Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Books, poems, drama…

The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

Part 4 out of 34

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 3.7 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

1 Tea-kettle 6 6
1 Toasting-fork 1 0
1 Bread-grater 1 0
1 Pair of Brass Candlesticks 3 6
1 Teapot and Tray 6 6
1 Bottle-jack 9 6
6 Spoons 1 6
2 Candlesticks 2 6
1 Candle-box 1 4
6 Knives and Forks 5 3
2 Sets of Skewers 1 0
1 Meat-chopper 1 9
1 Cinder-sifter 1 3
1 Coffee-pot 2 3
1 Colander 1 6
3 Block-tin Saucepans 5 9
5 Iron Saucepans 12 0
1 Ditto and Steamer 6 6
1 Large Boiling-pot 10 0
4 Iron Stewpans 8 9
1 Dripping-pan and Stand 6 6
1 Dustpan 1 0
1 Fish and Egg-slice 1 9
2 Fish-kettles 10 0
1 Flour-box 1 0
3 Flat-irons 3 6
2 Frying-pans 4 0
1 Gridiron 2 0
1 Mustard-pot 1 0
1 Salt-cellar 0 8
1 Pepper-box 0 6
1 Pair of Bellows 2 0
3 Jelly-moulds 8 0
1 Plate-basket 5 6
1 Cheese-toaster 1 10
1 Coal-shovel 2 6
1 Wood Meat-screen 30 0

The Set L8 11 1

72. AS NOT ONLY HEALTH BUT LIFE may be said to depend on the cleanliness
of culinary utensils, great attention must be paid to their condition
generally, but more especially to that of the saucepans, stewpans, and
boilers. Inside they should be kept perfectly clean, and where an open
fire is used, the outside as clean as possible. With a Leamington range,
saucepans, stewpans, &c., can be kept entirely free from smoke and soot
on the outside, which is an immense saving of labour to the cook or
scullery-maid. Care should be taken that the lids fit tight and close,
so that soups or gravies may not be suffered to waste by evaporation.
They should be made to keep the steam in and the smoke out, and should
always be bright on the upper rim, where they do not immediately come in
contact with the fire. Soup-pots and kettles should be washed
immediately After being used, and dried before the fire, and they should
be kept in a dry place, in order that they may escape the deteriorating
influence of rust, and, thereby, be destroyed. Copper utensils should
never be used in the kitchen unless tinned, and the utmost care should
be taken, not to let the tin be rubbed off. If by chance this should
occur, have it replaced before the vessel is again brought into use.
Neither soup nor gravy should, at any time, be suffered to remain in
them longer than is absolutely necessary, as any fat or acid that is in
them, may affect the metal, so as to impregnate with poison what is
intended to be eaten. Stone and earthenware vessels should be provided
for soups and gravies not intended for immediate use, and, also, plenty
of common dishes for the larder, that the table-set may not be used for
such purposes. It is the nature of vegetables soon to turn sour, when
they are apt to corrode glazed red-ware, and even metals, and
frequently, thereby, to become impregnated with poisonous particles. The
vinegar also in pickles, by its acidity, does the same. Consideration,
therefore, should be given to these facts, and great care also taken
that all _sieves, jelly-bags,_ and tapes for collared articles, be well
scalded and kept dry, or they will impart an unpleasant flavour when
next used. To all these directions the cook should pay great attention,
nor should they, by any means, be neglected by the _mistress of the
household_, who ought to remember that cleanliness in the kitchen gives
health and happiness to home, whilst economy will immeasurably assist in
preserving them.

73. WITHOUT FUEL, A KITCHEN might be pronounced to be of little use;
therefore, to discover and invent materials for supplying us with the
means of domestic heat and comfort, has exercised the ingenuity of man.
Those now known have been divided into five classes; the first
comprehending the fluid inflammable bodies; the second, peat or turf;
the third, charcoal of wood; the fourth, pit-coal charred; and the
fifth, wood or pit-coal in a crude state, with the capacity of yielding
a copious and bright flame. The first may be said seldom to be employed
for the purposes of cookery; but _peat_, especially amongst rural
populations, has, in all ages, been regarded as an excellent fuel. It is
one of the most important productions of an alluvial soil, and belongs
to the vegetable rather than the mineral kingdom. It may be described as
composed of wet, spongy black earth, held together by decayed
vegetables. Formerly it covered extensive tracts in England, but has
greatly disappeared before the genius of agricultural improvement.
_Charcoal_ is a kind of artificial coal, used principally where a strong
and clear fire is desired. It is a black, brittle, insoluble, inodorous,
tasteless substance, and, when newly-made, possesses the remarkable
property of absorbing certain quantities of the different gases. Its
dust, when used as a polishing powder, gives great brilliancy to metals.
It consists of wood half-burned, and is manufactured by cutting pieces
of timber into nearly the same size, then disposing them in heaps, and
covering them with earth, so as to prevent communication with the air,
except when necessary to make them burn. When they have been
sufficiently charred, the fire is extinguished by stopping the vents
through which the air is admitted. Of _coal_ there are various species;
as, pit, culm, slate, cannel, Kilkenny, sulphurous, bovey, jet, &c.
These have all their specific differences, and are employed for various
purposes; but are all, more or less, used as fuel.

The use of coal for burning purposes was not known to the
Romans. In Britain it was discovered about fifty years before
the birth of Christ, in Lancashire, not tar from where
Manchester now stands; but for ages after its discovery, so long
as forests abounded, wood continued to be the fuel used for
firing. The first public notice of coal is in the reign of Henry
III., who, in 1272, granted a charter to the town of Newcastle,
permitting the inhabitants to dig for coal. It took some
centuries more, however, to bring it into common use, as this
did not take place till about the first quarter of the
seventeenth century, in the time of Charles I. A few years after
the Restoration, we find that about 200,000 chaldrons were
consumed in London. Although several countries possess mines of
coal, the quality of their mineral is, in general, greatly
inferior to that of Great Britain, where it is found mostly in
undulating districts abounding with valleys, and interspersed
with plains of considerable extent. It lies usually between the
_strata_ of other substances, and rarely in an horizontal
position, but with a _dip_ or inclination to one side. Our cut,
Fig. 21, represents a section of coal as it is found in the
stratum.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 21.]

74. TO BE ACQUAINTED WITH THE PERIODS when things are in season, is one
of the most essential pieces of knowledge which enter into the "Art of
Cookery." We have, therefore, compiled the following list, which will
serve to show for every month in the year the

TIMES WHEN THINGS ARE IN SEASON.

JANUARY.

FISH.--Barbel, brill, carp, cod, crabs, crayfish, dace, eels, flounders,
haddocks, herrings, lampreys, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike,
plaice, prawns, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, tench,
thornback, turbot, whitings.

MEAT.--Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal, venison.

POULTRY.--Capons, fowls, tame pigeons, pullets, rabbits, turkeys.

GAME.--Grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipe, wild-fowl, woodcock.

VEGETABLES.--Beetroot, broccoli, cabbages, carrots, celery, chervil,
cresses, cucumbers (forced), endive, lettuces, parsnips, potatoes,
savoys, spinach, turnips,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apples, grapes, medlars, nuts, oranges, pears, walnuts,
crystallized preserves (foreign), dried fruits, such as almonds and
raisins; French and Spanish plums; prunes, figs, dates.

FEBRUARY.

FISH.--Barbel, brill, carp, cod may be bought, but is not so good as in
January, crabs, crayfish, dace, eels, flounders, haddocks, herrings,
lampreys, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prawns,
shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, tench, thornback,
turbot, whiting.

MEAT.--Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal.

POULTRY.--Capons, chickens, ducklings, tame and wild pigeons, pullets
with eggs, turkeys, wild-fowl, though now not in full season.

GAME.--Grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcock.

VEGETABLES.--Beetroot, broccoli (purple and white), Brussels sprouts,
cabbages, carrots, celery, chervil, cresses, cucumbers (forced), endive,
kidney-beans, lettuces, parsnips, potatoes, savoys, spinach,
turnips,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apples (golden and Dutch pippins), grapes, medlars, nuts,
oranges, pears (Bon Chretien), walnuts, dried fruits (foreign), such as
almonds and raisins; French and Spanish plums; prunes, figs, dates,
crystallized preserves.

MARCH.

FISH.--Barbel, brill, carp, crabs, crayfish, dace, eels, flounders,
haddocks, herrings, lampreys, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike,
plaice, prawns, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, tench,
thornback, turbot, whiting.

MEAT.--Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal.

POULTRY.--Capons, chickens, ducklings, tame and wild pigeons, pullets
with eggs, turkeys, wild-fowl, though now not in full season.

GAME.--Grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcock.

VEGETABLES.--Beetroot, broccoli (purple and white), Brussels sprouts,
cabbages, carrots, celery, chervil, cresses, cucumbers (forced), endive,
kidney-beans, lettuces, parsnips, potatoes, savoys, sea-kale, spinach,
turnips,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apples (golden and Dutch pippins), grapes, medlars, nuts,
oranges, pears (Bon Chretien), walnuts, dried fruits (foreign), such as
almonds and raisins; French and Spanish plums; prunes, figs, dates,
crystallized preserves.

APRIL.

FISH.--Brill, carp, cockles, crabs, dory, flounders, ling, lobsters, red
and gray mullet, mussels, oysters, perch, prawns, salmon (but rather
scarce and expensive), shad, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, tench,
turbot, whitings.

MEAT.--Beef, lamb, mutton, veal.

POULTRY.--Chickens, ducklings, fowls, leverets, pigeons, pullets,
rabbits.

GAME.--Hares.

VEGETABLES.--Broccoli, celery, lettuces, young onions, parsnips,
radishes, small salad, sea-kale, spinach, sprouts,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apples, nuts, pears, forced cherries, &e. for tarts, rhubarb,
dried fruits, crystallized preserves.

MAY.

FISH.--Carp, chub, crabs, crayfish, dory, herrings, lobsters, mackerel,
red and gray mullet, prawns, salmon, shad, smelts, soles, trout, turbot.

MEAT.--Beef, lamb, mutton, veal.

POULTRY.--Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, leverets, pullets,
rabbits_.

VEGETABLES.--_Asparagus, beans, early cabbages, carrots, cauliflowers,
creases, cucumbers, lettuces, pease, early potatoes, salads,
sea-kale,--various herbs_.

FRUIT.--_Apples, green apricots, cherries, currants for tarts,
gooseberries, melons, pears, rhubarb, strawberries_.

JUNE.

FISH.--Carp, crayfish, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, pike,
prawns, salmon, soles, tench, trout, turbot.

MEAT.--Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.

POULTRY.--Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, leverets, plovers,
pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wheatears.

