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The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

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of its fibers. With these, too, beds are made and cushions
stuffed. Oars are supplied by the leaves; drinking-cups, spoons,
and other domestic utensils by the shells of the nuts; milk by
its juice, of which, also, a kind of honey and sugar are
prepared. When fermented, it furnishes the means of
intoxication; and when the fibres are burned, their ashes supply
an alkali for making soap. The buds of the tree bear a striking
resemblance to cabbage when boiled; but when they are cropped,
the tree dies. In a fresh state, the kernel is eaten raw, and
its juice is a most agreeable and refreshing beverage. When the
nut is imported to this country, its fruit is, in general,
comparatively dry, and is considered indigestible. The tree is
one of the least productive of the palm tribe.

SOUP A LA CRECY.

126. INGREDIENTS.--4 carrots, 2 sliced onions, 1 cut lettuce, and
chervil; 2 oz. butter, 1 pint of lentils, the crumbs of 2 French rolls,
half a teacupful of rice, 2 quarts of medium stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Put the vegetables with the butter in the stewpan, and let them
simmer 5 minutes; then add the lentils and 1 pint of the stock, and stew
gently for half an hour. Now fill it up with the remainder of the stock,
let it boil another hour, and put in the crumb of the rolls. When well
soaked, rub all through a tammy. Have ready the rice boiled; pour the
soup over this, and serve.

_Time_.--1-3/4 hour. _Average cost_,1s. 2d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: THE LENTIL.]

THE LENTIL.--This belongs to the legumious or _pulse_ kind of
vegetables, which rank next to the corn plants in their
nutritive properties. The lentil is a variety of the bean tribe,
but in England is not used as human food, although considered
the best of all kinds for pigeons. On the Continent it is
cultivated for soups, as well as for other preparations for the
table; and among the presents which David received from Shobi,
as recounted in the Scriptures, were beans, lentils, and parched
pulse. Among the Egyptians it was extensively used, and among
the Greeks, the Stoics had a maxim, which declared, that "a wise
man acts always with reason, and prepares his own lentils."
Among the Romans it was not much esteemed, and from them the
English may have inherited a prejudice against it, on account,
it is said, of its rendering men indolent. It takes its name
from _lentus_ 'slow,' and, according to Pliny, produces mildness
and moderation of temper.

CUCUMBER SOUP (French Recipe).

127. INGREDIENTS.--1 large cucumber, a piece of butter the size of a
walnut, a little chervil and sorrel cut in large pieces, salt and pepper
to taste, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 gill of cream, 1 quart of medium stock
No. 105.

_Mode_.--Pare the cucumber, quarter it, and take out the seeds; cut it
in thin slices, put these on a plate with a little salt, to draw the
water from them; drain, and put them in your stewpan, with the butter.
When they are warmed through, without being browned, pour the stock on
them. Add the sorrel, chervil, and seasoning, and boil for 40 minutes.
Mix the well-beaten yolks of the eggs with the cream, which add at the
moment of serving.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 2d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from June to September.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

THE CUCUMBER.--The antiquity of this fruit is very great. In the
sacred writings we find that the people of Israel regretted it,
whilst sojourning in the desert; and at the present time, the
cucumber, and other fruits of its class, form a large portion of
the food of the Egyptian people. By the Eastern nations
generally, as well as by the Greeks and Romans, it was greatly
esteemed. Like the melon, it was originally brought from Asia by
the Romans, and in the 14th century it was common in England,
although, in the time of the wars of "the Roses," it seems no
longer to have been cultivated. It is a cold food, and of
difficult digestion when eaten raw. As a preserved sweetmeat,
however, it is esteemed one of the most agreeable.

EGG SOUP.

128. INGREDIENTS.--A tablespoonful of flour, 4 eggs, 2 small blades of
finely-pounded mace, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Beat up the flour smoothly in a teaspoonful of cold stock, and
put in the eggs; throw them into boiling stock, stirring all the time.
Simmer for 1/4 of an hour. Season and serve with a French roll in the
tureen, or fried sippets of bread.

_Time_. 1/2 an hour. _Average cost_,11d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

SOUP A LA FLAMANDE (Flemish).

I.

129. INGREDIENTS.--1 turnip, 1 small carrot, 1/2 head of celery, 6 green
onions shred very fine, 1 lettuce cut small, chervil, 1/4 pint of
asparagus cut small, 1/4 pint of peas, 2 oz. butter, the yolks of 4
eggs, 1/2 pint of cream, salt to taste, 1 lump of sugar, 2 quarts of
stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Put the vegetables in the butter to stew gently for an hour
with a teacupful of stock; then add the remainder of the stock, and
simmer for another hour. Now beat the yolks of the eggs well, mix with
the cream (previously boiled), and strain through a hair sieve. Take the
soup off the fire, put the eggs, &c. to it, and keep stirring it well.
Bring it to a boil, but do not leave off stirring, or the eggs will
curdle. Season with salt, and add the sugar.

_Time_.--24 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 9d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from May to August.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

CHERVIL.--Although the roots of this plant are poisonous, its
leaves are tender, and are used in salads. In antiquity it made
a relishing dish, when prepared with oil, wine, and gravy. It is
a native of various parts of Europe; and the species cultivated
in the gardens of Paris, has beautifully frizzled leaves.

II.

130. INGREDIENTS.--5 onions, 5 heads of celery, 10 moderate-sized
potatoes, 3 oz. butter, 1/2 pint of water, 1/2 pint of cream, 2 quarts
of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Slice the onions, celery, and potatoes, and put them with the
butter and water into a stewpan, and simmer for an hour. Then fill up
the stewpan with stock, and boil gently till the potatoes are done,
which will be in about an hour. Rub all through a tammy, and add the
cream (previously boiled). Do not let it boil after the cream is put in.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours. __Average cost_,1s. 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to May.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--This soup can be made with water instead of stock.

SOUP A LA JULIENNE.

[Illustration: STRIPS OF VEGETABLE.]

131. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of carrots, 1/2 pint of turnips, 1/4 pint of
onions, 2 or 3 leeks, 1/2 head of celery, 1 lettuce, a little sorrel and
chervil, if liked, 2 oz. of butter, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Cut the vegetables into strips of about 1-1/4 inch long, and be
particular they are all the same size, or some will be hard whilst the
others will be done to a pulp. Cut the lettuce, sorrel, and chervil into
larger pieces; fry the carrots in the butter, and pour the stock boiling
to them. When this is done, add all the other vegetables, and herbs, and
stew gently for at least an hour. Skim off all the fat, pour the soup
over thin slices of bread, cut round about the size of a shilling, and
serve.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--In summer, green peas, asparagus-tops, French beans, &c. can be
added. When the vegetables are very strong, instead of frying them in
butter at first, they should be blanched, and afterwards simmered in the
stock.

SORREL.--This is one of the _spinaceous_ plants, which take
their name from spinach, which is the chief among them. It is
little used in English cookery, but a great deal in French, in
which it is employed for soups, sauces, and salads. In English
meadows it is usually left to grow wild; but in France, where it
is cultivated, its flavour is greatly improved.

KALE BROSE (a Scotch Recipe).

132. INGREDIENTS.--Half an ox-head or cow-heel, a teacupful of toasted
oatmeal, salt to taste, 2 handfuls of greens, 3 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Make a broth of the ox-head or cow-heel, and boil it till oil
floats on the top of the liquor, then boil the greens, shred, in it. Put
the oatmeal, with a little salt, into a basin, and mix with it quickly a
teacupful of the fat broth: it should not run into one doughy mass, but
form knots. Stir it into the whole, give one boil, and serve very hot.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 8d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

LEEK SOUP.

I.

133. INGREDIENTS.--A sheep's head, 3 quarts of water, 12 leeks cut
small, pepper and salt to taste, oatmeal to thicken.

_Mode_.--Prepare the head, either by skinning or cleaning the skin very
nicely; split it in two; take out the brains, and put it into boiling
water; add the leeks and seasoning, and simmer very gently for 4 hours.
Mix smoothly, with cold water, as much oatmeal as will make the soup
tolerably thick; pour it into the soup; continue stirring till the whole
is blended and well done, and serve.

_Time_.--4-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

II.

COMMONLY CALLED COCK-A-LEEKIE.

134. INGREDIENTS.--A capon or large fowl (sometimes an old cock, from
which the recipe takes its name, is used), which should be trussed as
for boiling; 2 or 3 bunches of fine leeks, 5 quarts of stock No. 105,
pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Well wash the leeks (and, if old, scald them in boiling water
for a few minutes), taking off the roots and part of the heads, and cut
them into lengths of about an inch. Put the fowl into the stock, with,
at first, one half of the leeks, and allow it to simmer gently. In half
an hour add the remaining leeks, and then it may simmer for 3 or 4 hours
longer. It should be carefully skimmed, and can be seasoned to taste. In
serving, take out the fowl, and carve it neatly, placing the pieces in a
tureen, and pouring over them the soup, which should be very thick of
leeks (a _puree_ of leeks the French would call it).

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d. per quart; or, with stock No.
106, 1s.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note_.--Without the fowl, the above, which would then be merely called
leek soup, is very good, and also economical. Cock-a-leekie was largely
consumed at the Burns Centenary Festival at the Crystal Palace,
Sydenham, in 1859.

[Illustration: LEEKS.]

