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The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

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341. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold turbot. For sauce, 2 oz. of
butter, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream; salt, cayenne, and pounded mace to
taste.

_Mode_.--Clear away all skin and bone from the flesh of the turbot,
which should be done when it comes from table, as it causes less waste
when trimmed hot. Cut the flesh into nice square pieces, as equally as
possible; put into a stewpan the butter, let it melt, and add the cream
and seasoning; let it just simmer for one minute, but not boil. Lay in
the fish to warm, and serve it garnished with croutons or a paste
border.

_Time_.--10 minutes.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The remains of cold salmon may be dressed in this way, and the
above mixture may be served in a _vol-au-vent_.

TURBOT AU GRATIN.

342. INGREDIENTS.--Remains of cold turbot, bechamel (_see_ Sauces),
bread crumbs, butter.

_Mode_.--Cut the flesh of the turbot into small dice, carefully freeing
it from all skin and bone. Put them into a stewpan, and moisten with 4
or 5 tablespoonfuls of bechamel. Let it get thoroughly hot, but do not
allow it to boil. Spread the mixture on a dish, cover with finely-grated
bread crumbs, and place small pieces of butter over the top. Brown it in
the oven, or with a salamander.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1/2 hour. _Seasonable_ at any time.

BOILED WHITING.

343. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of salt to each gallon of water.

_Mode_.--Cleanse the fish, but do not skin them; lay them in a
fish-kettle, with sufficient cold water to cover them, and salt in the
above proportion. Bring them gradually to a boil, and simmer gently for
about 5 minutes, or rather more should the fish be very large. Dish them
on a hot napkin, and garnish with tufts of parsley. Serve with anchovy
or caper sauce, and plain melted butter.

_Time_.--After the water boils, 5 minutes.

_Average cost_ for small whitings, 4d. each.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best from October to March.

_Sufficient_, 1 small whiting for each person.

To CHOOSE WHITING.--Choose for the firmness of its flesh and the silvery
hue of its appearance.

[Illustration: THE WHITING.]

The Whiting.--This fish forms a light, tender, and delicate
food, easy of digestion. It appears in our seas in the spring,
within three miles of the shores, where it arrives in large
shoals to deposit its spawn. It is caught by line, and is
usually between ten and twelve inches long, and seldom exceeding
a pound and a half in weight. On the edge of the Dogger Bank,
however, it has been caught so heavy as to weigh from three to
seven or eight pounds. When less than six inches long, it is not
allowed to be caught.

BROILED WHITING.

344. INGREDIENTS.--Salt and water, flour.

_Mode_.--Wash the whiting in salt and water, wipe them thoroughly, and
let them remain in the cloth to absorb all moisture. Flour them well,
and broil over a very clear fire. Serve with _maitre d'hotel_ sauce, or
plain melted butter (_see_ Sauces). Be careful to preserve the liver, as
by some it is considered very delicate.

_Time_.--5 minutes for a small whiting. _Average cost_, 4d. each.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best from October to March.

_Sufficient_, 1 small whiting for each person.

Buckhorn.--Whitings caught in Cornwall are salted and dried, and in
winter taken to the markets, and sold under the singular name of
"Buckhorn."

FRIED WHITING.

345. INGREDIENTS.--Egg and bread crumbs, a little flour, hot lard or
clarified dripping.

_Mode_.--Take off the skin, clean, and thoroughly wipe the fish free
from all moisture, as this is most essential, in order that the egg and
bread crumbs may properly adhere. Fasten the tail in the mouth by means
of a small skewer, brush the fish over with egg, dredge with a little
flour, and cover with bread crumbs. Fry them in hot lard or clarified
dripping of a nice colour, and serve them on a napkin, garnished with
fried parsley. (See Coloured Plate D.) Send them to table with shrimp
sauce and plain melted butter.

_Time_.--About 6 minutes. Average cost, 4d. each.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best from October to March.

_Sufficient_, 1 small whiting for each person.

_Note_.--Large whitings may be filleted, rolled, and served as fried
filleted soles (_see_ Coloured Plato A). Small fried whitings are
frequently used for garnishing large boiled fish, such as turbot, cod,
etc.

WHITING AU GRATIN, or BAKED WHITING.

346. INGREDIENTS.--4 whiting, butter, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley,
a few chopped mushrooms when obtainable; pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg
to taste; butter, 2 glasses of sherry or Madeira, bread crumbs.

_Mode_.--Grease the bottom of a baking-dish with butter, and over it,
strew some minced parsley and mushrooms. Scale, empty, and wash the
whitings, and wipe them thoroughly dry, carefully preserving the livers.
Lay them in the dish, sprinkle them with bread crumbs and seasoning,
adding a little grated nutmeg, and also a little more minced parsley and
mushrooms. Place small pieces of butter over the whiting, moisten with
the wine, and bake for 20 minutes in a hot oven. If there should be too
much sauce, reduce it by boiling over a sharp fire for a few minutes,
and pour under the fish. Serve with a cut lemon, and no other sauce.

_Time_.---20 minutes. _Average cost_, 4d. each.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best from October to March.

_Sufficient_.--This quantity for 4 or 5 persons.

WHITING AUX FINE HERBES.

347. INGREDIENTS.-1 bunch of sweet herbs chopped very fine; butter.

_Mode_.--Clean and skin the fish, fasten the tails in the mouths; and lay
them in a baking-dish. Mince the herbs very fine, strew them over the
fish, and place small pieces of butter over; cover with another dish,
and let them simmer in a Dutch oven for 1/4 hour or 20 minutes. Turn the
fish once or twice, and serve with the sauce poured over.

_Time_.--1/4 hour or 20 minutes. _Average cost_, 4d. each.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best from October to March.

_Sufficient_, 1 small whiting for each person.

THE WHITING POUT, AND POLLACK.--About the mouth of the Thames,
and generally all round the English coasts, as well as in the
northern seas, the pout is plentiful. It bears a striking
resemblance to the whiting, and is esteemed as an excellent
fish.--The _pollack_ is also taken all round our coasts, and
likewise bears a striking resemblance to the whiting; indeed, it
is sometimes mistaken by the inexperienced for that fish; its
flesh being considered by many equally delicate.

TO DRESS WHITEBAIT.

348. INGREDIENTS.--A little flour, hot lard, seasoning of salt.

_Mode_.--This fish should be put into iced water as soon as bought,
unless they are cooked immediately. Drain them from the water in a
colander, and have ready a nice clean dry cloth, over which put 2 good
handfuls of flour. Toss in the whitebait, shake them lightly in the
cloth, and put them in a wicker sieve to take away the superfluous
flour. Throw them into a pan of boiling lard, very few at a time, and
let them fry till of a whitey-brown colour. Directly they are done, they
must he taken out, and laid before the fire for a minute or two on a
sieve reversed, covered with blotting-paper to absorb the fat. Dish them
on a hot napkin, arrange the fish very high in the centre, and sprinkle
a little salt over the whole.

_Time_.--3 minutes.

_Seasonable _from April to August.

[Illustration: WHITEBAIT.]

WHITEBAIT.--This highly-esteemed little fish appears in
innumerable multitudes in the river Thames, near Greenwich and
Blackwall, during the month of July, when it forms, served with
lemon and brown bread and butter, a tempting dish to vast
numbers of Londoners, who flock to the various taverns of these
places, in order to gratify their appetites. The fish has been
supposed be the fry of the shad, the sprat, the smelt, or the
bleak. Mr. Yarrell, however, maintains that it is a species in
itself, distinct from every other fish. When fried with flour,
it is esteemed a great delicacy. The ministers of the Crown have
had a custom, for many years, of having a "whitebait dinner"
just before the close of the session. It is invariably the
precursor of the prorogation of Parliament, and the repast is
provided by the proprietor of the "Trafalgar," Greenwich.

FISH PIE, WITH TENCH AND EELS.

349. INGREDIENTS.--2 tench, 2 eels, 2 onions, a faggot of herbs, 4
blades of mace, 3 anchovies, 1 pint of water, pepper and salt to taste,
1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, the yolks of 6 hard-boiled eggs, puff
paste.

_Mode_.--Clean and bone the tench, skin and bone the eels, and cut them
into pieces 2 inches long, and leave the sides of the tench whole. Put
the bones into a stewpan with the onions, herbs, mace, anchovies, water,
and seasoning, and let them simmer gently for 1 hour. Strain it off, put
it to cool, and skim off all the fat. Lay the tench and eels in a
pie-dish, and between each layer put seasoning, chopped parsley, and
hard-boiled eggs; pour in part of the strained liquor, cover in with
puff paste, and bake for 1/2 hour or rather more. The oven should be
rather quick, and when done, heat the remainder of the liquor, which
pour into the pie.

_Time_.--1/2 hour to bake, or rather more if the oven is slow.

FISH SCALLOP.

I.

350. INGREDIENTS.--Remains of cold fish of any sort, 1/2 pint of cream,
1/2 tablespoonful of anchovy sauce, 1/2 teaspoonful of made mustard,
ditto of walnut ketchup, pepper and salt to taste (the above quantities
are for 1/2 lb. of fish when picked); bread crumbs.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, carefully picking the
fish from the bones; set it on the fire, let it remain till nearly hot,
occasionally stir the contents, but do not allow it to boil. When done,
put the fish into a deep dish or scallop shell, with a good quantity of
bread crumbs; place small pieces of butter on the top, set in a Dutch
oven before the fire to brown, or use a salamander.

_Time_.--1/4 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold fish, 10d.

II.

351. INGREDIENTS.--Any cold fish, 1 egg, milk, 1 large blade of pounded
mace, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, pepper
and salt to taste, bread crumbs, butter.

_Mode_.--Pick the fish carefully from the bones, and moisten with milk
and the egg; add the other ingredients, and place in a deep dish or
scallop shells; cover with bread crumbs, butter the top, and brown
before the fire; when quite hot, serve.

_Time_.--20 minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold fish, 4d.

WATER SOUCHY.

352. Perch, tench, soles, eels, and flounders are considered the best
fish for this dish. For the souchy, put some water into a stewpan with a
bunch of chopped parsley, some roots, and sufficient salt to make it
brackish. Let these simmer for 1 hour, and then stew the fish in this
water. When they are done, take them out to drain, have ready some
finely-chopped parsley, and a few roots cut into slices of about one
inch thick and an inch in length. Put the fish in a tureen or deep dish,
strain the liquor over them, and add the minced parsley and roots. Serve
with brown bread and butter.