VEGETABLES.--Artichokes, asparagus, beans, cabbages, carrots, cucumbers,
lettuces, onions, parsnips, pease, potatoes, radishes, small salads,
sea-kale, spinach,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apricots, cherries, currants, gooseberries, melons, nectarines,
peaches, pears, pineapples, raspberries, rhubarb, strawberries.

JULY.

FISH.--Carp, crayfish, dory, flounders, haddocks, herrings, lobsters,
mackerel, mullet, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, shrimps, soles,
sturgeon, tench, thornback.

MEAT.--Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.

POULTRY.--Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, leverets, plovers,
pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wheatears, wild ducks (called
flappers).

VEGETABLES.--Artichokes, asparagus, beans, cabbages, carrots,
cauliflowers, celery, cresses, endive, lettuces, mushrooms, onions,
pease, radishes, small salading, sea-kale, sprouts, turnips, vegetable
marrow,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apricots, cherries, currants, figs, gooseberries, melons,
nectarines, pears, pineapples, plums, raspberries, strawberries, walnuts
in high season, and pickled.

AUGUST.

FISH.--Brill, carp, chub, crayfish, crabs, dory, eels, flounders, grigs,
herrings, lobsters, mullet, pike, prawns, salmon, shrimps, skate, soles,
sturgeon, thornback, trout, turbot.

MEAT.--Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.

POULTRY.--Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, pigeons, plovers,
pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wheatears, wild ducks.

GAME.--Leverets, grouse, blackcock.

VEGETABLES.--Artichokes, asparagus, beans, carrots, cabbages,
cauliflowers, celery, cresses, endive, lettuces, mushrooms, onions,
pease, potatoes, radishes, sea-bale, small salading, sprouts, turnips,
various kitchen herbs, vegetable marrows.

FRUIT.--Currants, figs, filberts, gooseberries, grapes, melons,
mulberries, nectarines, peaches, pears, pineapples, plums, raspberries,
walnuts.

SEPTEMBER.

FISH.--Brill, carp, cod, eels, flounders, lobsters, mullet, oysters,
plaice, prawns, skate, soles, turbot, whiting, whitebait.

MEAT.--Beef, lamb, mutton, pork, veal.

POULTRY.--Chickens, ducks, fowls, geese, larks, pigeons, pullets,
rabbits, teal, turkeys.

GAME.--Blackcock, buck venison, grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants.

VEGETABLES.--Artichokes, asparagus, beans, cabbage sprouts, carrots,
celery, lettuces, mushrooms, onions, pease, potatoes, salading,
sea-kale, sprouts, tomatoes, turnips, vegetable marrows,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Bullaces, damsons, figs, filberts, grapes, melons,
morella-cherries, mulberries, nectarines, peaches, pears, plums,
quinces, walnuts.

OCTOBER.

FISH.--Barbel, brill, cod, crabs, eels, flounders, gudgeons, haddocks,
lobsters, mullet, oysters, plaice, prawns, skate, soles, tench, turbot,
whiting.

MEAT.--Beef, mutton, pork, veal, venison.

POULTRY.--Chickens, fowls, geese, larks, pigeons, pullets, rabbits,
teal, turkeys, widgeons, wild ducks.

GAME.--Blackcock, grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes,
woodcocks, doe venison.

VEGETABLES.--Artichokes, beets, cabbages, cauliflowers, carrots, celery,
lettuces, mushrooms, onions, potatoes, sprouts, tomatoes, turnips,
vegetable marrows,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apples, black and white bullaces, damsons, figs, filberts,
grapes, pears, quinces, walnuts.

NOVEMBER.

FISH.--Brill, carp, cod, crabs, eels, gudgeons, haddocks, oysters, pike,
soles, tench, turbot, whiting.

MEAT.--Beef, mutton, veal, doe venison.

POULTRY.--Chickens, fowls, geese, larks, pigeons, pullets, rabbits,
teal, turkeys, widgeons, wild duck.

GAME.--Hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcocks.

VEGETABLES.--Beetroot, cabbages, carrots, celery, lettuces, late
cucumbers, onions, potatoes, salading, spinach, sprouts,--various herbs.

FRUIT.--Apples, bullaces, chestnuts, filberts, grapes, pears, walnuts.

DECEMBER.

FISH.--Barbel, brill, carp, cod, crabs, eels, dace, gudgeons, haddocks,
herrings, lobsters, oysters, porch, pike, shrimps, skate, sprats, soles,
tench, thornback, turbot, whiting.

MEAT.--Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, venison.

POULTRY.--Capons, chickens, fowls, geese, pigeons, pullets, rabbits,
teal, turkeys, widgeons, wild ducks.

GAME.--Hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcocks.

VEGETABLES.--Broccoli, cabbages, carrots, celery, leeks, onions,
potatoes, parsnips, Scotch kale, turnips, winter spinach.

FRUIT.--Apples, chestnuts, filberts, grapes, medlars, oranges, pears,
walnuts, dried fruits, such as almonds and raisins, figs, dates,
&c.,--crystallized preserves.

75. WHEN FUEL AND FOOD ARE PROCURED, the next consideration is, how the
latter may be best preserved, with a view to its being suitably dressed.
More waste is often occasioned by the want of judgment, or of necessary
care in this particular, than by any other cause. In the absence of
proper places for keeping provisions, a hanging safe, suspended in an
airy situation, is the best substitute. A well-ventilated larder, dry
and shady, is better for meat and poultry, which require to be kept for
some time; and the utmost skill in the culinary art will not compensate
for the want of proper attention to this particular. Though it is
advisable that annual food should be hung up in the open air till its
fibres have lost some degree of their toughness, yet, if it is kept till
it loses its natural sweetness, its flavour has become deteriorated,
and, as a wholesome comestible, it has lost many of its qualities
conducive to health. As soon, therefore, as the slightest trace of
putrescence is detected, it has reached its highest degree of
tenderness, and should be dressed immediately. During the sultry summer
months, it is difficult to procure meat that is not either tough or
tainted. It should, therefore, be well examined when it comes in, and if
flies have touched it, the part must be cut off, and the remainder well
washed. In very cold weather, meat and vegetables touched by the frost,
should be brought into the kitchen early in the morning, and soaked in
cold water. In loins of meat, the long pipe that runs by the bone should
be taken out, as it is apt to taint; as also the kernels of beef. Rumps
and edgebones of beef, when bruised, should not be purchased. All these
things ought to enter into the consideration of every household manager,
and great care should be taken that nothing is thrown away, or suffered
to be wasted in the kitchen, which might, by proper management, be
turned to a good account. The shank-bones of mutton, so little esteemed
in general, give richness to soups or gravies, if well soaked and
brushed before they are added to the boiling. They are also particularly
nourishing for sick persons. Roast-beef bones, or shank-bones of ham,
make excellent stock for pea-soup.--When the whites of eggs are used for
jelly, confectionary, or other purposes, a pudding or a custard should
be made, that the yolks may be used. All things likely to be wanted
should be in readiness: sugars of different sorts; currants washed,
picked, and perfectly dry; spices pounded, and kept in very small
bottles closely corked, or in canisters, as we have already directed
(72). Not more of these should be purchased at a time than are likely to
be used in the course of a month. Much waste is always prevented by
keeping every article in the place best suited to it. Vegetables keep
best on a stone floor, if the air be excluded; meat, in a cold dry
place; as also salt, sugar, sweet-meats, candles, dried meats, and hams.
Rice, and all sorts of seed for puddings, should be closely covered to
preserve them from insects; but even this will not prevent them from
being affected by these destroyers, if they are long and carelessly
kept.

[Illustration]

CHAPTER IV.

INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY.

76. AS IN THE FINE ARTS, the progress of mankind from barbarism to
civilization is marked by a gradual succession of triumphs over the rude
materialities of nature, so in the art of cookery is the progress
gradual from the earliest and simplest modes, to those of the most
complicated and refined. Plain or rudely-carved stones, tumuli, or
mounds of earth, are the monuments by which barbarous tribes denote the
events of their history, to be succeeded, only in the long course of a
series of ages, by beautifully-proportioned columns, gracefully-sculptured
statues, triumphal arches, coins, medals, and the higher efforts of the
pencil and the pen, as man advances by culture and observation to the
perfection of his facilities. So is it with the art of cookery. Man,
in his primitive state, lives upon roots and the fruits of the earth,
until, by degrees, he is driven to seek for new means, by which his
wants may be supplied and enlarged. He then becomes a hunter and a
fisher. As his species increases, greater necessities come upon him,
when he gradually abandons the roving life of the savage for the more
stationary pursuits of the herdsman. These beget still more settled
habits, when he begins the practice of agriculture, forms ideas of the
rights of property, and has his own, both defined and secured. The
forest, the stream, and the sea are now no longer his only resources for
food. He sows and he reaps, pastures and breeds cattle, lives on the
cultivated produce of his fields, and revels in the luxuries of the
dairy; raises flocks for clothing, and assumes, to all intents and
purposes, the habits of permanent life and the comfortable condition of
a farmer. This is the fourth stage of social progress, up to which the
useful or mechanical arts have been incidentally developing themselves,
when trade and commerce begin. Through these various phases, _only to
live_ has been the great object of mankind; but, by-and-by, comforts are
multiplied, and accumulating riches create new wants. The object, then,
is not only to _live_, but to live economically, agreeably, tastefully,
and well. Accordingly, the art of cookery commences; and although the
fruits of the earth, the fowls of the air, the beasts of the field, and
the fish of the sea, are still the only food of mankind, yet these are
so prepared, improved, and dressed by skill and ingenuity, that they are
the means of immeasurably extending the boundaries of human enjoyments.
Everything that is edible, and passes under the hands of the cook, is
more or less changed, and assumes new forms. Hence the influence of that
functionary is immense upon the happiness of a household.

77. In order that the duties of the Cook may be properly performed, and
that he may be able to reproduce esteemed dishes with certainty, all
terms of indecision should be banished from his art. Accordingly, what
is known only to him, will, in these pages, be made known to others. In
them all those indecisive terms expressed by a bit of this, some of
that, a small piece of that, and a handful of the other, shall never be
made use of, but all quantities be precisely and explicitly stated. With
a desire, also, that all ignorance on this most essential part of the
culinary art should disappear, and that a uniform system of weights and
measures should be adopted, we give an account of the weights which
answer to certain measures.

A TABLE-SPOONFUL is frequently mentioned in a recipe, in the
prescriptions of medical men, and also in medical, chemical, and
gastronomical works. By it is generally meant and understood a measure
or bulk equal to that which would be produced by _half an ounce_ of
water.

A DESSERT-SPOONFUL is the half of a table-spoonful; that is to say, by
it is meant a measure or bulk equal to a _quarter of an ounce_ of water.

A TEA-SPOONFUL is equal in quantity to a _drachm_ of water.