THE LEEK.--As in the case of the cucumber, this vegetable was
bewailed by the Israelites in their journey through the desert.
It is one of the alliaceous tribe, which consists of the onion,
garlic, chive, shallot, and leek. These, as articles of food,
are perhaps more widely diffused over the face of the earth than
any other _genus_ of edible plants. It is the national badge of
the Welsh, and tradition ascribes to St. David its introduction
to that part of Britain. The origin of the wearing of the leek
on St. David's day, among that people, is thus given in
"BEETON'S DICTIONARY of UNIVERSAL INFORMATION:"--"It probably
originated from the custom of _Cymhortha_, or the friendly aid,
practised among farmers. In some districts of South Wales, all
the neighbours of a small farmer were wont to appoint a day when
they attended to plough his land, and the like; and, at such
time, it was the custom for each to bring his portion of leeks
with him for making the broth or soup." (_See_ ST. DAVID.)
Others derive the origin of the custom from the battle of
Cressy. The plant, when grown in Wales and Scotland, is sharper
than it is in England, and its flavour is preferred by many to
that of the onion in broth. It is very wholesome, and, to
prevent its tainting the breath, should be well boiled.

MACARONI SOUP.

135. INGREDIENTS.--3 oz. of macaroni, a piece of butter the size of a
walnut, salt to taste, 2 quarts of clear stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Throw the macaroni and butter into boiling water, with a pinch
of salt, and simmer for 1/2 an hour. When it is tender, drain and cut it
into thin rings or lengths, and drop it into the boiling stock. Stew
gently for 15 minutes, and serve grated Parmesan cheese with it.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: MACARONI.]

MACARONI.--This is the favourite food of Italy, where,
especially among the Neapolitans, it may be regarded as the
staff of life. "The crowd of London," says Mr. Forsyth, "is a
double line in quick motion; it is the crowd of business. The
crowd of Naples consists in a general tide rolling up and down,
and in the middle of this tide, a hundred eddies of men. You are
stopped by a carpenter's bench, you are lost among shoemakers'
stalls, and you dash among the _pots of a macaroni stall_." This
article of food is nothing more than a thick paste, made of the
best wheaten flour, with a small quantity of water. When it has
been well worked, it is put into a hollow cylindrical vessel,
pierced with holes of the size of tobacco-pipes at the bottom.
Through these holes the mass is forced by a powerful screw
bearing on a piece of wood made exactly to fit the inside of the
cylinder. Whilst issuing from the holes, it is partially baked
by a fire placed below the cylinder, and is, at the same time,
drawn away and hung over rods placed about the room, in order to
dry. In a few days it is fit for use. As it is both wholesome
and nutritious, it ought to be much more used by all classes in
England than it is. It generally accompanies Parmesan cheese to
the tables of the rich, but is also used for thickening soups
and making puddings.

SOUP MAIGRE (i.e. without Meat).

136. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. butter, 6 onions sliced, 4 heads of celery, 2
lettuces, a small bunch of parsley, 2 handfuls of spinach, 3 pieces of
bread-crust, 2 blades of mace, salt and pepper to taste, the yolks of 2
eggs, 3 teaspoonfuls of vinegar, 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Melt the butter in a stewpan, and put in the onions to stew
gently for 3 or 4 minutes; then add the celery, spinach, lettuces, and
parsley, cut small. Stir the ingredients well for 10 minutes. Now put in
the water, bread, seasoning, and mace. Boil gently for 1-1/2 hour, and,
at the moment of serving, beat in the yolks of the eggs and the vinegar,
but do not let it boil, or the eggs will curdle.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: LETTUCE.]

THE LETTUCE.--This is one of the acetarious vegetables, which
comprise a large class, chiefly used as pickles, salads, and
other condiments. The lettuce has in all antiquity been
distinguished as a kitchen-garden plant. It was, without
preparation, eaten by the Hebrews with the Paschal lamb; the
Greeks delighted in it, and the Romans, in the time of Domitian,
had it prepared with eggs, and served in the first course at
their tables, merely to excite their appetites. Its botanical
name is _Lactuca_, so called from the milky juice it exudes when
its stalks are cut. It possesses a narcotic virtue, noticed by
ancient physicians; and even in our day a lettuce supper is
deemed conducive to repose. Its proper character, however, is
that of a cooling summer vegetable, not very nutritive, but
serving as a corrective, or diluent of animal food.

MILK SOUP (a Nice Dish for Children).

137. INGREDIENTS.--2 quarts of milk, 1 saltspoonful of salt, 1
teaspoonful of powdered cinnamon, 3 teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar, or
more if liked, 4 thin slices of bread, the yolks of 6 eggs.

_Mode_.--Boil the milk with the salt, cinnamon, and sugar; lay the bread
in a deep dish, pour over it a little of the milk, and keep it hot over
a stove, without burning. Beat up the yolks of the eggs, add them to the
milk, and stir it over the fire till it thickens. Do not let it curdle.
Pour it upon the bread, and serve.

_Time_.--3/4 of an hour. _Average cost_, 8d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 10 children.

ONION SOUP.

138. INGREDIENTS.--6 large onions, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to
taste, 1/4 pint of cream, 1 quart of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Chop the onions, put them in the butter, stir them
occasionally, but do not let them brown. When tender, put the stock to
them, and season; strain the soup, and add the boiling cream.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

CHEAP ONION SOUP.

139. INGREDIENTS.--8 middling-sized onions, 3 oz. of butter, a
tablespoonful of rice-flour, salt and pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful of
powdered sugar, thickening of butter and flour, 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut the onions small, put them in the stewpan with the butter,
and fry them well; mix the rice-flour smoothly with the water, add the
onions, seasoning, and sugar, and simmer till tender. Thicken with
butter and flour, and serve.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_,4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: ONION.]

THE ONION.--Like the cabbage, this plant was erected into an
object of worship by the idolatrous Egyptians 2,000 years before
the Christian era, and it still forms a favourite food in the
country of these people, as well as in other parts of Africa.
When it was first introduced to England, has not been
ascertained; but it has long been in use, and esteemed as a
favourite seasoning plant to various dishes. In warmer climates
it is much milder in its flavour; and such as are grown in Spain
and Portugal, are, comparatively speaking, very large, and are
often eaten both in a boiled and roasted state. The Strasburg is
the most esteemed; and, although all the species have highly
nutritive properties, they impart such a disagreeable odour to
the breath, that they are often rejected even where they are
liked. Chewing a little raw parsley is said to remove this
odour.

PAN KAIL.

140. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of cabbage, or Savoy greens; 1/4 lb. of butter
or dripping, salt and pepper to taste, oatmeal for thickening, 2 quarts
of water.

_Mode_.--Chop the cabbage very fine, thicken the water with oatmeal, put
in the cabbage and butter, or dripping; season and simmer for 1-1/2
hour. It can be made sooner by blanching and mashing the greens, adding
any good liquor that a joint has been boiled in, and then further
thicken with bread or pounded biscuit.

_Time_--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1-1/2d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

THE SAVOY.--This is a close-hearted wrinkle-leaved cabbage,
sweet and tender, especially the middle leaves, and in season
from November to spring. The yellow species bears hard weather
without injury, whilst the _dwarf_ kind are improved and
rendered more tender by frost.

PARSNIP SOUP.

141. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of sliced parsnips, 2 oz. of butter, salt and
cayenne to taste, 1 quart of stock No. 106.

_Mode_.--Put the parsnips into the stewpan with the butter, which has
been previously melted, and simmer them till quite tender. Then add
nearly a pint of stock, and boil together for half an hour. Pass all
through a fine strainer, and put to it the remainder of the stock.
Season, boil, and serve immediately.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from October to April.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

THE PARSNIP.--This is a biennial plant, with a root like a
carrot, which, in nutritive and saccharine matter, it nearly
equals. It is a native of Britain, and, in its wild state, may
be found, in many parts, growing by the road-sides. It is also
to be found, generally distributed over Europe; and, in Catholic
countries, is mostly used with salt fish, in Lent. In Scotland
it forms an excellent dish, when beat up with butter and
potatoes; it is, also, excellent when fried. In Ireland it is
found to yield, in conjunction with the hop, a pleasant
beverage; and it contains as much spirit as the carrot, and
makes an excellent wine. Its proportion of nutritive matter is
99 parts in 1,000; 9 being mucilage and 90 sugar.

PEA SOUP (GREEN).

142. INGREDIENTS.--3 pints of green peas, 1/4 lb. of butter, 2 or three
thin slices of ham, 6 onions sliced, 4 shredded lettuces, the crumb of 2
French rolls, 2 handfuls of spinach, 1 lump of sugar, 2 quarts of common
stock.

_Mode_.--Put the butter, ham, 1 quart of the peas, onions, and lettuces,
to a pint of stock, and simmer for an hour; then add the remainder of
the stock, with the crumb of the French rolls, and boil for another
hour. Now boil the spinach, and squeeze it very dry. Rub the soup
through a sieve, and the spinach with it, to colour it. Have ready a
pint of _young_ peas boiled; add them to the soup, put in the sugar,
give one boil, and serve. If necessary, add salt.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 9d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from June to the end of August.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note_.--It will be well to add, if the peas are not quite young, a
little sugar. Where economy is essential, water may be used instead of
stock for this soup, boiling in it likewise the pea-shells; but use a
double quantity of vegetables.

WINTER PEA SOUP (YELLOW).

143. INGREDIENTS.--1 quart of split peas, 2 lbs. of shin of beef,
trimmings of meat or poultry, a slice of bacon, 2 large carrots, 2
turnips, 5 large onions, 1 head of celery, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts
of soft water, any bones left from roast meat, 2 quarts of common stock,
or liquor in which a joint of meat has been boiled.