353. SUPPLY OF FISH TO THE LONDON MARKET.--From Mr. Mayhew's work on
"London Labour and the London Poor," and other sources, we are enabled
to give the following table of the total annual supply of fish to the
London market:--

Description of Fish. Number of Weight of
Fish Fish in lbs
WET FISH.

Salmon and Salmon-Trout(29,000 boxes,
14 fish per box) 406,000 3,480,000
Turbot, from 8 to 16 lbs. 800,000 5,600,000
Live Cod, averaging 10 lbs. each 400,000 4,000,000
Soles, averaging 1/4 lbs. each 97,520,000 26,880,000
Brill and Mullet, averaging 3 lbs. each 1,220,000 3,366,000
Whiting, averaging 6 oz. each 17,920,000 6,720,000
Haddock, averaging 2 lbs. each 2,470,000 4,940,000
Plaice, averaging 1 lb. each 33,600,000 33,600,000
Mackerel, averaging 1 lb ach 23,520,000 23,520,000
Fresh herrings (250,000 barrels, 700
fish per barrel) 175,000,000 42,000,000
Ditto in bulk 1,050,000,000 252,000,000
Sprats -- 4,000,000
Eels (from Holland principally)
England and Ireland 9,797,760 1,632,960
Flounders 259,200 48,200
Dabs 270,000 48,750

DRY FISH.

Barrelled Cod(15,000 barrels, 40 fish
per barrel) 750,000 4,200,000
Dried Salt Cod, 5 lbs each 1,600,000 8,000,000
Smoked Haddock(65,000 barrels, 300
fish per barrel) 19,500,000 10,920,000
Bloaters, 265,000 baskets(150 fish
per basket) 147,000,000 10,600,000
Red Herrings, 100,000 barrels(500
fish per barrel) 50,000,000 14,000,000
Dried Sprats, 9,600 large bundles
(30 fish per bundle) 288,000 9,600

SHELL FISH.

Oysters 495,896,000
Lobsters, averaging 1 lb each 1,200,000 1,200,000
Crabs, averaging 1 lb each 600,000 600,000
Shrimps, 324 to a pint 498,428,648
Whelks, 227 to a half-bushel 4,943,200
Mussels, 1000 to ditto 50,400,000
Cockles, 2000 to ditto 67,392,000
Periwinkles, 4000 to ditto 304,000,000

The whole of the above may be, in round numbers, reckoned to amount to
the enormous number of 3,000,000,000 fish, with a weight of 300,000
tons.

ADDENDUM AND ANECDOTE.

It will be seen, from the number and variety of the recipes which we
have been enabled to give under the head of FISH, that there exists in
the salt ocean, and fresh-water rivers, an abundance of aliment, which
the present state of gastronomic art enables the cook to introduce to
the table in the most agreeable forms, and oftentimes at a very moderate
cost.

Less nutritious as a food than the flesh of animals, more succulent than
vegetables, fish may be termed a middle dish, suited to all temperaments
and constitutions; and one which those who are recovering from illness
may partake of with safety and advantage.

As to which is the best fish, there has been much discussion. The old
Latin proverb, however, _de gustibus non disputandum_, and the more
modern Spanish one, _sobre los gustos no hai disputa_, declare, with
equal force, that where _taste_ is concerned, no decision can be arrived
at. Each person's palate may be differently affected--pleased or
displeased; and there is no standard by which to judge why a red mullet,
a sole, or a turbot, should be better or worse than a salmon, trout,
pike, or a tiny tench.

Fish, as we have explained, is less nourishing than meat; for it is
lighter in weight, size for size, and contains no ozmazome (_see_ No.
100). Shell-fish, oysters particularly, furnish but little nutriment;
and this is the reason why so many of the latter can be eaten without
injury to the system.

In Brillat Savarin's [Footnote: Brillat Savarin was a French lawyer and
judge of considerable eminence and great talents, and wrote, under the
above title, a book on gastronomy, full of instructive information,
enlivened with a fund of pleasantly-told anecdote.] clever and amusing
volume, "The Physiology of Taste," he says, that towards the end of the
eighteenth century it was a most common thing for a well-arranged
entertainment in Paris to commence with oysters, and that many guests
were not contented without swallowing twelve dozen. Being anxious to
know the weight of this advanced-guard, he ascertained that a dozen
oysters, fluid included, weighed 4 ounces,--thus, the twelve dozen would
weigh about 3 lbs.; and there can be no doubt, that the same persons who
made no worse a dinner on account of having partaken of the oysters,
would have been completely satisfied if they had eaten the same weight
of chicken or mutton. An anecdote, perfectly well authenticated, is
narrated of a French gentleman (M. Laperte), residing at Versailles, who
was extravagantly fond of oysters, declaring he never had enough.
Savarin resolved to procure him the satisfaction, and gave him an
invitation to dinner, which was duly accepted. The guest arrived, and
his host kept company with him in swallowing the delicious bivalves up
to the tenth dozen, when, exhausted, he gave up, and let M. Laperte go
on alone. This gentleman managed to eat thirty-two dozen within an hour,
and would doubtless have got through more, but the person who opened
them is described as not being very skilful. In the interim Savarin was
idle, and at length, tired with his painful state of inaction, he said
to Laperte, whilst the latter was still in full career, "Mon cher, you
will not eat as many oysters to-day as you meant; let us dine." They
dined, and the insatiable oyster-eater acted at the repast as if he had
fasted for a week.

FISH CARVING.

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING FISH.

In carving fish, care should be taken to help it in perfect flakes, as,
if these are broken, the beauty of the fish is lost. The carver should
be acquainted, too, with the choicest parts and morsels; and to give
each guest an equal share of these _titbits_ should be his maxim. Steel
knives and forks should on no account be used in helping fish, as these
are liable to impart to it a very disagreeable flavour. Where silver
fish-carvers are considered too dear to be bought, good electro-plated
ones answer very well, and are inexpensive. The prices set down for them
by Messrs. Slack, of the Strand, are from a guinea upwards.

COD'S HEAD AND SHOULDERS.

(For recipe, see No. 232; and for mode of serving, Coloured Plate C.)

[Illustration]

First run the knife along the centre of the side of the fish, namely,
from _d_ to _b_, down to the bone; then carve it in unbroken slices
downwards from _d_ to _e_, or upwards from _d_ to _c_, as shown in the
engraving. The carver should ask the guests if they would like a portion
of the roe and liver.

_Note_.--Of this fish, the parts about the backbone and shoulders are
the firmest, and most esteemed by connoisseurs. The sound, which lines
the fish beneath the backbone, is considered a delicacy, as are also the
gelatinous parts about the head and neck.

SALMON.

(For recipe, see No. 301; and for mode of dressing, Coloured Plate B.)

[Illustration]

First run the knife quite down to the bone, along the side of the fish,
from _a_ to _b_, and also from _c_ to _d_. Then help the thick part
lengthwise, that is, in the direction of the lines from _a_ to _b_; and
the thin part breadthwise, that is, in the direction of the lines from
_e_ to _f_, as shown in the engraving. A slice of the thick part should
always be accompanied by a smaller piece of the thin from the belly,
where lies the fat of the fish.

_Note_.--Many persons, in carving salmon, make the mistake of slicing
the thick part of this fish in the opposite direction to that we have
stated; and thus, by the breaking of the flakes, the beauty of its
appearance is destroyed.

BOILED OR FRIED SOLE.

(For recipes, see Nos. 321 and 327.)

The usual way of helping this fish is to cut it quite through, bone and
all, distributing it in nice and not too large pieces. A
moderately-sized sole will be sufficient for three slices; namely, the
head, middle, and tail. The guests should be asked which of these they
prefer. A small one will only give two slices. If the sole is very
large, the upper side may be raised from the bone, and then divided into
pieces; and the under side afterwards served in the same way.

In helping FILLETED SOLES, one fillet is given to each person. (For mode
of serving, see Coloured Plate A.)

TURBOT.

(For recipe, see No. 337; and for mode of serving, Coloured Plate E.)

First run the fish-slice down the thickest part of the fish, quite
through to the bone, from _a_ to _b_, and then cut handsome and regular
slices in the direction of the lines downwards, from _c_ to _e_, and
upwards from _c_ to _d_, as shown in the engraving. When the carver has
removed all the meat from the upper side of the fish, the backbone
should be raised, put on one side of the dish, and the under side helped
as the upper.

A BRILL and JOHN DORY are carved in the same manner as a Turbot.

[Illustration]

_Note_.--The thick parts of the middle of the back are the best slices
in a turbot; and the rich gelatinous skin covering the fish, as well as
a little of the thick part of the fins, are dainty morsels, and should
be placed on each plate.

WHITING, &c.

Whiting, pike, haddock, and other fish, when of a sufficiently large
size, may be carved in the same manner as salmon. When small, they may
be cut through, bone and all, and helped in nice pieces, a
middling-sized whiting serving for two slices.

_Note_.--The THICK part of the EEL is reckoned the best; and this holds
good of all flat fish.

The TAIL of the LOBSTER is the prime part, and next to that the CLAWS.

[Illustration: FISH CARVERS.]

[Illustration]

SAUCES, PICKLES, GRAVIES, AND FORCEMEATS.

CHAPTER IX.

GENERAL REMARKS.

354. AN ANECDOTE IS TOLD of the prince de Soubise, who, intending to
give an entertainment, asked for the bill of fare. His _chef_ came,
presenting a list adorned with vignettes, and the first article of
which, that met the prince's eye, was "fifty hams." "Bertrand," said the
prince, "I think you must be extravagant; Fifty hams! do you intend to
feast my whole regiment?" "No, Prince, there will be but one on the
table, and the surplus I need for my Espagnole, blondes, garnitures,
&c." "Bertrand, you are robbing me: this item will not do."
"Monseigneur," said the _artiste_, "you do not appreciate me. Give me
the order, and I will put those fifty hams in a crystal flask no longer
than my thumb." The prince smiled, and the hams were passed. This was
all very well for the prince de Soubise; but as we do not write for
princes and nobles alone, but that our British sisters may make the best
dishes out of the least expensive ingredients, we will also pass the
hams, and give a few general directions concerning Sauces, &c.