A DROP.--This is the name of a vague kind of measure, and is so called
on account of the liquid being _dropped_ from the mouth of a bottle. Its
quantity, however, will vary, either from the consistency of the liquid
or the size and shape of the mouth of the bottle. The College of
Physicians determined the quantity of a drop to be _one grain_, 60 drops
making one fluid drachm. Their drop, or sixtieth part of a fluid drachm,
is called a _minim_.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 22.]

Graduated class measures can be obtained at any chemist's, and
they save much trouble. One of these, containing a wine pint, is
divided into 16 oz., and the oz, into 8 drachms of water; by
which, any certain weight mentioned in a recipe can be
accurately measured out. Home-made measures of this kind can
readily be formed by weighing the water contained in any given
measure, and marking on any tall glass the space it occupies.
This mark can easily be made with a file. It will be interesting
to many readers to know the basis on which the French found
their system of weights and measures, for it certainly possesses
the grandeur of simplicity. The metre, which is the basis of the
whole system of French weights and measures, is the exact
measurement of one forty-millionth part of a meridian of the
earth.

78. EXCELLENCE IN THE ART OF COOKERY, as in all other things, is only
attainable by practice and experience. In proportion, therefore, to the
opportunities which a cook has had of these, so will be his excellence
in the art. It is in the large establishments of princes, noblemen, and
very affluent families alone, that the man cook is found in this
country. He, also, superintends the kitchens of large hotels, clubs, and
public institutions, where he, usually, makes out the bills of fare,
which are generally submitted to the principal for approval. To be able
to do this, therefore, it is absolutely necessary that he should be a
judge of the season of every dish, as well as know perfectly the state
of every article he undertakes to prepare. He must also be a judge of
every article he buys; for no skill, however great it may be, will
enable him to, make that good which is really bad. On him rests the
responsibility of the cooking generally, whilst a speciality of his
department, is to prepare the rich soups, stews, ragouts, and such
dishes as enter into the more refined and complicated portions of his
art, and such as are not usually understood by ordinary professors. He,
therefore, holds a high position in a household, being inferior in rank,
as already shown (21), only to the house steward, the valet, and the
butler.

In the luxurious ages of Grecian antiquity, Sicilian cooks were
the most esteemed, and received high rewards for their services.
Among them, one called Trimalcio was such an adept in his art,
that he could impart to common fish both the form and flavour of
the most esteemed of the piscatory tribes. A chief cook in the
palmy days of Roman voluptuousness had about L800 a year, and
Antony rewarded the one that cooked the supper which pleased
Cleopatra, with the present of a city. With the fall of the
empire, the culinary art sank into less consideration. In the
middle ages, cooks laboured to acquire a reputation for their
sauces, which they composed of strange combinations, for the
sake of novelty, as well as singularity.

79. THE DUTIES OF THE COOK, THE KITCHEN AND THE SCULLERY MAIDS, are so
intimately associated, that they can hardly be treated of separately.
The cook, however, is at the head of the kitchen; and in proportion to
her possession of the qualities of cleanliness, neatness, order,
regularity, and celerity of action, so will her influence appear in the
conduct of those who are under her; as it is upon her that the whole
responsibility of the business of the kitchen rests, whilst the others
must lend her, both a ready and a willing assistance, and be especially
tidy in their appearance, and active, in their movements.

In the larger establishments of the middle ages, cooks, with the
authority of feudal chiefs, gave their orders from a high chair
in which they ensconced themselves, and commanded a view of all
that was going on throughout their several domains. Each held a
long wooden spoon, with which he tasted, without leaving his
seat, the various comestibles that were cooking on the stoves,
and which he frequently used as a rod of punishment on the backs
of those whose idleness and gluttony too largely predominated
over their diligence and temperance.

80. IF, AS WE HAVE SAID (3), THE QUALITY OF EARLY RISING be of the first
importance to the mistress, what must it be to the servant! Let it,
therefore, be taken as a long-proved truism, that without it, in every
domestic, the effect of all things else, so far as _work_ is concerned,
may, in a great measure, be neutralized. In a cook, this quality is most
essential; for an hour lost in the morning, will keep her toiling,
absolutely toiling, all day, to overtake that which might otherwise have
been achieved with ease. In large establishments, six is a good hour to
rise in the summer, and seven in the winter.

81. HER FIRST DUTY, in large establishments and where it is requisite,
should be to set her dough for the breakfast rolls, provided this has
not been done on the previous night, and then to engage herself with
those numerous little preliminary occupations which may not
inappropriately be termed laying out her duties for the day. This will
bring in the breakfast hour of eight, after which, directions must be
given, and preparations made, for the different dinners of the household
and family.

82. IN THOSE NUMEROUS HOUSEHOLDS where a cook and housemaid are only
kept, the general custom is, that the cook should have the charge of the
dining-room. The hall, the lamps and the doorstep are also committed to
her care, and any other work there may be on the outside of the house.
In establishments of this kind, the cook will, after having lighted her
kitchen fire, carefully brushed the range, and cleaned the hearth,
proceed to prepare for breakfast. She will thoroughly rinse the kettle,
and, filling it with fresh water, will put it on the fire to boil. She
will then go to the breakfast-room, or parlour, and there make all
things ready for the breakfast of the family. Her attention will next be
directed to the hall, which she will sweep and wipe; the kitchen stairs,
if there be any, will now be swept; and the hall mats, which have been
removed and shaken, will be again put in their places.

The cleaning of the kitchen, pantry, passages, and kitchen
stairs must always be over before breakfast, so that it may not
interfere with the other business of the day. Everything should
be ready, and the whole house should wear a comfortable aspect
when the heads of the house and members of the family make their
appearance. Nothing, it may be depended on, will so please the
mistress of an establishment, as to notice that, although she
has not been present to see that the work was done, attention to
smaller matters has been carefully paid, with a view to giving
her satisfaction and increasing her comfort.

83. BY THE TIME THAT THE COOK has performed the duties mentioned above,
and well swept, brushed, and dusted her kitchen, the breakfast-bell will
most likely summon her to the parlour, to "bring in" the breakfast. It
is the cook's department, generally, in the smaller establishments, to
wait at breakfast, as the housemaid, by this time, has gone up-stairs
into the bedrooms, and has there applied herself to her various duties.
The cook usually answers the bells and single knocks at the door in the
early part of the morning, as the tradesmen, with whom it is her more
special business to speak, call at these hours.

84. IT IS IN HER PREPARATION OF THE DINNER that the cook begins to feel
the weight and responsibility of her situation, as she must take upon
herself all the dressing and the serving of the principal dishes, which
her skill and ingenuity have mostly prepared. Whilst these, however, are
cooking, she must be busy with her pastry, soups, gravies, ragouts, &c.
Stock, or what the French call _consomme_, being the basis of most made
dishes, must be always at hand, in conjunction with her sweet herbs and
spices for seasoning. "A place for everything, and everything in its
place," must be her rule, in order that time may not be wasted in
looking for things when they are wanted, and in order that the whole
apparatus of cooking may move with the regularity and precision of a
well-adjusted machine;--all must go on simultaneously. The vegetables
and sauces must be ready with the dishes they are to accompany, and in
order that they may be suitable, the smallest oversight must not be made
in their preparation. When the dinner-hour has arrived, it is the duty
of the cook to dish-up such dishes as may, without injury, stand, for
some time, covered on the hot plate or in the hot closet; but such as
are of a more important or _recherche_ kind, must be delayed until the
order "to serve" is given from the drawing-room. Then comes haste; but
there must be no hurry,--all must work with order. The cook takes charge
of the fish, soups, and poultry; and the kitchen-maid of the vegetables,
sauces, and gravies. These she puts into their appropriate dishes,
whilst the scullery-maid waits on and assists the cook. Everything must
be timed so as to prevent its getting cold, whilst great care should be
taken, that, between the first and second courses, no more time is
allowed to elapse than is necessary, for fear that the company in the
dining-room lose all relish for what has yet to come of the dinner. When
the dinner has been served, the most important feature in the daily life
of the cook is at an end. She must, however, now begin to look to the
contents of her larder, taking care to keep everything sweet and clean,
so that no disagreeable smells may arise from the gravies, milk, or meat
that may be there. These are the principal duties of a cook in a
first-rate establishment.

In smaller establishments, the housekeeper often conducts the higher
department of cooking (_see_ 58, 59, 60), and the cook, with the
assistance of a scullery-maid, performs some of the subordinate duties
of the kitchen-maid.

When circumstances render it necessary, the cook engages to perform the
whole of the work of the kitchen, and, in some places, a portion of the
house-work also.

85. WHILST THE COOK IS ENGAGED WITH HER MORNING DUTIES, the kitchen-maid
is also occupied with hers. Her first duty, after the fire is lighted,
is to sweep and clean the kitchen, and the various offices belonging to
it. This she does every morning, besides cleaning the stone steps at the
entrance of the house, the halls, the passages, and the stairs which
lead to the kitchen. Her general duties, besides these, are to wash and
scour all these places twice a week, with the tables, shelves, and
cupboards. She has also to dress the nursery and servants'-hall dinners,
to prepare all fish, poultry, and vegetables, trim meat joints and
cutlets, and do all such duties as may be considered to enter into the
cook's department in a subordinate degree.

86. THE DUTIES OF THE SCULLERY-MAID are to assist the cook; to keep the
scullery clean, and all the metallic as well as earthenware kitchen
utensils.

The position of scullery-maid is not, of course, one of high
rank, nor is the payment for her services large. But if she be
fortunate enough to have over her a good kitchen-maid and clever
cook, she may very soon learn to perform various little duties
connected with cooking operations, which may be of considerable
service in fitting her for a more responsible place. Now, it
will be doubtless thought by the majority of our readers, that
the fascinations connected with the position of the
scullery-maid, are not so great as to induce many people to
leave a comfortable home in order to work in a scullery. But we
are acquainted with one instance in which the desire, on the
part of a young girl, was so strong to become connected with the
kitchen and cookery, that she absolutely left her parents, and
engaged herself as a scullery-maid in a gentleman's house. Here
she showed herself so active and intelligent, that she very
quickly rose to the rank of kitchen-maid; and from this, so
great was her gastronomical genius, she became, in a short space
of time, one of the best women-cooks in England. After this, we
think, it must be allowed, that a cook, like a poet, _nascitur,
non fit_.

87. MODERN COOKERY stands so greatly indebted to the gastronomic
propensities of our French neighbours, that many of their terms are
adopted and applied by English artists to the same as well as similar
preparations of their own. A vocabulary of these is, therefore,
indispensable in a work of this kind. Accordingly, the following will be
found sufficiently complete for all ordinary purposes:--

EXPLANATION OF FRENCH TERMS USED IN MODERN HOUSEHOLD COOKERY.

ASPIC.--A savoury jelly, used as an exterior moulding for cold game,
poultry, fish, &c. This, being of a transparent nature, allows the bird
which it covers to be seen through it. This may also be used for
decorating or garnishing.