_Mode_.--Put the peas to soak over-night in soft water, and float off
such as rise to the top. Boil them in the water till tender enough to
pulp; then add the ingredients mentioned above, and simmer for 2 hours,
stirring it occasionally. Pass the whole through a sieve, skim well,
season, and serve with toasted bread cut in dice.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per quart. _Seasonable_ all the
year round, but more suitable for cold weather. _Sufficient_ for 12
persons.

[Illustration: PEA.]

THE PEA.--It is supposed that the common gray pea, found wild in
Greece, and other parts of the Levant, is the original of the
common garden pea, and of all the domestic varieties belonging
to it. The gray, or field pea, called _bisallie_ by the French,
is less subject to run into varieties than the garden kinds, and
is considered by some, perhaps on that account, to be the wild
plant, retaining still a large proportion of its original habit.
From the tendency of all other varieties "to run away" and
become different to what they originally were, it is very
difficult to determine the races to which they belong. The pea
was well known to the Romans, and, probably, was introduced to
Britain at an early period; for we find peas mentioned by
Lydgate, a poet of the 15th century, as being hawked in London.
They seem, however, for a considerable time, to have fallen out
of use; for, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Fuller tells us
they were brought from Holland, and were accounted "fit dainties
for ladies, they came so far and cost so dear." There are some
varieties of peas which have no lining in their pods, which are
eaten cooked in the same way as kidney-beans. They are called
_sugar_ peas, and the best variety is the large crooked sugar,
which is also very good, used in the common way, as a culinary
vegetable. There is also a white sort, which readily splits when
subjected to the action of millstones set wide apart, so as not
to grind them. These are used largely for soups, and especially
for sea-stores. From the quantity of farinaceous and saccharine
matter contained in the pea, it is highly nutritious as an
article of food.

PEA SOUP (inexpensive).

144. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of onions, 1/4 lb. of carrots, 2 oz. of
celery, 3/4 lb. of split peas, a little mint, shred fine; 1
tablespoonful of coarse brown sugar, salt and pepper to taste, 4 quarts
of water, or liquor in which a joint of meat has been boiled.

_Mode_.--Fry the vegetables for 10 minutes in a little butter or
dripping, previously cutting them up in small pieces; pour the water on
them, and when boiling add the peas. Let them simmer for nearly 3 hours,
or until the peas are thoroughly done. Add the sugar, seasoning, and
mint; boil for 1/4 of an hour, and serve.

_Time_.--3-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 1-1/2d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 12 persons.

POTATO SOUP.

I.

145. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of mealy potatoes, boiled or steamed very dry,
pepper and salt to taste, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--When the potatoes are boiled, mash them smoothly, that no lumps
remain, and gradually put them to the boiling stock; pass it through a
sieve, season, and simmer for 5 minutes. Skim well, and serve with fried
bread.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 10d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

II.

146. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of shin of beef, 1 lb. of potatoes, 1 onion,
1/2 a pint of peas, 2 oz. of rice, 2 heads of celery, pepper and salt to
taste, 3 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut the beef into thin slices, chop the potatoes and onion, and
put them in a stewpan with the water, peas, and rice. Stew gently till
the gravy is drawn from the meat; strain it off, take out the beef, and
pulp the other ingredients through a coarse sieve. Put the pulp back in
the soup, cut up the celery in it, and simmer till this is tender.
Season, and serve with fried bread cut into it.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_, 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

_Sufficient_ for 12 persons.

III.

(_Very Economical_.)

147. INGREDIENTS.--4 middle-sized potatoes well pared, a thick slice of
bread, 6 leeks peeled and cut into thin slices as far as the white
extends upwards from the roots, a teacupful of rice, a teaspoonful of
salt, and half that of pepper, and 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--The water must be completely boiling before anything is put
into it; then add the whole of the ingredients at once, with the
exception of the rice, the salt, and the pepper. Cover, and let these
come to a brisk boil; put in the others, and let the whole boil slowly
for an hour, or till all the ingredients are thoroughly done, and their
several juices extracted and mixed.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 3d. per quart.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

[Illustration: POTATOES.]

THE POTATO.--Humboldt doubted whether this root was a native of
South America; but it has been found growing wild both in Chili
and Buenos Ayres. It was first brought to Spain from the
neighbourhood of Quito, in the early part of the sixteenth
century, first to England from Virginia, in 1586, and first
planted by Sir Walter Raleigh, on his estate of Youghal, near
Cork, in Ireland. Thence it was brought and planted in
Lancashire, in England, and was, at first, recommended to be
eaten as a delicate dish, and not as common food. This was in
1587. _Nutritious Properties_.--Of a thousand parts of the
potato, Sir H. Davy found about a fourth nutritive; say, 200
mucilage or starch, 20 sugar, and 30 gluten.

PRINCE OF WALES'S SOUP.

148. INGREDIENTS.--12 turnips, 1 lump of sugar, 2 spoonfuls of strong
veal stock, salt and white pepper to taste, 2 quarts of very bright
stock, No. 105.

_Mode_.--Peel the turnips, and with a cutter cut them in balls as round
as possible, but very small. Put them in the stock, which must be very
bright, and simmer till tender. Add the veal stock and seasoning. Have
little pieces of bread cut round, about the size of a shilling; moisten
them with stock; put them into a tureen and pour the soup over without
shaking, for fear of crumbling the bread, which would spoil the
appearance of the soup, and make it look thick.

_Time_.--2 hours.

_Seasonable_ in the winter.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

THE PRINCE Of WALES.--This soup was invented by a philanthropic
friend of the Editress, to be distributed among the poor of a
considerable village, when the Prince of Wales attained his
majority, on the 9th November, 1859. Accompanying this fact, the
following notice, which appears in "BEETON'S DICTIONARY OF
UNIVERSAL INFORMATION" may appropriately be introduced,
premising that British princes attain their majority in their
18th year, whilst mortals of ordinary rank do not arrive at that
period till their 21st.--"ALBERT EDWARD, Prince of Wales, and
heir to the British throne, merits a place in this work on
account of the high responsibilities which he is, in all
probability, destined to fulfil as sovereign of the British
empire. On the 10th of November, 1858, he was gazetted as having
been invested with the rank of a colonel in the army. Speaking
of this circumstance, the _Times_ said,--'The significance of
this event is, that it marks the period when the heir to the
British throne is about to take rank among men, and to enter
formally upon a career, which every loyal subject of the queen
will pray may be a long and a happy one, for his own sake and
for the sake of the vast empire which, in the course of nature,
he will one day be called to govern. The best wish that we can
offer for the young prince is, that in his own path he may ever
keep before him the bright example of his royal mother, and show
himself worthy of her name.' There are few in these realms who
will not give a fervent response to these sentiments. B.
November 9th, 1841."

POTAGE PRINTANIER, OR SPRING SOUP.

149. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 a pint of green peas, if in season, a little
chervil, 2 shredded lettuces, 2 onions, a very small bunch of parsley, 2
oz. of butter, the yolks of 3 eggs, 1 pint of water, seasoning to taste,
2 quarts of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Put in a very clean stewpan the chervil, lettuces, onions,
parsley, and butter, to 1 pint of water, and let them simmer till
tender. Season with salt and pepper; when done, strain off the
vegetables, and put two-thirds of the liquor they were boiled in to the
stock. Beat up the yolks of the eggs with the other third, give it a
toss over the fire, and at the moment of serving, add this, with the
vegetables which you strained off, to the soup.

_Time_.--3/4 of an hour. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from May to October.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

RICE SOUP.

I.

150. INGREDIENTS.--4 oz. of Patna rice, salt, cayenne, and mace, 2
quarts of white stock.

_Mode_.--Throw the rice into boiling water, and let it remain 5 minutes;
then pour it into a sieve, and allow it to drain well. Now add it to the
stock boiling, and allow it to stew till it is quite tender; season to
taste. Serve quickly.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: EARS OF RICE.]

RICE.--This is a plant of Indian origin, and has formed the
principal food of the Indian and Chinese people from the most
remote antiquity. Both Pliny and Dioscorides class it with the
cereals, though Galen places it among the vegetables. Be this as
it may, however, it was imported to Greece, from India, about
286 years before Christ, and by the ancients it was esteemed
both nutritious and fattening. There are three kinds of
rice,--the Hill rice, the Patna, and the Carolina, of the United
States. Of these, only the two latter are imported to this
country, and the Carolina is considered the best, as it is the
dearest. The nourishing properties of rice are greatly inferior
to those of wheat; but it is both a light and a wholesome food.
In combination with other foods, its nutritive qualities are
greatly increased; but from its having little stimulating power,
it is apt, when taken in large quantities alone, to lie long on
the stomach.

II.

151. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of rice, the yolks of 4 eggs, 1/2 a pint of
cream, rather more than 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Boil the rice in the stock, and rub half of it through a tammy;
put the stock in the stewpan, add all the rice, and simmer gently for 5
minutes. Beat the yolks of the eggs, mix them with the cream (previously
boiled), and strain through a hair sieve; take the soup off the fire,
add the eggs and cream, stirring frequently. Heat it gradually, stirring
all the time; but do not let it boil, or the eggs will curdle.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

SAGO SOUP.

152. INGREDIENTS.--5 oz. of sago, 2 quarts of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Wash the sago in boiling water, and add it, by degrees, to the
boiling stock, and simmer till the sago is entirely dissolved, and forms
a sort of jelly.

_Time_.--Nearly an hour. _Average cost_, 10d. per quart.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Note_.--The yolks of 2 eggs, beaten up with a little cream, previously
boiled, and added at the moment of serving, much improves this soup.

[Illustration: SAGO PALM.]

