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The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

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several kinds of it, known as the green, the red, the
small-leaved, and the broad-leaved balsamic. In cookery, its
principal use is for stuffings and sauces, for which purpose the
red is the most agreeable, and the green the next. The others
are used for medical purposes.

PICKLED GHERKINS.

428. INGREDIENTS.--Salt and water, 1 oz. of bruised ginger, 1/2 oz. of
whole black pepper, 1/4 oz. of whole allspice, 4 cloves, 2 blades of
mace, a little horseradish. This proportion of pepper, spices, &c., for
1 quart of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Let the gherkins remain in salt and water for 3 or 4 days, when
take them out, wipe perfectly dry, and put them into a stone jar. Boil
sufficient vinegar to cover them, with spices and pepper, &c., in the
above proportion, for 10 minutes; pour it, quite boiling, over the
gherkins, cover the jar with vine-leaves, and put over them a plate,
setting them near the fire, where they must remain all night. Next day
drain off the vinegar, boil it up again, and pour it hot over them.
Cover up with fresh leaves, and let the whole remain till quite cold.
Now tie down closely with bladder to exclude the air, and in a month or
two, they will be fit for use.

_Time_.--4 days.

_Seasonable_ from the middle of July to the end of August.

[Illustration: GHERKINS.]

GHERKINS.--Gherkins are young cucumbers; and the only way in
which they are used for cooking purposes is pickling them, as by
the recipe here given. Not having arrived at maturity, they have
not, of course, so strongly a developed flavour as cucumbers,
and, as a pickle, they are very general favourites.

GOOSEBERRY SAUCE FOR BOILED MACKEREL.

429. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of green gooseberries, 3 tablespoonfuls of
Bechamel, No. 367 (veal gravy may be substituted for this), 2 oz. of
fresh butter; seasoning to taste of salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg.

_Mode_.--Boil the gooseberries in water until quite tender; strain them,
and rub them through a sieve. Put into a saucepan the Bechamel or gravy,
with the butter and seasoning; add the pulp from the gooseberries, mix
all well together, and heat gradually through. A little pounded sugar
added to this sauce is by many persons considered an improvement, as the
saccharine matter takes off the extreme acidity of the unripe fruit.

_Time_.--Boil the gooseberries from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a large dish of mackerel.

_Seasonable_ from May to July.

[Illustration: THE GOOSEBERRY.]

THE GOOSEBERRY.--This useful and wholesome fruit (_Ribes
grossularia_) is thought to be indigenous to the British Isles,
and may be occasionally found in a wild state in some of the
eastern counties, although, when uncultivated, it is but a very
small and inferior berry. The high state of perfection to which
it has been here brought, is due to the skill of the English
gardeners; for in no other country does it attain the same size
and flavour. The humidity of the British climate, however, has
doubtless something to do with the result; and it is said that
gooseberries produced in Scotland as far north as Inverness, are
of a very superior character. Malic and citric acid blended with
sugar, produce the pleasant flavour of the gooseberry; and upon
the proper development of these properties depends the success
of all cooking operations with which they are connected.

GLAZE FOR COVERING COLD HAMS, TONGUES, &c.

430. INGREDIENTS.--Stock No. 104 or 107, doubling the quantity of meat
in each.

_Mode_.--We may remark at the outset, that unless glaze is wanted in
very large quantities, it is seldom made expressly. Either of the stocks
mentioned above, boiled down and reduced very considerably, will be
found to produce a very good glaze. Put the stock into a stewpan, over a
nice clear fire; let it boil till it becomes somewhat stiff, when keep
stirring, to prevent its burning. The moment it is sufficiently reduced,
and comes to a glaze, turn it out into the glaze-pot, of which we have
here given an engraving. As, however, this is not to be found in every
establishment, a white earthenware jar would answer the purpose; and
this may be placed in a vessel of boiling water, to melt the glaze when
required. It should never be warmed in a saucepan, except on the
principle of the bain marie, lest it should reduce too much, and become
black and bitter. If the glaze is wanted of a pale colour, more veal
than beef should be used in making the stock; and it is as well to omit
turnips and celery, as these impart a disagreeable bitter flavour.

TO GLAZE COLD JOINTS, &c.--Melt the glaze by placing the vessel which
contains it, into the bain marie or saucepan of boiling water; brush it
over the meat with a paste-brush, and if in places it is not quite
covered, repeat the operation. The glaze should not be too dark a
colour. (_See_ Coloured Cut of Glazed Ham, P.)

[Illustration: GLAZE-KETTLE.]

[Illustration: THE BAIN MARIE.]

GLAZE-KETTLE.--This is a kettle used for keeping the strong
stock boiled down to a jelly, which is known by the name of
glaze. It is composed of two tin vessels, as shown in the cut,
one of which, the upper,--containing the glaze, is inserted into
one of larger diameter and containing boiling water. A brush is
put in the small hole at the top of the lid, and is employed for
putting the glaze on anything that may require it.

THE BAIN MARIE.--So long ago as the time when emperors ruled in
Rome, and the yellow Tiber passed through a populous and wealthy
city, this utensil was extensively employed; and it is
frequently mentioned by that profound culinary chemist of the
ancients, Apicius. It is an open kind of vessel (as shown in the
engraving and explained in our paragraph No. 87, on the French
terms used in modern cookery), filled with boiling or nearly
boiling water; and into this water should be put all the
stewpans containing those ingredients which it is desired to
keep hot. The quantity and quality of the contents of these
vessels are not at all affected; and if the hour of dinner is
uncertain in any establishment, by reason of the nature of the
master's business, nothing is so certain a means of preserving
the flavour of all dishes as the employment of the bain marie.

GREEN SAUCE FOR GREEN GEESE OR DUCKLINGS.

431. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 pint of sorrel-juice, 1 glass of sherry, 1/2 pint
of green gooseberries, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 1 oz. of fresh
butter.

_Mode_.--Boil the gooseberries in water until they are quite tender;
mash them and press them through a sieve; put the pulp into a saucepan
with the above ingredients; simmer for 3 or 4 minutes, and serve very
hot.

_Time_.--3 or 4 minutes.

_Note_.--We have given this recipe as a sauce for green geese, thinking
that some of our readers might sometimes require it; but, at the
generality of fashionable tables, it is now seldom or never served.

[Illustration: SORREL.]

SORREL.--We gather from the pages of Pliny and Apicius, that
sorrel was cultivated by the Romans in order to give it more
strength and flavour, and that they also partook of it sometimes
stewed with mustard, being seasoned with a little oil and
vinegar. At the present day, English cookery is not much
indebted to this plant (_Rumex Acetosa_), although the French
make use of it to a considerable extent. It is found in most
parts of Great Britain, and also on the continent, growing wild
in the grass meadows, and, in a few gardens, it is cultivated.
The acid of sorrel is very _prononce_, and is what chemists term
a binoxalate of potash; that is, a combination of oxalic acid
with potash.

GENERAL STOCK FOR GRAVIES.

432. Either of the stocks, Nos. 104, 105, or 107, will be found to
answer very well for the basis of many gravies, unless these are wanted
very rich indeed. By the addition of various store sauces, thickening
and flavouring, the stocks here referred to may be converted into very
good gravies. It should be borne in mind, however, that the goodness and
strength of spices, wines, flavourings, &c., evaporate, and that they
lose a great deal of their fragrance, if added to the gravy a long time
before they are wanted. If this point is attended to, a saving of one
half the quantity of these ingredients will be effected, as, with long
boiling, the flavour almost entirely passes away. The shank-bones of
mutton, previously well soaked, will be found a great assistance in
enriching gravies; a kidney or melt, beef skirt, trimmings of meat, &c.
&c., answer very well when only a small quantity is wanted, and, as we
have before observed, a good gravy need not necessarily be so very
expensive; for economically-prepared dishes are oftentimes found as
savoury and wholesome as dearer ones. The cook should also remember that
the fragrance of gravies should not be overpowered by too much spice, or
any strong essences, and that they should always be warmed in a _bain
marie_, after they are flavoured, or else in a jar or jug placed in a
saucepan full of boiling water. The remains of roast-meat gravy should
always be saved; as, when no meat is at hand, a very nice gravy in haste
may be made from it, and when added to hashes, ragouts, &c., is a great
improvement.

[Illustration: GRAVY-KETTLE.]

GRAVY-KETTLE.--This is a utensil which will not be found in
every kitchen; but it is a useful one where it is necessary to
keep gravies hot for the purpose of pouring over various dishes
as they are cooking. It is made of copper, and should,
consequently, be heated over the hot plate, if there be one, or
a charcoal stove. The price at which it can be purchased is set
down by Messrs. Slack at 14s.

GRAVY FOR ROAST MEAT.

433. INGREDIENTS.--Gravy, salt.

_Mode_.--Put a common dish with a small quantity of salt in it under the
meat, about a quarter of an hour before it is removed from the fire.
When the dish is full, take it away, baste the meat, and pour the gravy
into the dish on which the joint is to be served.

SAUCES AND GRAVIES IN THE MIDDLE AGES.--Neither poultry,
butcher's meat, nor roast game were eaten dry in the middle
ages, any more than fried fish is now. Different sauces, each
having its own peculiar flavour, were served with all these
dishes, and even with the various _parts_ of each animal.
Strange and grotesque sauces, as, for example, "eggs cooked on
the spit," "butter fried and roasted," were invented by the
cooks of those days; but these preparations had hardly any other
merit than that of being surprising and difficult to make.

A QUICKLY-MADE GRAVY.

434. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of shin of beef, 1/2 onion, 1/4 carrot, 2 or
3 sprigs of parsley and savoury herbs, a piece of butter about the size
of a walnut; cayenne and mace to taste, 3/4 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the meat into very small pieces, slice the onion and
carrot, and put them into a small saucepan with the butter. Keep
stirring over a sharp fire until they have taken a little colour, when
add the water and the remaining ingredients. Simmer for 1/2 hour, skim
well, strain, and flavour, when it will be ready for use.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 5d.

A HUNDRED DIFFERENT DISHES.--Modern housewives know pretty well
how much care, and attention, and foresight are necessary in
order to serve well a little dinner for six or eight persons,--a
dinner which will give credit to the _menage_, and satisfaction
and pleasure to the guests. A quickly-made gravy, under some
circumstances that we have known occur, will be useful to many
housekeepers when they have not much time for preparation. But,
talking of speed, and time, and preparation, what a combination
of all these must have been necessary for the feast at the
wedding of Charles VI. of France. On that occasion, as Froissart
the chronicler tells us, the art of cooking, with its
innumerable paraphernalia of sauces, with gravy, pepper,
cinnamon, garlic, scallion, brains, gravy soups, milk _potage_,
and ragouts, had a signal triumph. The skilful _chef-de-cuisine_
of the royal household covered the great marble table of the
regal palace with no less than a hundred different dishes,
prepared in a hundred different ways.