ASSIETTE (plate).--_Assiettes_ are the small _entrees_ and
_hors-d'oeuvres_, the quantity of which does not exceed what a plate
will hold. At dessert, fruits, cheese, chestnuts, biscuits, &c., if
served upon a plate, are termed _assiettes_.--ASSIETTE VOLANTE is a
dish which a servant hands round to the guests, but is not placed upon
the table. Small cheese souffles and different dishes, which ought to be
served very hot, are frequently made _assielles volantes_.

AU-BLEU.--Fish dressed in such a manner as to have a _bluish_
appearance.

BAIN-MARIE.--An open saucepan or kettle of nearly boiling water, in
which a smaller vessel can be set for cooking and warming. This is very
useful for keeping articles hot, without altering their quantity or
quality. If you keep sauce, broth, or soup by the fireside, the soup
reduces and becomes too strong, and the sauce thickens as well as
reduces; but this is prevented by using the _bain-marie_, in which the
water should be very hot, but not boiling.

BECHAMEL.--French white sauce, now frequently used in English cookery.

BLANCH.--To whiten poultry, vegetables, fruit, &c., by plunging them
into boiling water for a short time, and afterwards plunging them into
cold water, there to remain until they are cold.

BLANQUETTE.--A sort of fricassee.

BOUILLI.--Beef or other meat boiled; but, generally speaking, boiled
beef is understood by the term.

BOUILLIE.--A French dish resembling hasty-pudding.

BOUILLON.--A thin broth or soup.

BRAISE.--To stew meat with fat bacon until it is tender, it having
previously been blanched.

BRAISIERE.--A saucepan having a lid with ledges, to put fire on the top.

BRIDER.--To pass a packthread through poultry, game, &c., to keep
together their members.

CARAMEL (burnt sugar).--This is made with a piece of sugar, of the size
of a nut, browned in the bottom of a saucepan; upon which a cupful of
stock is gradually poured, stirring all the time a glass of broth,
little by little. It may be used with the feather of a quill, to colour
meats, such as the upper part of fricandeaux; and to impart colour to
sauces. Caramel made with water instead of stock may be used to colour
_compotes_ and other _entremets_.

CASSEROLE.--A crust of rice, which, after having been moulded into the
form of a pie, is baked, and then filled with a fricassee of white meat
or a puree of game.

COMPOTE.--A stew, as of fruit or pigeons.

CONSOMME.--Rich stock, or gravy.

CROQUETTE.--Ball of fried rice or potatoes.

CROUTONS.--Sippets of bread.

DAUBIERE.--An oval stewpan, in which _daubes_ are cooked; _daubes_ being
meat or fowl stewed in sauce.

DESOSSER.--To _bone_, or take out the bones from poultry, game, or fish.
This is an operation requiring considerable experience.

ENTREES.--Small side or corner dishes, served with the first course.

ENTREMETS.--Small side or corner dishes, served with the second course.

ESCALOPES.--Collops; small, round, thin pieces of tender meat, or of
fish, beaten with the handle of a strong knife to make them tender.

FEUILLETAGE.--Puff-paste.

FLAMBER.--To singe fowl or game, after they have been picked.

FONCER.--To put in the bottom of a saucepan slices of ham, veal, or thin
broad slices of bacon.

GALETTE.--A broad thin cake.

GATEAU.--A cake, correctly speaking; but used sometimes to denote a
pudding and a kind of tart.

GLACER.--To glaze, or spread upon hot meats, or larded fowl, a thick and
rich sauce or gravy, called _glaze_. This is laid on with a feather or
brush, and in confectionary the term means to ice fruits and pastry with
sugar, which glistens on hardening.

HORS-D'OEUVRES.--Small dishes, or _assiettes volantes_ of sardines,
anchovies, and other relishes of this kind, served to the guests during
the first course. (_See_ ASSIETTES VOLANTES.)

LIT.--A bed or layer; articles in thin slices are placed in layers,
other articles, or seasoning, being laid between them.

MAIGRE.--Broth, soup, or gravy, made without meat.

MATELOTE.--A rich fish-stew, which is generally composed of carp, eels,
trout, or barbel. It is made with wine.

MAYONNAISE.--Cold sauce, or salad dressing.

MENU.--The bill of fare.

MERINGUE.--A kind of icing, made of whites of eggs and sugar, well
beaten.

MIROTON.--Larger slices of meat than collops; such as slices of beef for
a vinaigrette, or ragout or stew of onions.

MOUILLER.--To add water, broth, or other liquid, during the cooking.

PANER.--To cover over with very fine crumbs of bread, meats, or any
other articles to be cooked on the gridiron, in the oven, or frying-pan.

PIQUER.--To lard with strips of fat bacon, poultry, game, meat, &c. This
should always be done according to the vein of the meat, so that in
carving you slice the bacon across as well as the meat.

POELEE.--Stock used instead of water for boiling turkeys, sweetbreads,
fowls, and vegetables, to render them less insipid. This is rather an
expensive preparation.

PUREE.--Vegetables, or meat reduced to a very smooth pulp, which is
afterwards mixed with enough liquid to make it of the consistency of
very thick soup.

RAGOUT.--Stew or hash.

REMOULADE.--Salad dressing.

RISSOLES.--Pastry, made of light puff-paste, and cut into various forms,
and fried. They may be filled with fish, meat, or sweets.

ROUX.--Brown and white; French thickening.

SALMI.--Ragout of game previously roasted.

SAUCE PIQUANTE.--A sharp sauce, in which somewhat of a vinegar flavour
predominates.

SAUTER.--To dress with sauce in a saucepan, repeatedly moving it about.

TAMIS.--Tammy, a sort of open cloth or sieve through which to strain
broth and sauces, so as to rid them of small bones, froth, &c.

TOURTE.--Tart. Fruit pie.

TROUSSER.--To truss a bird; to put together the body and tie the wings
and thighs, in order to round it for roasting or boiling, each being
tied then with packthread, to keep it in the required form.

VOL-AU-VENT.--A rich crust of very fine puff-paste, which may be filled
with various delicate ragouts or fricassees, of fish, flesh, or fowl.
Fruit may also be inclosed in a _vol-au-vent_.

[Illustration]

SOUPS.

CHAPTER V.

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING SOUPS.

88. LEAN, JUICY BEEF, MUTTON, AND VEAL, form the basis of all good
soups; therefore it is advisable to procure those pieces which afford
the richest succulence, and such as are fresh-killed. Stale meat renders
them bad, and fat is not so well adapted for making them. The principal
art in composing good rich soup, is so to proportion the several
ingredients that the flavour of one shall not predominate over another,
and that all the articles of which it is composed, shall form an
agreeable whole. To accomplish this, care must be taken that the roots
and herbs are perfectly well cleaned, and that the water is proportioned
to the quantity of meat and other ingredients. Generally a quart of
water may be allowed to a pound of meat for soups, and half the quantity
for gravies. In making soups or gravies, gentle stewing or simmering is
incomparably the best. It may be remarked, however, that a really good
soup can never be made but in a well-closed vessel, although, perhaps,
greater wholesomeness is obtained by an occasional exposure to the air.
Soups will, in general, take from three to six hours doing, and are much
better prepared the day before they are wanted. When the soup is cold,
the fat may be much more easily and completely removed; and when it is
poured off, care must be taken not to disturb the settlings at the
bottom of the vessel, which are so fine that they will escape through a
sieve. A tamis is the best strainer, and if the soup is strained while
it is hot, let the tamis or cloth be previously soaked in cold water.
Clear soups must be perfectly transparent, and thickened soups about the
consistence of cream. To thicken and give body to soups and gravies,
potato-mucilage, arrow-root, bread-raspings, isinglass, flour and
butter, barley, rice, or oatmeal, in a little water rubbed well
together, are used. A piece of boiled beef pounded to a pulp, with a bit
of butter and flour, and rubbed through a sieve, and gradually
incorporated with the soup, will be found an excellent addition. When
the soup appears to be _too thin_ or _too weak_, the cover of the boiler
should be taken off, and the contents allowed to boil till some of the
watery parts have evaporated; or some of the thickening materials, above
mentioned, should be added. When soups and gravies are kept from day to
day in hot weather, they should be warmed up every day, and put into
fresh scalded pans or tureens, and placed in a cool cellar. In temperate
weather, every other day may be sufficient.

89. VARIOUS HERBS AND VEGETABLES are required for the purpose of making
soups and gravies. Of these the principal are,--Scotch barley, pearl
barley, wheat flour, oatmeal, bread-raspings, pease, beans, rice,
vermicelli, macaroni, isinglass, potato-mucilage, mushroom or mushroom
ketchup, champignons, parsnips, carrots, beetroot, turnips, garlic,
shalots, and onions. Sliced onions, fried with butter and flour till
they are browned, and then rubbed through a sieve, are excellent to
heighten the colour and flavour of brown soups and sauces, and form the
basis of many of the fine relishes furnished by the cook. The older and
drier the onion, the stronger will be its flavour. Leeks, cucumber, or
burnet vinegar; celery or celery-seed pounded. The latter, though
equally strong, does not impart the delicate sweetness of the fresh
vegetable; and when used as a substitute, its flavour should be
corrected by the addition of a bit of sugar. Cress-seed, parsley, common
thyme, lemon thyme, orange thyme, knotted marjoram, sage, mint, winter
savoury, and basil. As fresh green basil is seldom to be procured, and
its fine flavour is soon lost, the best way of preserving the extract is
by pouring wine on the fresh leaves.

90. FOR THE SEASONING OF SOUPS, bay-leaves, tomato, tarragon, chervil,
burnet, allspice, cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, clove, mace, black and white
pepper, essence of anchovy, lemon-peel, and juice, and Seville
orange-juice, are all taken. The latter imparts a finer flavour than the
lemon, and the acid is much milder. These materials, with wine, mushroom
ketchup, Harvey's sauce, tomato sauce, combined in various proportions,
are, with other ingredients, manipulated into an almost endless variety
of excellent soups and gravies. Soups, which are intended to constitute
the principal part of a meal, certainly ought not to be flavoured like
sauces, which are only designed to give a relish to some particular
dish.

SOUP, BROTH AND BOUILLON.