SAGO.--The farinaceous food of this name constitutes the pith of
the SAGO tree (the _Sagus farinifera_ of Linnaeus), which grows
spontaneously in the East Indies and in the archipelago of the
Indian Ocean. There it forms the principal farinaceous diet of
the inhabitants. In order to procure it, the tree is felled and
sawn in pieces. The pith is then taken out, and put in
receptacles of cold water, where it is stirred until the flour
separates from the filaments, and sinks to the bottom, where it
is suffered to remain until the water is poured off, when it is
taken out and spread on wicker frames to dry. To give it the
round granular form in which we find it come to this country, it
is passed through a colander, then rubbed into little balls, and
dried. The tree is not fit for felling until it has attained a
growth of seven years, when a single trunk will yield 600 lbs.
weight; and, as an acre of ground will grow 430 of these trees,
a large return of flour is the result. The best quality has a
slightly reddish hue, and easily dissolves to a jelly, in hot
water. As a restorative diet, it is much used.

SEMOLINA SOUP.

153. INGREDIENTS.--5 oz. of semolina, 2 quarts of boiling stock, No.
105, or 106.

_Mode_.--Drop the semolina into the boiling stock, and keep stirring, to
prevent its burning. Simmer gently for half an hour, and serve.

_Time_.--1/2 an hour. _Average cost_, 10d. per quart, or 4d.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

SEMOLINA.--This is the heart of the _grano duro_ wheat of Italy,
which is imported for the purpose of making the best vermicelli.
It has a coarse appearance, and may be purchased at the Italian
warehouses. It is also called _soojee;_ and _semoletta_ is
another name for a finer sort.

SOUP A LA SOLFERINO (Sardinian Recipe).

154. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 1/2 pint of cream, 2 oz. of fresh butter,
salt and pepper to taste, a little flour to thicken, 2 quarts of
bouillon, No. 105.

_Mode_.--Beat the eggs, put them into a stewpan, and add the cream,
butter, and seasoning; stir in as much flour as will bring it to the
consistency of dough; make it into balls, either round or egg-shaped,
and fry them in butter; put them in the tureen, and pour the boiling
bouillon over them.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--This recipe was communicated to the Editress by an English
gentleman, who was present at the battle of Solferino, on June 24, 1859,
and who was requested by some of Victor Emmanuel's troops, on the day
before the battle, to partake of a portion of their _potage_. He
willingly enough consented, and found that these clever campaigners had
made a most palatable dish from very easily-procured materials. In
sending the recipe for insertion in this work, he has, however,
Anglicised, and somewhat, he thinks, improved it.

SPINACH SOUP (French Recipe).

155. INGREDIENTS.--As much spinach as, when boiled, will half fill a
vegetable-dish, 2 quarts of very clear medium stock, No. 105.

_Mode_.--Make the cooked spinach into balls the size of an egg, and slip
them into the soup-tureen. This is a very elegant soup, the green of the
spinach forming a pretty contrast to the brown gravy.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_,1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from October to June.

[Illustration: SPINACH.]

SPINACH.--This plant was unknown by the ancients, although it
was cultivated in the monastic gardens of the continent in the
middle of the 14th century. Some say, that it was originally
brought from Spain; but there is a wild species growing in
England, and cultivated in Lincolnshire, in preference to the
other. There are three varieties in use; the round-leaved, the
triangular-leaved, and Flanders spinach, known by its large
leaves. They all form a useful ingredient in soup; but the
leaves are sometimes boiled alone, mashed, and eaten as greens.

TAPIOCA SOUP.

156. INGREDIENTS.--5 oz. of tapioca, 2 quarts of stock No. 105 or 106.

_Mode_.--Put the tapioca into cold stock, and bring it gradually to a
boil. Simmer gently till tender, and serve.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1 hour. Average cost. 1s. or 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

TAPIOCA.--This excellent farinaceous food is the produce of the
pith of the cassava-tree, and is made in the East Indies, and
also in Brazil. It is, by washing, procured as a starch from the
tree, then dried, either in the sun or on plates of hot iron,
and afterwards broken into grains, in which form it is imported
into this country. Its nutritive properties are large, and as a
food for persons of delicate digestion, or for children, it is
in great estimation. "No amylaceous substance," says Dr.
Christison, "is so much relished by infants about the time of
weaning; and in them it is less apt to become sour during
digestion than any other farinaceous food, even arrowroot not
excepted."

TURNIP SOUP.

157. INGREDIENTS.--3 oz. of butter, 9 good-sized turnips, 4 onions, 2
quarts of stock No. 106, seasoning to taste.

_Mode_.--Melt the butter in the stewpan, but do not let it boil; wash,
drain, and slice the turnips and onions very thin; put them in the
butter, with a teacupful of stock, and stew very gently for an hour.
Then add the remainder of the stock, and simmer another hour. Rub it
through a tammy, put it back into the stewpan, but do not let it boil.
Serve very hot.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 8d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from October to March.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--By adding a little cream, this soup will be much improved.

[Illustration: TURNIP.]

THE TURNIP.--Although turnips grow wild in England, they are not
the original of the cultivated vegetable made use of in this
country. In ancient times they were grown for cattle by the
Romans, and in Germany and the Low Countries they have from time
immemorial been raised for the same purpose. In their cultivated
state, they are generally supposed to have been introduced to
England from Hanover, in the time of George I.; but this has
been doubted, as George II. caused a description of the Norfolk
system to be sent to his Hanoverian subjects, for their
enlightenment in the art of turnip culture. As a culinary
vegetable, it is excellent, whether eaten alone, mashed, or
mixed with soups und stews. Its nutritious matter, however, is
small, being only 42 parts in 1,000.

VEGETABLE-MARROW SOUP.

158. INGREDIENTS.--4 young vegetable marrows, or more, if very small,
1/2 pint of cream, salt and white pepper to taste, 2 quarts of white
stock, No. 107.

_Mode_.--Pare and slice the marrows, and put them in the stock boiling.
When done almost to a mash, press them through a sieve, and at the
moment of serving, add the boiling cream and seasoning.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 2d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in summer.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: VEGETABLE MARROW.]

THE VEGETABLE MARROW.--This is a variety of the gourd family,
brought from Persia by an East-India ship, and only recently
introduced to Britain. It is already cultivated to a
considerable extent, and, by many, is highly esteemed when fried
with butter. It is, however, dressed in different ways, either
by stewing or boiling, and, besides, made into pies.

VEGETABLE SOUP.

I.

159. INGREDIENTS.--7 oz. of carrot, 10 oz. of parsnip, 10 oz. of potato,
cut into thin slices; 1-1/4 oz. of butter, 5 teaspoonfuls of flour, a
teaspoonful of made mustard, salt and pepper to taste, the yolks of 2
eggs, rather more than 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Boil the vegetables in the water 2-1/2 hours; stir them often,
and if the water boils away too quickly, add more, as there should be 2
quarts of soup when done. Mix up in a basin the butter and flour,
mustard, salt, and pepper, with a teacupful of cold water; stir in the
soup, and boil 10 minutes. Have ready the yolks of the eggs in the
tureen; pour on, stir well, and serve.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_, 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

II.

160. INGREDIENTS.--Equal quantities of onions, carrots, turnips; 1/4 lb.
of butter, a crust of toasted bread, 1 head of celery, a faggot of
herbs, salt and pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful of powdered sugar, 2
quarts of common stock or boiling water. Allow 3/4 lb. of vegetables to
2 quarts of stock, No. 105.

_Mode_.--Cut up the onions, carrots, and turnips; wash and drain them
well, and put them in the stewpan with the butter and powdered sugar.
Toss the whole over a sharp fire for 10 minutes, but do not let them
brown, or you will spoil the flavour of the soup. When done, pour the
stock or boiling water on them; add the bread, celery, herbs, and
seasoning; stew for 3 hours; skim well and strain it off. When ready to
serve, add a little sliced carrot, celery, and turnip, and flavour with
a spoonful of Harvey's sauce, or a little ketchup.

_Time_.--3-1/2 hours. _Average cost_,6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

III.

(_Good and Cheap, made without Meat_.)

161. INGREDIENTS.--6 potatoes, 4 turnips, or 2 if very large; 2 carrots,
2 onions; if obtainable, 2 mushrooms; 1 head of celery, 1 large slice of
bread, 1 small saltspoonful of salt, 1/4 saltspoonful of ground black
pepper, 2 teaspoonfuls of Harvey's sauce, 6 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Peel the vegetables, and cut them up into small pieces; toast
the bread rather brown, and put all into a stewpan with the water and
seasoning. Simmer gently for 3 hours, or until all is reduced to a pulp,
and pass it through a sieve in the same way as pea-soup, which it should
resemble in consistence; but it should be a dark brown colour. Warm it
up again when required; put in the Harvey's sauce, and, if necessary,
add to the flavouring.

_Time_.--3 hours, or rather more. _Average cost_,1d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ at any time. _Sufficient_ for 16 persons.

_Note_.--This recipe was forwarded to the Editress by a lady in the
county of Durham, by whom it was strongly recommended.

VERMICELLI SOUP.

I.

162. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lb. of bacon, stuck with cloves; 1/2 oz. of
butter, worked up in flour; 1 small fowl, trussed for boiling; 2 oz. of
vermicelli, 2 quarts of white stock, No. 107.

_Mode_.--Put the stock, bacon, butter, and fowl into the stewpan, and
stew for 3/4 of an hour. Take the vermicelli, add it to a little of the
stock, and set it on the fire, till it is quite tender. When the soup is
ready, take out the fowl and bacon, and put the bacon on a dish. Skim
the soup as clean as possible; pour it, with the vermicelli, over the
fowl. Cut some bread thin, put in the soup, and serve.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, exclusive of the fowl and bacon, 10d.
per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

[Illustration: VERMICELLI.]