A GOOD BEEF GRAVY FOR POULTRY, GAME, &c.

435. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of lean beef, 1/2 pint of cold water, 1
shalot or small onion, 1/2 a teaspoonful of salt, a little pepper, 1
tablespoonful of Harvey's sauce or mushroom ketchup, 1/2 a teaspoonful
of arrowroot.

_Mode_.--Cut up the beef into small pieces, and put it, with the water,
into a stewpan. Add the shalot and seasoning, and simmer gently for 3
hours, taking care that it does not boil fast. A short time before it is
required, take the arrowroot, and having mixed it with a little cold
water, pour it into the gravy, which keep stirring, adding the Harvey's
sauce, and just letting it boil. Strain off the gravy in a tureen, and
serve very hot.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_, 8d. per pint.

BROWN GRAVY.

436. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 2 large onions, 2 lbs. of shin of
beef, 2 small slices of lean bacon (if at hand), salt and whole pepper
to taste, 3 cloves, 2 quarts of water. For thickening, 2 oz. of butter,
3 oz. of flour.

_Mode_.--Put the butter into a stewpan; set this on the fire, throw in
the onions cut in rings, and fry them a light brown; then add the beef
and bacon, which should be cut into small square pieces; season, and
pour in a teacupful of water; let it boil for about ten minutes, or
until it is of a nice brown colour, occasionally stirring the contents.
Now fill up with water in the above proportion; let it boil up, when
draw it to the side of the fire to simmer very gently for 1-1/2 hour;
strain, and when cold, take off all the fat. In thickening this gravy,
melt 3 oz. of butter in a stewpan, add 2 oz. of flour, and stir till of
a light-brown colour; when cold, add it to the strained gravy, and boil
it up quickly. This thickening may be made in larger quantities, and
kept in a stone jar for use when wanted.

_Time_.--Altogether, 2 hours. _Average cost_, 4d. per pint.

CLOVES.--This very agreeable spice is the unexpanded flower-buds
of the _Caryophyllus aromaticus_, a handsome, branching tree, a
native of the Malacca Islands. They take their name from the
Latin word _clavus_, or the French _clou_, both meaning a nail,
and to which the clove has a considerable resemblance. Cloves
were but little known to the ancients, and Pliny appears to be
the only writer who mentions them; and he says, vaguely enough,
that some were brought to Rome, very similar to grains of
pepper, but somewhat longer; that they were only to be found in
India, in a wood consecrated to the gods; and that they served
in the manufacture of perfumes. The Dutch, as in the case of the
nutmeg (_see_ 378), endeavoured, when they gained possession of
the Spice Islands, to secure a monopoly of cloves, and, so that
the cultivation of the tree might be confined to Amboyna, their
chief island, bribed the surrounding chiefs to cut down all
trees found elsewhere. The Amboyna, or royal clove, is said to
be the best, and is rare; but other kinds, nearly equally good,
are produced in other parts of the world, and they come to
Europe from Mauritius, Bourbon, Cayenne, and Martinique, as also
from St. Kitts, St. Vincent's, and Trinidad. The clove contains
about 20 per cent. of volatile aromatic oil, to which it owes
its peculiar pungent flavour, its other parts being composed of
woody fibre, water, gum, and resin.

BROWN GRAVY WITHOUT MEAT.

437. INGREDIENTS.--2 large onions, 1 large carrot, 2 oz. of butter, 3
pints of boiling water, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, a wineglassful of good
beer; salt and pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--Slice, flour, and fry the onions and carrots in the butter
until of a nice light-brown colour; then add the boiling water and the
remaining ingredients; let the whole stew gently for about an hour; then
strain, and when cold, skim off all the fat. Thicken it in the same
manner as recipe No. 436, and, if thought necessary, add a few drops of
colouring No. 108.

_Time_.--1 hour. Average cost, 2d. per pint.

_Note_.--The addition of a small quantity of mushroom ketchup or
Harvey's sauce very much improves the flavour of this gravy.

RICH GRAVY FOR HASHES, RAGOUTS, &c.

438. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of shin of beef, 1 large onion or a few
shalots, a little flour, a bunch of savoury herbs, 2 blades of mace, 2
or 3 cloves, 4 whole allspice, 1/4 teaspoonful of whole pepper, 1 slice
of lean ham or bacon, 1/2 a head of celery (when at hand), 2 pints of
boiling water; salt and cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the beef into thin slices, as also the onions, dredge them
with flour, and fry of a pale brown, but do not allow them to get black;
pour in the boiling water, let it boil up; and skim. Add the remaining
ingredients, and simmer the whole very gently for 2 hours, or until all
the juices are extracted from the meat; put it by to get cold, when take
off all the fat. This gravy may be flavoured with ketchup, store sauces,
wine, or, in fact, anything that may give additional and suitable relish
to the dish it is intended for.

_Time_.--Rather more than 2 hours.

_Average cost_, 8d. per pint.

[Illustration: PIMENTO.]

ALLSPICE.--This is the popular name given to pimento, or Jamaica
pepper, known to naturalists as _Eugenia pimenta_, and belonging
to the order of Myrtaceae. It is the berry of a fine tree in the
West Indies and South America, which attains a height of from
fifteen to twenty feet: the berries are not allowed to ripen,
but, being gathered green, are then dried in the sun, and then
become black. It is an inexpensive spice, and is considered more
mild and innocent than most other spices; consequently, it is
much used for domestic purposes, combining a very agreeable
variety of flavours.

GRAVY MADE WITHOUT MEAT FOR FOWLS.

439. INGREDIENTS.--The necks, feet, livers, and gizzards of the fowls, 1
slice of toasted bread, 1/2 onion, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, salt and
pepper to taste, 1/2 pint of water, thickening of butter and flour, 1
dessertspoonful of ketchup.

_Mode_.--Wash the feet of the fowls thoroughly clean, and cut them and
the neck into small pieces. Put these into a stewpan with the bread,
onion, herbs, seasoning, livers, and gizzards; pour the water over them
and simmer gently for 1 hour. Now take out the liver, pound it, and
strain the liquor to it. Add a thickening of butter and flour, and a
flavouring of mushroom ketchup; boil it up and serve.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 4d. per pint.

A CHEAP GRAVY FOR HASHES, &c.

440. INGREDIENTS.--Bones and trimmings of the cooked joint intended for
hashing, 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, 1/4 teaspoonful of whole pepper, 1/4
teaspoonful of whole allspice, a small faggot of savoury herbs, 1/2 head
of celery, 1 onion, 1 oz. of butter, thickening, sufficient boiling
water to cover the bones.

_Mode_.--Chop the bones in small pieces, and put them in a stewpan, with
the trimmings, salt, pepper, spice, herbs, and celery. Cover with
boiling water, and let the whole simmer gently for 1-1/2 or 2 hours.
Slice and fry the onion in the butter till it is of a pale brown, and
mix it gradually with the gravy made from the bones; boil for 1/4 hour,
and strain into a basin; now put it back into the stewpan; flavour with
walnut pickle or ketchup, pickled-onion liquor, or any store sauce that
may be preferred. Thicken with a little butter and flour, kneaded
together on a plate, and the gravy will be ready for use. After the
thickening is added, the gravy should just boil, to take off the rawness
of the flour.

_Time_.--2 hours, or rather more.

_Average cost_, 4d., exclusive of the bones and trimmings.

JUGGED GRAVY (Excellent).

441. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of shin of beef, 1/4 lb. of lean ham, 1 onion
or a few shalots, 2 pints of water, salt and whole pepper to taste, 1
blade of mace, a faggot of savoury herbs, 1/2 a large carrot, 1/2 a
head of celery.

_Mode_.--Cut up the beef and ham into small pieces, and slice the
vegetables; take a jar, capable of holding two pints of water, and
arrange therein, in layers, the ham, meat, vegetables, and seasoning,
alternately, filling up with the above quantity of water; tie down the
jar, or put a plate over the top, so that the steam may not escape;
place it in the oven, and let it remain there from 6 to 8 hours; should,
however, the oven be very hot, less time will be required. When
sufficiently cooked, strain the gravy, and when cold, remove the fat. It
may be flavoured with ketchup, wines, or any other store sauce that may
be preferred.

It is a good plan to put the jar in a cool oven over-night, to draw the
gravy; and then it will not require so long baking the following day.

_Time_.--From 6 to 8 hours, according to the oven.

_Average cost_, 7d. per pint.

[Illustration: CELERY.]

CELERY.--As in the above recipe, the roots of celery are
principally used in England for flavouring soups, sauces, and
gravies, and for serving with cheese at the termination of a
dinner, and as an ingredient for salad. In Italy, however, the
green leaves and stems are also employed for stews and soups,
and the seeds are also more frequently made use of on the
continent than in our own islands. In Germany, celery is very
highly esteemed; and it is there boiled and served up as a dish
by itself, as well as used in the composition of mixed dishes.
We ourselves think that this mild aromatic plant might oftener
be cooked than it is; for there are very few nicer vegetable
preparations brought to table than a well-dressed plate of
stewed celery.

VEAL GRAVY FOR WHITE SAUCES, FRICASSEES, &c.

442. INGREDIENTS.--2 slices of nicely flavoured lean ham, any poultry
trimmings, 3 lbs. of lean veal, a faggot of savoury herbs, including
parsley, a few green onions (or 1 large onion may be substituted for
these), a few mushrooms, when obtainable; 1 blade of mace, salt to
taste, 3 pints of water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the ham and veal into small square pieces, put these in
a stewpan, moistening them with a small quantity of water; place them
over the fire to draw down. When the bottom of the stewpan becomes
covered with a white glaze, fill up with water in the above proportion;
add the remaining ingredients, stew very slowly for 3 or 4 hours, and do
not forget to skim well the moment it boils. Put it by, and, when cold,
take off all the fat. This may be used for Bechamel, sauce tournee, and
many other white sauces.

_Time_.--3 or 4 hours. _Average cost_, 9d. per pint.

CHEAP GRAVY FOR MINCED VEAL.

443. INGREDIENTS.--Bones and trimmings of cold roast or boiled veal,
1-1/2 pint of water, 1 onion, 1/4 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 1/4
teaspoonful of salt, 1 blade of pounded mace, the juice of 1/4 lemon;
thickening of butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, except the thickening
and lemon-juice, and let them simmer very gently for rather more than 1
hour, or until the liquor is reduced to a pint, when strain through a
hair-sieve. Add a thickening of butter and flour, and the lemon-juice;
set it on the fire, and let it just boil up, when it will be ready for
use. It may be flavoured with a little tomato sauce, and, where a rather
dark-coloured gravy is not objected to, ketchup, or Harvey's sauce, may
be added at pleasure.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1 hour. _Average cost_, 3d.