91. IT HAS BEEN ASSERTED, that English cookery is, nationally speaking,
far from being the best in the world. More than this, we have been
frequently told by brilliant foreign writers, half philosophers, half
_chefs_, that we are the _worst_ cooks on the face of the earth, and
that the proverb which alludes to the divine origin of food, and the
precisely opposite origin of its preparers, is peculiarly applicable to
us islanders. Not, however, to the inhabitants of the whole island; for,
it is stated in a work which treats of culinary operations, north of the
Tweed, that the "broth" of Scotland claims, for excellence and
wholesomeness, a very close second place to the _bouillon_, or common
soup of France. "_Three_ hot meals of broth and meat, for about the
price of ONE roasting joint," our Scottish brothers and sisters get,
they say; and we hasten to assent to what we think is now a very
well-ascertained fact. We are glad to note, however, that soups of
vegetables, fish, meat, and game, are now very frequently found in the
homes of the English middle classes, as well as in the mansions of the
wealthier and more aristocratic; and we take this to be one evidence,
that we are on the right road to an improvement in our system of
cookery. One great cause of many of the spoilt dishes and badly-cooked
meats which are brought to our tables, arises, we think, and most will
agree with us, from a non-acquaintance with "common, every-day things."
Entertaining this view, we intend to preface the chapters of this work
with a simple scientific _resume_ of all those causes and circumstances
which relate to the food we have to prepare, and the theory and
chemistry of the various culinary operations. Accordingly, this is the
proper place to treat of the quality of the flesh of animals, and
describe some of the circumstances which influence it for good or bad.
We will, therefore, commence with the circumstance of _age_, and examine
how far this affects the quality of meat.

92. DURING THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE BIRTH AND MATURITY OF ANIMALS, their
flesh undergoes very considerable changes. For instance, when the animal
is young, the fluids which the tissues of the muscles contain, possess a
large proportion of what is called _albumen_. This albumen, which is
also the chief component of the white of eggs, possesses the peculiarity
of coagulating or hardening at a certain temperature, like the white of
a boiled egg, into a soft, white fluid, no longer soluble, or capable of
being dissolved in water. As animals grow older, this peculiar animal
matter gradually decreases, in proportion to the other constituents of
the juice of the flesh. Thus, the reason why veal, lamb, and young pork
are _white, and without gravy_ when cooked, is, that the large quantity
of albumen they contain hardens, or becomes coagulated. On the other
hand, the reason why beef and mutton are _brown, and have gravy_, is,
that the proportion of albumen they contain, is small, in comparison
with their greater quantity of fluid which is soluble, and not
coagulable.

93. THE QUALITY OF THE FLESH OF AN ANIMAL is considerably influenced by
the nature of the _food on which it has been fed_; for the food supplies
the material which produces the flesh. If the food be not suitable and
good, the meat cannot be good either; just as the paper on which these
words are printed, could not be good, if the rags from which it is made,
were not of a fine quality. To the experienced in this matter, it is
well known that the flesh of animals fed on farinaceous produce, such as
corn, pulse, &c., is firm, well-flavoured, and also economical in the
cooking; that the flesh of those fed on succulent and pulpy substances,
such as roots, possesses these qualities in a somewhat less degree;
whilst the flesh of those whose food contains fixed oil, as linseed, is
greasy, high coloured, and gross in the fat, and if the food has been
used in large quantities, possessed of a rank flavour.

94. IT IS INDISPENSABLE TO THE GOOD QUALITY OF MEAT, that the animal
should be _perfectly healthy_ at the time of its slaughter. However
slight the disease in an animal may be, inferiority in the quality of
its flesh, as food, is certain to be produced. In most cases, indeed, as
the flesh of diseased animals has a tendency to very rapid putrefaction,
it becomes not only unwholesome, but absolutely poisonous, on account of
the absorption of the _virus_ of the unsound meat into the systems of
those who partake of it. The external indications of good and bad meat
will be described under its own particular head, but we may here premise
that the layer of all wholesome meat, when freshly killed, adheres
firmly to the bone.

95. ANOTHER CIRCUMSTANCE GREATLY AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF MEAT, is the
animal's treatment _before it is slaughtered_. This influences its value
and wholesomeness in no inconsiderable degree. It will be easy to
understand this, when we reflect on those leading principles by which
the life of an animal is supported and maintained. These are, the
digestion of its food, and the assimilation of that food into its
substance. Nature, in effecting this process, first reduces the food in
the stomach to a state of pulp, under the name of chyme, which passes
into the intestines, and is there divided into two principles, each
distinct from the other. One, a milk-white fluid,--the nutritive
portion,--is absorbed by innumerable vessels which open upon the mucous
membrane, or inner coat of the intestines. These vessels, or absorbents,
discharge the fluid into a common duct, or road, along which it is
conveyed to the large veins in the neighbourhood of the heart. Here it
is mixed with the venous blood (which is black and impure) returning
from every part of the body, and then it supplies the waste which is
occasioned in the circulating stream by the arterial (or pure) blood
having furnished matter for the substance of the animal. The blood of
the animal having completed its course through all parts, and having had
its waste recruited by the digested food, is now received into the
heart, and by the action of that organ it is urged through the lungs,
there to receive its purification from the air which the animal inhales.
Again returning to the heart, it is forced through the arteries, and
thence distributed, by innumerable ramifications, called capillaries,
bestowing to every part of the animal, life and nutriment. The other
principle--the innutritive portion--passes from the intestines, and is
thus got rid of. It will now be readily understood how flesh is affected
for bad, if an animal is slaughtered when the circulation of its blood
has been increased by over-driving, ill-usage, or other causes of
excitement, to such a degree of rapidity as to be too great for the
capillaries to perform their functions, and causing the blood to be
congealed in its minuter vessels. Where this has been the case, the meat
will be dark-coloured, and become rapidly putrid; so that self-interest
and humanity alike dictate kind and gentle treatment of all animals
destined to serve as food for man.

THE CHEMISTRY AND ECONOMY OF SOUP-MAKING.

96. STOCK BEING THE BASIS of all meat soups, and, also, of all the
principal sauces, it is essential to the success of these culinary
operations, to know the most complete and economical method of
extracting, from a certain quantity of meat, the best possible stock or
broth. The theory and philosophy of this process we will, therefore,
explain, and then proceed to show the practical course to be adopted.

97. AS ALL MEAT is principally composed of fibres, fat, gelatine,
osmazome, and albumen, it is requisite to know that the FIBRES are
inseparable, constituting almost all that remains of the meat after it
has undergone a long boiling.

98. FAT is dissolved by boiling; but as it is contained in cells covered
by a very fine membrane, which never dissolves, a portion of it always
adheres to the fibres. The other portion rises to the surface of the
stock, and is that which has escaped from the cells which were not
whole, or which have burst by boiling.

99. GELATINE is soluble: it is the basis and the nutritious portion of
the stock. When there is an abundance of it, it causes the stock, when
cold, to become a jelly.

100. OSMAZOME is soluble even when cold, and is that part of the meat
which gives flavour and perfume to the stock. The flesh of old animals
contains more _osmazome_ than that of young ones. Brown meats contain
more than white, and the former make the stock more fragrant. By
roasting meat, the osmazome appears to acquire higher properties; so, by
putting the remains of roast meats into your stock-pot, you obtain a
better flavour.

101. ALBUMEN is of the nature of the white of eggs; it can be dissolved
in cold or tepid water, but coagulates when it is put into water not
quite at the boiling-point. From this property in albumen, it is evident
that if the meat is put into the stock-pot when the water boils, or
after this is made to boil up quickly, the albumen, in both cases,
hardens. In the first it rises to the surface, in the second it remains
in the meat, but in both it prevents the gelatine and osmazome from
dissolving; and hence a thin and tasteless stock will be obtained. It
ought to be known, too, that the coagulation of the albumen in the meat,
always takes place, more or less, according to the size of the piece, as
the parts farthest from the surface always acquire _that degree_ of heat
which congeals it before entirely dissolving it.

102. BONES ought always to form a component part of the stock-pot. They
are composed of an earthy substance,--to which they owe their
solidity,--of gelatine, and a fatty fluid, something like marrow. _Two
ounces_ of them contain as much gelatine as _one pound_ of meat; but in
them, this is so incased in the earthy substance, that boiling water can
dissolve only the surface of whole bones. By breaking them, however, you
can dissolve more, because you multiply their surfaces; and by reducing
them to powder or paste, you can dissolve them entirely; but you must
not grind them dry. We have said (99) that gelatine forms the basis of
stock; but this, though very nourishing, is entirely without taste; and
to make the stock savoury, it must contain _osmazome_. Of this, bones do
not contain a particle; and that is the reason why stock made entirely
of them, is not liked; but when you add meat to the broken or pulverized
bones, the osmazome contained in it makes the stock sufficiently
savoury.

103. In concluding this part of our subject, the following condensed
hints and directions should be attended to in the economy of
soup-making:--

I. BEEF MAKES THE BEST STOCK; veal stock has less colour and taste;
whilst mutton sometimes gives it a tallowy smell, far from agreeable,
unless the meat has been previously roasted or broiled. Fowls add very
little to the flavour of stock, unless they be old and fat. Pigeons,
when they are old, add the most flavour to it; and a rabbit or partridge
is also a great improvement. From the freshest meat the best stock is
obtained.

II. IF THE MEAT BE BOILED solely to make stock, it must be cut up into
the smallest possible pieces; but, generally speaking, if it is desired
to have good stock and a piece of savoury meat as well, it is necessary
to put a rather large piece into the stock-pot, say sufficient for two
or three days, during which time the stock will keep well in all
weathers. Choose the freshest meat, and have it cut as thick as
possible; for if it is a thin, flat piece, it will not look well, and
will be very soon spoiled by the boiling.

III. NEVER WASH MEAT, as it deprives its surface of all its juices;
separate it from the bones, and tie it round with tape, so that its
shape may be preserved, then put it into the stock-pot, and for each
pound of meat, let there be one pint of water; press it down with the
hand, to allow the air, which it contains, to escape, and which often
raises it to the top of the water.

IV. PUT THE STOCK-POT ON A GENTLE FIRE, so that it may heat gradually.
The albumen will first dissolve, afterwards coagulate; and as it is in
this state lighter than the liquid, it will rise to the surface;
bringing with it all its impurities. It is this which makes _the scum_.
The rising of the hardened albumen has the same effect in clarifying
stock as the white of eggs; and, as a rule, it may be said that the more
scum there is, the clearer will be the stock. Always take care that the
fire is very regular.

V. REMOVE THE SCUM when it rises thickly, and do not let the stock boil,
because then one portion of the scum will be dissolved, and the other go
to the bottom of the pot; thus rendering it very difficult to obtain a
clear broth. If the fire is regular, it will not be necessary to add
cold water in order to make the scum rise; but if the fire is too large
at first, it will then be necessary to do so.

VI. WHEN THE STOCK IS WELL SKIMMED, and begins to boil, put in salt and
vegetables, which may be two or three carrots, two turnips, one parsnip,
a bunch of leeks and celery tied together. You can add, according to
taste, a piece of cabbage, two or three cloves stuck in an onion, and a
tomato. The latter gives a very agreeable flavour to the stock. If fried
onion be added, it ought, according to the advice of a famous French
_chef_, to be tied in a little bag: without this precaution, the colour
of the stock is liable to be clouded.