VERMICELLI.--This is a preparation of Italian origin, and is
made in the same way as macaroni, only the yolks of eggs, sugar,
saffron, and cheese, are added to the paste.

II.

163. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of vermicelli, 2 quarts of clear gravy stock,
No. 169.

_Mode_.--Put the vermicelli in the soup, boiling; simmer very gently for
1/2 an hour, and stir frequently.

_Time_--1/2 an hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

WHITE SOUP.

164. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of sweet almonds, 1/4 lb. of cold veal or
poultry, a thick slice of stale bread, a piece of fresh lemon-peel, 1
blade of mace, pounded, 3/4 pint of cream, the yolks of 2 hard-boiled
eggs, 2 quarts of white stock, No. 107.

_Mode_.--Reduce the almonds in a mortar to a paste, with a spoonful of
water, and add to them the meat, which should be previously pounded with
the bread. Beat all together, and add the lemon-peel, very finely
chopped, and the mace. Pour the boiling stock on the whole, and simmer
for an hour. Rub the eggs in the cream, put in the soup, bring it to a
boil, and serve immediately.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--A more economical white soup may be made by using common veal
stock, and thickening with rice, flour, and milk. Vermicelli should be
served with it.

_Average cost_, 5d. per quart.

USEFUL SOUP FOR BENEVOLENT PURPOSES.

165. INGREDIENTS.--An ox-cheek, any pieces of trimmings of beef, which
may be bought very cheaply (say 4 lbs.), a few bones, any pot-liquor the
larder may furnish, 1/4 peck of onions, 6 leeks, a large bunch of herbs,
1/2 lb. of celery (the outside pieces, or green tops, do very well); 1/2
lb. of carrots, 1/2 lb. of turnips, 1/2 lb. of coarse brown sugar, 1/2 a
pint of beer, 4 lbs. of common rice, or pearl barley; 1/2 lb. of salt, 1
oz. of black pepper, a few raspings, 10 gallons of water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the meat in small pieces, break the bones, put them in a
copper, with the 10 gallons of water, and stew for 1/2 an hour. Cut up
the vegetables, put them in with the sugar and beer, and boil for 4
hours. Two hours before the soup is wanted, add the rice and raspings,
and keep stirring till it is well mixed in the soup, which simmer
gently. If the liquor reduces too much, fill up with water.

_Time_.--6-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 1-1/2d. per quart.

_Note_.--The above recipe was used in the winter of 1858 by the
Editress, who made, each week, in her copper, 8 or 9 gallons of this
soup, for distribution amongst about a dozen families of the village
near which she lives. The cost, as will be seen, was not great; but she
has reason to believe that the soup was very much liked, and gave to the
members of those families, a dish of warm, comforting food, in place of
the cold meat and piece of bread which form, with too many cottagers,
their usual meal, when, with a little more knowledge of the "cooking."
art, they might have, for less expense, a warm dish, every day.

MEAT, POULTRY, AND GAME SOUPS.

BRILLA SOUP.

166. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of shin of beef, 3 carrots, 2 turnips, a large
sprig of thyme, 2 onions, 1 head of celery, salt and pepper to taste, 4
quarts water.

_Mode_.--Take the beef, cut off all the meat from the bone, in nice
square pieces, and boil the bone for 4 hours. Strain the liquor, let it
cool, and take off the fat; then put the pieces of meat in the cold
liquor; cut small the carrots, turnips, and celery; chop the onions, add
them with the thyme and seasoning, and simmer till the meat is tender.
If not brown enough, colour it with browning.

_Time_.--6 hours. _Average cost_, 5d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

THYME.--This sweet herb was known to the Romans, who made use of
it in culinary preparations, as well as in aromatic liqueurs.
There are two species of it growing wild in Britain, but the
garden thyme is a native of the south of Europe, and is more
delicate in its perfume than the others. Its young leaves give
an agreeable flavour to soups and sauces; they are also used in
stuffings.

CALF'S-HEAD SOUP.

167. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 a calf's head, 1 onion stuck with cloves, a very
small bunch of sweet herbs, 2 blades of mace, salt and white pepper to
taste, 6 oz. of rice-flour, 3 tablespoonfuls of ketchup, 3 quarts of
white stock, No. 107, or pot-liquor, or water.

_Mode_.--Rub the head with salt, soak it for 6 hours, and clean it
thoroughly; put it in the stewpan, and cover it with the stock, or
pot-liquor, or water, adding the onion and sweet herbs. When well
skimmed and boiled for 1-1/2 hour, take out the head, and skim and
strain the soup. Mix the rice-flour with the ketchup, thicken the soup
with it, and simmer for 5 minutes. Now cut up the head into pieces about
two inches long, and simmer them in the soup till the meat and fat are
quite tender. Season with white pepper and mace finely pounded, and
serve very hot. When the calf's head is taken out of the soup, cover it
up, or it will discolour.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_,1s. 9d. per quart, with stock No.
107.

_Seasonable_ from May to October.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note_.--Force-meat balls can be added, and the soup may be flavoured
with a little lemon-juice, or a glass of sherry or Madeira. The bones
from the head may be stewed down again, with a few fresh vegetables, and
it will make a very good common stock.

GIBLET SOUP.

168. INGREDIENTS.--3 sets of goose or duck giblets, 2 lbs. of shin of
beef, a few bones, 1 ox-tail, 2 mutton-shanks, 2 large onions, 2
carrots, 1 large faggot of herbs, salt and pepper to taste, 1/4 pint of
cream, 1 oz. of butter mixed with a dessert-spoonful of flour, 3 quarts
of water.

_Mode_.--Scald the giblets, cut the gizzards in 8 pieces, and put them
in a stewpan with the beef, bones, ox-tail, mutton-shanks, onions,
herbs, pepper, and salt; add the 3 quarts of water, and simmer till the
giblets are tender, taking care to skim well. When the giblets are done,
take them out, put them in your tureen, strain the soup through a sieve,
add the cream and butter, mixed with a dessert-spoonful of flour, boil
it up a few minutes, and pour it over the giblets. It can be flavoured
with port wine and a little mushroom ketchup, instead of cream. Add salt
to taste.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_,9d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

GRAVY SOUP.

169. INGREDIENTS.--6 lbs. of shin of beef, a knuckle of veal weighing 5
lbs., a few pieces or trimmings, 2 slices of nicely-flavoured lean, ham;
1/4 lb. of butter, 2 onions, 2 carrots, 1 turnip, nearly a head of
celery, 1 blade of mace, 6 cloves, a hunch of savoury herb with endive,
seasoning of salt and pepper to taste, 3 lumps of sugar, 5 quarts of
boiling soft water. It can be flavoured with ketchup, Leamington sauce
(_see_ SAUCES), Harvey's sauce, and a little soy.

_Mode_.--Slightly brown the meat and ham in the butter, but do not let
them burn. When this is done, pour to it the water, and as the scum
rises, take it off; when no more appears, add all the other ingredients,
and let the soup simmer slowly by the fire for 6 hours without stirring
it any more from the bottom; take it off, and let it settle; skim off
all the fat you can, and pass it through a tammy. When perfectly cold,
you can remove all the fat, and leave the sediment untouched, which
serves very nicely for thick gravies, hashes, &c.

_Time_.--7 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 14 persons.

ENDIVE.--This plant belongs to the acetarious tribe of
vegetables, and is supposed to have originally come from China
and Japan. It was known to the ancients; but was not introduced
to England till about the middle of the 16th century. It is
consumed in large quantities by the French, and in London,--in
the neighbourhood of which it is grown in abundance;--it is
greatly used as a winter salad, as well as in soups and stews.

HARE SOUP.

I.

170. INGREDIENTS.--A hare fresh-killed, 1 lb. of lean gravy-beef, a
slice of ham, 1 carrot, 2 onions, a faggot of savoury herbs, 1/4 oz. of
whole black pepper, a little browned flour, 1/4 pint of port wine, the
crumb of two French rolls, salt and cayenne to taste, 3 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Skin and paunch the hare, saving the liver and as much blood as
possible. Cut it in pieces, and put it in a stewpan with all the
ingredients, and simmer gently for 8 hours. This soup should be made the
day before it is wanted. Strain through a sieve, put the best parts of
the hare in the soup, and serve.

OR,

II.

Proceed as above; but, instead of putting the joints of the hare in the
soup, pick the meat from the bones, pound it in a mortar, and add it,
with the crumb of two French rolls, to the soup. Rub all through a
sieve; heat slowly, but do not let it boil. Send it to table
immediately.

_Time_.-8 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 9d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to February.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

[Illustration: HARE.]

THE COMMON HARE.--This little animal is found throughout Europe,
and, indeed, in most of the northern parts of the world; and as
it is destitute of natural weapons of defence, Providence has
endowed it with an extraordinary amount of the passion of fear.
As if to awaken the vigilance of this passion, too, He has
furnished it with long and tubular ears, in order that it may
catch the remotest sounds; and with full, prominent eyes, which
enable it to see, at one and the same time, both before and
behind it. The hare feeds in the evenings, and sleeps, in its
form, during the day; and, as it generally lies on the ground,
its feet, both below and above, are protected with a thick
covering of hair. Its flesh, though esteemed by the Romans, was
forbidden by the Druids and by the earlier Britons. It is now,
though very dark and dry, and devoid of fat, much esteemed by
Europeans, on account of the peculiarity of its flavour. In
purchasing this animal, it ought to be remembered that both
hares and rabbits, when old, have their claws rugged and blunt,
their haunches thick, and their ears dry and tough. The ears of
a young hare easily tear, and it has a narrow cleft in the lip;
whilst its claws are both smooth and sharp.