GRAVY FOR VENISON.

444. INGREDIENTS.--Trimmings of venison, 3 or 4 mutton shank-bones, salt
to taste, 1 pint of water, 2 teaspoonfuls of walnut ketchup.

_Mode_.--Brown the trimmings over a nice clear fire, and put them in a
stewpan with the shank-bones and water; simmer gently for 2 hours,
strain and skim, and add the walnut ketchup and a seasoning of salt. Let
it just boil, when it is ready to serve.

_Time_.--2 hours.

[Illustration: THE DEER.]

VENISON.--Far, far away in ages past, our fathers loved the
chase, and what it brought; and it is usually imagined that when
Isaac ordered his son Esau to go out with his weapons, his
quiver and his bow, and to prepare for him savoury meat, such as
he loved, that it was venison he desired. The wise Solomon, too,
delighted in this kind of fare; for we learn that, at his table,
every day were served the wild ox, the roebuck, and the stag.
Xenophon informs us, in his History, that Cyrus, king of Persia,
ordered that venison should never be wanting at his repasts; and
of the effeminate Greeks it was the delight. The Romans, also,
were devoted admirers of the flesh of the deer; and our own
kings and princes, from the Great Alfred down to the Prince
Consort, have hunted, although, it must be confessed, under
vastly different circumstances, the swift buck, and relished
their "haunch" all the more keenly, that they had borne
themselves bravely in the pursuit of the animal.

TO DRY HERBS FOR WINTER USE.

445. On a very dry day, gather the herbs, just before they begin to
flower. If this is done when the weather is damp, the herbs will not be
so good a colour. (It is very necessary to be particular in little
matters like this, for trifles constitute perfection, and herbs nicely
dried will be found very acceptable when frost and snow are on the
ground. It is hardly necessary, however, to state that the flavour and
fragrance of fresh herbs are incomparably finer.) They should be
perfectly freed from dirt and dust, and be divided into small bunches,
with their roots cut off. Dry them quickly in a very hot oven, or before
the fire, as by this means most of their flavour will be preserved, and
be careful not to burn them; tie them up in paper bags, and keep in a
dry place. This is a very general way of preserving dried herbs; but we
would recommend the plan described in a former recipe.

_Seasonable_.--From the month of July to the end of September is the
proper time for storing herbs for winter use.

HERB POWDER FOR FLAVOURING, when Fresh Herbs are not obtainable.

446. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of dried lemon-thyme, 1 oz. of dried winter
savory, 1 oz. of dried sweet marjoram and basil, 2 oz. of dried parsley,
1 oz. of dried lemon-peel.

_Mode_.--Prepare and dry the herbs by recipe No. 445; pick the leaves
from the stalks, pound them, and sift them through a hair-sieve; mix in
the above proportions, and keep in glass bottles, carefully excluding
the air. This, we think, a far better method of keeping herbs, as the
flavour and fragrance do not evaporate so much as when they are merely
put in paper bags. Preparing them in this way, you have them ready for
use at a moment's notice.

Mint, sage, parsley, &c., dried, pounded, and each put into separate
bottles, will be found very useful in winter.

[Illustration: CORK WITH WOODEN TOP.]

CORKS WITH WOODEN TOPS.--These are the best corks to use when it
is indispensable that the air should not be admitted to the
ingredients contained in bottles which are in constant use. The
top, which, as will be seen by the accompanying little cut, is
larger than the cork, is made of wood; and, besides effectually
covering the whole top of the bottle, can be easily removed and
again used, as no corkscrew is necessary to pull it out.

SAVORY.--This we find described by Columella, a voluminous Roman
writer on agriculture, as an odoriferous herb, which, "in the
brave days of old," entered into the seasoning of nearly every
dish. Verily, there are but few new things under the sun, and we
don't find that we have made many discoveries in gastronomy, at
least beyond what was known to the ancient inhabitants of Italy.
We possess two varieties of this aromatic herb, known to
naturalists as _Satureja_. They are called summer and winter
savory, according to the time of the year when they are fit for
gathering. Both sorts are in general cultivation throughout
England.

HORSERADISH SAUCE, to serve with Roast Beef.

447. INGREDIENTS.--4 tablespoonfuls of grated horseradish, 1 teaspoonful
of pounded sugar, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1/2 teaspoonful of pepper, 2
teaspoonfuls of made mustard; vinegar.

_Mode_.--Grate the horseradish, and mix it well with the sugar, salt,
pepper, and mustard; moisten it with sufficient vinegar to give it the
consistency of cream, and serve in a tureen: 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of
cream added to the above, very much improve the appearance and flavour
of this sauce. To heat it to serve with hot roast beef, put it in a bain
marie or a jar, which place in a saucepan of boiling water; make it hot,
but do not allow it to boil, or it will curdle.

_Note_.--This sauce is a great improvement on the old-fashioned way of
serving cold-scraped horseradish with hot roast beef. The mixing of the
cold vinegar with the warm gravy cools and spoils everything on the
plate. Of course, with cold meat, the sauce should be served cold.

[Illustration: THE HORSERADISH.]

THE HORSERADISH.--This has been, for many years, a favourite
accompaniment of roast beef, and is a native of England. It
grows wild in wet ground, but has long been cultivated in the
garden, and is, occasionally, used in winter salads and in
sauces. On account of the great volatility of its oil, it should
never be preserved by drying, but should be kept moist by being
buried in sand. So rapidly does its volatile oil evaporate, that
even when scraped for the table, it almost immediately spoils by
exposure to the air.

HORSERADISH VINEGAR.

448. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of scraped horseradish, 1 oz. of minced
shalot, 1 drachm of cayenne, 1 quart of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a bottle, which shake well every
day for a fortnight. When it is thoroughly steeped, strain and bottle,
and it will be fit for use immediately. This will be found an agreeable
relish to cold beef, &c.

_Seasonable_.--This vinegar should be made either in October or
November, as horseradish is then in its highest perfection.

INDIAN CURRY-POWDER, founded on Dr. Kitchener's Recipe.

449. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of coriander-seed, 1/4 lb. of turmeric, 2 oz.
of cinnamon-seed, 1/2 oz. of cayenne, 1 oz. of mustard, 1 oz. of ground
ginger, 1/2 ounce of allspice, 2 oz. of fenugreek-seed.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients in a cool oven, where they should
remain one night; then pound them in a mortar, rub them through a sieve,
and mix thoroughly together; keep the powder in a bottle, from which the
air should be completely excluded.

_Note_.--We have given this recipe for curry-powder, as some persons
prefer to make it at home; but that purchased at any respectable shop
is, generally speaking, far superior, and, taking all things into
consideration, very frequently more economical.

INDIAN MUSTARD, an excellent Relish to Bread and Butter, or any cold
Meat.

450. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of the best mustard, 1/4 lb. of flour, 1/2
oz. of salt, 4 shalots, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 4 tablespoonfuls of
ketchup, 1/4 bottle of anchovy sauce.

_Mode_.--Put the mustard, flour, and salt into a basin, and make them
into a stiff paste with boiling water. Boil the shalots with the
vinegar, ketchup, and anchovy sauce, for 10 minutes, and pour the whole,
_boiling_, over the mixture in the basin; stir well, and reduce it to a
proper thickness; put it into a bottle, with a bruised shalot at the
bottom, and store away for use. This makes an excellent relish, and if
properly prepared will keep for years.

[Illustration: MUSTARD.]

MUSTARD.--Before the year 1729, mustard was not known at English
tables. About that time an old woman, of the name of Clements,
residing in Durham, began to grind the seed in a mill, and to
pass the flour through several processes necessary to free the
seed from its husks. She kept her secret for many years to
herself, during which she sold large quantities of mustard
throughout the country, but especially in London. Here it was
introduced to the royal table, when it received the approval of
George I. From the circumstance of Mrs. Clements being a
resident at Durham, it obtained the name of Durham mustard. In
the county of that name it is still principally cultivated, and
the plant is remarkable for the rapidity of its growth. It is
the best stimulant employed to impart strength to the digestive
organs, and even in its previously coarsely-pounded state, had a
high reputation with our ancestors.

INDIAN PICKLE (very Superior).

451. INGREDIENTS.--To each gallon of vinegar allow 6 cloves of garlic,
12 shalots, 2 sticks of sliced horseradish, 1/4 lb. of bruised ginger, 2
oz. of whole black pepper, 1 oz. of long pepper, 1 oz. of allspice, 12
cloves, 1/4 oz. of cayenne, 2 oz. of mustard-seed, 1/4 lb. of mustard, 1
oz. of turmeric; a white cabbage, cauliflowers, radish-pods, French
beans, gherkins, small round pickling-onions, nasturtiums, capsicums,
chilies, &c.

_Mode_.--Cut the cabbage, which must be hard and white, into slices, and
the cauliflowers into small branches; sprinkle salt over them in a large
dish, and let them remain two days; then dry them, and put them into a
very large jar, with garlic, shalots, horseradish, ginger, pepper,
allspice, and cloves, in the above proportions. Boil sufficient vinegar
to cover them, which pour over, and, when cold, cover up to keep them
free from dust. As the other things for the pickle ripen at different
times, they may be added as they are ready: these will be radish-pods,
French beans, gherkins, small onions, nasturtiums, capsicums, chilies,
&c. &c. As these are procured, they must, first of all, be washed in a
little cold vinegar, wiped, and then simply added to the other
ingredients in the large jar, only taking care that they are _covered_
by the vinegar. If more vinegar should be wanted to add to the pickle,
do not omit first to boil it before adding it to the rest. When you have
collected all the things you require, turn all out in a large pan, and
thoroughly mix them. Now put the mixed vegetables into smaller jars,
without any of the vinegar; then boil the vinegar again, adding as much
more as will be required to fill the different jars, and also cayenne,
mustard-seed, turmeric, and mustard, which must be well mixed with a
little cold vinegar, allowing the quantities named above to each gallon
of vinegar. Pour the vinegar, boiling hot, over the pickle, and when
cold, tie down with a bladder. If the pickle is wanted for immediate
use, the vinegar should be boiled twice more, but the better way is to
make it during one season for use during the next. It will keep for
years, if care is taken that the vegetables are quite covered by the
vinegar.

This recipe was taken from the directions of a lady whose pickle was
always pronounced excellent by all who tasted it, and who has, for many
years, exactly followed the recipe given above.

__Note_.--For small families, perhaps the above quantity of pickle will
be considered too large; but this may be decreased at pleasure, taking
care to properly proportion the various ingredients.

[Illustration: INDIA PICKLE.]