355. THE PREPARATION AND APPEARANCE OF SAUCES AND GRAVIES are of the
highest consequence, and in nothing does the talent and taste of the
cook more display itself. Their special adaptability to the various
viands they are to accompany cannot be too much studied, in order that
they may harmonize and blend with them as perfectly, so to speak, as
does a pianoforte accompaniment with the voice of the singer.

356. THE GENERAL BASIS OF MOST GRAVIES and some sauces is the same stock
as that used for soups (_see_ Nos. 104, 105, 106, and 107); and, by the
employment of these, with, perhaps, an additional slice of ham, a little
spice, a few herbs, and a slight flavouring from some cold sauce or
ketchup, very nice gravies may be made for a very small expenditure. A
milt (either of a bullock or sheep), the shank-end of mutton that has
already been dressed, and the necks and feet of poultry, may all be
advantageously used for gravy, where much is not required. It may, then,
be established as a rule, that there exists no necessity for good
gravies to be expensive, and that there is no occasion, as many would
have the world believe, to buy ever so many pounds of fresh meat, in
order to furnish an ever so little quantity of gravy.

357. BROWN SAUCES, generally speaking, should scarcely be so thick as
white sauces; and it is well to bear in mind, that all those which are
intended to mask the various dishes of poultry or meat, should be of a
sufficient consistency to slightly adhere to the fowls or joints over
which they are poured. For browning and thickening sauces, &c., browned
flour may be properly employed.

358. SAUCES SHOULD POSSESS A DECIDED CHARACTER; and whether sharp or
sweet, savoury or plain, they should carry out their names in a distinct
manner, although, of course, not so much flavoured as to make them too
piquant on the one hand, or too mawkish on the other.

359. GRAVIES AND SAUCES SHOULD BE SENT TO TABLE VERY HOT; and there is
all the more necessity for the cook to see to this point, as, from their
being usually served in small quantities, they are more liable to cool
quickly than if they were in a larger body. Those sauces, of which cream
or eggs form a component part, should be well stirred, as soon as these
ingredients are added to them, and must never be allowed to boil; as, in
that case, they would instantly curdle.

360. ALTHOUGH PICKLES MAY BE PURCHASED at shops at as low a rate as they
can usually be made for at home, or perhaps even for less, yet we would
advise all housewives, who have sufficient time and convenience, to
prepare their own. The only general rules, perhaps, worth stating
here,--as in the recipes all necessary details will be explained, are,
that the vegetables and fruits used should be sound, and not over ripe,
and that the very best vinegar should be employed.

361. FOR FORCEMEATS, SPECIAL ATTENTION IS NECESSARY. The points which
cooks should, in this branch of cookery, more particularly observe, are
the thorough chopping of the suet, the complete mincing of the herbs,
the careful grating of the bread-crumbs, and the perfect mixing of the
whole. These are the three principal ingredients of forcemeats, and they
can scarcely be cut too small, as nothing like a lump or fibre should be
anywhere perceptible. To conclude, the flavour of no one spice or herb
should be permitted to predominate.

RECIPES.

CHAPTER X.

SAUCES, PICKLES, GRAVIES, AND FORCEMEATS.

ANCHOVY SAUCE FOR FISH.

362. INGREDIENTS.--4 anchovies, 1 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of melted
butter, cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Bone the anchovies, and pound them in a mortar to a paste, with
1 oz. of butter. Make the melted butter hot, stir in the pounded
anchovies and cayenne; simmer for 3 or 4 minutes; and if liked, add a
squeeze of lemon-juice. A more general and expeditious way of making
this sauce is to stir in 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of anchovy essence to 1/2
pint of melted butter, and to add seasoning to taste. Boil the whole up
for 1 minute, and serve hot.

_Time_.--5 minutes. _Average cost_, 5d. for 1/2 pint.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a brill, small turbot, 3 or 4 soles,
&c.

ANCHOVY BUTTER (_see_ No. 227).

[Illustration: THE CAPISCUM.]

CAYENNE.--This is the most acrid and stimulating spice with
which we are acquainted. It is a powder prepared from several
varieties of the capsicum annual East-India plants, of which
there are three so far naturalized in this country as to be able
to grow in the open air: these are the Guinea, the Cherry, and
the Bell pepper. All the pods of these are extremely pungent to
the taste, and in the green state are used by us as a pickle.
When ripe, they are ground into cayenne pepper, and sold as a
condiment. The best of this, however, is made in the West
Indies, from what is called the _Bird_ pepper, on account of
hens and turkeys being extremely partial to it. It is imported
ready for use. Of the capiscum species of plants there are five;
but the principal are,--1. _Capsicum annuum_, the common
long-podded capsicum, which is cultivated in our gardens, and of
which there are two varieties, one with red, and another with
yellow fruit. 2. _Capsicum baccatum_, or bird pepper, which
rises with a shrubby stalk four or five feet high, with its
berries growing at the division of the branches: this is small,
oval-shaped, and of a bright-red colour, from which, as we have
said, the best cayenne is made. 3. _Capsicum grossum_, the
bell-pepper: the fruit of this is red, and is the only kind fit
for pickling.

APPLE SAUCE FOR GEESE, PORK, &c.

363. INGREDIENTS.--6 good-sized apples, sifted sugar to taste, a piece
of butter the size of a walnut, water.

_Mode_.--Pare, core, and quarter the apples, and throw them into cold
water to preserve their whiteness. Put them in a saucepan, with
sufficient water to moisten them, and boil till soft enough to pulp.
Beat them up, adding sugar to taste, and a small piece of butter This
quantity is sufficient for a good-sized tureen.

_Time_.--According to the apples, about 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 4d.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a goose or couple of ducks.

BROWN APPLE SAUCE.

364. INGREDIENTS.--6 good-sized apples, 1/2 pint of brown gravy, cayenne
to taste.

_Mode_. Put the gravy in a stewpan, and add the apples, after having
pared, cored, and quartered them. Let them simmer gently till tender;
beat them to a pulp, and season with cayenne. This sauce is preferred by
many to the preceding.

_Time_.--According to the apples, about 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 6d.

ASPARAGUS SAUCE.

365. INGREDIENTS.--1 bunch of green asparagus, salt, 1 oz. of fresh
butter, 1 small bunch of parsley, 3 or 4 green onions, 1 large lump of
sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of sauce tournee.

_Mode_.--Break the asparagus in the tender part, wash well, and put them
into boiling salt and water to render them green. When they are tender,
take them out, and put them into cold water; drain them on a cloth till
all moisture is absorbed from them. Put the butter in a stewpan, with
the parsley and onions; lay in the asparagus, and fry the whole over a
sharp fire for 5 minutes. Add salt, the sugar and sauce tournee, and
simmer for another 5 minutes. Rub all through a tammy, and if not a very
good colour, use a little spinach green. This sauce should be rather
sweet.

_Time_.--Altogether 40 minutes.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 1s. 4d.

ASPIC, or ORNAMENTAL SAVOURY JELLY.

366. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of knuckle of veal, 1 cow-heel, 3 or 4 slices
of ham, any poultry trimmings, 2 carrots, 1 onion, 1 faggot of savoury
herbs, 1 glass of sherry, 3 quarts of water; seasoning to taste of salt
and whole white pepper; 3 eggs.

_Mode_.--Lay the ham on the bottom of a stewpan, cut up the veal and
cow-heel into small pieces, and lay them on the ham; add the poultry
trimmings, vegetables, herbs, sherry, and water, and let the whole
simmer very gently for 4 hours, carefully taking away all scum that may
rise to the surface; strain through a fine sieve, and pour into an
earthen pan to get cold. Have ready a clean stewpan, put in the jelly,
and be particular to leave the sediment behind, or it will not be clear.
Add the whites of 3 eggs, with salt and pepper, to clarify; keep
stirring over the fire, till the whole becomes very white; then draw it
to the side, and let it stand till clear. When this is the case, strain
it through a cloth or jelly-bag, and use it for moulding poultry, etc.
(See Explanation of French Terms, page 44.) Tarragon vinegar may be
added to give an additional flavour.

_Time_.--Altogether 4-1/2 hours. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 4s.

WHITE PEPPER.--This is the produce of the same plant as that
which produces the black pepper, from which it is manufactured
by steeping this in lime and water, and rubbing it between the
hands till the coats come off. The best berries only will bear
this operation; hence the superior qualities of white pepper
fetch a higher price than those of the other. It is less acrid
than the black, and is much prized among the Chinese. It is
sometimes adulterated with rice-flour, as the black is with
burnt bread. The berries of the pepper-plant grow in spikes of
from twenty to thirty, and are, when ripe, of a bright-red
colour. After being gathered, which is done when they are green,
they are spread out in the sun, where they dry and become black
and shrivelled, when they are ready for being prepared for the
market.

BECHAMEL, or FRENCH WHITE SAUCE.

367. INGREDIENTS.--1 small bunch of parsley, 2 cloves, 1/2 bay-leaf, 1
small faggot of savoury herbs, salt to taste; 3 or 4 mushrooms, when
obtainable; 2 pints of white stock, 1 pint of cream, 1 tablespoonful of
arrowroot.

_Mode_.--Put the stock into a stewpan, with the parsley, cloves,
bay-leaf, herbs, and mushrooms; add a seasoning of salt, but no pepper,
as that would give the sauce a dusty appearance, and should be avoided.
When it has boiled long enough to extract the flavour of the herbs,
etc., strain it, and boil it up quickly again, until it is nearly
half-reduced. Now mix the arrowroot smoothly with the cream, and let it
simmer very gently for 5 minutes over a slow fire; pour to it the
reduced stock, and continue to simmer slowly for 10 minutes, if the
sauce be thick. If, on the contrary, it be too thin, it must be stirred
over a sharp fire till it thickens. This is the foundation of many kinds
of sauces, especially white sauces. Always make it thick, as you can
easily thin it with cream, milk, or white stock.

_Time_.--Altogether, 2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. per pint.

[Illustration: THE CLOVE.]