HESSIAN SOUP.

171. INGREDIENTS.--Half an ox's head, 1 pint of split peas, 3 carrots, 6
turnips, 6 potatoes, 6 onions, 1 head of celery, 1 bunch of savoury
herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 2 blades of mace, a little allspice, 4
cloves, the crumb of a French roll, 6 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Clean the head, rub it with salt and water, and soak it for 5
hours in warm water. Simmer it in the water till tender, put it into a
pan and let it cool; skim off all the fat; take out the head, and add
the vegetables cut up small, and the peas which have been previously
soaked; simmer them without the meat, till they are done enough to pulp
through a sieve. Add the seasoning, with pieces of the meat cut up; give
one boil, and serve.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 16 persons.

_Note_.--An excellent hash or _ragout_ can be made by cutting up the
nicest parts of the head, thickening and seasoning more highly a little
of the soup, and adding a glass of port wine and 2 tablespoonfuls of
ketchup.

MOCK TURTLE.

I.

172. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 a calf's head, 1/4 lb. of butter, 1/4 lb. of lean
ham, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley, a little minced lemon thyme,
sweet marjoram, basil, 2 onions, a few chopped mushrooms (when
obtainable), 2 shallots, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1/4 bottle of
Madeira or sherry, force-meat balls, cayenne, salt and mace to taste,
the juice of 1 lemon and 1 Seville orange, 1 dessert-spoonful of pounded
sugar, 3 quarts of best stock, No. 104.

_Mode_.--Scald the head with the skin on, remove the brain, tie the head
up in a cloth, and let it boil for 1 hour. Then take the meat from the
bones, cut it into small square pieces, and throw them into cold water.
Now take the meat, put it into a stewpan, and cover with stock; let it
boil gently for an hour, or rather more, if not quite tender, and set it
on one side. Melt the butter in another stewpan, and add the ham, cut
small, with the herbs, parsley, onions, shallots, mushrooms, and nearly
a pint of stock; let these simmer slowly for 2 hours, and then dredge in
as much flour as will dry up the butter. Fill up with the remainder of
the stock, add the wine, let it stew gently for 10 minutes, rub it
through a tammy, and put it to the calf's head; season with cayenne,
and, if required, a little salt; add the juice of the orange and lemon;
and when liked, 1/4 teaspoonful of pounded mace, and the sugar. Put in
the force-meat balls, simmer 5 minutes, and serve very hot.

_Time_.--4-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 3s. 6d. per quart, or 2s. 6d.
without wine or force-meat balls.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note_.--The bones of the head should be well stewed in the liquor it
was first boiled in, and will make good white stock, flavoured with
vegetables, etc.

II.

(_More Economical_.)

173. INGREDIENTS.--A knuckle of veal weighing 5 or 6 lbs., 2 cow-heels,
2 large onions stuck with cloves, 1 bunch of sweet herbs, 3 blades of
mace, salt to taste, 12 peppercorns, 1 glass of sherry, 24 force-meat
balls, a little lemon-juice, 4 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients, except the force-meat balls and
lemon-juice, in an earthen jar, and stew for 6 hours. Do not open it
till cold. When wanted for use, skim off all the fat, and strain
carefully; place it on the fire, cut up the meat into inch-and-a-half
squares, put it, with the force-meat balls and lemon-juice, into the
soup, and serve. It can be flavoured with a tablespoonful of anchovy, or
Harvey's sauce.

_Time_.--6 hours. _Average cost_,1s. 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

THE CALF--The flesh of this animal is called veal, and when
young, that is, under two months old, yields a large quantity of
soluble extract, and is, therefore, much employed for soups and
broths. The Essex farmers have obtained a celebrity for
fattening calves better than any others in England, where they
are plentifully supplied with milk, a thing impossible to be
done in the immediate neighbourhood of London.

MARJORAM.--There are several species of this plant; but that
which is preferred for cookery is a native of Portugal, and is
called sweet or knotted marjoram. When its leaves are dried,
they have an agreeable aromatic flavour; and hence are used for
soups, stuffings, &c.

BASIL.--This is a native of the East Indies, and is highly
aromatic, having a perfume greatly resembling that of cloves. It
is not much employed in English cookery, but is a favourite with
French cooks, by whom its leaves are used in soups and salads.

MULLAGATAWNY SOUP.

174. INGREDIENTS.--2 tablespoonfuls of curry powder, 6 onions, 1 clove
of garlic, 1 oz. of pounded almonds, a little lemon-pickle, or
mango-juice, to taste; 1 fowl or rabbit, 4 slices of lean bacon; 2
quarts of medium stock, or, if wanted very good, best stock.

_Mode_.-=Slice and fry the onions of a nice colour; line the stewpan
with the bacon; cut up the rabbit or fowl into small joints, and
slightly brown them; put in the fried onions, the garlic, and stock, and
simmer gently till the meat is tender; skim very carefully, and when the
meat is done, rub the curry powder to a smooth batter; add it to the
soup with the almonds, which must be first pounded with a little of the
stock. Put in seasoning and lemon-pickle or mango-juice to taste, and
serve boiled rice with it.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d. per quart, with stock No. 105.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--This soup can also be made with breast of veal, or calf's head.
Vegetable Mullagatawny is made with veal stock, by boiling and pulping
chopped vegetable marrow, cucumbers, onions, and tomatoes, and seasoning
with curry powder and cayenne. Nice pieces of meat, good curry powder,
and strong stock, are necessary to make this soup good.

[Illustration: CORIANDER.]

CORIANDER.--This plant, which largely enters into the
composition of curry powder with turmeric, originally comes from
the East; but it has long been cultivated in England, especially
in Essex, where it is reared for the use of confectioners and
druggists. In private gardens, it is cultivated for the sake of
its tender leaves, which are highly aromatic, and are employed
in soups and salads. Its seeds are used in large quantities for
the purposes of distillation.

A GOOD MUTTON SOUP.

175. INGREDIENTS.--A neck of mutton about 5 or 6 lbs., 3 carrots, 3
turnips, 2 onions, a large bunch of sweet herbs, including parsley; salt
and pepper to taste; a little sherry, if liked; 3 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Lay the ingredients in a covered pan before the fire, and let
them remain there the whole day, stirring occasionally. The next day put
the whole into a stewpan, and place it on a brisk fire. When it
commences to boil, take the pan off the fire, and put it on one side to
simmer until the meat is done. When ready for use, take out the meat,
dish it up with carrots and turnips, and send it to table; strain the
soup, let it cool, skim off all the fat, season and thicken it with a
tablespoonful, or rather more, of arrowroot; flavour with a little
sherry, simmer for 5 minutes, and serve.

_Time_.--15 hours. _Average cost_, including the meat, 1s. 3d. per
quart.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

THE SHEEP.--This animal formed the principal riches of the
patriarchs, in the days of old, and, no doubt, multiplied, until
its species were spread over the greater part of Western Asia;
but at what period it was introduced to Britain is not known. It
is now found in almost every part of the globe, although, as a
domestic animal, it depends almost entirely upon man for its
support. Its value, however, amply repays him for whatever care
and kindness he may bestow upon it; for, like the ox, there is
scarcely a part of it that he cannot convert to some useful
purpose. The fleece, which serves it for a covering, is
appropriated by man, to serve the same end to himself, whilst
its skin is also applied to various purposes in civilized life.
Its entrails are used as strings for musical instruments, and
its bones are calcined, and employed as tests in the trade of
the refiner. Its milk, being thicker than that of the cow,
yields a greater quantity of butter and cheese, and its flesh is
among the most wholesome and nutritive that can be eaten.
Thomson has beautifully described the appearance of the sheep,
when bound to undergo the operation of being shorn of its wool.

"Behold, where bound, and of its robe bereft
By needy man, that all-depending lord,
How meek, how patient, the mild creature lies!
What softness in his melancholy face,
What dumb complaining innocence appears!"

OX-CHEEK SOUP.

176. INGREDIENTS.--An ox-cheek, 2 oz. of butter, 3 or 4 slices of lean
ham or bacon, 1 parsnip, 3 carrots, 2 onions, 3 heads of celery, 3
blades of mace, 4 cloves, a faggot of savoury herbs, 1 bay-leaf, a
teaspoonful of salt, half that of pepper, 1 head of celery, browning,
the crust of a French roll, 6 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Lay the ham in the bottom of the stewpan, with the butter;
break the bones of the cheek, wash it clean, and put it on the ham. Cut
the vegetables small, add them to the other ingredients, and set the
whole over a slow fire for 1/4 of an hour. Now put in the water, and
simmer gently till it is reduced to 4 quarts; take out the fleshy part
of the cheek, and strain the soup into a clean stewpan; thicken with
flour, put in a head of sliced celery, and simmer till the celery is
tender. If not a good colour, use a little browning. Cut the meat into
small square pieces, pour the soup over, and serve with the crust of a
French roll in the tureen. A glass of sherry much improves this soup.

_Time_.--3 to 4 hours. _Average cost_, 8d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 12 persons.

THE OX.--Of the quadrupedal animals, the flesh of those that
feed upon herbs is the most wholesome and nutritious for human
food. In the early ages, the ox was used as a religious
sacrifice, and, in the eyes of the Egyptians was deemed so
sacred as to be worthy of exaltation to represent Taurus, one of
the twelve signs of the zodiac. To this day, the Hindoos
venerate the cow, whose flesh is forbidden to be eaten, and
whose fat, supposed to have been employed to grease the
cartridges of the Indian army, was one of the proximate causes
of the great Sepoy rebellion of 1857. There are no animals of
greater use to man than the tribe to which the ox belongs. There
is hardly a part of them that does not enter into some of the
arts and purposes of civilized life. Of their horns are made
combs, knife-handles, boxes, spoons, and drinking-cups. They are
also made into transparent plates for lanterns; an invention
ascribed, in England, to King Alfred. Glue is made from their
gristles, cartilages, and portions of their hides. Their bones
often form a substitute for ivory; their skins, when calves, are
manufactured into vellum; their blood is the basis of Prussian
blue; their sinews furnish fine and strong threads, used by
saddlers; their hair enters into various manufactures; their
tallow is made into candles; their flesh is eaten, and the
utility of the milk and cream of the cow is well known.

OX-TAIL SOUP.

177. INGREDIENTS.--2 ox-tails, 2 slices of ham, 1 oz. of butter, 2
carrots, 2 turnips, 3 onions, 1 leek, 1 head of celery, 1 bunch of
savoury herbs, 1 bay-leaf, 12 whole peppercorns, 4 cloves, a
tablespoonful of salt, 2 tablespoonfuls of ketchup, 1/2 glass of port
wine, 3 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the tails, separating them at the joints; wash them, and
put them in a stewpan, with the butter. Cut the vegetables in slices,
and add them, with the peppercorns and herbs. Put in 1/2 pint of water,
and stir it over a sharp fire till the juices are drawn. Fill up the
stewpan with the water, and, when boiling, add the salt. Skim well, and
simmer very gently for 4 hours, or until the tails are tender. Take them
out, skim and strain the soup, thicken with flour, and flavour with the
ketchup and port wine. Put back the tails, simmer for 5 minutes, and
serve.

_Time_.--4-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

PARTRIDGE SOUP.

178. INGREDIENTS.--2 partridges, 3 slices of lean ham, 2 shred onions, 1
head of celery, 1 large carrot, and 1 turnip cut into any fanciful
shapes, 1 small lump of sugar, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to
taste, 2 quarts of stock No. 105, or common, No. 106.

_Mode_.--Cut the partridges into pieces, and braise them in the butter
and ham until quite tender; then take out the legs, wings, and breast,
and set them by. Keep the backs and other trimmings in the braise, and
add the onions and celery; any remains of cold game can be put in, and 3
pints of stock. Simmer slowly for 1 hour, strain it, and skim the fat
off as clean as possible; put in the pieces that were taken out, give it
one boil, and skim again to have it quite clear, and add the sugar and
seasoning. Now simmer the cut carrot and turnip in 1 pint of stock; when
quite tender, put them to the partridges, and serve.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 2s. or 1s. 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to February.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--The meat of the partridges may be pounded with the crumb of a
French roll, and worked with the soup through a sieve. Serve with stewed
celery cut in slices, and put in the tureen.

THE PARTRIDGE.--This is a timorous bird, being easily taken. It
became known to the Greeks and Romans, whose tables it helped to
furnish with food. Formerly, the Red was scarce in Italy, but
its place was supplied by the White, which, at considerable
expense, was frequently procured from the Alps. The Athenians
trained this bird for fighting, and Severus used to lighten the
cares of royalty by witnessing the spirit of its combats. The
Greeks esteemed its leg most highly, and rejected the other
portions as unfashionable to be eaten. The Romans, however,
ventured a little further, and ate the breast, whilst we
consider the bird as wholly palatable. It is an inhabitant of
all the temperate countries of Europe, but, on account of the
geniality of the climate, it abounds most in the Ukraine.

PHEASANT SOUP.

179. INGREDIENTS.--2 pheasants, 1/4 lb. of butter, 2 slices of ham, 2
large onions sliced, 1/2 head of celery, the crumb of two French rolls,
the yolks of 2 eggs boiled hard, salt and cayenne to taste, a little
pounded mace, if liked; 3 quarts of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Cut up the pheasants, flour and braise them in the butter and
ham till they are of a nice brown, but not burnt. Put them in a stewpan,
with the onions, celery, and seasoning, and simmer for 2 hours. Strain
the soup; pound the breasts with the crumb of the roll previously
soaked, and the yolks of the eggs; put it to the soup, give one boil,
and serve.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 2s. 10d. per quart, or, if made
with fragments of gold game, 1s.

_Seasonable_ from October to February.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note_.--Fragments, pieces and bones of cold game, may be used to great
advantage in this soup, and then 1 pheasant will suffice.

PORTABLE SOUP.

180. INGREDIENTS.--2 knuckles of veal, 3 shins of beef, 1 large faggot
of herbs, 2 bay-leaves, 2 heads of celery, 3 onions, 3 carrots, 2 blades
of mace, 6 cloves, a teaspoonful of salt, sufficient water to cover all
the ingredients.

_Mode_.--Take the marrow from the bones; put all the ingredients in a
stock-pot, and simmer slowly for 12 hours, or more, if the meat be not
done to rags; strain it off, and put it in a very cool place; take off
all the fat, reduce the liquor in a shallow pan, by setting it over a
sharp fire, but be particular that it does not burn; boil it fast and
uncovered for 8 hours, and keep it stirred. Put it into a deep dish, and
set it by for a day. Have ready a stewpan of boiling water, place the
dish in it, and keep it boiling; stir occasionally, and when the soup is
thick and ropy, it is done. Form it into little cakes by pouring a small
quantity on to the bottom of cups or basins; when cold, turn them out on
a flannel to dry. Keep them from the air in tin canisters.

_Average cost_ of this quantity, 16s.

_Note_.--Soup can be made in 5 minutes with this, by dissolving a small
piece, about the size of a walnut, in a pint of warm water, and
simmering for 2 minutes. Vermicelli, macaroni, or other Italian pastes,
may be added.

THE LAUREL or BAY.--The leaves of this tree frequently enter
into the recipes of cookery; but they ought not to be used
without the greatest caution, and not at all unless the cook is
perfectly aware of their effects. It ought to be known, that
there are two kinds of bay-trees,--the Classic laurel, whose
leaves are comparatively harmless, and the Cherry-laurel, which
is the one whose leaves are employed in cookery. They have a
kernel-like flavour, and are used in blanc-mange, puddings,
custards &c.; but when acted upon by water, they develop prussic
acid, and, therefore, but a small number of the leaves should be
used at a time.

RABBIT SOUP.

181. INGREDIENTS.--2 large rabbits, or 3 small ones; a faggot of savoury
herbs, 1/2 head of celery, 2 carrots, 1 onion, 1 blade of mace, salt and
white pepper to taste, a little pounded mace, 1/2 pint of cream, the
yolks of 2 eggs boiled hard, the crumb of a French roll, nearly 3 quarts
of water.

_Mode_.--Make the soup with the legs and shoulders of the rabbit, and
keep the nice pieces for a dish or _entree_. Put them into warm water,
and draw the blood; when quite clean, put them in a stewpan, with a
faggot of herbs, and a teacupful, or rather more, of veal stock or
water. Simmer slowly till done through, and add the 3 quarts of water,
and boil for an hour. Take out the rabbet, pick the meat from the bones,
covering it up to keep it white; put the bones back in the liquor, add
the vegetables, and simmer for 2 hours; skim and strain, and let it
cool. Now pound the meat in a mortar, with the yolks of the eggs, and
the crumb of the roll previously soaked; rub it through a tammy, and
gradually add it to the strained liquor, and simmer for 15 minutes. Mix
arrowroot or rice-flour with the cream (say 2 dessert-spoonfuls), and
stir in the soup; bring it to a boil, and serve. This soup must be very
white, and instead of thickening it with arrowroot or rice-flour,
vermicelli or pearl barley can be boiled in a little stock, and put in 5
minutes before serving.

_Time_.--Nearly 4 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

REGENCY SOUP.

182. Ingredients.--Any bones and remains of any cold game, such as of
pheasants, partridges, &c.; 2 carrots, 2 small onions, 1 head of celery,
1 turnip, 1/4 lb. of pearl barley, the yolks of 3 eggs boiled hard, 1/4
pint of cream, salt to taste, 2 quarts of stock No. 105, or common
stock, No. 106.

_Mode_.--Place the bones or remains of game in the stewpan, with the
vegetables sliced; pour over the stock, and simmer for 2 hours; skim off
all the fat, and strain it. Wash the barley, and boil it in 2 or 3
waters before putting it to the soup; finish simmering in the soup, and
when the barley is done, take out half, and pound the other half with
the yolks of the eggs. When you have finished pounding, rub it through a
clean tammy, add the cream, and salt if necessary; give one boil, and
serve very hot, putting in the barley that was taken out first.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart, if made with medium
stock, or 6d. per quart, with common stock.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

SOUP A LA REINE.

I.

183. INGREDIENTS.--1 large fowl, 1 oz. of sweet almonds, the crumb of 1
1/2 French roll, 1/2 pint of cream, salt to taste, 1 small lump of
sugar, 2 quarts of good white veal stock, No. 107.

_Mode_.--Boil the fowl gently in the stock till quite tender, which will
be in about an hour, or rather more; take out the fowl, pull the meat
from the bones, and put it into a mortar with the almonds, and pound
very fine. When beaten enough, put the meat back in the stock, with the
crumb of the rolls, and let it simmer for an hour; rub it through a
tammy, add the sugar, 1/2 pint of cream that has boiled, and, if you
prefer, cut the crust of the roll into small round pieces, and pour the
soup over it, when you serve.

_Time_.--2 hours, or rather more. _Average cost_, 2s. 7d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--All white soups should be warmed in a vessel placed in another
of boiling water. (_See_ BAIN MARIE, No. 87.)