KEEPING PICKLES.--Nothing shows more, perhaps, the difference
between a tidy thrifty housewife and a lady to whom these
desirable epithets may not honestly be applied, than the
appearance of their respective store-closets. The former is
able, the moment anything; is wanted, to put her hand on it at
once; no time is lost, no vexation incurred, no dish spoilt for
the want of "just little something,"--the latter, on the
contrary, hunts all over her cupboard for the ketchup the cook
requires, or the pickle the husband thinks he should like a
little of with his cold roast beef or mutton-chop, and vainly
seeks for the Embden groats, or arrowroot, to make one of her
little boys some gruel. One plan, then, we strenuously advise
all who do not follow, to begin at once, and that is, to label
all their various pickles and store sauces, in the same way as
the cut here shows. It will occupy a little time at first, but
there will be economy of it in the long run.

VINEGAR.--This term is derived from the two French words _vin
aigre_, 'sour wine,' and should, therefore, be strictly applied
to that which is made only from wine. As the acid is the same,
however it is procured, that made from ale also takes the same
name. Nearly all ancient nations were acquainted with the use of
vinegar. We learn in _Ruth_, that the reapers in the East soaked
their bread in it to freshen it. The Romans kept large
quantities of it in their cellars, using it, to a great extent,
in their seasonings and sauces. This people attributed very
beneficial qualities to it, as it was supposed to be digestive,
antibilious, and antiscorbutic, as well as refreshing.
Spartianus, a Latin historian, tells us that, mixed with water,
it was the drink of the soldiers, and that, thanks to this
beverage, the veterans of the Roman army braved, by its use, the
inclemency and variety of all the different seasons and climates
of Europe, Asia, and Africa. It is said, the Spanish peasantry,
and other inhabitants of the southern parts of Europe, still
follow this practice, and add to a gallon of water about a gill
of wine vinegar, with a little salt; and that this drink, with a
little bread, enables them, under the heat of their burning sun,
to sustain the labours of the field.

INDIAN CHETNEY SAUCE.

452. INGREDIENTS.--8 oz. of sharp, sour apples, pared and cored; 8 oz.
of tomatoes, 8 oz. of salt, 8 oz. of brown, sugar, 8 oz. of stoned
raisins, 4 oz. of cayenne, 4 oz. of powdered ginger, 2 oz. of garlic, 2
oz. of shalots, 3 quarts of vinegar, 1 quart of lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Chop the apples in small square pieces, and add to them the
other ingredients. Mix the whole well together, and put in a
well-covered jar. Keep this in a warm place, and stir every day for a
month, taking care to put on the lid after this operation; strain, but
do not squeeze it dry; store it away in clean jars or bottles for use,
and the liquor will serve as an excellent sauce for meat or fish.

_Seasonable_.--Make this sauce when tomatoes are in full season, that
is, from the beginning of September to the end of October.

PICKLES.--The ancient Greeks and Romans held their pickles in
high estimation. They consisted of flowers, herbs, roots, and
vegetables, preserved in vinegar, and which were kept, for a
long time, in cylindrical vases with wide mouths. Their cooks
prepared pickles with the greatest care, and the various
ingredients were macerated in oil, brine, and vinegar, with
which they were often impregnated drop by drop. Meat, also,
after having been cut into very small pieces, was treated in the
same manner.

ITALIAN SAUCE (Brown).

453. INGREDIENTS.--A few chopped mushrooms and shalots, 1/2 pint of
stock, No. 105, 1/2 glass of Madeira, the juice of 1/2 lemon, 1/2
teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley.

_Mode_.--Put the stock into a stewpan with the mushrooms, shalots, and
Madeira, and stew gently for 1/4 hour, then add the remaining
ingredients, and let them just boil. When the sauce is done enough, put
it in another stewpan, and warm it in a _bain marie_. (_See_ No. 430.)
The mushrooms should not be chopped long before they are wanted, as they
will then become black.

_Time_.--1/4 hour. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for a small dish.

ITALIAN SAUCE (White).

454. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of white stock, No. 107; 2 tablespoonfuls of
chopped mushrooms, 1 dessertspoonful of chopped shalots, 1 slice of ham,
minced very fine; 1/4 pint of Bechamel, No. 367; salt to taste, a few
drops of garlic vinegar, 1/2 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, a squeeze of
lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Put the shalots and mushrooms into a stewpan with the stock and
ham, and simmer very gently for 1/2 hour, when add the Bechamel. Let it
just boil up, and then strain it through a tammy; season with the above
ingredients, and serve very hot. If this sauce should not have retained
a nice white colour, a little cream may be added.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized dish.

_Note_.--To preserve the colour of the mushrooms after pickling, throw
them into water to which a little lemon-juice has been added.

TO PICKLE LEMONS WITH THE PEEL ON.

455. INGREDIENTS.--6 lemons, 2 quarts of boiling water; to each quart of
vinegar allow 1/2 oz. of cloves, 1/2 oz. of white pepper, 1 oz. of
bruised ginger, 1/4 oz. of mace and chilies, 1 oz. of mustard-seed, 1/2
stick of sliced horseradish, a few cloves of garlic.

_Mode_.--Put the lemons into a brine that will bear an egg; let them
remain in it 6 days, stirring them every day; have ready 2 quarts of
boiling water, put in the lemons, and allow them to boil for 1/4 hour;
take them out, and let them lie in a cloth until perfectly dry and cold.
Boil up sufficient vinegar to cover the lemons, with all the above
ingredients, allowing the same proportion as stated to each quart of
vinegar. Pack the lemons in a jar, pour over the vinegar, &c. boiling
hot, and tie down with a bladder. They will be fit for use in about 12
months, or rather sooner.

_Seasonable_.--This should be made from November to April.

THE LEMON.--In the earlier ages of the world, the lemon does not
appear to have been at all known, and the Romans only became
acquainted with it at a very late period, and then only used it
to keep moths from their garments. Its acidity would seem to
have been unpleasant to them; and in Pliny's time, at the
commencement of the Christian era, this fruit was hardly
accepted, otherwise than as an excellent antidote against the
effects of poison. Many anecdotes have been related concerning
the anti-venomous properties of the lemon; Athenaeus, a Latin
writer, telling us, that on one occasion, two men felt no
effects from the bites of dangerous serpents, because they had
previously eaten of this fruit.

TO PICKLE LEMONS WITHOUT THE PEEL.

456. INGREDIENTS.--6 lemons, 1 lb. of fine salt; to each quart of
vinegar, the same ingredients as No. 455.

_Mode_.--Peel the lemons, slit each one down 3 times, so as not to
divide them, and rub the salt well into the divisions; place them in a
pan, where they must remain for a week, turning them every other day;
then put them in a Dutch oven before a clear fire until the salt has
become perfectly dry; then arrange them in a jar. Pour over sufficient
boiling vinegar to cover them, to which have been added the ingredients
mentioned in the foregoing recipe; tie down closely, and in about 9
months they will be fit for use.

_Seasonable_.--The best time to make this is from November to April.

_Note_.--After this pickle has been made from 4 to 5 months, the liquor
may be strained and bottled, and will be found an excellent lemon
ketchup.

LEMON-JUICE.--Citric acid is the principal component part of
lemon-juice, which, in addition to the agreeableness of its
flavour, is also particularly cooling and grateful. It is
likewise an antiscorbutic; and this quality enhances its value.
In order to combat the fatal effects of scurvy amongst the crews
of ships at sea, a regular allowance of lemon-juice is served
out to the men; and by this practice, the disease has almost
entirely disappeared. By putting the juice into bottles, and
pouring on the top sufficient oil to cover it, it may be
preserved for a considerable time. Italy and Turkey export great
quantities of it in this manner.

LEMON SAUCE FOR BOILED FOWLS.

457. INGREDIENTS.--1 small lemon, 3/4 pint of melted butter, No. 380.

_Mode_.--Cut the lemon into very thin slices, and these again into very
small dice. Have ready 3/4 pint of melted butter, made by recipe No.
380; put in the lemon; let it just simmer, but not boil, and pour it
over the fowls.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer. _Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for a pair of large fowls.

LEMON WHITE SAUCE, FOR FOWLS, FRICASSEES, &c.

458. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 pint of cream, the rind and juice of 1 lemon, 1/2
teaspoonful of whole white pepper, 1 sprig of lemon thyme, 3 oz. of
butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1 teacupful of white stock; salt to
taste.

_Mode_.--Put the cream into a very clean saucepan (a lined one is best),
with the lemon-peel, pepper, and thyme, and let these infuse for 1/2
hour, when simmer gently for a few minutes, or until there is a nice
flavour of lemon. Strain it, and add a thickening of butter and flour in
the above proportions; stir this well in, and put in the lemon-juice at
the moment of serving; mix the stock with the cream, and add a little
salt. This sauce should not boil after the cream and stock are mixed
together.

_Time_.--Altogether, 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a pair of large boiled fowls.

_Note_.--Where the expense of the cream is objected to, milk may be
substituted for it. In this case, an additional dessertspoonful, or
rather more, of flour must be added.

[Illustration: LEMON THYME.]

LEMON THYME.--Two or three tufts of this species of thyme,
_Thymus citriodorus_, usually find a place in the herb
compartment of the kitchen-garden. It is a trailing evergreen,
is of smaller growth than the common kind (_see_ No. 166), and
is remarkable for its smell, which closely resembles that of the
rind of a lemon. Hence its distinctive name. It is used for some
particular dishes, in which the fragrance of the lemon is
desired to slightly predominate.

LEAMINGTON SAUCE (an Excellent Sauce for Flavouring Gravies, Hashes,
Soups, &c.).

_(Author's Recipe.)_

459. INGREDIENTS.--Walnuts. To each quart of walnut-juice allow 3 quarts
of vinegar, 1 pint of Indian soy, 1 oz. of cayenne, 2 oz. of shalots,
3/4 oz. of garlic, 1/2 pint of port wine.

_Mode_.--Be very particular in choosing the walnuts as soon as they
appear in the market; for they are more easily bruised before they
become hard and shelled. Pound them in a mortar to a pulp, strew some
salt over them, and let them remain thus for two or three days,
occasionally stirring and moving them about. Press out the juice, and to
_each quart_ of walnut-liquor allow the above proportion of vinegar,
soy, cayenne, shalots, garlic, and port wine. Pound each ingredient
separately in a mortar, then mix them well together, and store away for
use in small bottles. The corks should be well sealed.

_Seasonable_.--This sauce should be made as soon as walnuts are
obtainable, from the beginning to the middle of July.

LEMON BRANDY.

460. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of brandy, the rind of two small lemons, 2 oz.
of loaf-sugar, 1/4 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Peel the lemons rather thin, taking care to have none of the
white pith. Put the rinds into a bottle with the brandy, and let them
infuse for 24 hours, when they should be strained. Now boil the sugar
with the water for a few minutes, skim it, and, when cold, add it to the
brandy. A dessertspoonful of this will be found an excellent flavouring
for boiled custards.