VII. BY THIS TIME we will now suppose that you have chopped the bones
which were separated from the meat, and those which were left from the
roast meat of the day before. Remember, as was before pointed out, that
the more these are broken, the more gelatine you will have. The best way
to break them up is to pound them roughly in an iron mortar, adding,
from time to time, a little water, to prevent them getting heated. It is
a great saving thus to make use of the bones of meat, which, in too many
English families, we fear, are entirely wasted; for it is certain, as
previously stated (No. 102), that two ounces of bone contain as much
gelatine (which is the nutritive portion of stock) as one pound of meat.
In their broken state tie them up in a bag, and put them in the
stock-pot; adding the gristly parts of cold meat, and trimmings, which
can be used for no other purpose. If, to make up the weight, you have
received from the butcher a piece of mutton or veal, broil it slightly
over a clear fire before putting it in the stock-pot, and be very
careful that it does not contract the least taste of being smoked or
burnt.

VIII. ADD NOW THE VEGETABLES, which, to a certain extent, will stop the
boiling of the stock. Wait, therefore, till it simmers well up again,
then draw it to the side of the fire, and keep it gently simmering till
it is served, preserving, as before said, your fire always the same.
Cover the stock-pot well, to prevent evaporation; do not fill it up,
even if you take out a little stock, unless the meat is exposed; in
which case a little boiling water may be added, but only enough to cover
it. After six hours' slow and gentle simmering, the stock is done; and
it should not be continued on the fire, longer than is necessary, or it
will tend to insipidity.

_Note_.--It is on a good stock, or first good broth and sauce, that
excellence in cookery depends. If the preparation of this basis of the
culinary art is intrusted to negligent or ignorant persons, and the
stock is not well skimmed, but indifferent results will be obtained. The
stock will never be clear; and when it is obliged to be clarified, it is
deteriorated both in quality and flavour. In the proper management of
the stock-pot an immense deal of trouble is saved, inasmuch as one
stock, in a small dinner, serves for all purposes. Above all things, the
greatest economy, consistent with excellence, should be practised, and
the price of everything which enters the kitchen correctly ascertained.
The _theory_ of this part of Household Management may appear trifling;
but its practice is extensive, and therefore it requires the best
attention.

[Illustration]

RECIPES.

CHAPTER VI.

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SOUPS.

[_It will be seen, by reference to the following Recipes, that an
entirely original and most intelligible system has been pursued in
explaining the preparation of each dish. We would recommend the young
housekeeper, cook, or whoever may be engaged in the important task of
"getting ready" the dinner, or other meal, to follow precisely the order
in which the recipes are given. Thus, let them first place on their
table all the INGREDIENTS necessary; then the modus operandi, or MODE of
preparation, will be easily managed. By a careful reading, too, of the
recipes, there will not be the slightest difficulty in arranging a
repast for any number of persons, and an accurate notion will be gained
of the TIME the cooling of each dish will occupy, of the periods at
which it is SEASONABLE, as also of its_ AVERAGE COST.

_The addition of the natural history, and the description of the various
properties of the edible articles in common use in every family, will be
serviceable both in a practical and an educational point of view.

Speaking specially of the Recipes for Soups, it may be added, that by
the employment of the_ BEST, MEDIUM, _or_ COMMON STOCK, _the quality of
the Soups and their cost may be proportionately increased or lessened._]

STOCKS FOR ALL KINDS OF SOUPS.

RICH STRONG STOCK.

104. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of shin of beef, 4 lbs. of knuckle of veal,
3/4 lb. of good lean ham; any poultry trimmings; 3 small onions, 3 small
carrots, 3 turnips (the latter should be omitted in summer, lest they
ferment), 1 head of celery, a few chopped mushrooms, when obtainable; 1
tomato, a bunch of savoury herbs, not forgetting parsley; 1-1/2 oz. of
salt, 12 white peppercorns, 6 cloves, 3 small blades of mace, 4 quarts
of water.

_Mode_.--Line a delicately clean stewpan with the ham cut in thin broad
slices, carefully trimming off all its rusty fat; cut up the beef and
veal in pieces about 3 inches square, and lay them on the ham; set it on
the stove, and draw it down, and stir frequently. When the meat is
equally browned, put in the beef and veal bones, the poultry trimmings,
and pour in the cold water. Skim well, and occasionally add a little
cold water, to stop its boiling, until it becomes quite clear; then put
in all the other ingredients, and simmer very slowly for 5 hours. Do not
let it come to a brisk boil, that the stock be not wasted, and that its
colour may be preserved. Strain through a very fine hair sieve, or
tammy, and it will be fit for use.

_Time_.--5 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d. per quart.

MEDIUM STOCK.

105. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of shin of beef, or 4 lbs. of knuckle of veal,
or 2 lbs. of each; any bones, trimmings of poultry, or fresh meat, 1/2 a
lb. of lean bacon or ham, 2 oz. of butter, 2 large onions, each stuck
with 3 cloves; 1 turnip, 3 carrots, 1/2 a leek, 1 head of celery, 2 oz.
of salt, 1/2 a teaspoonful of whole pepper, 1 large blade of mace, 1
small bunch of savoury herbs, 4 quarts and 1/2 pint of cold water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the meat and bacon or ham into pieces about 3 inches
square; rub the butter on the bottom of the stewpan; put in 1/2 a pint
of water, the meat, and all the other ingredients. Cover the stewpan,
and place it on a sharp fire, occasionally stirring its contents. When
the bottom of the pan becomes covered with a pale, jelly-like substance,
add 4 quarts of cold water, and simmer very gently for 5 hours. As we
have said before, do not let it boil quickly. Skim off every particle of
grease whilst it is doing, and strain it through a fine hair sieve.

This is the basis of many of the soups afterwards mentioned, and will be
found quite strong enough for ordinary purposes.

_Time_.--5-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 9d. per quart.

ECONOMICAL STOCK.

106. INGREDIENTS.--The liquor in which a joint of meat has been boiled,
say 4 quarts; trimmings of fresh meat or poultry, shank-bones, &c.,
roast-beef bones, any pieces the larder may furnish; vegetables, spices,
and the same seasoning as in the foregoing recipe.

_Mode_.--Let all the ingredients simmer gently for 6 hours, taking care
to skim carefully at first. Strain it off, and put by for use.

_Time_.--6 hours. _Average cost_, 3d. per quart.

WHITE STOCK.

(_To be Used in the Preparation of White Soups_.)

107. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of knuckle of veal, any poultry trimmings, 4
slices of lean ham, 1 carrot, 2 onions, 1 head of celery, 12 white
peppercorns, 1 oz. of salt, 1 blade of mace, 1 oz. butter, 4 quarts of
water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the veal, and put it with the bones and trimmings of
poultry, and the ham, into the stewpan, which has been rubbed with the
butter. Moisten with 1/2 a pint of water, and simmer till the gravy
begins to flow. Then add the 4 quarts of water and the remainder of the
ingredients; simmer for 5 hours. After skimming and straining it
carefully through a very fine hair sieve, it will be ready for use.

_Time_.--5-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 9d. per quart.

_Note_.--When stronger stock is desired, double the quantity of veal, or
put in an old fowl. The liquor in which a young turkey has been boiled,
is an excellent addition to all white stock or soups.

BROWNING FOR STOCK.

108. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of powdered sugar, and 1/2 a pint of water.

_Mode_.--Place the sugar in a stewpan over a slow fire until it begins
to melt, keeping it stirred with a wooden spoon until it becomes black,
then add the water, and let it dissolve. Cork closely, and use a few
drops when required.

_Note_.--In France, burnt onions are made use of for the purpose of
browning. As a general rule, the process of browning is to be
discouraged, as apt to impart a slightly unpleasant flavour to the
stock, and, consequently, all soups made from it.

TO CLARIFY STOCK.

109. INGREDIENTS.--The whites of 2 eggs, 1/2 pint of water, 2 quarts of
stock.

_Mode_.--Supposing that by some accident the soup is not quite clear,
and that its quantity is 2 quarts, take the whites of 2 eggs, carefully
separated from their yolks, whisk them well together with the water, and
add gradually the 2 quarts of boiling stock, still whisking. Place the
soup on the fire, and when boiling and well skimmed, whisk the eggs with
it till nearly boiling again; then draw it from the fire, and let it
settle, until the whites of the eggs become separated. Pass through a
fine cloth, and the soup should be clear.

_Note_.--The rule is, that all clear soups should be of a light straw
colour, and should not savour too strongly of the meat; and that all
white or brown thick soups should have no more consistency than will
enable them to adhere slightly to the spoon when hot. All _purees_
should be somewhat thicker.

ALMOND SOUP.

110. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of lean beef or veal, 1/2 a scrag of mutton, 1
oz. of vermicelli, 4 blades of mace, 6 cloves, 1/2 lb. of sweet almonds,
the yolks of 6 eggs, 1 gill of thick cream, rather more than 2 quarts of
water.

_Mode_.--Boil the beef, or veal, and the mutton, gently in water that
will cover them, till the gravy is very strong, and the meat very
tender; then strain off the gravy, and set it on the fire with the
specified quantities of vermicelli, mace, and cloves, to 2 quarts. Let
it boil till it has the flavour of the spices. Have ready the almonds,
blanched and pounded very fine; the yolks of the eggs boiled hard;
mixing the almonds, whilst pounding, with a little of the soup, lest the
latter should grow oily. Pound them till they are a mere pulp, and keep
adding to them, by degrees, a little soup until they are thoroughly
mixed together. Let the soup be cool when mixing, and do it perfectly
smooth. Strain it through a sieve, set it on the fire, stir frequently,
and serve hot. Just before taking it up, add the cream.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_ per quart, 2s. 3d.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: ALMOND & BLOSSOM.]

THE ALMOND-TREE.--This tree is indigenous to the northern parts
of Asia and Africa, but it is now cultivated in Europe,
especially in the south of France, Italy, and Spain. It flowers
in spring, and produces its fruit in August. Although there are
two kinds of almonds, the _sweet_ and the _bitter,_ they are
considered as only varieties of the same species. The best sweet
almonds brought to England, are called the Syrian or Jordan, and
come from Malaga; the inferior qualities are brought from
Valentia and Italy. _Bitter_ almonds come principally from
Magadore. Anciently, the almond was much esteemed by the nations
of the East. Jacob included it among the presents which he
designed for Joseph. The Greeks called it the Greek or Thasian
nut, and the Romans believed that by eating half a dozen of
them, they were secured against drunkenness, however deeply they
might imbibe. Almonds, however, are considered as very
indigestible. The _bitter_ contain, too, principles which
produce two violent poisons,--prussic acid and a kind of
volatile oil. It is consequently dangerous to eat them in large
quantities. Almonds pounded together with a little sugar and
water, however, produce a milk similar to that which is yielded
by animals. Their oil is used for making fine soap, and their
cake as a cosmetic.