THE CLOVE.--The clove-tree is a native of the Molucca Islands,
particularly Amboyna, and attains the height of a laurel-tree,
and no verdure is ever seen under it. From the extremities of
the branches quantities of flowers grow, first white; then they
become green, and next red and hard, when they have arrived at
their clove state. When they become dry, they assume a yellowish
hue, which subsequently changes into a dark brown. As an
aromatic, the clove is highly stimulating, and yields an
abundance of oil. There are several varieties of the clove; the
best is called the _royal clove_, which is scarce, and which is
blacker and smaller than the other kinds. It is a curious fact,
that the flowers, when fully developed, are quite inodorous, and
that the real fruit is not in the least aromatic. The form is
that of a nail, having a globular head, formed of the four
petals of the corolla, and four leaves of the calyx not
expanded, with a nearly cylindrical germen, scarcely an inch in
length, situate below.

BECHAMEL MAIGRE, or WITHOUT MEAT.

368. INGREDIENTS.--2 onions, 1 blade of mace, mushroom trimmings, a
small bunch of parsley, 1 oz. of butter, flour, 1/2 pint of water, 1
pint of milk, salt, the juice of 1 lemon, 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Put in a stewpan the milk, and 1/2 pint of water, with the
onions, mace, mushrooms, parsley, and salt. Let these simmer gently for
20 minutes. In the mean time, rub on a plate 1 oz. of flour and butter;
put it to the liquor, and stir it well till it boils up; then place it
by the side of the fire, and continue stirring until it is perfectly
smooth. Now strain it through a sieve into a basin, after which put it
back in the stewpan, and add the lemon-juice. Beat up the yolks of the
eggs with about 4 dessertspoonfuls of milk; strain this to the sauce,
keep stirring it over the fire, but do not let it boil, lest it curdle.

_Time_.--Altogether, 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 5d. per pint.

This is a good sauce to pour over boiled fowls when they are a bad
colour.

PICKLED BEETROOT.

369. INGREDIENTS.--Sufficient vinegar to cover the beets, 2 oz. of whole
pepper, 2 oz. of allspice to each gallon of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Wash the beets free from dirt, and be very careful not to prick
the outside skin, or they would lose their beautiful colour. Put them
into boiling water, let them simmer gently, and when about three parts
done, which will be in 1-1/2 hour, take them out and let them cool. Boil
the vinegar with pepper and allspice, in the above proportion, for ten
minutes, and when cold, pour it on the beets, which must be peeled and
cut into slices about 1/2 inch thick. Cover with bladder to exclude the
air, and in a week they will be fit for use.

_Average cost_, 3s. per gallon.

[Illustration: BLACK PEPPER.]

BLACK PEPPER.--This well-known aromatic spice is the fruit of a
species of climbing vine, and is a native of the East Indies,
and is extensively cultivated in Malabar and the eastern islands
of Borneo, Sumatra, and Java, and others in the same latitude.
It was formerly confined to these countries, but it has now been
introduced to Cayenne. It is generally employed as a condiment;
but it should never be forgotten, that, even in small
quantities, it produces detrimental effects on inflammatory
constitutions. Dr. Paris, in his work on Diet, says, "Foreign
spices were not intended by Nature for the inhabitants of
temperate climes; they are heating, and highly stimulant. I am,
however, not anxious to give more weight to this objection than
it deserves. Man is no longer the child of Nature, nor the
passive inhabitant of any particular region. He ranges over
every part of the globe, and elicits nourishment from the
productions of every climate. Nature is very kind in favouring
the growth of those productions which are most likely to answer
our local wants. Those climates, for instance, which engender
endemic diseases, are, in general, congenial to the growth of
plants that operate as antidotes to them. But if we go to the
East for tea, there is no reason why we should not go to the
West for sugar. The dyspeptic invalid, however, should be
cautious in their use; they may afford temporary benefit, at the
expense of permanent mischief. It has been well said, that the
best quality of spices is to stimulate the appetite, and their
worst to destroy, by insensible degrees, the tone of the
stomach. The intrinsic goodness of meats should always be
suspected when they require spicy seasonings to compensate for
their natural want of sapidity." The quality of pepper is known
by rubbing it between the hands: that which withstands this
operation is good, that which is reduced to powder by it is bad.
The quantity of pepper imported into Europe is very great.

BENTON SAUCE (to serve with Hot or Cold Roast Beef).

370. INGREDIENTS.--1 tablespoonful of scraped horseradish, 1 teaspoonful
of made mustard, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of
vinegar.

_Mode_.--Grate or scrape the horseradish very fine, and mix it with the
other ingredients, which must be all well blended together; serve in a
tureen. With cold meat, this sauce is a very good substitute for
pickles.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 2d.

BREAD SAUCE (to serve with Roast Turkey, Fowl, Game, &c.).

I.

371. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of milk, 3/4 of the crumb of a stale loaf, 1
onion; pounded mace, cayenne, and salt to taste; 1 oz. of butter.

_Mode_.--Peel and quarter the onion, and simmer it in the milk till
perfectly tender. Break the bread, which should be stale, into small
pieces, carefully picking out any hard outside pieces; put it in a very
clean saucepan, strain the milk over it, cover it up, and let it remain
for an hour to soak. Now beat it up with a fork very smoothly, add a
seasoning of pounded mace, cayenne, and salt, with 1 oz. of butter; give
the whole one boil, and serve. To enrich this sauce, a small quantity of
cream may be added just before sending it to table.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1-3/4 hour.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 4d.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a turkey, pair of fowls, or brace of
partridges.

[Illustration: MACE.]

MACE.--This is the membrane which surrounds the shell of the
nutmeg. Its general qualities are the same as those of the
nutmeg, producing an agreeable aromatic odour, with a hot and
acrid taste. It is of an oleaginous nature, is yellowish in its
hue, and is used largely as a condiment. In "Beeton's
Dictionary" we find that the four largest of the Banda Islands
produce 150,000 lbs. of it annually, which, with nutmegs, are
their principal articles of export.

II.

372. INGREDIENTS.--Giblets of poultry, 3/4 lb. of the crumb of a stale
loaf, 1 onion, 12 whole peppers, 1 blade of mace, salt to taste, 2
tablespoonfuls of cream or melted butter, 1 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Put the giblets, with the head, neck, legs, &c., into a
stewpan; add the onion, pepper, mace, salt, and rather more than 1 pint
of water. Let this simmer for an hour, when strain the liquor over the
bread, which should be previously grated or broken into small pieces.
Cover up the saucepan, and leave it for an hour by the side of the fire;
then beat the sauce up with a fork until no lumps remain, and the whole
is nice and smooth. Let it boil for 3 or 4 minutes; keep stirring it
until it is rather thick; when add 3 tablespoonfuls of good melted
butter or cream, and serve very hot.

_Time_.--2-1/4 hours. _Average cost_, 6d.

BROWNING FOR GRAVIES AND SAUCES.

373. The browning for soups (_see_ No. 108) answers equally well for
sauces and gravies, when it is absolutely necessary to colour them in
this manner; but where they can be made to look brown by using ketchup,
wine, browned flour, tomatoes, or any colour sauce, it is far
preferable. As, however, in cooking, so much depends on appearance,
perhaps it would be as well for the inexperienced cook to use the
artificial means (No. 108). When no browning is at hand, and you wish to
heighten the colour of your gravy, dissolve a lump of sugar in an iron
spoon over a sharp fire; when it is in a liquid state, drop it into the
sauce or gravy quite hot. Care, however, must be taken not to put in too
much, as it would impart a very disagreeable flavour.

BEURRE NOIR, or BROWNED BUTTER (a French Sauce).

374. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley,
3 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--Put the butter into a fryingpan over a nice clear fire, and
when it smokes, throw in the parsley, and add the vinegar and seasoning.
Let the whole simmer for a minute or two, when it is ready to serve.
This is a very good sauce for skate.

_Time_.--1/4 hour.

CLARIFIED BUTTER.

375. Put the butter in a basin before the fire, and when it melts, stir
it round once or twice, and let it settle. Do not strain it unless
absolutely necessary, as it causes so much waste. Pour it gently off
into a clean dry jar, carefully leaving all sediment behind. Let it
cool, and carefully exclude the air by means of a bladder, or piece of
wash-leather, tied over. If the butter is salt, it may be washed before
melting, when it is to be used for sweet dishes.

MELTED BUTTER.

I.

376. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, a dessertspoonful of flour, 1
wineglassful of water, salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the butter up into small pieces, put it in a saucepan,
dredge over the flour, and add the water and a seasoning of salt; stir
it _one way_ constantly till the whole of the ingredients are melted and
thoroughly blended. Let it just boil, when it is ready to serve. If the
butter is to be melted with cream, use the same quantity as of water,
but omit the flour; keep stirring it, but do not allow it to boil.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 4d.

II.

_(More Economical.)_

377. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, salt to
taste, 1/2 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Mix the flour and water to a smooth batter, which put into a
saucepan. Add the butter and a seasoning of salt, keep stirring _one
way_ till all the ingredients are melted and perfectly smooth; let the
whole boil for a minute or two, and serve.

_Time_.--2 minutes to simmer.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 2d.

MELTED BUTTER (the French Sauce Blanche).

378. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of fresh butter, 1 tablespoonful of flour,
salt to taste, 1/2 gill of water, 1/2 spoonful of white vinegar, a very
little grated nutmeg.

_Mode_.--Mix the flour and water to a smooth batter, carefully rubbing
down with the back of a spoon any lumps that may appear. Put it in a
saucepan with all the other ingredients, and let it thicken on the fire,
but do not allow it to boil, lest it should taste of the flour.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer.

_Average cost_, 5d. for this quantity.

[Illustration: THE NUTMEG.]

NUTMEG.--This is a native of the Moluccas, and was long kept
from being spread in other places by the monopolizing spirit of
the Dutch, who endeavoured to keep it wholly to themselves by
eradicating it from every other island. We find it stated in
"Beeton's Dictionary of Universal Information," under the
article "Banda Islands," that the four largest are appropriated
to the cultivation of nutmegs, of which about 500,000 lbs. are
annually produced. The plant, through the enterprise of the
British, has now found its way into Penang and Bencooleu, where
it flourishes and produces well. It has also been tried to be
naturalized in the West Indies, and it bears fruit all the year
round. There are two kinds of nutmeg,--one wild, and long and
oval-shaped, the other cultivated, and nearly round. The best is
firm and hard, and has a strong aromatic odour, with a hot and
acrid taste. It ought to be used with caution by those who are
of paralytic or apoplectic habits.

