourite, iv.
Malik al-Nasir (Al-) and the three Masters of Police, iv.
Malik al-Nasir and his Wazir, vii.
Man and his Wife, The, ix.
Man who never laughed during the rest of his days, The, vi.
Man (The Woman who had to lover a ) and the other who had to
lover a boy, v.
Man of Upper Egypt and his Frankish Wife, ix.
Man of Al-Yaman and his six Slave-girls, iv.
Man who stole the dog's dish of gold, iv.
Man who saw the Night of Power (Three Wishes), vi.
Man's dispute with the learned Woman about boys and girls, v.
Ma'aruf the Cobb]er and his wife Fatimah, x.
Mansur, Yahya bin Khalid and, iv.
Masrur and Ibn al-Karibi, v.
Masrur and Zayn al-Mawasif, viii.
Medinah (Al-), The Lovers of, vii.
Merchant of Oman, The, ix.
Merchant and the Robbers, The, ix.
Merchant and the two Sharpers, The, iii.
Merchant's Sister, Ibrahim bin al-Mahdi and the, iv.
Merchant's Wife, The King's son and the, vi.
Merchant's Wife and the Parrot, The, i.
Mercury Ali of Cairo, The Adventures of, vii.
Merman, and Abdullah the Fisherman, Abdullah the, ix.
Miller and his wife, The, v.
Miriam, Ali Nur alDin and, viii.
Miser and Loaves of Bread, The, vi.
Mock Caliph, The, iv.
Mohammed al-Amin and Ja'afar bin al-Had), v.
Mohammed bin Sabaik and the Merchant Hasan, King, vii.
Money changer, The Thief and the, iv.
Monkey, The Thief and his, iii.
Moslem Champion and the Christian Lady, The, v.
Mouse, The, and the Cat, ix.
Mouse and the Flea, The, iii.
Mouse and the Ichneumon, The, iii.
Munnis, Ali bin Tahir and the girl, v.
Musab bin al-Zubayr and Ayishah his wife, v.
Muslim bin al-Walid and Dibil al-Khuzai, v.
Mutawakkil (Al-) and Al-Fath bin Khakan, v.
Mutawakkil and his favourite Mahbubah, iv.
Mutalammis (Al-) and his wife Umaymah, v.
Naomi, Ni'amah bin al-Rabi'a and his Slave-girl; iv.
Nazarene Broker's Story, The, i.
Necklace, The Stolen, vi.
Niggard and the Loaves of Bread, The, vi.
Night of Power, The man who saw the, vi.
Nile (The Ferryman of the ) and the Hermit, v.
Ni'amah bin al-Rabi'a and Naomi his Slave-girl, iv.
Nur al-Din Ali and the damsel Anis al-Jalis, ii.
Nur al-Din of Cairo and his son Badr al-Din Hasan, i.
Ogress, The King's Son and the, vi.
Old Man's Story, The First, i.
Old Man's Story The Second, i.
Old Man's Story The Third, i.
Old Woman, Abu Suwayd and the handsome, v.
Omar bin al-Nu'uman and his Sons Sharrkan and Zau al-Makan, The
Tale of King, ii.
Omar bin al-Khattab and the young Badawi, v.
Oman, The Merchant of, ix.
Otbah and Rayya, vii.
Page who feigned to know the speech of birds, The, vi.
Paradise, The Apples of, v.
Parrot, The Merchant's wife and the, i.
Partridge, The Hawk and the, iii.
Peacock, The Sparrow and the, iii.
Persian and the Kurd Sharper, Ali the, iv.
Physician Duban, The, i.
Physician's Story, The Jewish, i.
Pilgrim and the old woman who dwelt in the desert, The, v.
Pilgrim Prince, The Unjust King and the, ix.
Pious black slave, The, v.
Pigeons, The Hedgehog and the, iii.
Pigeons, The Two, vi.
Platter-maker and his wife, The devout, v.
Poets, Harun al-Rashid and the three, v.
Police of Bulak, Story of the Chief of the, iv.
Police of Kus and the Sharper, the Chief of the, iv.
Police of New Cairo, Story of the Chief of the, iv.
Police of Old Cairo, Story of the Chief of the, iv.
Police (The Three Masters of ), Al-Malik, al-Nasir and, iv.
Poor man and his &friend in need, The, iv.
Porter and the Three Ladies of Baghdad, The, i.
Portress, The Tale of the, i.
Prince Behram and the Princess al-Datma, vi.
Prince the Ensorcelled, i.
Prince and the Ghulah, The, i.
Prince, The Devout, v.
Prince (the Pilgrim), The Unjust King and, ix.
Prior who became a Moslem, The, v.
Providence, The justice of, v.
Purse, The Stolen, vi.
Pyramids of Egypt, Al-Maamun and the, v.
Queen of the Serpents, The, v.
Rake's trick against the chaste Wife, The, vi.
Rayya, Otbah and, vii.
Reeve's Tale, The, i.
Rogueries of Dalilah the Crafty and her daughter Zaynab the Coney
catcher, The, vii.
Rose-in-Hood, Uns al-Wujud and the Wazir's Daughter, v.
Ruined Man of Baghdad and his Slave-girl, The, ix.
Ruined Man who became rich again through a dream, The, iv.
Rukh, Abd al-Rahman the Moor's Story of the, v.
Sa'id bin Salim and the Barmecides, v.
Saint to whom Allah gave a cloud to serve him, The, v.
Saker and the Birds, The, iii.
Sandalwood Merchant and the Sharpers, The, vi.
Sayf al-Muluk and Badi'a al-Jamal, vii.
School, The Loves of the Boy and the Girl at, v.
Schoolmaster who fell in love by report, The, v.
Schoolmaster The Foolish, v.
Schoolmaster The ignorant man who set up for a, v.
Serpent, The Crow and the, ix.
Serpent-charmer and his Wife, ix.
Serpents, The Queen of the, v.
Sexes, Relative excellence of the, v.
Shahryar and his brother, King (Introduction), i.
Shahryar (King) and his brother, i.
Shams al-Nahar, Ali bin Bakkar and, iii.
Sharper of Alexandria and the Chief of Police, The, iv.
Sharper, Ali the Persian and the Kurd, iv.
Sharper, The Chief of the Kus Police and the, iv.
Sharper, The Simpleton and the, v.
Sharpers, The Merchant and the Two, iii.
Do. The Sandalwood Merchant and the, vi.
Sharrkan and Zau al-Makan, The History of King Omar bin
Al-Nu'uman and his Sons, ii.
Shaykh's Story (The First), i.
Shaykh's Story (The Second), i.
Shaykh's Story (The Third), i.
Shepherd and the Thief, The, ix.
Shimas, King Jali'ad of Hind and his Wazir, ix.
Shipwrecked Woman and her child, The, v.

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