II. (Economical.)

184. INGREDIENTS.--Any remains of roast chickens, 1/2 teacupful of rice,
salt and pepper to taste, 1 quart of stock No. 106.

_Mode_.--Take all the white meat and pound it with the rice, which has
been slightly cooked, but not much. When it is all well pounded, dilute
with the stock, and pass through a sieve. This soup should neither be
too clear nor too thick.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Note_.--If stock is not at hand, put the chicken-bones in water, with
an onion, carrot, a few sweet herbs, a blade of mace, pepper and salt,
and stew for 3 hours.

STEW SOUP OF SALT MEAT.

185. INGREDIENTS.--Any pieces of salt beef or pork, say 2 lbs.; 4
carrots, 4 parsnips, 4 turnips, 4 potatoes, 1 cabbage, 2 oz. of oatmeal
or ground rice, seasoning of salt and pepper, 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the meat small, add the water, and let it simmer for
23/4 hours. Now add the vegetables, cut in thin small slices; season,
and boil for 1 hour. Thicken with the oatmeal, and serve.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 3d. per quart without the meat.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Note_.--If rice is used instead of oatmeal, put it in with the
vegetables.

STEW SOUP.

I.

186. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of beef, 5 onions, 5 turnips, 3/4 lb. of
_rice_, a large bunch of parsley, a few sweet herbs, pepper and salt, 2
quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut the beef up in small pieces, add the other ingredients, and
boil gently for 21/2 hours. Oatmeal or potatoes would be a great
improvement.

_Time_.-21/2 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

II.

187. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of beef, mutton, or pork; 1/2 pint of split
peas, 4 turnips, 8 potatoes, 2 onions, 2 oz. of oatmeal or 3 oz. of
rice, 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut the meat in small pieces, as also the vegetables, and add
them, with the peas, to the water. Boil gently for 3 hours; thicken with
the oatmeal, boil for another 1/4 hour, stirring all the time, and
season with pepper and salt.

_Time_.--3-1/4 hours. _Average cost_, 4d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--This soup may be made of the liquor in which tripe has been
boiled, by adding vegetables, seasoning, rice, &c.

TURKEY SOUP (a Seasonable Dish at Christmas).

188. INGREDIENTS.--2 quarts of medium stock, No. 105, the remains of a
cold roast turkey, 2 oz. of rice-flour or arrowroot, salt and pepper to
taste, 1 tablespoonful of Harvey's sauce or mushroom ketchup.

_Mode_.--Cut up the turkey in small pieces, and put it in the stock; let
it simmer slowly until the bones are quite clean. Take the bones out,
and work the soup through a sieve; when cool, skim well. Mix the
rice-flour or arrowroot to a batter with a little of the soup; add it
with the seasoning and sauce, or ketchup. Give one boil, and serve.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 10d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ at Christmas.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--Instead of thickening this soup, vermicelli or macaroni may be
served in it.

THE TURKEY.--The common turkey is a native of North America, and
was thence introduced to England, in the reign of Henry VIII.
According to Tusser's "Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry,"
about the year 1585 it begun to form a dish at our rural
Christmas feasts.

"Beef, mutton, and pork, shred pies of the best,
Pig, veal, goose, and capon, and turkey well dress'd,
Cheese, apples, and nuts, jolly carols to hear,
As then in the country is counted good cheer."

It is one of the most difficult birds to rear, of any that we
have; yet, in its wild state, is found in great abundance in the
forests of Canada, where, it might have been imagined that the
severity of the climate would be unfavourable to its ever
becoming plentiful. They are very fond of the seeds of nettles,
and the seeds of the foxglove poison them.

TURTLE SOUP (founded on M. Ude's Recipe).

189. INGREDIENTS.--A turtle, 6 slices of ham, 2 knuckles of veal, 1
large bunch of sweet herbs, 3 bay-leaves, parsley, green onions, 1
onion, 6 cloves, 4 blades of mace, 1/4 lb. of fresh butter, 1 bottle of
Madeira, 1 lump of sugar. For the _Quenelles a Tortue_, 1 lb. of veal, 1
lb. of bread crumbs, milk, 7 eggs, cayenne, salt, spices, chopped
parsley, the juice of 2 lemons.

_Mode_.--To make this soup with less difficulty, cut off the head of the
turtle the preceding day. In the morning open the turtle by leaning
heavily with a knife on the shell of the animal's back, whilst you cut
this off all round. Turn it upright on its end, that all the water, &c.
may run out, when the flesh should be cut off along the spine, with the
knife sloping towards the bones, for fear of touching the gall, which
sometimes might escape the eye. When all the flesh about the members is
obtained, wash these clean, and let them drain. Have ready, on the fire,
a large vessel full of boiling water, into which put the shells; and
when you perceive that they come easily off, take them out of the water,
and prick them all, with those of the back, belly, fins, head, &c. Boil
the back and belly till the bones can be taken off, without, however,
allowing the softer parts to be sufficiently done, as they will be
boiled again in the soup. When these latter come off easily, lay them on
earthen dishes singly, for fear they should stick together, and put them
to cool. Keep the liquor in which you have blanched the softer parts,
and let the bones stew thoroughly in it, as this liquor must be used to
moisten all the sauces.

All the flesh of the interior parts, the four legs and head, must be
drawn down in the following manner:--Lay the slices of ham on the bottom
of a very large stewpan, over them the knuckles of veal, according to
the size of the turtle; then the inside flesh of the turtle, and over
the whole the members. Now moisten with the water in which you are
boiling the shell, and draw it down thoroughly. It may now be
ascertained if it be thoroughly done by thrusting a knife into the
fleshy part of the meat. If no blood appears, it is time to moisten it
again with the liquor in which the bones, &c. have been boiling. Put in
a large bunch of all such sweet herbs as are used in the cooking of a
turtle,--sweet basil, sweet marjoram, lemon thyme, winter savory, 2 or 3
bay-leaves, common thyme, a handful of parsley and green onions, and a
large onion stuck with 6 cloves. Let the whole be thoroughly done. With
respect to the members, probe them, to see whether they are done, and if
so, drain and send them to the larder, as they are to make their
appearance only when the soup is absolutely completed. When the flesh is
also completely done, strain it through a silk sieve, and make a very
thin white _roux;_ for turtle soup must not be much thickened. When the
flour is sufficiently done on a slow fire, and has a good colour,
moisten it with the liquor, keeping it over the fire till it boils.
Ascertain that the sauce is neither too thick nor too thin; then draw
the stewpan on the side of the stove, to skim off the white scum, and
all the fat and oil that rise to the surface of the sauce. By this time
all the softer parts will be sufficiently cold; when they must be cut to
about the size of one or two inches square, and thrown into the soup,
which must now be left to simmer gently. When done, skim off all the fat
and froth. Take all the leaves of the herbs from the stock,--sweet
basil, sweet marjoram, lemon thyme, winter savory, 2 or 3 bay-leaves,
common thyme, a handful of parsley and green onions, and a large onion
cut in four pieces, with a few blades of mace. Put these in a stewpan,
with about 1/4 lb. of fresh butter, and let it simmer on a slow fire
till quite melted, when pour in 1 bottle of good Madeira, adding a small
bit of sugar, and let it boil gently for 1 hour. When done, rub it
through a tammy, and add it to the soup. Let this boil, till no white
scum rises; then take with a skimmer all the bits of turtle out of the
sauce, and put them in a clean stewpan: when you have all out, pour the
soup over the bits of turtle, through a tammy, and proceed as follows:--

QUENELLES A TORTUE.--Make some _quenelles a tortue_, which being
substitutes for eggs, do not require to be very delicate. Take out the
fleshy part of a leg of veal, about 1 lb., scrape off all the meat,
without leaving any sinews or fat, and soak in milk about the same
quantity of crumbs of bread. When the bread is well soaked, squeeze it,
and put it into a mortar, with the veal, a small quantity of calf's
udder, a little butter, the yolks of 4 eggs, boiled hard, a little
cayenne pepper, salt, and spices, and pound the whole very fine; then
thicken the mixture with 2 whole eggs, and the yolk of another. Next try
this _farce_ or stuffing in boiling-hot water, to ascertain its
consistency: if it is too thin, add the yolk of an egg. When the _farce_
is perfected, take half of it, and put into it some chopped parsley. Let
the whole cool, in order to roll it of the size of the yolk of an egg;
poach it in salt and boiling water, and when very hard, drain on a
sieve, and put it into the turtle. Before you send up, squeeze the juice
of 2 or 3 lemons, with a little cayenne pepper, and pour that into the
soup. THE FINS may be served as a _plat d'entree_ with a little turtle
sauce; if not, on the following day you may warm the turtle _au bain
marie_, and serve the members entire, with a _matelote_ sauce, garnished
with mushrooms, cocks' combs, _quenelles_, &c. When either lemon-juice
or cayenne pepper has been introduced, no boiling must take place.

_Note_.--It is necessary to observe, that the turtle prepared a day
before it is used, is generally preferable, the flavour being more
uniform. Be particular, when you dress a very large turtle, to preserve
the green fat (be cautious not to study a very brown colour,--the
natural green of the fish is preferred by every epicure and true
connoisseur) in a separate stewpan, and likewise when the turtle is
entirely done, to have as many tureens as you mean to serve each time.
You cannot put the whole in a large vessel, for many reasons: first, it
will be long in cooling; secondly, when you take some out, it will break
all the rest into rags. If you warm in a _bain marie_, the turtle will
always retain the same taste; but if you boil it often, it becomes

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