APPLE SOUP.

111. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of good boiling apples, 3/4 teaspoonful of
white pepper, 6 cloves, cayenne or ginger to taste, 3 quarts of medium
stock.

_Mode_.--Peel and quarter the apples, taking out their cores; put them
into the stock, stew them gently till tender. Rub the whole through a
strainer, add the seasoning, give it one boil up, and serve.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_ per quart, 1s.

_Seasonable_ from September to December.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

[Illustration: APPLE AND BLOSSOM.]

THE APPLE.--This useful fruit is mentioned in Holy Writ; and
Homer describes it as valuable in his time. It was brought from
the East by the Romans, who held it in the highest estimation.
Indeed, some of the citizens of the "Eternal city" distinguished
certain favourite apples by their names. Thus the Manlians were
called after Manlius, the Claudians after Claudius, and the
Appians after Appius. Others were designated after the country
whence they were brought; as the Sidonians, the Epirotes, and
the Greeks. The best varieties are natives of Asia, and have, by
grafting them upon others, been introduced into Europe. The
crab, found in our hedges, is the only variety indigenous to
Britain; therefore, for the introduction of other kinds we are,
no doubt, indebted to the Romans. In the time of the Saxon
heptarchy, both Devon and Somerset were distinguished as _the
apple country_; and there are still existing in Herefordshire
some trees said to have been planted in the time of William the
Conqueror. From that time to this, the varieties of this
precious fruit have gone on increasing, and are now said to
number upwards of 1,500. It is peculiar to the temperate zone,
being found neither in Lapland, nor within the tropics. The best
baking apples for early use are the Colvilles; the best for
autumn are the rennets and pearmains; and the best for winter
and spring are russets. The best table, or eating apples, are
the Margarets for early use; the Kentish codlin and summer
pearmain for summer; and for autumn, winter, or spring, the
Dowton, golden and other pippins, as the ribstone, with small
russets. As a food, the apple cannot be considered to rank high,
as more than the half of it consists of water, and the rest of
its properties are not the most nourishing. It is, however, a
useful adjunct to other kinds of food, and, when cooked, is
esteemed as slightly laxative.

ARTICHOKE (JERUSALEM) SOUP.

(_A White Soup_.)

112. INGREDIENTS.--3 slices of lean bacon or ham, 1/2 a head of celery,
1 turnip, 1 onion, 3 oz. of butter, 4 lbs. of artichokes, 1 pint of
boiling milk, or 1/2 pint of boiling cream, salt and cayenne to taste, 2
lumps of sugar, 2-1/2 quarts of white stock.

_Mode_.--Put the bacon and vegetables, which should be cut into thin
slices, into the stewpan with the butter. Braise these for 1/4 of an
hour, keeping them well stirred. Wash and pare the artichokes, and after
cutting them into thin slices, add them, with a pint of stock, to the
other ingredients. When these have gently stewed down to a smooth pulp,
put in the remainder of the stock. Stir it well, adding the seasoning,
and when it has simmered for five minutes, pass it through a strainer.
Now pour it back into the stewpan, let it again simmer five minutes,
taking care to skim it well, and stir it to the boiling milk or cream.
Serve with small sippets of bread fried in butter.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_ per quart, 1s. 2d.

_Seasonable_ from June to October.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

ASPARAGUS SOUP.

I.

113. INGREDIENTS.--5 lbs. of lean beef, 3 slices of bacon, 1/2 pint of
pale ale, a few leaves of white beet, spinach, 1 cabbage lettuce, a
little mint, sorrel, and marjoram, a pint of asparagus-tops cut small,
the crust of 1 French roll, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Put the beef, cut in pieces and rolled in flour, into a
stewpan, with the bacon at the bottom; cover it close, and set it on a
slow fire, stirring it now and then till the gravy is drawn. Put in the
water and ale, and season to taste with pepper and salt, and let it stew
gently for 2 hours; then strain the liquor, and take off the fat, and
add the white beet, spinach, cabbage lettuce, and mint, sorrel, and
sweet marjoram, pounded. Let these boil up in the liquor, then put in
the asparagus-tops cut small, and allow them to boil till all is tender.
Serve hot, with the French roll in the dish.

_Time_.--Altogether 3 hours. _Average cost_ per quart, 1s. 9d.

_Seasonable_ from May to August.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

II.

114. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 pint of split peas, a teacupful of gravy, 4
young onions, 1 lettuce cut small, 1/2 a head of celery, 1/2 a pint of
asparagus cut small, 1/2 a pint of cream, 3 quarts of water: colour the
soup with spinach juice.

_Mode_.--Boil the peas, and rub them through a sieve; add the gravy, and
then stew by themselves the celery, onions, lettuce, and asparagus, with
the water. After this, stew altogether, and add the colouring and cream,
and serve.

_Time_.--Peas 2-1/2 hours, vegetables 1 hour; altogether 4 hours.
_Average cost_ per quart, 1s.

[Illustration: ASPARAGUS.]

ASPARAGUS.--The ancients called all the sprouts of young
vegetables asparagus, whence the name, which is now limited to a
particular species, embracing artichoke, alisander, asparagus,
cardoon, rampion, and sea-kale. They are originally mostly wild
seacoast plants; and, in this state, asparagus may still be
found on the northern as well as southern shores of Britain. It
is often vulgarly called, in London, _sparrowgrass_; and, in
it's cultivated form, hardly bears any resemblance to the
original plant. Immense quantities of it are raised for the
London market, at Mortlake and Deptford; but it belongs rather
to the classes of luxurious than necessary food. It is light and
easily digested, but is not very nutritious.

BAKED SOUP.

115. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of any kind of meat, any trimmings or odd
pieces; 2 onions, 2 carrots, 2 oz. of rice, 1 pint of split peas, pepper
and salt to taste, 4 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut the meat and vegetables in slices, add to them the rice and
peas, season with pepper and salt. Put the whole in a jar, fill up with
the water, cover very closely, and bake for 4 hours.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 2-1/2d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for 10 or 12 persons.

_Note_.--This will be found a very cheap and wholesome soup, and will be
convenient in those cases where baking is more easily performed than
boiling.

BARLEY SOUP.

116. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of shin of beef, 1/4 lb. of pearl barley, a
large bunch of parsley, 4 onions, 6 potatoes, salt and pepper, 4 quarts
of water.

_Mode_.--Put in all the ingredients, and simmer gently for 3 hours.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_, 2-1/2d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable for winter.

[Illustration: BARLEY.]

BARLEY.--This, in the order of cereal grasses, is, in Britain,
the next plant to wheat in point of value, and exhibits several
species and varieties. From what country it comes originally, is
not known, but it was cultivated in the earliest ages of
antiquity, as the Egyptians were afflicted with the loss of it
in the ear, in the time of Moses. It was a favourite grain with
the Athenians, but it was esteemed as an ignominious food by the
Romans. Notwithstanding this, however, it was much used by them,
as it was in former times by the English, and still is, in the
Border counties, in Cornwall, and also in Wales. In other parts
of England, it is used mostly for malting purposes. It is less
nutritive than wheat; and in 100 parts, has of starch 79, gluten
6, saccharine matter 7, husk 8. It is, however, a lighter and
less stimulating food than wheat, which renders a decoction of
it well adapted for invalids whose digestion is weak.

BREAD SOUP.

(_Economical_.)

117. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of bread crusts, 2 oz. butter, 1 quart of
common stock.

_Mode_.--Boil the bread crusts in the stock with the butter; beat the
whole with a spoon, and keep it boiling till the bread and stock are
well mixed. Season with a little salt.

_Time_.--Half an hour. _Average cost_ per quart, 4d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Note_.--This is a cheap recipe, and will be found useful where extreme
economy is an object.

[Illustration: QUERN, or GRINDING-MILL.]

BREAD.--The origin of bread is involved in the obscurity of
distant ages. The Greeks attributed its invention to Pan; but
before they, themselves, had an existence, it was, no doubt, in
use among the primitive nations of mankind. The Chaldeans and
the Egyptians were acquainted with it, and Sarah, the companion
of Abraham, mixed flour and water together, kneaded it, and
covered it with ashes on the hearth. The Scriptures inform us
that leavened bread was known to the Israelites, but it is not
known when the art of fermenting it was discovered. It is said
that the Romans learnt it during their wars with Perseus, king
of Macedon, and that it was introduced to the "imperial city"
about 200 years before the birth of Christ. With them it no
doubt found its way into Britain; but after their departure from
the island, it probably ceased to be used. We know that King
Alfred allowed the unfermented cakes to burn in the neatherd's
cottage; and that, even in the sixteenth century, unfermented
cakes, kneaded by the women, were the only kind of bread known
to the inhabitants of Norway and Sweden. The Italians of this
day consume the greater portion of their flour in the form of
_polenta_, or soft pudding, vermicelli, and macaroni; and, in
the remoter districts of Scotland, much unfermented bread is
still used. We give a cut of the _quern_ grinding-mill, which,
towards the end of the last century, was in use in that country,
and which is thus described by Dr. Johnson in his "Journey to
the Hebrides:"--"It consists of two stones about a foot and half
in diameter; the lower is a little convex, to which the
concavity of the upper must be fitted. In the middle of the
upper stone is a round hole, and on one side is a long handle.
The grinder sheds the corn gradually into the hole with one
hand, and works the handle round with the other. The corn slides
down the convexity of the lower stone, and by the motion of the
upper, is ground in its passage." Such a primitive piece of
machinery, it may safely be said, has entirely disappeared from
this country.--In other parts of this work, we shall have
opportunities of speaking of bread and bread-making, which, from
its great and general use in the nourishment of mankind, has
emphatically been called the "staff of life." The necessity,
therefore, of having it both pure and good is of the first
importance.

CABBAGE SOUP.

118. INGREDIENTS.--1 large cabbage, 3 carrots, 2 onions, 4 or 5 slices
of lean bacon, salt and pepper to taste, 2 quarts of medium stock No.
105.

_Mode_.--Scald the cabbage, exit it up and drain it. Line the stewpan
with the bacon, put in the cabbage, carrots, and onions; moisten with
skimmings from the stock, and simmer very gently, till the cabbage is
tender; add the stock, stew softly for half an hour, and carefully skim
off every particle of fat. Season and serve.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: CABBAGE SEEDING.]