LEMON RIND OR PEEL.--This contains an essential oil of a very
high flavour and fragrance, and is consequently esteemed both a
wholesome and agreeable stomachic. It is used, as will be seen
by many recipes in this book, as an ingredient for flavouring a
number of various dishes. Under the name of CANDIED LEMON-PEEL,
it is cleared of the pulp and preserved by sugar, when it
becomes an excellent sweetmeat. By the ancient medical
philosopher Galen, and others, it may be added, that dried
lemon-peel was considered as one of the best digestives, and
recommended to weak and delicate persons.

LIAISON OF EGGS FOR THICKENING SAUCES.

461. INGREDIENTS.--The yolks of 3 eggs, 8 tablespoonfuls of milk or
cream.

_Mode_.--Beat up the yolks of the eggs, to which add the milk, and
strain the whole through a hair-sieve. When the liaison is being added
to the sauce it is intended to thicken, care must be exercised to keep
stirring it during the whole time, or, otherwise, the eggs will curdle.
It should only just simmer, but not boil.

LIVER AND LEMON SAUCE FOR POULTRY.

462. INGREDIENTS.--The liver of a fowl, one lemon, salt to taste, 1/2
pint of melted butter. No. 376.

_Mode_.--Wash the liver, and let it boil for a few minutes; peel the
lemon very thin, remove the white part and pips, and cut it into very
small dice; mince the liver and a small quantity of the lemon rind very
fine; add these ingredients to 1/2 pint of smoothly-made melted butter;
season with a little salt, put in the cut lemon, heat it gradually, but
do not allow it to boil, lest the butter should oil.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a pair of small fowls.

LIVER AND PARSLEY SAUCE FOR POULTRY.

463. INGREDIENTS.--The liver of a fowl, one tablespoonful of minced
parsley, 1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376.

_Mode_.--Wash and score the liver, boil it for a few minutes, and mince
it very fine; blanch or scald a small bunch of parsley, of which there
should be sufficient when chopped to fill a tablespoon; add this, with
the minced liver, to 1/2 pint of smoothly-made melted butter; let it
just boil; when serve.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer.

_Sufficient_ for a pair of small fowls.

LOBSTER SAUCE, to serve with Turbot, Salmon, Brill, &c.

(_Very Good_.)

464. INGREDIENTS.--1 middling-sized hen lobster, 3/4 pint of melted
butter, No. 376; 1 tablespoonful of anchovy sauce, 1/2 oz. of butter,
salt and cayenne to taste, a little pounded mace when liked, 2 or 3
tablespoonfuls of cream.

_Mode_.--Choose a hen lobster, as this is indispensable, in order to
render this sauce as good as it ought to be. Pick the meat from the
shells, and cut it into small square pieces; put the spawn, which will
be found under the tail of the lobster, into a mortar with 1/2 oz. of
butter, and pound it quite smooth; rub it through a hair-sieve, and
cover up till wanted. Make 3/4 pint of melted butter by recipe No. 376;
put in all the ingredients except the lobster-meat, and well mix the
sauce before the lobster is added to it, as it should retain its square
form, and not come to table shredded and ragged. Put in the meat, let it
get thoroughly hot, but do not allow it to boil, as the colour would
immediately be spoiled; for it should be remembered that this sauce
should always have a bright red appearance. If it is intended to be
served with turbot or brill, a little of the spawn (dried and rubbed
through a sieve without butter) should be saved to garnish with; but as
the goodness, flavour, and appearance of the sauce so much depend on
having a proper quantity of spawn, the less used for garnishing the
better.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 2s.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a small turbot, a brill, or salmon for 6
persons.

_Note_.--Melted butter made with milk, No. 380, will be found to answer
very well for lobster sauce, as by employing it a nice white colour will
be obtained. Less quantity than the above may be made by using a very
small lobster, to which add only 1/2 pint of melted butter, and season
as above. Where economy is desired, the cream may be dispensed with, and
the remains of a cold lobster left from table, may, with a little care,
be converted into a very good sauce.

MAITRE D'HOTEL BUTTER, for putting into Broiled Fish just before it is
sent to Table.

465. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, 2 dessertspoonfuls of minced
parsley, salt and pepper to taste, the juice of 1 large lemon.

_Mode_.--Work the above ingredients well together, and let them be
thoroughly mixed with a wooden spoon. If this is used as a sauce, it may
be poured either under or over the meat or fish it is intended to be
served with.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 5d.

Note.--4 tablespoonfuls of Bechamel, No. 367, 2 do. of white stock, No.
107, with 2 oz. of the above maitre d'hotel butter stirred into it, and
just allowed to simmer for 1 minute, will be found an excellent hot
maitre d'hotel sauce.

THE MAITRE D'HOTEL.--The house-steward of England is synonymous
with the maitre d'hotel of France; and, in ancient times,
amongst the Latins, he was called procurator, or major-domo. In
Rome, the slaves, after they had procured the various articles
necessary for the repasts of the day, would return to the
spacious kitchen laden with meat, game, sea-fish, vegetables,
fruit, &c. Each one would then lay his basket at the feet of the
major-domo, who would examine its contents and register them on
his tablets, placing in the pantry contiguous to the
dining-room, those of the provisions which need no preparation,
and consigning the others to the more immediate care of the
cooks.

MAITRE D'HOTEL SAUCE (HOT), to serve with Calf's Head, Boiled Eels, and
different Fish.

466. INGREDIENTS.--1 slice of minced ham, a few poultry-trimmings, 2
shalots, 1 clove of garlic, 1 bay-leaf, 3/4 pint of water, 2 oz. of
butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1 heaped tablespoonful of chopped
parsley; salt, pepper, and cayenne to taste; the juice of 1/2 large
lemon, 1/4 teaspoonful of pounded sugar.

_Mode_.--Put at the bottom of a stewpan the minced ham, and over it the
poultry-trimmings (if these are not at hand, veal should be
substituted), with the shalots, garlic, and bay-leaf. Pour in the water,
and let the whole simmer gently for 1 hour, or until the liquor is
reduced to a full 1/2 pint. Then strain this gravy, put it in another
saucepan, make a thickening of butter and flour in the above
proportions, and stir it to the gravy over a nice clear fire, until it
is perfectly smooth and rather thick, care being taken that the butter
does not float on the surface. Skim well, add the remaining ingredients,
let the sauce gradually heat, but do not allow it to boil. If this sauce
is intended for an entree, it is necessary to make it of a sufficient
thickness, so that it may adhere to what it is meant to cover.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 2d. per pint.

_Sufficient_ for re-warming the remains of 1/2 calf's head, or a small
dish of cold flaked turbot, cod, &c.

MAIGRE MAITRE D'HOTEL SAUCE (HOT).

(Made without Meat.)

467. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376; 1 heaped
tablespoonful of chopped parsley, salt and pepper to taste, the juice of
1/2 large lemon; when liked, 2 minced shalots.

_Mode_.--Make 1/2 pint of melted butter, by recipe No. 376; stir in the
above ingredients, and let them just boil; when it is ready to serve.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer. _Average cost_, 9d. per pint.

MAYONNAISE, a Sauce or Salad-Dressing for cold Chicken, Meat, and other
cold Dishes.

468. INGREDIENTS.--The yolks of 2 eggs, 6 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, 4
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and white pepper to taste, 1
tablespoonful of white stock, No. 107, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream.

_Mode_.--Put the yolks of the eggs into a basin, with a seasoning of
pepper and salt; have ready the above quantities of oil and vinegar, in
separate vessels; add them _very gradually_ to the eggs; continue
stirring and rubbing the mixture with a wooden spoon, as herein consists
the secret of having a nice smooth sauce. It cannot be stirred too
frequently, and it should be made in a very cool place, or, if ice is at
hand, it should be mixed over it. When the vinegar and oil are well
incorporated with the eggs, add the stock and cream, stirring all the
time, and it will then be ready for use.

For a fish Mayonnaise, this sauce may be coloured with lobster-spawn,
pounded; and for poultry or meat, where variety is desired, a little
parsley-juice may be used to add to its appearance. Cucumber, Tarragon,
or any other flavoured vinegar, may be substituted for plain, where they
are liked.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for a small salad.

_Note_.--In mixing the oil and vinegar with the eggs, put in first a few
drops of oil, and then a few drops of vinegar, never adding a large
quantity of either at one time. By this means, you can be more certain
of the sauce not curdling. Patience and practice, let us add, are two
essentials for making this sauce good.

MINT SAUCE, to serve with Roast Lamb.

469. INGREDIENTS.--4 dessertspoonfuls of chopped mint, 2
dessertspoonfuls of pounded white sugar, 1/4 pint of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Wash the mint, which should be young and fresh-gathered, free
from grit; pick the leaves from the stalks, mince them very fine, and
put them into a tureen; add the sugar and vinegar, and stir till the
former is dissolved. This sauce is better by being made 2 or 3 hours
before wanted for table, as the vinegar then becomes impregnated with
the flavour of the mint. By many persons, the above proportion of sugar
would not be considered sufficient; but as tastes vary, we have given
the quantity which we have found to suit the general palate.

_Average cost_, 3d.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a middling-sized joint of lamb.

_Note_.--Where green mint is scarce and not obtainable, mint vinegar may
be substituted for it, and will be found very acceptable in early
spring.

[Illustration: MINT.]

MINT.--The common mint cultivated in our gardens is known as the
_Mentha viridis_, and is employed in different culinary
processes, being sometimes boiled with certain dishes, and
afterwards withdrawn. It has an agreeable aromatic flavour, and
forms an ingredient in soups, and sometimes is used in spring
salads. It is valuable as a stomachic and antispasmodic; on
which account it is generally served at table with pea-soup.
Several of its species grow wild in low situations in the
country.

MINT VINEGAR.

470. INGREDIENTS.--Vinegar, mint.

_Mode_.--Procure some nice fresh mint, pick the leaves from the stalks,
and fill a bottle or jar with them. Add vinegar to them until the bottle
is full; _cover closely_ to exclude the air, and let it infuse for a
fortnight. Then strain the liquor, and put it into small bottles for
use, of which the corks should be sealed.

_Seasonable_.--This should be made in June, July, or August.

MIXED PICKLE.

(_Very Good_.)

471. INGREDIENTS.--To each gallon of vinegar allow 1/4 lb. of bruised
ginger, 1/4 lb. of mustard, 1/4 lb. of salt, 2 oz. of mustard-seed,
1-1/2 oz. of turmeric, 1 oz. of ground black pepper, 1/4 oz. of cayenne,
cauliflowers, onions, celery, sliced cucumbers, gherkins, French beans,
nasturtiums, capsicums.

_Mode_.--Have a large jar, with a tightly-fitting lid, in which put as
much vinegar as required, reserving a little to mix the various powders
to a smooth paste. Put into a basin the mustard, turmeric, pepper, and
cayenne; mix them with vinegar, and stir well until no lumps remain; add
all the ingredients to the vinegar, and mix well. Keep this liquor in a
warm place, and thoroughly stir every morning for a month with a wooden
spoon, when it will be ready for the different vegetables to be added to
it. As these come into season, have them gathered on a dry day, and,
after merely wiping them with a cloth, to free them from moisture, put
them into the pickle. The cauliflowers, it may be said, must be divided
into small bunches. Put all these into the pickle raw, and at the end of
the season, when there have been added as many of the vegetables as
could be procured, store it away in jars, and tie over with bladder. As
none of the ingredients are boiled, this pickle will not be fit to eat
till 12 months have elapsed. Whilst the pickle is being made, keep a
wooden spoon tied to the jar; and its contents, it may be repeated, must
be stirred every morning.

_Seasonable_.--Make the pickle-liquor in May or June, as the season
arrives for the various vegetables to be picked.

MUSHROOM KETCHUP.

472. INGREDIENTS.--To each peck of mushrooms 1/2 lb. of salt; to each
quart of mushroom-liquor 1/4 oz. of cayenne, 1/2 oz. of allspice, 1/2
oz. of ginger, 2 blades of pounded mace.

_Mode_.--Choose full-grown mushroom-flaps, and take care they are
perfectly _fresh-gathered_ when the weather is tolerably dry; for, if
they are picked during very heavy rain, the ketchup from which they are
made is liable to get musty, and will not keep long. Put a layer of them
in a deep pan, sprinkle salt over them, and then another layer of
mushrooms, and so on alternately. Let them remain for a few hours, when
break them up with the hand; put them in a nice cool place for 3 days,
occasionally stirring and mashing them well, to extract from them as
much juice as possible. Now measure the quantity of liquor without
straining, and to each quart allow the above proportion of spices, &c.
Put all into a stone jar, cover it up very closely, put it in a saucepan
of boiling water, set it over the fire, and let it boil for 3 hours.
Have ready a nice clean stewpan; turn into it the contents of the jar,
and let the whole simmer very gently for 1/2 hour; pour it into a jug,
where it should stand in a cool place till the next day; then pour it
off into another jug, and strain it into very dry clean bottles, and do
not squeeze the mushrooms. To each pint of ketchup add a few drops of
brandy. Be careful not to shake the contents, but leave all the sediment
behind in the jug; cork well, and either seal or rosin the cork, so as
perfectly to exclude the air. When a very clear bright ketchup is
wanted, the liquor must be strained through a very fine hair-sieve, or
flannel bag, _after_ it has been very gently poured off; if the
operation is not successful, it must be repeated until you have quite a
clear liquor. It should be examined occasionally, and if it is spoiling,
should be reboiled with a few peppercorns.

_Seasonable_ from the beginning of September to the middle of October,
when this ketchup should be made.

_Note_.--This flavouring ingredient, if genuine and well prepared, is
one of the most useful store sauces to the experienced cook, and no
trouble should be spared in its preparation. Double ketchup is made by
reducing the liquor to half the quantity; for example, 1 quart must be
boiled down to 1 pint. This goes farther than ordinary ketchup, as so
little is required to flavour a good quantity of gravy. The sediment may
also be bottled for immediate use, and will be found to answer for
flavouring thick soups or gravies.

HOW TO DISTINGUISH MUSHROOMS FROM TOADSTOOLS.--The cultivated
mushroom, known as _Agaricus campestris_, may be distinguished
from other poisonous kinds of fungi by its having pink or
flesh-coloured gills, or under-side, and by its invariably
having an agreeable smell, which the toadstool has not. When
young, mushrooms are like a small round button, both the stalk
and head being white. As they grow larger, they expand their
heads by degrees into a flat form, the gills underneath being at
first of a pale flesh-colour, but becoming, as they stand
longer, dark brown or blackish. Nearly all the poisonous kinds
are brown, and have in general a rank and putrid smell. Edible
mushrooms are found in closely-fed pastures, but seldom grow in
woods, where most of the poisonous sorts are to be found.

TO DRY MUSHROOMS.

473. _Mode_.--Wipe them clean, take away the brown part, and peel off
the skin; lay them on sheets of paper to dry, in a cool oven, when they
will shrivel considerably. Keep them in paper bags, which hang in a dry
place. When wanted for use, put them into cold gravy, bring them
gradually to simmer, and it will be found that they will regain nearly
their usual size.

[Illustration: THE MUSHROOM.]

THE MUSHROOM.--The cultivated or garden mushroom is a species of
fungus, which, in England, is considered the best, and is there
usually eaten. The tribe, however, is numerous, and a large
proportion of them are poisonous; hence it is always dangerous
to make use of mushrooms gathered in their wild state. In some
parts of Europe, as in Germany, Russia, and Poland, many species
grow wild, and are used as food; but in Britain, two only are
generally eaten. These are mostly employed for the flavouring of
dishes, and are also dried and pickled. CATSUP, or KETCHUP, is
made from them by mixing spices and salt with their juice. The
young, called buttons, are the best for pickling when in the
globular form.

BROWN MUSHROOM SAUCE, to serve with Roast Meat, &c.

474. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of button mushrooms, 1/2 pint of good beef
gravy, No. 435, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup (if at hand),
thickening of butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Put the gravy into a saucepan, thicken it, and stir over the
fire until it boils. Prepare the mushrooms by cutting off the stalks and
wiping them free from grit and dirt; the large flap mushrooms cut into
small pieces will answer for a brown sauce, when the buttons are not
obtainable; put them into the gravy, and let them simmer very gently for
about 10 minutes; then add the ketchup, and serve.

_Time_.--Rather more than 10 minutes.

_Seasonable_ from August to October.

_Note_.--When fresh mushrooms are not obtainable, the powder No. 477 may
be used as a substitute for brown sauce.

WHITE MUSHROOM SAUCE, to serve with Boiled Fowls, Cutlets, &c.

I.

475. INGREDIENTS.--Rather more than 1/2 pint of button mushrooms,
lemon-juice and water, 1 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of Bechamel, No. 367,
1/4 teaspoonful of pounded sugar.

_Mode_.--Turn the mushrooms white by putting them into lemon-juice and
water, having previously cut off the stalks and wiped them perfectly
free from grit. Chop them, and put them in a stewpan with the butter.
When the mushrooms are softened, add the Bechamel, and simmer for about
5 minutes; should they, however, not be done enough, allow rather more
time. They should not boil longer than necessary, as they would then
lose their colour and flavour. Rub the whole through a tammy, and serve
very hot. After this, it should be warmed in a bain marie.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Seasonable_ from August to October.

II.

_A More Simple Method_.

476. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter, made with milk, No. 380;
1/2 pint of button mushrooms, 1 dessertspoonful of mushroom ketchup, if
at hand; cayenne and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Make the melted butter by recipe No. 380, and add to it the
mushrooms, which must be nicely cleaned, and free from grit, and the
stalks cut off. Let them simmer gently for about 10 minutes, or until
they are quite tender. Put in the seasoning and ketchup; let it just
boil, when serve.

_Time_.--Rather more than 10 minutes. _Average cost_, 8d.

_Seasonable_ from August to October.

GROWTH OF THE MUSHROOM AND OTHER FUNGI.--The quick growth of the
mushroom and other fungi is no less wonderful than the length of
time they live, and the numerous dangers they resist while they
continue in the dormant state. To spring up "like a mushroom in
a night" is a scriptural mode of expressing celerity; and this
completely accords with all the observations which have been
made concerning this curious class of plants. Mr. Sowerby
remarks--"I have often placed specimens of the _Phallus caninus_
by a window over-night, while in the egg-form, and they have
been fully grown by the morning."

MUSHROOM POWDER (a valuable addition to Sauces and Gravies, when fresh
Mushrooms are not obtainable).

477. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 peck of large mushrooms, 2 onions, 12 cloves, 1/4
oz. of pounded mace, 2 teaspoonfuls of white pepper.

_Mode_.--Peel the mushrooms, wipe them perfectly free from grit and
dirt, remove the black fur, and reject all those that are at all
worm-eaten; put them into a stewpan with the above ingredients, but
without water; shake them over a clear fire, till all the liquor is
dried up, and be careful not to let them burn; arrange them on tins, and
dry them in a slow oven; pound them to a fine powder, which put into
small _dry_ bottles; cork well, seal the corks, and keep it in a dry
place. In using this powder, add it to the gravy just before serving,
when it will merely require one boil-up. The flavour imparted by this
means to the gravy, ought to be exceedingly good.

_Seasonable_.--This should be made in September, or at the beginning of
October.

_Note_.--If the bottles in which it is stored away are not perfectly
dry, as, also the mushroom powder, it will keep good but a very short
time.

PICKLED MUSHROOMS.

478. INGREDIENTS.--Sufficient vinegar to cover the mushrooms; to each
quart of mushrooms, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1 oz. of ground pepper,
salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Choose some nice young button mushrooms for pickling, and rub
off the skin with a piece of flannel and salt, and cut off the stalks;
if very large, take out the red inside, and reject the black ones, as
they are too old. Put them in a stewpan, sprinkle salt over them, with
pounded mace and pepper in the above proportion; shake them well over a
clear fire until the liquor flows, and keep them there until it is all
dried up again; then add as much vinegar as will cover them; just let it
simmer for 1 minute, and store it away in stone jars for use. When cold,
tie down with bladder and keep in a dry place; they will remain good for
a length of time, and are generally considered delicious.

_Seasonable_.--Make this the same time as ketchup, from the beginning of
September to the middle of October.

NATURE OF THE MUSHROOM.--Locality has evidently a considerable
influence on the nature of the juices of the mushroom; for it
has been discovered, after fatal experience, that some species,
which are perfectly harmless when raised in open meadows and
pasturelands, become virulently poisonous when they happen to
grow in contact with stagnant water or putrescent animal and
vegetable substances. What the precise nature of the poison in
fungi may be, has not been accurately ascertained.

A VERY RICH AND GOOD MUSHROOM SAUCE, to serve with Fowls or Rabbits.

479. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of mushroom-buttons, salt to taste, a little
grated nutmeg, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 pint of cream, 2 oz. of
butter, flour to thicken.

_Mode_.--Rub the buttons with a piece of flannel and salt, to take off
the skin; cut off the stalks, and put them in a stewpan with the above
ingredients, previously kneading together the butter and flour; boil the
whole for about ten minutes, stirring all the time. Pour some of the
sauce over the fowls, and the remainder serve in a tureen.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, 2s.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a pair of fowls.

_Seasonable_ from August to October.

HOW TO MIX MUSTARD.

480. INGREDIENTS.--Mustard, salt, and water.

_Mode_.--Mustard should be mixed with water that has been boiled and
allowed to cool; hot water destroys its essential properties, and raw
cold water might cause it to ferment. Put the mustard in a cup, with a
small pinch of salt, and mix with it very gradually sufficient boiled
water to make it drop from the spoon without being watery. Stir and mix
well, and rub the lumps well down with the back of a spoon, as
well-mixed mustard should be perfectly free from these. The mustard-pot
should not be more than half full, or rather less if it will not be used
in a day or two, as it is so much better when freshly mixed.

TARTAR MUSTARD.

481. INGREDIENTS.--Horseradish vinegar, cayenne, 1/2 a teacupful of
mustard.

_Mode_.--Have ready sufficient horseradish vinegar to mix with the above
proportion of mustard; put the mustard in a cup, with a slight seasoning
of cayenne; mix it perfectly smooth with the vinegar, adding this a
little at a time; rub down with the back of a spoon any lumps that may
appear, and do not let it be too thin. Mustard may be flavoured in
various ways, with Tarragon, shalot, celery, and many other vinegars,
herbs, spices, &c.; but this is more customary in France than in
England, as there it is merely considered a "vehicle of flavours," as it
has been termed.

PICKLED NASTURTIUMS (a very good Substitute for Capers)

482. INGREDIENTS.--To each pint of vinegar, 1 oz. of salt, 6
peppercorns, nasturtiums.

_Mode_.--Gather the nasturtium-pods on a dry day, and wipe them clean
with a cloth; put them in a dry glass bottle, with vinegar, salt, and
pepper in the above proportion. If you cannot find enough ripe to fill a
bottle, cork up what you have got until you have some more fit: they may
be added from day to day. Bung up the bottles, and seal or rosin the
tops. They will be fit for use in 10 or 12 months; and the best way is
to make them one season for the next.

_Seasonable_.--Look for nasturtium-pods from the end of July to the end
of August.

[Illustration: NASTURTIUMS.]

NASTURTIUMS.--The elegant nasturtium-plant, called by
naturalists _Tropoeolum_, and which sometimes goes by the name
of Indian cress, came originally from Peru, but was easily made
to grow in these islands. Its young leaves and flowers are of a
slightly hot nature, and many consider them a good adjunct to
salads, to which they certainly add a pretty appearance. When
the beautiful blossoms, which may be employed with great effect
in garnishing dishes, are off, then the fruit is used as
described in the above recipe.

FRENCH ONION SAUCE, or SOUBISE.

483. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of Bechamel, No. 367, 1 bay-leaf, seasoning
to taste of pounded mace and cayenne, 6 onions, a small piece of ham.

_Mode_.--Peel the onions and cut them in halves; put them in a stewpan,
with just sufficient water to cover them, and add the bay-leaf, ham,
cayenne, and mace; be careful to keep the lid closely shut, and simmer
them until tender. Take them out and drain thoroughly; rub them through
a tammy or sieve (an old one does for the purpose) with a wooden spoon,
and put them to 1/2 pint of Bechamel; keep stirring over the fire until
it boils, when serve. If it should require any more seasoning, add it to
taste.

_Time_.--3/4 hour to boil the onions.

_Average cost_, 10d. for this quantity.

_Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized dish.

WHITE ONION SAUCE, for Boiled Rabbits, Roast Shoulder of Mutton, &c.

484. INGREDIENTS.--9 large onions, or 12 middling-sized ones, 1 pint of
melted butter made with milk (No. 380), 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, or
rather more.

_Mode_.--Peel the onions and put them into water to which a little salt
has been added, to preserve their whiteness, and let them remain for 1/4
hour. Then put them in a stewpan, cover them with water, and let them
boil until tender, and, if the onions should be very strong, change the
water after they have been boiling for 1/4 hour. Drain them thoroughly,
chop them, and rub them through a tammy or sieve. Make 1 pint of melted
butter, by recipe No. 380, and when that boils, put in the onions, with
a seasoning of salt; stir it till it simmers, when it will be ready to
serve. If these directions are carefully attended to, this onion sauce
will be delicious.

_Time_.--From 3/4 to 1 hour, to boil the onions.

_Average cost_, 9d. per pint.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a roast shoulder of mutton, or boiled rabbit.

_Seasonable_ from August to March.

_Note_.--To make this sauce very mild and delicate, use Spanish onions,
which can be procured from the beginning of September to Christmas. 2 or
3 tablespoonfuls of cream added just before serving, will be found to
improve its appearance very much. Small onions, when very young, may be
cooked whole, and served in melted butter. A sieve or tammy should be
kept expressly for onions: an old one answers the purpose, as it is
liable to retain the flavour and smell, which of course would be
excessively disagreeable in delicate preparations.

BROWN ONION SAUCE.

485. INGREDIENTS.--6 large onions, rather more than 1/2 pint of good
gravy, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--Slice and fry the onions of a pale brown in a stewpan, with the
above quantity of butter, keeping them well stirred, that they do not
get black. When a nice colour, pour over the gravy, and let them simmer
gently until tender. Now skim off every particle of fat, add the
seasoning, and rub the whole through a tammy or sieve; put it back in
the saucepan to warm, and when it boils, serve.

_Time_.--Altogether 1 hour.

_Seasonable_ from August to March.

_Note_.--Where a very high flavouring is liked, add 1 tablespoonful of
mushroom ketchup, or a small quantity of port wine.

HISTORY OF THE ONION.--It is not supposed that any variety of
the onion is indigenous to Britain, as when the large and mild
roots imported from warmer climates, have been cultivated in
these islands a few years, they deteriorate both in size and
sweetness. It is therefore most likely that this plant was first
introduced into England from continental Europe, and that it
originally was produced in a southern climate, and has gradually
become acclimatized to a colder atmosphere. (_See_ No. 139.)

PICKLED ONIONS (a very Simple Method, and exceedingly Good).

486. INGREDIENTS.--Pickling onions; to each quart of vinegar, 2
teaspoonfuls of allspice, 2 teaspoonfuls of whole black pepper.

_Mode_.--Have the onions gathered when quite dry and ripe, and, with the
fingers, take off the thin outside skin; then, with a silver knife
(steel should not be used, as it spoils the colour of the onions),
remove one more skin, when the onion will look quite clear. Have ready
some very dry bottles or jars, and as fast as they are peeled, put them
in. Pour over sufficient cold vinegar to cover them, with pepper and
allspice in the above proportions, taking care that each jar has its
share of the latter ingredients. Tie down with bladder, and put them in
a dry place, and in a fortnight they will be fit for use. This is a most
simple recipe and very delicious, the onions being nice and crisp. They
should be eaten within 6 or 8 months after being done, as the onions are
liable to become soft.

_Seasonable_ from the middle of July to the end of August.

PICKLED ONIONS.

487. INGREDIENTS.--1 gallon of pickling onions, salt and water, milk; to
each 1/2 gallon of vinegar, 1 oz. of bruised ginger, 1/4 teaspoonful of
cayenne, 1 oz. of allspice, 1 oz. of whole black pepper, 1/4 oz. of
whole nutmeg bruised, 8 cloves, 1/4 oz. of mace.

_Mode_.--Gather the onions, which should not be too small, when they are
quite dry and ripe; wipe off the dirt, but do not pare them; make a
strong solution of salt and water, into which put the onions, and change
this, morning and night, for 3 days, and save the _last_ brine they were
put in. Then take the outside skin off, and put them into a tin saucepan
capable of holding them all, as they are always better done together.
Now take equal quantities of milk and the last salt and water the onions
were in, and pour this to them; to this add 2 large spoonfuls of salt,
put them over the fire, and watch them very attentively. Keep constantly
turning the onions about with a wooden skimmer, those at the bottom to
the top, and _vice versa_; and let the milk and water run through the
holes of the skimmer. Remember, the onions must never boil, or, if they
do, they will be good for nothing; and they should be quite transparent.
Keep the onions stirred for a few minutes, and, in stirring them, be
particular not to break them. Then have ready a pan with a colander,
into which turn the onions to drain, covering them with a cloth to keep
in the steam. Place on a table an old cloth, 2 or 3 times double; put
the onions on it when quite hot, and over them an old piece of blanket;
cover this closely over them, to keep in the steam. Let them remain till
the next day, when they will be quite cold, and look yellow and
shrivelled; take off the shrivelled skins, when they should be as white
as snow. Put them in a pan, make a pickle of vinegar and the remaining
ingredients, boil all these up, and pour hot over the onions in the pan.
Cover very closely to keep in all the steam, and let them stand till the
following day, when they will be quite cold. Put them into jars or
bottles well bunged, and a tablespoonful of the best olive-oil on the
top of each jar or bottle. Tie them down with bladder, and let them
stand in a cool place for a month or six weeks, when they will be fit
for use. They should be beautifully white, and eat crisp, without the
least softness, and will keep good many months.

_Seasonable_ from the middle of July to the end of August.

ORANGE GRAVY, for Wildfowl, Widgeon, Teal, &c.

488. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of white stock, No. 107, 1 small onion, 3 or
4 strips of lemon or orange peel, a few leaves of basil, if at hand, the
juice of a Seville orange or lemon, salt and pepper to taste, 1 glass of
port wine.

_Mode_.--Put the onion, cut in slices, into a stewpan with the stock,
orange-peel, and basil, and let them simmer very gently for 1/4 hour or
rather longer, should the gravy not taste sufficiently of the peel.
Strain it off, and add to the gravy the remaining ingredients; let the
whole heat through, and, when on the point of boiling, serve very hot in
a tureen which should have a cover to it.

_Time_.--Altogether 1/2 hour.

_Sufficient_ for a small tureen.

OYSTER FORCEMEAT, for Roast or Boiled Turkey.

489. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of bread crumbs, 1-1/2 oz. of chopped suet
or butter, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, 1/4 saltspoonful of grated nutmeg,
salt and pepper to taste, 2 eggs, 18 oysters.

_Mode_.--Grate the bread very fine, and be careful that no large lumps
remain; put it into a basin with the suet, which must be very finely
minced, or, when butter is used, that must be cut up into small pieces.
Add the herbs, also chopped as small as possible, and seasoning; mix all
these well together, until the ingredients are thoroughly mingled. Open
and beard the oysters, chop them, but not too small, and add them to the
other ingredients. Beat up the eggs, and, with the hand, work
altogether, until it is smoothly mixed. The turkey should not be stuffed
too full: if there should be too much forcemeat, roll it into balls, fry
them, and use them as a garnish.

_Sufficient_ for 1 turkey.

OYSTER KETCHUP.

490. INGREDIENTS.--Sufficient oysters to fill a pint measure, 1 pint of
sherry, 3 oz. of salt, 1 drachm of cayenne, 2 drachms of pounded mace.

_Mode_.--Procure the oysters very fresh, and open sufficient to fill a
pint measure; save the liquor, and scald the oysters in it with the
sherry; strain the oysters, and put them in a mortar with the salt,
cayenne, and mace; pound the whole until reduced to a pulp, then add it
to the liquor in which they were scalded; boil it again five minutes,
and skim well; rub the whole through a sieve, and, when cold, bottle and
cork closely. The corks should be sealed.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

_Note_.--Cider may be substituted for the sherry.

PICKLED OYSTERS.

491. INGREDIENTS.--100 oysters; to each 1/2 pint of vinegar, 1 blade of
pounded mace, 1 strip of lemon-peel, 12 black peppercorns.

_Mode_.--Get the oysters in good condition, open them, place them in a
saucepan, and let them simmer in their own liquor for about 10 minutes,
very gently; then take them out, one by one, and place them in a jar,
and cover them, when cold, with a pickle made as follows:--Measure the
oyster-liquor; add to it the same quantity of vinegar, with mace,
lemon-peel, and pepper in the above proportion, and boil it for 5
minutes; when cold, pour over the oysters, and tie them down very
closely, as contact with the air spoils them.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

_Note_.--Put this pickle away in small jars; because directly one is
opened, its contents should immediately be eaten, as they soon spoil.
The pickle should not be kept more than 2 or 3 months.

OYSTER SAUCE, to serve with Fish, Boiled Poultry, &c.

492. INGREDIENTS.--3 dozen oysters, 1/2 pint of melted butter, made with
milk, No. 380.

_Mode_.--Open the oysters carefully, and save their liquor; strain it
into a clean saucepan (a lined one is best), put in the oysters, and let
them just come to the boiling-point, when they should look plump. Take
them off the fire immediately, and put the whole into a basin. Strain
the liquor from them, mix with it sufficient milk to make 1/2 pint
altogether, and follow the directions of No. 380. When the melted butter
is ready and very smooth, put in the oysters, which should be previously
bearded, if you wish the sauce to be really nice. Set it by the side of
the fire to get thoroughly hot, _but do not allow it to boil_, or the
oysters will immediately harden. Using cream instead of milk makes this
sauce extremely delicious. When liked, add a seasoning of cayenne, or
anchovy sauce; but, as we have before stated, a plain sauce _should_ be
plain, and not be overpowered by highly-flavoured essences; therefore we
recommend that the above directions be implicitly followed, and no
seasoning added.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 2s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons. Never allow fewer than 6 oysters to 1
person, unless the party is very large.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

A more economical sauce may be made by using a smaller quantity of
oysters, and not bearding them before they are added to the sauce: this
may answer the purpose, but we cannot undertake to recommend it as a
mode of making this delicious adjunct to fish, &c.

PARSLEY AND BUTTER, to serve with Calf's Head. Boiled Fowls, &c.

493. INGREDIENTS.--2 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley, 1/2 pint of
melted butter, No. 376.

_Mode_.--Put into a saucepan a small quantity of water, slightly salted,
and when it boils, throw in a good bunch of parsley which has been
previously washed and tied together in a bunch; let it boil for 5
minutes, drain it, mince the leaves very fine, and put the above
quantity in a tureen; pour over it 1/2 pint of smoothly-made melted
butter; stir once, that the ingredients may be thoroughly mixed, and
serve.

_Time_.--5 minutes to boil the parsley. _Average cost_, 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 large fowl; allow rather more for a pair.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Sometimes, in the middle of winter, parsley-leaves are not to
be had, when the following will be found an excellent substitute:--Tie
up a little parsley-seed in a small piece of muslin, and boil it for 10
minutes in a small quantity of water; use this water to make the melted
butter with, and throw into it a little boiled spinach, minced rather
fine, which will have an appearance similar to that of parsley.

[Illustration: PARSLEY.]

PARSLEY.--If there be nothing new under the sun, there are, at
any rate, different uses found for the same thing; for this
pretty aromatic herb was used in ancient times, as we learn from
mythological narrative, to adorn the head of a hero, no less
than Hercules; and now--was ever fall so great?--we moderns use
it in connection with the head of--a calf. According to Homer's
"Iliad," warriors fed their chariot-steeds on parsley; and Pliny
acquaints us with the fact that, as a symbol of mourning, it was
admitted to furnish the funeral tables of the Romans. Egypt,
some say, first produced this herb; thence it was introduced, by
some unknown voyager, into Sardinia, where the Carthaginians
found it, and made it known to the inhabitants of Marseilles.
(See No. 123.)

FRIED PARSLEY, for Garnishing.

494. INGREDIENTS.--Parsley, hot lard or clarified dripping.

_Mode_.--Gather some young parsley; wash, pick, and dry it thoroughly in
a cloth; put it into the wire basket of which we have given an
engraving, and hold it in boiling lard or dripping for a minute or two.
Directly it is done, lift out the basket, and let it stand before the
fire, that the parsley may become thoroughly crisp; and the quicker it
is fried the better. Should the kitchen not be furnished with the above
article, throw the parsley into the frying-pan, and when crisp, lift it
out with a slice, dry it before the fire, and when thoroughly crisp, it
will be ready for use.

[Illustration: WIRE BASKET.]

WIRE BASKET.--For this recipe, a wire basket, as shown in the
annexed engraving, will be found very useful. It is very light
and handy, and may be used for other similar purposes besides
that described above.

PARSLEY JUICE, for Colouring various Dishes.

495. Procure some nice young parsley; wash it and dry it thoroughly in a
cloth; pound the leaves in a mortar till all the juice is extracted, and
put the juice in a teacup or small jar; place this in a saucepan of
boiling water, and warm it on the _bain marie_ principle just long
enough to take off its rawness; let it drain, and it will be ready for
colouring.

TO PRESERVE PARSLEY THROUGH THE WINTER.

496. Use freshly-gathered parsley for keeping, and wash it perfectly
free from grit and dirt; put it into boiling water which has been
slightly salted and well skimmed, and then let it boil for 2 or 3
minutes; take it out, let it drain, and lay it on a sieve in front of
the fire, when it should be dried as expeditiously as possible. Store it
away in a very dry place in bottles, and when wanted for use, pour over
it a little warm water, and let it stand for about 5 minutes.

_Seasonable_.--This may be done at any time between June and October.

AN EXCELLENT PICKLE.

497. INGREDIENTS.--Equal quantities of medium-sized onions, cucumbers,
and sauce-apples; 1-1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 3/4 teaspoonful of cayenne,
1 wineglassful of soy, 1 wineglassful of sherry; vinegar.

_Mode_.--Slice sufficient cucumbers, onions, and apples to fill a pint
stone jar, taking care to cut the slices very thin; arrange them in
alternate layers, shaking in as you proceed salt and cayenne in the
above proportion; pour in the soy and wine, and fill up with vinegar. It
will be fit for use the day it is made.

_Seasonable_ in August and September.

[This recipe was forwarded to the editress of this work by a subscriber
to the "Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine." Mrs. Beeton, not having
tested it, cannot vouch for its excellence; but the contributor spoke
very highly in its favour.]

SOY.--This is a sauce frequently made use of for fish, and comes
from Japan, where it is prepared from the seeds of a plant
called _Dolichos Soja_. The Chinese also manufacture it; but
that made by the Japanese is said to be the best. All sorts of
statements have been made respecting the very general
adulteration of this article in England, and we fear that many
of them are too true. When genuine, it is of an agreeable
flavour, thick, and of a clear brown colour.

PICKLED RED CABBAGE.

498. INGREDIENTS.--Red cabbages, salt and water; to each quart of
vinegar, 1/2 oz. of ginger well bruised, 1 oz. of whole black pepper,
and, when liked, a little cayenne.

_Mode_.--Take off the outside decayed leaves of a nice red cabbage, cut
it in quarters, remove the stalks, and cut it across in very thin
slices. Lay these on a dish, and strew them plentifully with salt,
covering them with another dish. Let them remain for 24 hours, turn into
a colander to drain, and, if necessary, wipe lightly with a clean soft
cloth. Put them in a jar; boil up the vinegar with spices in the above
proportion, and, when cold, pour it over the cabbage. It will be fit for
use in a week or two, and, if kept for a very long time, the cabbage is
liable get soft and to discolour. To be really nice and crisp, and of a
good red colour, it should be eaten almost immediately after it is made.
A little bruised cochineal boiled with the vinegar adds much to the
appearance of this pickle. Tie down with bladder, and keep in a dry
place.

_Seasonable_ in July and August, but the pickle will be much more crisp
if the frost has just touched the leaves.

RED CABBAGE.--This plant, in its growth, is similar in form to
that of the white, but is of a bluish-purple colour, which,
however, turns red on the application of acid, as is the case
with all vegetable blues. It is principally from the white
vegetable that the Germans make their _sauer kraut_; a dish held
in such high estimation with the inhabitants of Vaderland, but
which requires, generally speaking, with strangers, a long
acquaintance in order to become sufficiently impressed with its
numerous merits. The large red Dutch is the kind generally
recommended for pickling.

PLUM-PUDDING SAUCE.

499. INGREDIENTS.--1 wineglassful of brandy, 2 oz. of very fresh butter,
1 glass of Madeira, pounded sugar to taste.

_Mode_.--Put the pounded sugar in a basin, with part of the brandy and
the butter; let it stand by the side of the fire until it is warm and
the sugar and butter are dissolved; then add the rest of the brandy,
with the Madeira. Either pour it over the pudding, or serve in a tureen.
This is a very rich and excellent sauce.

_Average cost_, 1s. 3d. for this quantity.

_Sufficient_ for a pudding made for 6 persons.

QUIN'S SAUCE, an excellent Fish Sauce.

500. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of walnut pickle, 1/2 pint of port wine, 1
pint of mushroom ketchup, 1 dozen anchovies, 1 dozen shalots, 1/4 pint
of soy, 1/2 teaspoonful of cayenne.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a saucepan, having previously
chopped the shalots and anchovies very small; simmer for 15 minutes,
strain, and, when cold, bottle off for use: the corks should be well
sealed to exclude the air.

_Time_.--1/4 hour.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

RAVIGOTTE, a French Salad Sauce.

_Mons. Ude's Recipe_.

501. INGREDIENTS.--1 teaspoonful of mushroom ketchup, 1 teaspoonful of
cavice, 1 teaspoonful of Chili vinegar, 1 teaspoonful of Reading sauce,
a piece of butter the size of an egg, 3 tablespoonfuls of thick
Bechamel, No. 367, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 3 tablespoonfuls
of cream; salt and pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--Scald the parsley, mince the leaves very fine, and add it to
all the other ingredients; after mixing the whole together thoroughly,
the sauce will be ready for use.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 10d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

READING SAUCE.

502. INGREDIENTS.--2-1/2 pints of walnut pickle, 1-1/2 oz. of shalots, 1

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