THICKENED BUTTER.

379.--INGREDIENTS.--1/4 pint of melted butter, No. 376, the yolks of 2
eggs, a little lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Make the butter quite hot, and be careful not to colour it.
Well whisk the yolks of the eggs, pour them to the butter, beating them
all the while. Make the sauce hot over the fire, but do not let it boil;
add a squeeze of lemon-juice.

MELTED BUTTER MADE WITH MILK.

380. INGREDIENTS.--1 teaspoonful of flour, 2 oz. butter, 1/3 pint of
milk, a few grains of salt.

_Mode_.--Mix the butter and flour smoothly together on a plate, put it
into a lined saucepan, and pour in the milk. Keep stirring it _one way_
over a sharp fire; let it boil quickly for a minute or two, and it is
ready to serve. This is a very good foundation for onion, lobster, or
oyster sauce: using milk instead of water makes it look so much whiter
and more delicate.

_Time_.--Altogether, 10 minutes. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 3d.

CAMP VINEGAR.

381. INGREDIENTS.--1 head of garlic, 1/2 oz. cayenne, 2 teaspoonfuls of
soy, 2 ditto walnut ketchup, 1 pint of vinegar, cochineal to colour.

_Mode_.--Slice the garlic, and put it, with all the above ingredients,
into a clean bottle. Let it stand to infuse for a month, when strain it
off quite clear, and it will be fit for use. Keep it in small bottles
well sealed, to exclude the air.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 8d.

CAPER SAUCE FOR BOILED MUTTON.

382. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter (No. 376), 3 tablespoonfuls
of capers or nasturtiums, 1 tablespoonful of their liquor.

_Mode_.--Chop the capers twice or thrice, and add them, with their
liquor, to 1/2 pint of melted butter, made very smoothly; keep stirring
well; let the sauce just simmer, and serve in a tureen. Pickled
nasturtium-pods are fine-flavoured, and by many are eaten in preference
to capers. They make an excellent sauce.

_Time_.--2 minutes to simmer. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 8d.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a leg of mutton.

CAPER SAUCE FOR FISH.

383. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter No. 376, 3 dessertspoonfuls
of capers, 1 dessertspoonful of their liquor, a small piece of glaze, if
at hand (this may be dispensed with), 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, ditto of
pepper, 1 tablespoonful of anchovy essence.

_Mode_.--Cut the capers across once or twice, but do not chop them fine;
put them in a saucepan with 1/2 pint of good melted butter, and add all
the other ingredients. Keep stirring the whole until it just simmers,
when it is ready to serve.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 5d.

_Sufficient_ to serve with a skate, or 2 or 3 slices of salmon.

[Illustration: THE CAPER.]

CAPERS.--These are the unopened buds of a low trailing shrub,
which grows wild among the crevices of the rocks of Greece, as
well as in northern Africa: the plant, however, has come to be
cultivated in the south of Europe. After being pickled in
vinegar and salt, they are imported from Sicily, Italy, and the
south of France. The best are from Toulon.

A SUBSTITUTE FOR CAPER SAUCE.

384. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376, 2 tablespoonfuls
of cut parsley, 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 1 tablespoonful of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Boil the parsley slowly to let it become a bad colour; cut, but
do not chop it fine. Add it to 1/2 pint of smoothly-made melted butter,
with salt and vinegar in the above proportions. Boil up and serve.

_Time_.--2 minutes to simmer. Average cost for this quantity, 3d.

PICKLED CAPSICUMS.

385. INGREDIENTS.--Vinegar, 1/4 oz. of pounded mace, and 1/4 oz. of
grated nutmeg, to each quart; brine.

_Mode_.--Gather the pods with the stalks on, before they turn red; slit
them down the side with a small-pointed knife, and remove the seeds
only; put them in a strong brine for 3 days, changing it every morning;
then take them out, lay them on a cloth, with another one over them,
until they are perfectly free from moisture. Boil sufficient vinegar to
cover them, with mace and nutmeg in the above proportions; put the pods
in a jar, pour over the vinegar when cold, and exclude them from the air
by means of a wet bladder tied over.

CAYENNE VINEGAR, or ESSENCE OF CAYENNE.

386. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 oz. of cayenne pepper, 1/2 pint of strong spirit,
or 1 pint of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Put the vinegar, or spirit, into a bottle, with the above
proportion of cayenne, and let it steep for a month, when strain off and
bottle for use. This is excellent seasoning for soups or sauces, but
must be used very sparingly.

CELERY SAUCE, FOR BOILED TURKEY, POULTRY, &c.

387. INGREDIENTS.--6 heads of celery, 1 pint of white stock, No. 107, 2
blades of mace, 1 small bunch of savoury herbs; thickening of butter and
flour, or arrowroot, 1/2 pint of cream, lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Boil the celery in salt and water, until tender, and cut it
into pieces 2 inches long. Put the stock into a stewpan with the mace
and herbs, and let it simmer for 1/2 hour to extract their flavour. Then
strain the liquor, add the celery and a thickening of butter kneaded
with flour, or, what is still better, with arrowroot; just before
serving, put in the cream, boil it up and squeeze in a little
lemon-juice. If necessary, add a seasoning of salt and white pepper.

_Time_.--25 minutes to boil the celery. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a boiled turkey.

This sauce may be made brown by using gravy instead of white stock, and
flavouring it with mushroom ketchup or Harvey's sauce.

[Illustration: ARROWROOT.]

ARROWROOT.--This nutritious fecula is obtained from the roots of
a plant which is cultivated in both the East and West Indies.
When the roots are about a year old, they are dug up, and, after
being well washed, are beaten to a pulp, which is afterwards, by
means of water, separated from the fibrous part. After being
passed through a sieve, once more washed, and then suffered to
settle, the sediment is dried in the sun, when it has become
arrowroot. The best is obtained from the West Indies, but a
large quantity of what is sold in London is adulterated with
potato-starch. As a means of knowing arrowroot when it is good,
it may be as well to state, that the genuine article, when
formed into a jelly, will remain firm for three or four days,
whilst the adulterated will become as thin as milk in the course
of twelve hours.

CELERY SAUCE (a More Simple Recipe).

388. INGREDIENTS.--4 heads of celery, 1/2 pint of melted butter, made
with milk (No. 380), 1 blade of pounded mace; salt and white pepper to
taste.

_Mode_.--Wash the celery, boil it in salt and water till tender, and cut
it into pieces 2 inches long; make 1/2 pint melted butter by recipe No.
380; put in the celery, pounded mace, and seasoning; simmer for three
minutes, when the sauce will be ready to serve.

_Time_.--25 minutes to boil the celery. _Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a boiled fowl.

CELERY VINEGAR.

389. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 oz. of celery-seed, 1 pint of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Crush the seed by pounding it in a mortar; boil the vinegar,
and when cold, pour it to the seed; let it infuse for a fortnight, when
strain and bottle off for use. This is frequently used in salads.

CHESTNUT SAUCE FOR FOWLS OR TURKEY.

390. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of chestnuts, 1/2 pint of white stock, 2
strips of lemon-peel, cayenne to taste, 1/4 pint of cream or milk.

_Mode_.--Peel off the outside skin of the chestnuts, and put them into
boiling water for a few minutes; take off the thin inside peel, and put
them into a saucepan, with the white stock and lemon-peel, and let them
simmer for 1-1/2 hour, or until the chestnuts are quite tender. Rub the
whole through a hair-sieve with a wooden spoon; add seasoning and the
cream; let it just simmer, but not boil, and keep stirring all the time.
Serve very hot; and quickly. If milk is used instead of cream, a very
small quantity of thickening may be required: that, of course, the cook
will determine.

_Time_.--Altogether nearly two hours. _Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a turkey.

BROWN CHESTNUT SAUCE.

391. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of chestnuts, 1/2 pint of stock No. 105, 2
lumps of sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of Spanish sauce (_see_ Sauces).

_Mode_.--Prepare the chestnuts as in the foregoing recipe, by scalding
and peeling them; put them in a stewpan with the stock and sugar, and
simmer them till tender. When done, add Spanish sauce in the above
proportion, and rub the whole through a tammy. Keep this sauce rather
liquid, as it is liable to thicken.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour to simmer the chestnuts. _Average cost_, 8d.

BENGAL RECIPE FOR MAKING MANGO CHETNEY.

392. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lbs. of moist sugar, 3/4 lb. of salt, 1/4 lb.
of garlic, 1/4 lb. of onions, 3/4 lb. of powdered ginger, 1/4 lb. of
dried chilies, 3/4 lb. of mustard-seed, 3/4 lb. of stoned raisins, 2
bottles of best vinegar, 30 large unripe sour apples.

_Mode_.--The sugar must be made into syrup; the garlic, onions, and
ginger be finely pounded in a mortar; the mustard-seed be washed in cold
vinegar, and dried in the sun; the apples be peeled, cored, and sliced,
and boiled in a bottle and a half of the vinegar. When all this is done,
and the apples are quite cold, put them into a large pan, and gradually
mix the whole of the rest of the ingredients, including the remaining
half-bottle of vinegar. It must be well stirred until the whole is
thoroughly blended, and then put into bottles for use. Tie a piece of
wet bladder over the mouths of the bottles, after they are well corked.
This chetney is very superior to any which can be bought, and one trial
will prove it to be delicious.

_Note_.--This recipe was given by a native to an English lady, who had
long been a resident in India, and who, since her return to her native
country, has become quite celebrated amongst her friends for the
excellence of this Eastern relish.

[Illustration: GARLIC.]

GARLIC.--The smell of this plant is generally considered
offensive, and it is the most acrimonious in its taste of the
whole of the alliaceous tribe. In 1548 it was introduced to
England from the shores of the Mediterranean, where it is
abundant, and in Sicily it grows naturally. It was in greater
repute with our ancestors than it is with ourselves, although it
is still used as a seasoning herb. On the continent, especially
in Italy, it is much used, and the French consider it an
essential in many made dishes.

CHILI VINEGAR.

393. INGREDIENTS.--50 fresh red English chilies, 1 pint of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Pound or cut the chilies in half, and infuse them in the
vinegar for a fortnight, when it will be fit for use. This will be found
an agreeable relish to fish, as many people cannot eat it without the
addition of an acid and cayenne pepper.

CHRISTOPHER NORTH'S SAUCE FOR MEAT OR GAME.

394. INGREDIENTS.-1 glass of port wine, 2 tablespoonfuls of Harvey's
sauce, 1 dessertspoonful of mushroom ketchup, ditto of pounded white
sugar, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1/4 teaspoonful of cayenne
pepper, ditto of salt.

_Mode_.--Mix all the ingredients thoroughly together, and heat the sauce
gradually, by placing the vessel in which it is made in a saucepan of
boiling water. Do not allow it to boil, and serve directly it is ready.
This sauce, if bottled immediately, will keep good for a fortnight, and
will be found excellent.

CONSOMME, or WHITE STOCK FOR MANY SAUCES.

395. Consomme is made precisely in the same manner as stock No. 107,
and, for ordinary purposes, will be found quite good enough. When,
however, a stronger stock is desired, either put in half the quantity of
water, or double that of the meat. This is a very good foundation for
all white sauces.

CRAB SAUCE FOR FISH (equal to Lobster Sauce).

396. INGREDIENTS.--1 crab; salt, pounded mace, and cayenne to taste; 1/2
pint of melted butter made with milk (_see_ No. 380).

_Mode_.--Choose a nice fresh crab, pick all the meat away from the
shell, and cut it into small square pieces. Make 1/2 pint of melted
butter by recipe No. 380, put in the fish and seasoning; let it
gradually warm through, and simmer for 2 minutes. It should not boil.

_Average cost_, 1s. 2d.

CREAM SAUCE FOR FISH OR WHITE DISHES.

397. INGREDIENTS.--1/3 pint of cream, 2 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of
flour, salt and cayenne to taste; when liked, a small quantity of
pounded mace or lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Put the butter in a very clean saucepan, dredge in the flour,
and keep shaking round till the butter is melted. Add the seasoning and
cream, and stir the whole till it boils; let it just simmer for 5
minutes, when add either pounded mace or lemon-juice to taste, to give
it a flavour.

_Time_.--5 minutes to simmer. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 7d.

This sauce may be flavoured with very finely-shredded shalot.

CUCUMBER SAUCE.

398. INGREDIENTS.--3 or 4 cucumbers, 2 oz. of butter, 6 tablespoonfuls
of brown gravy.

_Mode_.--Peel the cucumbers, quarter them, and take out the seeds; cut
them into small pieces; put them in a cloth, and rub them well, to take
out the water which hangs about them. Put the butter in a saucepan, add
the cucumbers, and shake them over a sharp fire until they are of a good
colour. Then pour over it the gravy, mix this with the cucumbers, and
simmer gently for 10 minutes, when it will be ready to serve.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1/2 hour.

PICKLED CUCUMBERS.

399. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of whole pepper, 1 oz. of bruised ginger;
sufficient vinegar to cover the cucumbers.

_Mode_.--Cut the cucumbers in thick slices, sprinkle salt over them, and
let them remain for 24 hours. The next day, drain them well for 6 hours,
put them into a jar, pour boiling vinegar over them, and keep them in a
warm place. In a short time, boil up the vinegar again, add pepper and
ginger in the above proportion, and instantly cover them up. Tie them
down with bladder, and in a few days they will be fit for use.

[Illustration: LONG PEPPER.]

LONG PEPPER.--This is the produce of a different plant from that
which produces the black, it consisting of the half-ripe
flower-heads of what naturalists call _Piper longum_ and
_chaba_. It is the growth, however, of the same countries;
indeed, all the spices are the produce of tropical climates
only. Originally, the most valuable of these were found in the
Spice Islands, or Moluccas, of the Indian Ocean, and were highly
prized by the nations of antiquity. The Romans indulged in them
to a most extravagant degree. The long pepper is less aromatic
than the black, but its oil is more pungent.

CUCUMBER SAUCE, WHITE.

400. INGREDIENTS.--3 or four cucumbers, 1/2 pint of white stock, No.
107, cayenne and salt to taste, the yolks of 3 eggs.

_Mode_.--Cut the cucumbers into small pieces, after peeling them and
taking out the seeds. Put them in a stewpan with the white stock and
seasoning; simmer gently till the cucumbers are tender, which will be in
about 1/4 hour. Then add the yolks of the eggs well beaten; stir them to
the sauce, but do not allow it to boil, and serve very hot.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1/2 hour.

CUCUMBER VINEGAR (a very nice Addition to Salads).

401. INGREDIENTS.--10 large cucumbers, or 12 smaller ones, 1 quart of
vinegar, 2 onions, 2 shalots, 1 tablespoonful of salt, 2 tablespoonfuls
of pepper, 1/4 teaspoonful of cayenne.

_Mode_.--Pare and slice the cucumbers, put them in a stone jar or
wide-mouthed bottle, with the vinegar; slice the onions and shalots, and
add them, with all the other ingredients, to the cucumbers. Let it stand
4 or 5 days, boil it all up, and when cold, strain the liquor through a
piece of muslin, and store it away in small bottles well sealed. This
vinegar is a very nice addition to gravies, hashes, &e., as well as a
great improvement to salads, or to eat with cold meat.

GERMAN METHOD OF KEEPING CUCUMBERS FOR WINTER USE.

402. INGREDIENTS.--Cucumbers, salt.

_Mode_.--Pare and slice the cucumbers (as for the table), sprinkle well
with salt, and let them remain for 24 hours; strain off the liquor, pack
in jars, a thick layer of cucumbers and salt alternately; tie down
closely, and, when wanted for use, take out the quantity required. Now
wash them well in fresh water, and dress as usual with pepper, vinegar,
and oil.

[Illustration: THE CUCUMBER.]

THE CUCUMBER.--Though the melon is far superior in point of
flavour to this fruit, yet it is allied to the cucumber, which
is known to naturalists as _Cucumia sativus_. The modern
Egyptians, as did their forefathers, still eat it, and others of
its class. Cucumbers were observed, too, by Bishop Heber,
beyond the Ganges, in India; and Burckhardt noticed them in
Palestine. (See No. 127.)

AN EXCELLENT WAY OF PRESERVING CUCUMBERS.

403. INGREDIENTS.--Salt and water; 1 lb. of lump sugar, the rind of 1
lemon, 1 oz. of ginger, cucumbers.

_Mode_.--Choose the greenest cucumbers, and those that are most free
from seeds; put them in strong salt and water, with a cabbage-leaf to
keep them down; tie a paper over them, and put them in a warm place till
they are yellow; then wash them and set them over the fire in fresh
water, with a very little salt, and another cabbage-leaf over them;
cover very closely, but take care they do not boil. If they are not a
fine green, change the water again, cover them as before, and make them
hot. When they are a good colour, take them off the fire and let them
cool; cut them in quarters, take out the seeds and pulp, and put them
into cold water. Let them remain for 2 days, changing the water twice
each day, to draw out the salt. Put the sugar, with 1/4 pint of water,
in a saucepan over the fire; remove the scum as it rises, and add the
lemon-peel and ginger with the outside scraped off; when the syrup is
tolerably thick, take it off the fire, and when _cold_, wipe the
cucumbers _dry_, and put them in. Boil the syrup once in 2 or 3 days for
3 weeks; strengthen it if required, and let it be quite cold before the
cucumbers are put in. Great attention must be paid to the directions in
the commencement of this recipe, as, if these are not properly carried
out, the result will be far from satisfactory.

_Seasonable_.--This recipe should be used in June, July, or August.

[Illustration: SALT-MINE AT NORTHWICH.]

COMMON SALT.--By this we mean salt used for cooking purposes,
which is found in great abundance both on land and in the waters
of the ocean. Sea or salt water, as it is often called,
contains, it has been discovered, about three per cent, of salt
on an average. Solid rocks of salt are also found in various
parts of the world, and the county of Chester contains many of
these mines, and it is from there that much of our salt comes.
Some springs are so highly impregnated with salt, as to have
received the name of "brine" springs, and are supposed to have
become so by passing through the salt rocks below ground, and
thus dissolving a portion of this mineral substance. We here
give an engraving of a salt-mine at Northwich, Cheshire, where
both salt-mines and brine-springs are exceedingly productive,
and are believed to have been wrought so far back as during the
occupation of Britain by the Romans.

CUSTARD SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS OR TARTS.

404. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of milk, 2 eggs, 3 oz. of pounded sugar, 1
tablespoonful of brandy.

_Mode_.--Put the milk in a very clean saucepan, and let it boil. Beat
the eggs, stir to them the milk and pounded sugar, and put the mixture
into a jug. Place the jug in a saucepan of boiling water; keep stirring
well until it thickens, but do not allow it to boil, or it will curdle.
Serve the sauce in a tureen, stir in the brandy, and grate a little
nutmeg over the top. This sauce may be made very much nicer by using
cream instead of milk; but the above recipe will be found quite good
enough for ordinary purposes.

_Average cost_, 6d. per pint.

_Sufficient_, this quantity, for 2 fruit tarts, or 1 pudding.

DUTCH SAUCE FOR FISH.

405. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 teaspoonful of flour, 2 oz. of butter, 4
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, the yolks of 2 eggs, the juice of 1/2 lemon;
salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients, except the lemon-juice, into a
stew-pan; set it over the fire, and keep continually stirring. When it
is sufficiently thick, take it off, as it should not boil. If, however,
it happens to curdle, strain the sauce through a tammy, add the
lemon-juice, and serve. Tarragon vinegar may be used instead of plain,
and, by many, is considered far preferable.

_Average cost_, 6d.

Note.--This sauce may be poured hot over salad, and left to get quite
cold, when it should be thick, smooth, and somewhat stiff. Excellent
salads may be made of hard eggs, or the remains of salt fish flaked
nicely from the bone, by pouring over a little of the above mixture when
hot, and allowing it to cool.

[Illustration: THE LEMON.]

THE LEMON.--This fruit is a native of Asia, and is mentioned by
Virgil as an antidote to poison. It is hardier than the orange,
and, as one of the citron tribe, was brought into Europe by the
Arabians. The lemon was first cultivated in England in the
beginning of the 17th century, and is now often to be found in
our green-houses. The kind commonly sold, however, is imported
from Portugal, Spain, and the Azores. Some also come from St.
Helena; but those from Spain are esteemed the best. Its juice is
now an essential for culinary purposes; but as an antiscorbutic
its value is still greater. This juice, which is called _citric
acid_, may be preserved in bottles for a considerable time, by
covering it with a thin stratum of oil. _Shrub_ is made from it
with rum and sugar.

GREEN DUTCH SAUCE, or HOLLANDAISE VERTE.

406. INGREDIENTS.--6 tablespoonfuls of Bechamel, No. 367, seasoning to
taste of salt and cayenne, a little parsley-green to colour, the juice
of 1/2 a lemon.

_Mode_.--Put the Bechamel into a saucepan with the seasoning, and bring
it to a boil. Make a green colouring by pounding some parsley in a
mortar, and squeezing all the juice from it. Let this just simmer, when
add it to the sauce. A moment before serving, put in the lemon-juice,
but not before; for otherwise the sauce would turn yellow, and its
appearance be thus spoiled.

_Average cost_, 4d.

BECHAMEL SAUCE--This sauce takes its name from a Monsieur
Bechamel, a rich French financier, who, according to Borne
authorities, invented it; whilst others affirm he only
patronized it. Be this as it may, it is one of the most pleasant
sauces which come to table, and should be most carefully and
intelligently prepared. It is frequently used, as in the above
recipe, as a principal ingredient and basis for other sauces.

TO PICKLE EGGS.

407. INGREDIENTS.--16 eggs, 1 quart of vinegar, 1/2 oz. of Black pepper,
1/2 oz. of Jamaica pepper, 1/2 oz. of ginger.

_Mode_.--Boil the eggs for 12 minutes, then dip them into cold water,
and take off the shells. Put the vinegar, with the pepper and ginger,
into a stewpan, and let it simmer for 10 minutes. Now place the eggs in
a jar, pour over them the vinegar, &c., boiling hot, and, when cold, tie
them down with bladder to exclude the air. This pickle will be ready for
use in a month.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s. 9d.

_Seasonable_.--This should be made about Easter, as at this time eggs
are plentiful and cheap. A store of pickled eggs will be found very
useful and ornamental in serving with many first and second course
dishes.

[Illustration: GINGER.]

The ginger-plant, known to naturalists as _Zingiber officinale_,
is a native, of the East and West Indies. It grows somewhat like
the lily of the valley, but its height is about three feet. In
Jamaica it flowers about August or September, fading about the
end of the year. The fleshy creeping roots, which form the
ginger of commerce, are in a proper state to be dug when the
stalks are entirely withered. This operation is usually
performed in January and February; and when the roots are taken
out of the earth, each one is picked, scraped, separately
washed, and afterwards very carefully dried. Ginger is generally
considered as less pungent and heating to the system than might
he expected from its effects on the organs of taste, and it is
frequently used, with considerable effect, as an anti-spasmodic
and carminative.

EGG BALLS FOR SOUPS AND MADE DISHES.

408. INGREDIENTS.--8 eggs, a little flour; seasoning to taste of salt.

_Mode_.--Boil 6 eggs for 20 minutes, strip off the shells, take the
yolks and pound them in a mortar. Beat the yolks of the other 2 eggs;
add them, with a little flour and salt, to those pounded; mix all well
together, and roll into balls. Boil them before they are put into the
soup or other dish they may be intended for.

_Time_.--20 minutes to boil the eggs. _Average cost_, for this quantity,
8d.

_Sufficient_, 2 dozen balls for 1 tureen of soup.

EGG SAUCE FOR SALT FISH.

409. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376; when
liked, a very little lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Boil the eggs until quite hard, which will be in about 20
minutes, and put them into cold water for 1/2 hour. Strip off the
shells, chop the eggs into small pieces, not, however, too fine. Make
the melted butter very smoothly, by recipe No. 376, and, when boiling,
stir in the eggs, and serve very hot. Lemon-juice may be added at
pleasure.

_Time_.--20 minutes to boil the eggs. _Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_.--This quantity for 3 or 4 lbs. of fish.

_Note_.--When a thicker sauce is required, use one or two more eggs to
the same quantity of melted butter.

EPICUREAN SAUCE FOR STEAKS, CHOPS, GRAVIES, OR FISH.

410. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 pint of walnut ketchup, 1/4 pint of mushroom
ditto, 2 tablespoonfuls of Indian soy, 2 tablespoonfuls of port wine;
1/4 oz. of white pepper, 2 oz. of shalots, 1/4 oz. of cayenne, 1/4 oz.
of cloves, 3/4 pint of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Put the whole of the ingredients into a bottle, and let it
remain for a fortnight in a warm place, occasionally shaking up the
contents. Strain, and bottle off for use. This sauce will be found an
agreeable addition to gravies, hashes, stews, &c.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s. 6d.

[Illustration: SHALOT.]

SHALOT, OR ESCHALOT.--This plant is supposed to have been
introduced to England by the Crusaders, who found it growing
wild in the vicinity of Ascalon. It is a bulbous root, and when
full grown, its leaves wither in July. They ought to be taken up
in the autumn, and when dried in the house, will keep till
spring. It is called by old authors the "barren onion," and is
used in sauces and pickles, soups and made dishes, and as an
accompaniment to chops and steaks.

ESPAGNOLE, OR BROWN SPANISH SAUCE.

411. INGREDIENTS.--2 slices of lean ham, 1 lb. of veal, 1-1/2 pint of
white stock, No. 107; 2 or 3 sprigs of parsley, 1/2 a bay-leaf, 2 or 3
sprigs of savoury herbs, 6 green onions, 3 shalots, 2 cloves, 1 blade of
mace, 2 glasses of sherry or Madeira, thickening of butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Cut up the ham and veal into small square pieces, and put them
into a stewpan. Moisten these with 1/2 pint of the stock No. 107, and
simmer till the bottom of the stewpan is covered with a nicely-coloured
glaze, when put in a few more spoonfuls to detach it. Add the remainder
of the stock, with the spices, herbs, shalots, and onions, and simmer
very gently for 1 hour. Strain and skim off every particle of fat, and
when required for use, thicken with butter and flour, or with a little
roux. Add the wine, and, if necessary, a seasoning of cayenne; when it
will be ready to serve.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 2s. per pint.

_Note_.--The wine in this sauce may be omitted, and an onion sliced and
fried of a nice brown substituted for it. This sauce or gravy is used
for many dishes, and with most people is a general favourite.

FENNEL SAUCE FOR MACKEREL.

412. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376, rather more than
1 tablespoonful of chopped fennel.

_Mode_.--Make the melted butter very smoothly, by recipe No. 376; chop
the fennel rather small, carefully cleansing it from any grit or dirt,
and put it to the butter when this is on the point of boiling. Simmer
for a minute or two, and serve in a tureen.

_Time_.--2 minutes.

_Average cost_, 4d.

_Sufficient_ to serve with 5 or 6 mackerel.

[Illustration: FENNEL.]

FENNEL.--This elegantly-growing plant, of which the Latin name
is _Anethum foeniculum_, grows best in chalky soils, where,
indeed, it is often found wild. It is very generally cultivated
in gardens, and has much improved on its original form. Various
dishes are frequently ornamented and garnished with its graceful
leaves, and these are sometimes boiled in soups, although it is
more usually confined, in English cookery, to the mackerel sauce
as here given.

FISH SAUCE.

413. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 oz. of cayenne, 2 tablespoonfuls of walnut
ketchup, 2 tablespoonfuls of soy, a few shreds of garlic and shalot, 1
quart of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a large bottle, and shake well
every day for a fortnight. Keep it in small bottles well sealed, and in
a few days it will be fit for use.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s.

FORCEMEAT BALLS FOR FISH SOUPS.

414. INGREDIENTS.--1 middling-sized lobster, 1/2 an anchovy, 1 head of
boiled celery, the yolk of a hard-boiled egg; salt, cayenne, and mace to
taste; 4 tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs, 2 oz. of butter, 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Pick the meat from the shell of the lobster, and pound it, with
the soft parts, in a mortar; add the celery, the yolk of the hard-boiled
egg, seasoning, and bread crumbs. Continue pounding till the whole is
nicely amalgamated. Warm the butter till it is in a liquid state; well
whisk the eggs, and work these up with the pounded lobster-meat. Make
into balls of about an inch in diameter, and fry of a nice pale brown.

_Sufficient_, from 18 to 20 balls for 1 tureen of soup.

FORCEMEAT FOR COLD SAVOURY PIES.

415. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of veal, 1 lb. of fat bacon; salt, cayenne,
pepper, and pounded mace to taste; a very little nutmeg, the same of
chopped lemon-peel, 1/2 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, 1/2 teaspoonful
of minced savoury herbs, 1 or 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Chop the veal and bacon together, and put them in a mortar with
the other ingredients mentioned above. Pound well, and bind with 1 or 2
eggs which have been previously beaten and strained. Work the whole well
together, and the forcemeat will be ready for use. If the pie is not to
be eaten immediately, omit the herbs and parsley, as these would prevent
it from keeping. Mushrooms or truffles may be added.

_Sufficient_ for 2 small pies.

[Illustration: MARJORAM.]

MARJORAM.--Although there are several species of marjoram, that
which is known as the sweet or knotted marjoram, is the one
usually preferred in cookery. It is a native of Portugal, and
when its leaves are used as a seasoning herb, they have an
agreeable aromatic flavour. The winter sweet marjoram used for
the same purposes, is a native of Greece, and the pot-marjoram
is another variety brought from Sicily. All of them are
favourite ingredients in soups, stuffings, &c.

FORCEMEAT FOR PIKE, CARP, HADDOCK, AND VARIOUS KINDS OF FISH.

416. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of fresh butter, 1 oz. of suet, 1 oz. of fat
bacon, 1 small teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs, including parsley; a
little onion, when liked, shredded very fine; salt, nutmeg, and cayenne
to taste; 4 oz. of bread crumbs, 1 egg.

_Mode_.--Mix all the ingredients well together, carefully mincing them
very finely; beat up the egg, moisten with it, and work the whole very
smoothly together. Oysters or anchovies may be added to this forcemeat,
and will be found a great improvement.

_Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized haddock or pike.

FORCEMEAT FOR VEAL, TURKEYS, FOWLS, HARE, &c.

417. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of ham or lean bacon, 1/4 lb. of suet, the rind
of half a lemon, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, 1 teaspoonful of
minced sweet herbs; salt, cayenne, and pounded mace to taste; 6 oz. of
bread crumbs, 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Shred the ham or bacon, chop the suet, lemon-peel, and herbs,
taking particular care that all be very finely minced; add a seasoning
to taste, of salt, cayenne, and mace, and blend all thoroughly together
with the bread crumbs, before wetting. Now beat and strain the eggs,
work these up with the other ingredients, and the forcemeat will be
ready for use. When it is made into balls, fry of a nice brown, in
boiling lard, or put them on a tin and bake for 1/2 hour in a moderate
oven. As we have stated before, no one flavour should predominate
greatly, and the forcemeat should be of sufficient body to cut with a
knife, and yet not dry and heavy. For very delicate forcemeat, it is
advisable to pound the ingredients together before binding with the egg;
but for ordinary cooking, mincing very finely answers the purpose.

_Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_ for a turkey, a moderate-sized fillet of veal, or a hare.

_Note_.--In forcemeat for HARE, the liver of the animal is sometimes
added. Boil for 5 minutes, mince it very small, and mix it with the
other ingredients. If it should be in an unsound state, it must be on no
account made use of.

[Illustration: BASIL.]

SWEET HERBS.--Those most usually employed for purposes of
cooking, such as the flavouring of soups, sauces, forcemeats,
&c., are thyme, sage, mint, marjoram, savory, and basil. Other
sweet herbs are cultivated for purposes of medicine and
perfumery: they are most grateful both to the organs of taste
and smelling; and to the aroma derived from them is due, in a
great measure, the sweet and exhilarating fragrance of our
"flowery meads." In town, sweet herbs have to be procured at the
greengrocers' or herbalists', whilst, in the country, the garden
should furnish all that are wanted, the cook taking great care
to have some dried in the autumn for her use throughout the
winter months.

FORCEMEAT FOR BAKED PIKE.

418. INGREDIENTS.--3 oz. of bread crumbs, 1 teaspoonful of minced
savoury herbs, 8 oysters, 2 anchovies (these may be dispensed with), 2
oz. of suet; salt, pepper, and pounded mace to taste; 6 tablespoonfuls
of cream or milk, the yolks of 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Beard and mince the oysters, prepare and mix the other
ingredients by recipe No. 416, and blend the whole thoroughly together.
Moisten with the cream and eggs, put all into a stewpan, and stir it
over the fire till it thickens, when put it into the fish, which should
have previously been cut open, and sew it up.

_Time_.--4 or 6 minutes to thicken.

_Average cost_, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized pike.

FRENCH FORCEMEAT.

419. It will be well to state, in the beginning of this recipe, that
French forcemeat, or quenelles, consist of the blending of three
separate processes; namely, panada, udder, and whatever meat you intend
using.

PANADA.

420. INGREDIENTS.--The crumb of 2 penny rolls, 4 tablespoonfuls of white
stock, No. 107, 1 oz. of butter, 1 slice of ham, 1 bay-leaf, a little
minced parsley, 2 shalots, 1 clove, 2 blades of mace, a few mushrooms
(when obtainable), butter, the yolks of 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Soak the crumb of the rolls in milk for about 1/2 hour, then
take it out, and squeeze so as to press the milk from it; put the soaked
bread into a stewpan with the above quantity of white stock, and set it
on one side; then put into a separate stewpan 1 oz. of butter, a slice
of lean ham cut small, with a bay-leaf, herbs, mushrooms, spices, &c.,
in the above proportions, and fry them gently over a slow fire. When
done, moisten with 2 teacupfuls of white stock, boil for 20 minutes, and
strain the whole through a sieve over the panada in the other stewpan.
Place it over the fire, keep constantly stirring, to prevent its
burning, and when quite dry, put in a small piece of butter. Let this
again dry up by stirring over the fire; then add the yolks of 2 eggs,
mix well, put the panada to cool on a clean plate, and use it when
required. Panada should always be well flavoured, as the forcemeat
receives no taste from any of the other ingredients used in its
preparation.

Boiled Calf's Udder for French Forcemeats.

421. Put the udder into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover it; let
it stew gently till quite done, when take it out to cool. Trim all the
upper parts, cut it into small pieces, and pound well in a mortar, till
it can be rubbed through a sieve. That portion which passes through the
strainer is one of the three ingredients of which French forcemeats are
generally composed; but many cooks substitute butter for this, being a
less troublesome and more expeditious mode of preparation.

[Illustration: PESTLE AND MORTAR.]

PESTLE AND MORTAR.--No cookery can be perfectly performed
without the aid of the useful instruments shown in the
engraving. For pounding things sufficiently fine, they are
invaluable, and the use of them will save a good deal of time,
besides increasing the excellence of the preparations. They are
made of iron, and, in that material, can be bought cheap; but as
these are not available, for all purposes, we should recommend,
as more economical in the end, those made of Wedgwood, although
these are considerably more expensive than the former.

Veal Quenelles.

422. INGREDIENTS.--Equal quantities of veal, panada (No. 420), and
calf's udder (No. 421), 2 eggs; seasoning to taste of pepper, salt, and
pounded mace, or grated nutmeg; a little flour.

_Mode_.--Take the fleshy part of veal, scrape it with a knife, till all
the meat is separated from the sinews, and allow about 1/2 lb. for an
entree. Chop the meat, and pound it in a mortar till reduced to a paste;
then roll it into a ball; make another of panada (No. 420), the same
size, and another of udder (No. 421), taking care that these three balls
be of the same _size_. It is to be remembered, that equality of _size_,
and not of weight, is here necessary. When the three ingredients are
properly prepared, pound them altogether in a mortar for some time; for
the more quenelles are pounded, the more delicate they are. Now moisten
with the eggs, whites and yolks, and continue pounding, adding a
seasoning of pepper, spices, &c. When the whole is well blended
together, mould it into balls, or whatever shape is intended, roll them
in flour, and poach in boiling water, to which a little salt should have
been added. If the quenelles are not firm enough, add the yolk of
another egg, but omit the white, which only makes them hollow and puffy
inside. In the preparation of this recipe, it would be well to bear in
mind that the ingredients are to be well pounded and seasoned, and must
be made hard or soft according to the dishes they are intended for. For
brown or white ragouts they should be firm, and when the quenelles are
used very small, extreme delicacy will be necessary in their
preparation. Their flavour may be varied by using the flesh of rabbit,
fowl, hare, pheasant, grouse, or an extra quantity of mushroom, parsley,
&c.

_Time_,--About 1/4 hour to poach in boiling water.

_Sufficient_, 1/2 lb. of veal or other meat, with other ingredients in
proportion, for 1 entree.

_Note_.--The French are noted for their skill in making forcemeats; one
of the principal causes of their superiority in this respect being, that
they pound all the ingredients so diligently and thoroughly. Any one
with the slightest pretensions to refined cookery, must, in this
particular, implicitly follow the example of our friends across the
Channel.

FORCEMEAT, or QUENELLES, FOR TURTLE SOUP.

(_See No_. 189.)

423. SOYER'S RECIPE FOR FORCEMEATS.--Take a pound and a half of lean
veal from the fillet, and cut it in long thin slices; scrape with a
knife till nothing but the fibre remains; put it in a mortar, pound it
10 minutes, or until in a puree; pass it through a wire sieve (use the
remainder in stock); then take 1 pound of good fresh beef suet, which
skin, shred, and chop very fine; put it in a mortar and pound it; then
add 6 oz. of panada (that is, bread soaked in milk and boiled till
nearly dry) with the suet; pound them well together, and add the veal;
season with a teaspoonful of salt, a quarter one of pepper, half that of
nutmeg; work all well together; then add four eggs by degrees,
continually pounding the contents of the mortar. When well mixed, take a
small piece in a spoon, and poach it in some boiling water; and if it is
delicate, firm, and of a good flavour, it is ready for use.

FRIED BREAD CRUMBS.

424. Cut the bread into thin slices, place them in a cool oven
overnight, and when thoroughly dry and crisp, roll them down into fine
crumbs. Put some lard, or clarified dripping, into a frying-pan; bring
it to the boiling-point, throw in the crumbs, and fry them very quickly.
Directly they are done, lift them out with a slice, and drain them
before the fire from all greasy moisture. When quite crisp, they are
ready for use. The fat they are fried in should be clear, and the crumbs
should not have the slightest appearance or taste of having been, in the
least degree, burnt.

FRIED SIPPETS OF BREAD (for Garnishing many Dishes).

425. Cut the bread into thin slices, and stamp them out in whatever
shape you like,--rings, crosses, diamonds, &c. &c. Fry them in the same
manner as the bread crumbs, in clear boiling lard, or clarified
dripping, and drain them until thoroughly crisp before the fire. When
variety is desired, fry some of a pale colour, and others of a darker
hue.

FRIED BREAD FOR BORDERS.

426. Proceed as above, by frying some slices of bread cut in any
fanciful shape. When quite crisp, dip one side of the sippet into the
beaten white of an egg mixed with a little flour, and place it on the
edge of the dish. Continue in this manner till the border is completed,
arranging the sippets a pale and a dark one alternately.

GENEVESE SAUCE FOR SALMON, TROUT, &c.

427. INGREDIENTS.--1 small carrot, a small faggot of sweet herbs,
including parsley, 1 onion, 5 or 6 mushrooms (when obtainable), 1
bay-leaf, 6 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 2 oz. of butter, 1 glass of sherry,
1-1/2 pint of white stock, No. 107, thickening of butter and flour, the
juice of half a lemon.

_Mode_.--Cut up the onion and carrot into small rings, and put them into
a stewpan with the herbs, mushrooms, bay-leaf, cloves, and mace; add the
butter, and simmer the whole very gently over a slow fire until the
onion is quite tender. Pour in the stock and sherry, and stew slowly for
1 hour, when strain it off into a clean saucepan. Now make a thickening
of butter and flour, put it to the sauce, stir it over the fire until
perfectly smooth and mellow, add the lemon-juice, give one boil, when it
will be ready for table.

_Time_.--Altogether 2 hours.

_Average cost_, 1s. 3d per pint.

_Sufficient_, half this quantity for two slices of salmon.

[Illustration: SAGE.]

SAGE.--This was originally a native of the south of Europe, but
it has long been cultivated in the English garden. There are

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