THE CABBAGE.--It is remarkable, that although there is no
country in the world now more plentifully supplied with fruits
and vegetables than Great Britain, yet the greater number of
these had no existence in it before the time of Henry VIII.
Anderson, writing under the date of 1548, says, "The English
cultivated scarcely any vegetables before the last two
centuries. At the commencement of the reign, of Henry VIII.
neither salad, nor carrots, nor cabbages, nor radishes, nor any
other comestibles of a like nature, were grown in any part of
the kingdom; they came from Holland and Flanders." The original
of all the cabbage tribe is the wild plant _sea-colewort_, which
is to be found _wasting_ whatever sweetness it may have on the
desert air, on many of the cliffs of the south coast of England.
In this state, it scarcely weighs more than half an ounce, yet,
in a cultivated state, to what dimensions can it be made to
grow! However greatly the whole of the tribe is esteemed among
the moderns, by the ancients they were held in yet higher
estimation. The Egyptians adored and raised altars to them, and
the Greeks and Romans ascribed many of the most exalted virtues
to them. Cato affirmed, that the cabbage cured all diseases, and
declared, that it was to its use that the Romans were enabled to
live in health and without the assistance of physicians for 600
years. It was introduced by that people into Germany, Gaul, and,
no doubt, Britain; although, in this last, it may have been
suffered to pass into desuetude for some centuries. The whole
tribe is in general wholesome and nutritive, and forms a
valuable adjunct to animal food.

SOUP A LA CANTATRICE.

(_An Excellent Soup, very Beneficial for the Voice_.)

119. INGREDIENTS.--3 oz. of sago, 1/2 pint of cream, the yolks of 3
eggs, 1 lump of sugar, and seasoning to taste, 1 bay-leaf (if liked), 2
quarts of medium stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Having washed the sago in boiling water, let it be gradually
added to the nearly boiling stock. Simmer for 1/2 an hour, when it
should be well dissolved. Beat up the yolks of the eggs, add to them the
boiling cream; stir these quickly in the soup, and serve immediately. Do
not let the soup boil, or the eggs will curdle.

_Time_.--40 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--This is a soup, the principal ingredients of which, sago and
eggs, have always been deemed very beneficial to the chest and throat.
In various quantities, and in different preparations, these have been
partaken of by the principal singers of the day, including the
celebrated Swedish Nightingale, Jenny Lind, and, as they have always
avowed, with considerable advantage to the voice, in singing.

CARROT SOUP.

I.

120. INGREDIENTS.--4 quarts of liquor in which a leg of mutton or beef
has been boiled, a few beef-bones, 6 large carrots, 2 large onions, 1
turnip; seasoning of salt and pepper to taste; cayenne.

_Mode_.--Put the liquor, bones, onions, turnip, pepper, and salt, into a
stewpan, and simmer for 3 hours. Scrape and cut the carrots thin, strain
the soup on them, and stew them till soft enough to pulp through a hair
sieve or coarse cloth; then boil the pulp with the soup, which should be
of the consistency of pea-soup. Add cayenne. Pulp only the red part of
the carrot, and make this soup the day before it is wanted.

_Time_.--4-1/2 hours. _Average cost_ per quart, 1-1/2d.

_Seasonable_ from October to March.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

II.

121. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of carrots, 3 oz. of butter, seasoning to
taste of salt and cayenne, 2 quarts of stock or gravy soup.

_Mode_.--Scrape and cut out all specks from the carrots, wash, and wipe
them dry, and then reduce them into quarter-inch slices. Put the butter
into a large stewpan, and when it is melted, add 2 lbs. of the sliced
carrots, and let them stew gently for an hour without browning. Add to
them the soup, and allow them to simmer till tender,--say for nearly an
hour. Press them through a strainer with the soup, and add salt and
cayenne if required. Boil the whole gently for 5 minutes, skim well, and
serve as hot as possible.

_Time_.--1-1/4 hour. _Average cost_ per quart, 1s. 1d.

[Illustration: TAZZA AND CARROT LEAVES.]

THE CARROT.--There is a wild carrot which grows in England; but
it is white and small, and not much esteemed. The garden carrot
in general use, was introduced in the reign of Queen Elizabeth,
and was, at first, so highly esteemed, that the ladies wore
leaves of it in their head-dresses. It is of great value in the
culinary art, especially for soups and stews. It can be used
also for beer instead of malt, and, in distillation, it yields a
large quantity of spirit. The carrot is proportionably valuable
as it has more of the red than the yellow part. There is a large
red variety much used by the farmers for colouring butter. As a
garden vegetable, it is what is called the orange-carrot that is
usually cultivated. As a fattening food for cattle, it is
excellent; but for man it is indigestible, on account of its
fibrous matter. Of 1,000 parts, 95 consist of sugar, and 3 of
starch.--The accompanying cut represents a pretty winter
ornament, obtained by placing a cut from the top of the
carrot-root in a shallow vessel of water, when the young leaves
spring forth with a charming freshness and fullness.

CELERY SOUP.

122. INGREDIENTS.--9 heads of celery, 1 teaspoonful of salt, nutmeg to
taste, 1 lump of sugar, 1/2 pint of strong stock, a pint of cream, and 2
quarts of boiling water.

_Mode_.--Cut the celery into small pieces; throw it into the water,
seasoned with the nutmeg, salt, and sugar. Boil it till sufficiently
tender; pass it through a sieve, add the stock, and simmer it for half
an hour. Now put in the cream, bring it to the boiling point, and serve
immediately.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note_.--This soup can be made brown, instead of white, by omitting the
cream, and colouring it a little. When celery cannot be procured, half a
drachm of the seed, finely pounded, will give a flavour to the soup, if
put in a quarter of an hour before it is done. A little of the essence
of celery will answer the same purpose.

CELERY.--This plant is indigenous to Britain, and, in its wild
state, grows by the side of ditches and along some parts of the
seacoast. In this state it is called _smallaqe_, and, to some
extent, is a dangerous narcotic. By cultivation, however, it has
been brought to the fine flavour which the garden plant
possesses. In the vicinity of Manchester it is raised to an
enormous size. When our natural observation is assisted by the
accurate results ascertained by the light of science, how
infinitely does it enhance our delight in contemplating the
products of nature! To know, for example, that the endless
variety of colour which we see in plants is developed only by
the rays of the sun, is to know a truism sublime by its very
comprehensiveness. The cause of the whiteness of celery is
nothing more than the want of light in its vegetation, and in
order that this effect may be produced, the plant is almost
wholly covered with earth; the tops of the leaves alone being
suffered to appear above the ground.

CHANTILLY SOUP.

123. INGREDIENTS.--1 quart of young green peas, a small bunch of
parsley, 2 young onions, 2 quarts of medium stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Boil the peas till quite tender, with the parsley and onions;
then rub them through a sieve, and pour the stock to them. Do not let it
boil after the peas are added, or you will spoil the colour. Serve very
hot.

_Time_.--Half an hour. _Average_ cost, 1s. 6d. per quart.

_Seasonable_ from June to the end of August.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note_.--Cold peas pounded in a mortar, with a little stock added to
them, make a very good soup in haste.

Parsley.--Among the Greeks, in the classic ages, a crown of
parsley was awarded, both in the Nemaean and Isthmian games, and
the voluptuous Anacreon pronounces this beautiful herb the
emblem of joy and festivity. It has an elegant leaf, and is
extensively used in the culinary art. When it was introduced to
Britain is not known. There are several varieties,--the
_plain_-leaved and the _curled_-leaved, _celery_-parsley,
_Hamburg_ parsley, and _purslane_. The curled is the best, and,
from the form of its leaf, has a beautiful appearance on a dish
as a garnish. Its flavour is, to many, very agreeable in soups;
and although to rabbits, hares, and sheep it is a luxury, to
parrots it is a poison. The celery-parsley is used as a celery,
and the Hamburg is cultivated only for its roots, which are used
as parsnips or carrots, to eat with meat. The purslane is a
native of South America, and is not now much in use.

CHESTNUT (SPANISH) SOUP.

124. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 lb. of Spanish chestnuts, 1/4 pint of cream;
seasoning to taste of salt, cayenne, and mace; 1 quart of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Take the outer rind from the chestnuts, and put them into a
large pan of warm water. As soon as this becomes too hot for the fingers
to remain in it, take out the chestnuts, peel them quickly, and immerse
them in cold water, and wipe and weigh them. Now cover them with good
stock, and stew them gently for rather more than 3/4 of an hour, or
until they break when touched with a fork; then drain, pound, and rub
them through a fine sieve reversed; add sufficient stock, mace, cayenne,
and salt, and stir it often until it boils, and put in the cream. The
stock in which the chestnuts are boiled can be used for the soup, when
its sweetness is not objected to, or it may, in part, be added to it;
and the rule is, that 3/4 lb. of chestnuts should be given to each quart
of soup.

_Time_.--rather more than 1 hour. _Average cost_ per quart, 1s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ from October to February.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

[Illustration: CHESTNUT.]

THE CHESTNUT.--This fruit is said, by some, to have originally
come from Sardis, in Lydia; and by others, from Castanea, a city
of Thessaly, from which it takes its name. By the ancients it
was much used as a food, and is still common in France and
Italy, to which countries it is, by some, considered indigenous.
In the southern part of the European continent, it is eaten both
raw and roasted. The tree was introduced into Britain by the
Romans; but it only flourishes in the warmer parts of the
island, the fruit rarely arriving at maturity in Scotland. It
attains a great age, as well as an immense size. As a food, it
is the least oily and most farinaceous of all the nuts, and,
therefore, the easiest of digestion. The tree called the _horse
chestnut_ is very different, although its fruit very much
resembles that of the other. Its "nuts," though eaten by horses
and some other animals, are unsuitable for human food.

COCOA-NUT SOUP.

125. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of grated cocoa-nut, 6 oz. of rice flour, 1/2 a
teaspoonful of mace; seasoning to taste of cayenne and salt; 1/4 of a
pint of boiling cream, 3 quarts of medium stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Take the dark rind from the cocoa-nut, and grate it down small
on a clean grater; weigh it, and allow, for each quart of stock, 2 oz.
of the cocoa-nut. Simmer it gently for 1 hour in the stock, which should
then be strained closely from it, and thickened for table.

_Time_.--2-1/4 hours. _Average cost_ per quart, 1s. 3d.

_Seasonable_ in Autumn.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

[Illustration: COCOA-NUT PALM.]

[Illustration: NUT & BLOSSOM.]

THE COCOA-NUT.--This is the fruit of one of the palms, than
which it is questionable if there is any other species of tree
marking, in itself, so abundantly the goodness of Providence, in
making provision for the wants of man. It grows wild in the
Indian seas, and in the eastern parts of Asia; and thence it has
been introduced into every part of the tropical regions. To the
natives of those climates, its bark supplies the material for
creating their dwellings; its leaves, the means of roofing them;
and the leaf-stalks, a kind of gauze for covering their windows,
or protecting the baby in the cradle. It is also made into
lanterns, masks to screen the face from the heat of the sun,
baskets, wicker-work, and even a kind of paper for writing on.
Combs, brooms, torches, ropes, matting, and sailcloth are made

Book of the day: