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The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

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Neck of 737
Saddle of 738
" to carve a 762
Side of, showing the several joints 695
Shoulder of 739
" to carve a 763

Nasturtiums 482
Nutmeg, the 378
Nuts, dish of 1598

Olive, the 506
Omelet 1456
Pan 1458
Onion, the 139
Orange, the 1314
Oranges, compote of 1565
Oyster, edible 286

Pail, house 2327
Pancakes 1467
Parsley 493
Parsnip, the 1132
Partridge, the 1039
Roast 1039
" to carve a 1057
Baste, board and rolling-pin 1186
Cutter and corner-cutter 1189
Ornamental cutter 1189
Pincers and jagger 1186
Patty-pans, plain and fluted 1190
Pea, the 143
Peach, the 1469
Pear, bon Chretien 1576
Pears, stewed 1576
Peas, green 1135
Pepper, black 369
Long 399
Perch, the 292
Pestle and Mortar 421
Pheasant, the 1041
Roast 1041
" to carve a 1059
Pickle, Indian 551
Pie, raised 1340
Pig, Guinea 997
Roast, sucking 841
" " to carve a 842
Pig's face 823
Pigs 765
Pigeon, barb 976
Blue rock 976
Carrier 974
Fantail 976
Jacobin 976
Nun 975
Owl 976
Pouter 973
Roast 974
Runt 975
To carve a 1003
Trumpeter 975
Tumbler 975
Turbit 976
Wood 975
Pike, the 295
Pimento 438
Plaice, the 298
Plover, the 1044
Plum, the 1330
Pork, fore loin of 829
Griskin of 827
Hind loin of 829
Leg of, to carve a 844
" roast 800
Side of, showing joints 795
Spare rib of 827
Pot, boiling 567
Potato, the 147
Pasty pan 1333
Rissoles 1147
Sweet 1146
Potatoes, baked, served in napkin 1136
Pound cake 1770
Prawn, the 198
Ptarmigan, or white grouse 1045
Pudding, boiled fruit 1284
Cabinet 1286
Punch-bowl and ladle 1839

Quadrupeds 585
Quail, the 1046
Quern, or grinding-mill 117
Quince, the 1233

Rabbit, Angora 983
Boiled 977
" to carve a 1004
Hare, the 985
Himalaya 985
Lop-eared 984
Roast 983
" to carve a 1004
Wild 978
Radish, long 1152
Turnip 1152
Raisin, grape 1324
Ram, heath 689
Leicester 688
Romney-Marsh and ewe 691
South-down and ewe 687
Range, modern 65
Raspberry, the 1267
Cream mould 1475
Ratafias 1745
Rhubarb 1339
Rice, casserole of 1350
Ears of 150
Roach, the 243
Rolls 1723
Rusks 1734

Sage 427
Sago palm 152
Salad, in bowl 1152
Salmon, the 304
To carve a _p._ 175
Salt-mine at Northwich 403
Saucepan, ancient 68
Modern 68
Sauce tureen, boat, &c. 354
Sausages, fried 838
Saute-pan 571
Ancient 68
Modern 68
Scales, ancient and modern 70
Screen, meat 582
Sea-bream, the 310
Sea-kale 1150
Boiled 1150
Shad, the 311
Shalot, the 410
Sheep 678
Heath ram 689
" ewe 690
Romney-Marsh ram and ewe 691
South-Down ram and ewe 687
Shortbread 1780
Shrimp, the 313
Skate, thornback 315
Snipe, the 1047
Roast 1047
" to carve a 1060
Sole, the 320
Sorrel 431
Souffle pan 1481
Sow, and pigs 765
Berkshire 781
Chinese 785
Cumberland 784
Essex 782
Yorkshire 783
Spinach 155
Garnished with croutons 1155
Sponge cake 1783
Sprat, the 331
Sprouts, Brussels 1098
Stewpan 567
Stock-pot, ancient 66
Bronze 66
Modern 66
Stove, gas 575
Family kitchener 65
Leamington 65, 540
Pompeiian 65
Strawberries, dish of 1598
Sturgeon, the 332
Sugar-cane, the 1335
Sultana grape, the 1326
Swans 54

Tarragon 503
Tart, open 1365
Open mould for a 1365
Plum 1331
Tartlets, dish of 1371
Tazza and carrot leaves 121
Tea 1814
Teacakes 1787
Tench, the 334
Thyme, lemon 458
Tipsy cake 1487
Tomato, the 529
Tomatoes, stewed 1159
Trifle 1489
Trout, the 336
Truffles 1161
Turbot, the 338
Kettle 338
To carve a 176
Tureen, soup 88
Turkey, boiled 986
Roast 990
" to carve a 1005
Turnip 157
Turnips 1165
Turret on old Abbey kitchen 62
Turtle, the 189

Urns, Loysell's hydrostatic 1810
Utensils for cooking, ancient and modern 66-8

Vanilla cream mould 1490
Veal, breast of 857
" to carve a 912
Cutlets 866
Fillet of 872
" to carve a 914
Knuckle of 885
" to carve a 915
Loin of 885
" to carve a 916
Vegetable, cutter 1173
Strips of 131
Vegetable marrow 158
In white sauce 1173
On toast 1170
Vegetables 1069
Cellular development of 1075
Siliceous cuticles of 1075
Venison, haunch of 1061
" roast 1049
" to carve a 1061
Vermicelli 162
Vessels for beverages 1789
Vol-au-vent 1379
Small 1379

Walnut, the 536
Wheat 1779
Egyptian, or mummy 1783
Polish 1722
Red winter 1719
Whitebait 348
Whiting, the 343
Window and flowers 75
Wirebasket 494
Woodcock, the 1053
Roast 1053
Scotch 1653
To carve a 1062

Yorkshire pudding 1384

COLOURED PLATES.

Apples in custard

Beef, round of, boiled
Roast sirloin of

Calf's head, boiled
Charlotte aux pommes
Cod's head and shoulders
Crab, dressed

Duck, wild
Ducks, couple of, roast

Eggs, poached, and spinach

Fowl, boiled with cauliflower
Roast, with watercresses
Fruits, centre dish of various

Goose, roast
Grouse

Ham, cold glazed
Hare, roast

Jelly, two colours of

Lobsters, dressed

Mackerel, boiled
Mutton cutlets and mashed potatoes
Haunch of roast
Saddle of roast
Mutton, shoulder of roast

Oysters, scalloped

Partridge
Pheasant
Pie, raised
Pig, sucking, roast or baked
Pigeon
Plum-pudding, Christmas, in mould

Rabbit, boiled
Or fowl, curried
Raspberry cream
Rissoles

Salmon, boiled
Snipe
Soles, dish of filleted
Spinach and poached eggs
Strawberries, au naturel, in
ornamental flower-pot

Tongue, cold boiled
Trifle
Turbot, or brill, boiled
Turkey, roast

Veal, fricandeau of
Vol-au-vent

Whiting, dish of, fried
Woodcock

THE BOOK OF HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT.

CHAPTER I.

THE MISTRESS.

"Strength, and honour are her clothing; and she shall rejoice in time to
come. She openeth her mouth with wisdom; and in her tongue is the law of
kindness. She looketh well to the ways of her household; and eateth not
the bread of idleness. Her children arise up, and call her blessed; her
husband also, and he praiseth her."--_Proverbs_, xxxi. 25-28.

I. AS WITH THE COMMANDER OF AN ARMY, or the leader of any enterprise, so
is it with the mistress of a house. Her spirit will be seen through the
whole establishment; and just in proportion as she performs her duties
intelligently and thoroughly, so will her domestics follow in her path.
Of all those acquirements, which more particularly belong to the
feminine character, there are none which take a higher rank, in our
estimation, than such as enter into a knowledge of household duties; for
on these are perpetually dependent the happiness, comfort, and
well-being of a family. In this opinion we are borne out by the author
of "The Vicar of Wakefield," who says: "The modest virgin, the prudent
wife, and the careful matron, are much more serviceable in life than
petticoated philosophers, blustering heroines, or virago queens. She who
makes her husband and her children happy, who reclaims the one from vice
and trains up the other to virtue, is a much greater character than
ladies described in romances, whose whole occupation is to murder
mankind with shafts from their quiver, or their eyes."

2. PURSUING THIS PICTURE, we may add, that to be a good housewife does
not necessarily imply an abandonment of proper pleasures or amusing
recreation; and we think it the more necessary to express this, as the
performance of the duties of a mistress may, to some minds, perhaps seem
to be incompatible with the enjoyment of life. Let us, however, now
proceed to describe some of those home qualities and virtues which are
necessary to the proper management of a Household, and then point out
the plan which may be the most profitably pursued for the daily
regulation of its affairs.

3. EARLY RISING IS ONE OF THE MOST ESSENTIAL QUALITIES which enter into
good Household Management, as it is not only the parent of health, but
of innumerable other advantages. Indeed, when a mistress is an early
riser, it is almost certain that her house will be orderly and
well-managed. On the contrary, if she remain in bed till a late hour,
then the domestics, who, as we have before observed, invariably partake
somewhat of their mistress's character, will surely become sluggards. To
self-indulgence all are more or less disposed, and it is not to be
expected that servants are freer from this fault than the heads of
houses. The great Lord Chatham thus gave his advice in reference to this
subject:--"I would have inscribed on the curtains of your bed, and the
walls of your chamber, 'If you do not rise early, you can make progress
in nothing.'"

4. CLEANLINESS IS ALSO INDISPENSABLE TO HEALTH, and must be studied both
in regard to the person and the house, and all that it contains. Cold or
tepid baths should be employed every morning, unless, on account of
illness or other circumstances, they should be deemed objectionable. The
bathing of _children_ will be treated of under the head of "MANAGEMENT
OF CHILDREN."

5. FRUGALITY AND ECONOMY ARE HOME VIRTUES, without which no household
can prosper. Dr. Johnson says: "Frugality may be termed the daughter of
Prudence, the sister of Temperance, and the parent of Liberty. He that
is extravagant will quickly become poor, and poverty will enforce
dependence and invite corruption." The necessity of practising economy
should be evident to every one, whether in the possession of an income
no more than sufficient for a family's requirements, or of a large
fortune, which puts financial adversity out of the question. We must
always remember that it is a great merit in housekeeping to manage a
little well. "He is a good waggoner," says Bishop Hall, "that can turn
in a little room. To live well in abundance is the praise of the estate,
not of the person. I will study more how to give a good account of my
little, than how to make it more." In this there is true wisdom, and it
may be added, that those who can manage a little well, are most likely
to succeed in their management of larger matters. Economy and frugality
must never, however, be allowed to degenerate into parsimony and
meanness.

6. THE CHOICE OF ACQUAINTANCES is very important to the happiness of a
mistress and her family. A gossiping acquaintance, who indulges in the
scandal and ridicule of her neighbours, should be avoided as a
pestilence. It is likewise all-necessary to beware, as Thomson sings,

"The whisper'd tale,
That, like the fabling Nile, no fountain knows;--
Fair-laced Deceit, whose wily, conscious aye
Ne'er looks direct; the tongue that licks the dust
But, when it safely dares, as prompt to sting."

If the duties of a family do not sufficiently occupy the time of a
mistress, society should be formed of such a kind as will tend to the
mutual interchange of general and interesting information.

7. FRIENDSHIPS SHOULD NOT BE HASTILY FORMED, nor the heart given, at
once, to every new-comer. There are ladies who uniformly smile at, and
approve everything and everybody, and who possess neither the courage to
reprehend vice, nor the generous warmth to defend virtue. The friendship
of such persons is without attachment, and their love without affection
or even preference. They imagine that every one who has any penetration
is ill-natured, and look coldly on a discriminating judgment. It should
be remembered, however, that this discernment does not always proceed
from an uncharitable temper, but that those who possess a long
experience and thorough knowledge of the world, scrutinize the conduct
and dispositions of people before they trust themselves to the first
fair appearances. Addison, who was not deficient in a knowledge of
mankind, observes that "a friendship, which makes the least noise, is
very often the most useful; for which reason, I should prefer a prudent
friend to a zealous one." And Joanna Baillie tells us that

"Friendship is no plant of hasty growth,
Though planted in esteem's deep-fixed soil,
The gradual culture of kind intercourse
Must bring it to perfection."

8. HOSPITALITY IS A MOST EXCELLENT VIRTUE; but care must be taken that
the love of company, for its own sake, does not become a prevailing
passion; for then the habit is no longer hospitality, but dissipation.
Reality and truthfulness in this, as in all other duties of life, are
the points to be studied; for, as Washington Irving well says, "There is
an emanation from the heart in genuine hospitality, which cannot be
described, but is immediately felt, and puts the stranger at once at his
ease." With respect to the continuance of friendships, however, it may
be found necessary, in some cases, for a mistress to relinquish, on
assuming the responsibility of a household, many of those commenced in
the earlier part of her life. This will be the more requisite, if the
number still retained be quite equal to her means and opportunities.

9. IN CONVERSATION, TRIFLING OCCURRENCES, such as small disappointments,
petty annoyances, and other every-day incidents, should never be
mentioned to your friends. The extreme injudiciousness of repeating
these will be at once apparent, when we reflect on the unsatisfactory
discussions which they too frequently occasion, and on the load of
advice which they are the cause of being tendered, and which is, too
often, of a kind neither to be useful nor agreeable. Greater events,
whether of joy or sorrow, should be communicated to friends; and, on
such occasions, their sympathy gratifies and comforts. If the mistress
be a wife, never let an account of her husband's failings pass her lips;
and in cultivating the power of conversation, she should keep the
versified advice of Cowper continually in her memory, that it

"Should flow like water after summer showers,
Not as if raised by mere mechanic powers."

In reference to its style, Dr. Johnson, who was himself greatly
distinguished for his colloquial abilities, says that "no style is more
extensively acceptable than the narrative, because this does not carry
an air of superiority over the rest of the company; and, therefore, is
most likely to please them. For this purpose we should store our memory
with short anecdotes and entertaining pieces of history. Almost every
one listens with eagerness to extemporary history. Vanity often
co-operates with curiosity; for he that is a hearer in one place wishes
to qualify himself to be a principal speaker in some inferior company;
and therefore more attention is given to narrations than anything else
in conversation. It is true, indeed, that sallies of wit and quick
replies are very pleasing in conversation; but they frequently tend to
raise envy in some of the company: but the narrative way neither raises
this, nor any other evil passion, but keeps all the company nearly upon
an equality, and, if judiciously managed, will at once entertain and
improve them all."

10. GOOD TEMPER SHOULD BE CULTIVATED by every mistress, as upon it the
welfare of the household may be said to turn; indeed, its influence can
hardly be over-estimated, as it has the effect of moulding the
characters of those around her, and of acting most beneficially on the
happiness of the domestic circle. Every head of a household should
strive to be cheerful, and should never fail to show a deep interest in
all that appertains to the well-being of those who claim the protection
of her roof. Gentleness, not partial and temporary, but universal and
regular, should pervade her conduct; for where such a spirit is
habitually manifested, it not only delights her children, but makes her
domestics attentive and respectful; her visitors are also pleased by it,
and their happiness is increased.

11. ON THE IMPORTANT SUBJECT OF DRESS AND FASHION we cannot do better
than quote an opinion from the eighth volume of the "Englishwoman's
Domestic Magazine." The writer there says, "Let people write, talk,
lecture, satirize, as they may, it cannot be denied that, whatever is
the prevailing mode in attire, let it intrinsically be ever so absurd,
it will never _look_ as ridiculous as another, or as any other, which,
however convenient, comfortable, or even becoming, is totally opposite
in style to that generally worn."

12. IN PURCHASING ARTICLES OF WEARING APPAREL, whether it be a silk
dress, a bonnet, shawl, or riband, it is well for the buyer to consider
three things: I. That it be not too expensive for her purse. II. That
its colour harmonize with her complexion, and its size and pattern with
her figure. III. That its tint allow of its being worn with the other
garments she possesses. The quaint Fuller observes, that the good wife
is none of our dainty dames, who love to appear in a variety of suits
every day new, as if a gown, like a stratagem in war, were to be used
but once. But our good wife sets up a sail according to the keel of her
husband's estate; and, if of high parentage, she doth not so remember
what she was by birth, that she forgets what she is by match.

To _Brunettes_, or those ladies having dark complexions, silks
of a grave hue are adapted. For _Blondes_, or those having fair
complexions, lighter colours are preferable, as the richer,
deeper hues are too overpowering for the latter. The colours
which go best together are green with violet; gold-colour with
dark crimson or lilac; pale blue with scarlet; pink with black
or white; and gray with scarlet or pink. A cold colour generally
requires a warm tint to give life to it. Gray and pale blue, for
instance, do not combine well, both being cold colours.

13. THE DRESS OF THE MISTRESS should always be adapted to her
circumstances, and be varied with different occasions. Thus, at
breakfast she should be attired in a very neat and simple manner,
wearing no ornaments. If this dress should decidedly pertain only to the
breakfast-hour, and be specially suited for such domestic occupations as
usually follow that meal, then it would be well to exchange it before
the time for receiving visitors, if the mistress be in the habit of
doing so. It is still to be remembered, however, that, in changing the
dress, jewellery and ornaments are not to be worn until the full dress
for dinner is assumed. Further information and hints on the subject of
the toilet will appear under the department of the "LADY'S-MAID."

The advice of Polonius to his son Laertes, in Shakspeare's
tragedy of "Hamlet," is most excellent; and although given to
one of the male sex, will equally apply to a "fayre ladye:"--

"Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy,
But not express'd in fancy; rich, not gaudy;
For the apparel oft proclaims the man."

14. CHARITY AND BENEVOLENCE ARE DUTIES which a mistress owes to herself
as well as to her fellow-creatures; and there is scarcely any income so
small, but something may be spared from it, even if it be but "the
widow's mite." It is to be always remembered, however, that it is the
_spirit_ of charity which imparts to the gift a value far beyond its
actual amount, and is by far its better part.

True Charity, a plant divinely nursed,
Fed by the love from which it rose at first,
Thrives against hope, and, in the rudest scene,
Storms but enliven its unfading green;
Exub'rant is the shadow it supplies,
Its fruit on earth, its growth above the skies.

Visiting the houses of the poor is the only practical way really
to understand the actual state of each family; and although
there may be difficulties in following out this plan in the
metropolis and other large cities, yet in country towns and
rural districts these objections do not obtain. Great advantages
may result from visits paid to the poor; for there being,
unfortunately, much ignorance, generally, amongst them with
respect to all household knowledge, there will be opportunities
for advising and instructing them, in a pleasant and unobtrusive
manner, in cleanliness, industry, cookery, and good management.

15. IN MARKETING, THAT THE BEST ARTICLES ARE THE CHEAPEST, may be laid
down as a rule; and it is desirable, unless an experienced and
confidential housekeeper be kept, that the mistress should herself
purchase all provisions and stores needed for the house. If the mistress
be a young wife, and not accustomed to order "things for the house," a
little practice and experience will soon teach her who are the best
tradespeople to deal with, and what are the best provisions to buy.
Under each particular head of FISH, MEAT, POULTRY, GAME, &c., will be
described the proper means of ascertaining the quality of these
comestibles.

16. A HOUSEKEEPING ACCOUNT-BOOK should invariably be kept, and kept
punctually and precisely. The plan for keeping household accounts, which
we should recommend, would be to make an entry, that is, write down into
a daily diary every amount paid on that particular day, be it ever so
small; then, at the end of the month, let these various payments be
ranged under their specific heads of Butcher, Baker, &c.; and thus will
be seen the proportions paid to each tradesman, and any one month's
expenses may be contrasted with another. The housekeeping accounts
should be balanced not less than once a month; so that you may see that
the money you have in hand tallies with your account of it in your
diary. Judge Haliburton never wrote truer words than when he said, "No
man is rich whose expenditure exceeds his means, and no one is poor
whose incomings exceed his outgoings."

When, in a large establishment, a housekeeper is kept, it will
be advisable for the mistress to examine her accounts regularly.
Then any increase of expenditure which may be apparent, can
easily be explained, and the housekeeper will have the
satisfaction of knowing whether her efforts to manage her
department well and economically, have been successful.

17. ENGAGING DOMESTICS is one of those duties in which the judgment of
the mistress must be keenly exercised. There are some respectable
registry-offices, where good servants may sometimes be hired; but the
plan rather to be recommended is, for the mistress to make inquiry
amongst her circle of friends and acquaintances, and her tradespeople.
The latter generally know those in their neighbourhood, who are wanting
situations, and will communicate with them, when a personal interview
with some of them will enable the mistress to form some idea of the
characters of the applicants, and to suit herself accordingly.

We would here point out an error--and a grave one it is--into
which some mistresses fall. They do not, when engaging a
servant, expressly tell her all the duties which she will be
expected to perform. This is an act of omission severely to be
reprehended. Every portion of work which the maid will have to
do, should be plainly stated by the mistress, and understood by
the servant. If this plan is not carefully adhered to, domestic
contention is almost certain to ensue, and this may not be
easily settled; so that a change of servants, which is so much
to be deprecated, is continually occurring.

18. IN OBTAINING A SERVANT'S CHARACTER, it is not well to be guided by a
written one from some unknown quarter; but it is better to have an
interview, if at all possible, with the former mistress. By this means
you will be assisted in your decision of the suitableness of the servant
for your place, from the appearance of the lady and the state of her
house. Negligence and want of cleanliness in her and her household
generally, will naturally lead you to the conclusion, that her servant
has suffered from the influence of the bad example.

The proper course to pursue in order to obtain a personal
interview with the lady is this:--The servant in search of the
situation must be desired to see her former mistress, and ask
her to be kind enough to appoint a time, convenient to herself,
when you may call on her; this proper observance of courtesy
being necessary to prevent any unseasonable intrusion on the
part of a stranger. Your first questions should be relative to
the honesty and general morality of her former servant; and if
no objection is stated in that respect, her other qualifications
are then to be ascertained. Inquiries should be very minute, so
that you may avoid disappointment and trouble, by knowing the
weak points of your domestic.

19. THE TREATMENT OF SERVANTS is of the highest possible moment, as well
to the mistress as to the domestics themselves. On the head of the house
the latter will naturally fix their attention; and if they perceive that
the mistress's conduct is regulated by high and correct principles, they
will not fail to respect her. If, also, a benevolent desire is shown to
promote their comfort, at the same time that a steady performance of
their duty is exacted, then their respect will not be unmingled with
affection, and they will be still more solicitous to continue to deserve
her favour.

20. IN GIVING A CHARACTER, it is scarcely necessary to say that the
mistress should be guided by a sense of strict justice. It is not fair
for one lady to recommend to another, a servant she would not keep
herself. The benefit, too, to the servant herself is of small advantage;
for the failings which she possesses will increase if suffered to be
indulged with impunity. It is hardly necessary to remark, on the other
hand, that no angry feelings on the part of a mistress towards her late
servant, should ever be allowed, in the slightest degree, to influence
her, so far as to induce her to disparage her maid's character.

21. THE FOLLOWING TABLE OF THE AVERAGE YEARLY WAGES paid to domestics,
with the various members of the household placed in the order in which
they are usually ranked, will serve as a guide to regulate the
expenditure of an establishment:--

When not found in When found in
Livery. Livery.

The House Steward From L10 to L80 --
The Valet " 25 to 50 From L20 to L30
The Butler " 25 to 50 --
The Cook " 20 to 40 --
The Gardener " 20 to 40 --
The Footman " 20 to 40 " 15 to 25
The Under Butler " 15 to 30 " 15 to 25
The Coachman -- " 20 to 35
The Groom " 15 to 30 " 12 to 20
The Under Footman -- " 12 to 20
The Page or Footboy " 8 to 18 " 6 to 14
The Stableboy " 6 to 12 --

When no extra When an extra
allowance is made for allowance is made for
Tea, Sugar, and Beer. Tea, Sugar, and Beer.

The Housekeeper From L20 to L15 From L18 to L40
The Lady's-maid " 12 to 25 " 10 to 20
The Head Nurse " 15 to 30 " 13 to 26
The Cook " 11 to 30 " 12 to 26
The Upper Housemaid " 12 to 20 " 10 to 17
The Upper Laundry-maid " 12 to 18 " 10 to 15
The Maid-of-all-work " 9 to 14 " 7-1/2 to 11
The Under Housemaid " 8 to 12 " 6-1/2 to 10
The Still-room Maid " 9 to 14 " 8 to 13
The Nursemaid " 8 to 12 " 5 to 10
The Under Laundry-maid " 9 to 11 " 8 to 12
The Kitchen-maid " 9 to 14 " 8 to 12
The Scullery-maid " 5 to 9 " 4 to 8

These quotations of wages are those usually given in or near the
metropolis; but, of course, there are many circumstances
connected with locality, and also having reference to the long
service on the one hand, or the inexperience on the other, of
domestics, which may render the wages still higher or lower than
those named above. All the domestics mentioned in the above
table would enter into the establishment of a wealthy nobleman.
The number of servants, of course, would become smaller in
proportion to the lesser size of the establishment; and we may
here enumerate a scale of servants suited to various incomes,
commencing with--

About L1,000 a year--A cook, upper housemaid, nursemaid, under
housemaid,
and a man servant.
About L750 a year--A cook, housemaid, nursemaid, and footboy.
About L500 a year--A cook, housemaid, and nursemaid.
About L300 a year--A maid-of-all-work and nursemaid.
About L200 or L150 a year--A maid-of-all-work (and girl occasionally).

22. HAVING THUS INDICATED some of the more general duties of the
mistress, relative to the moral government of her household, we will now
give a few specific instructions on matters having a more practical
relation to the position which she is supposed to occupy in the eye of
the world. To do this the more clearly, we will begin with her earliest
duties, and take her completely through the occupations of a day.

23. HAVING RISEN EARLY, as we have already advised (_see_ 3), and having
given due attention to the bath, and made a careful toilet, it will be
well at once to see that the children have received their proper
ablutions, and are in every way clean and comfortable. The first meal of
the day, breakfast, will then be served, at which all the family should
be punctually present, unless illness, or other circumstances, prevent.

24. AFTER BREAKFAST IS OVER, it will be well for the mistress to make a
round of the kitchen and other offices, to see that all are in order,
and that the morning's work has been properly performed by the various
domestics. The orders for the day should then be given, and any
questions which the domestics desire to ask, respecting their several
departments, should be answered, and any special articles they may
require, handed to them from the store-closet.

In those establishments where there is a housekeeper, it will
not be so necessary for the mistress, personally, to perform the
above-named duties.

25. AFTER THIS GENERAL SUPERINTENDENCE of her servants, the mistress, if
a mother of a young family, may devote herself to the instruction of
some of its younger members, or to the examination of the state of their
wardrobe, leaving the later portion of the morning for reading, or for
some amusing recreation. "Recreation," says Bishop Hall, "is intended to
the mind as whetting is to the scythe, to sharpen the edge of it, which
would otherwise grow dull and blunt. He, therefore, that spends his
whole time in recreation is ever whetting, never mowing; his grass may
grow and his steed starve; as, contrarily, he that always toils and
never recreates, is ever mowing, never whetting, labouring much to
little purpose. As good no scythe as no edge. Then only doth the work go
forward, when the scythe is so seasonably and moderately whetted that it
may cut, and so cut, that it may have the help of sharpening."

Unless the means of the mistress be very circumscribed, and she
be obliged to devote a great deal of her time to the making of
her children's clothes, and other economical pursuits, it is
right that she should give some time to the pleasures of
literature, the innocent delights of the garden, and to the
improvement of any special abilities for music, painting, and
other elegant arts, which she may, happily, possess.

26. THESE DUTIES AND PLEASURES BEING PERFORMED AND ENJOYED, the hour of
luncheon will have arrived. This is a very necessary meal between an
early breakfast and a late dinner, as a healthy person, with good
exercise, should have a fresh supply of food once in four hours. It
should be a light meal; but its solidity must, of course, be, in some
degree, proportionate to the time it is intended to enable you to wait
for your dinner, and the amount of exercise you take in the mean time.
At this time, also, the servants' dinner will be served.

In those establishments where an early dinner is served, that
will, of course, take the place of the luncheon. In many houses,
where a nursery dinner is provided for the children and about
one o'clock, the mistress and the elder portion of the family
make their luncheon at the same time from the same joint, or
whatever may be provided. A mistress will arrange, according to
circumstances, the serving of the meal; but the more usual plan
is for the lady of the house to have the joint brought to her
table, and afterwards carried to the nursery.

27. AFTER LUNCHEON, MORNING CALLS AND VISITS may be made and received.
These may be divided under three heads: those of ceremony, friendship,
and congratulation or condolence. Visits of ceremony, or courtesy, which
occasionally merge into those of friendship, are to be paid under
various circumstances. Thus, they are uniformly required after dining at
a friend's house, or after a ball, picnic, or any other party. These
visits should be short, a stay of from fifteen to twenty minutes being
quite sufficient. A lady paying a visit may remove her boa or
neckerchief; but neither her shawl nor bonnet.

When other visitors are announced, it is well to retire as soon
as possible, taking care to let it appear that their arrival is
not the cause. When they are quietly seated, and the bustle of
their entrance is over, rise from your chair, taking a kind
leave of the hostess, and bowing politely to the guests. Should
you call at an inconvenient time, not having ascertained the
luncheon hour, or from any other inadvertence, retire as soon as
possible, without, however, showing that you feel yourself an
intruder. It is not difficult for any well-bred or even
good-tempered person, to know what to say on such an occasion,
and, on politely withdrawing, a promise can be made to call
again, if the lady you have called on, appear really
disappointed.

28. IN PAYING VISITS OF FRIENDSHIP, it will not be so necessary to be
guided by etiquette as in paying visits of ceremony; and if a lady be
pressed by her friend to remove her shawl and bonnet, it can be done if
it will not interfere with her subsequent arrangements. It is, however,
requisite to call at suitable times, and to avoid staying too long, if
your friend is engaged. The courtesies of society should ever be
maintained, even in the domestic circle, and amongst the nearest
friends. During these visits, the manners should be easy and cheerful,
and the subjects of conversation such as may be readily terminated.
Serious discussions or arguments are to be altogether avoided, and there
is much danger and impropriety in expressing opinions of those persons
and characters with whom, perhaps, there is but a slight acquaintance.
(_See_ 6, 7, and 9.)

It is not advisable, at any time, to take favourite dogs into
another lady's drawing-room, for many persons have an absolute
dislike to such animals; and besides this, there is always a
chance of a breakage of some article occurring, through their
leaping and bounding here and there, sometimes very much to the
fear and annoyance of the hostess. Her children, also, unless
they are particularly well-trained and orderly, and she is on
exceedingly friendly terms with the hostess, should not
accompany a lady in making morning calls. Where a lady, however,
pays her visits in a carriage, the children can be taken in the
vehicle, and remain in it until the visit is over.

29. FOR MORNING CALLS, it is well to be neatly attired; for a costume
very different to that you generally wear, or anything approaching an
evening dress, will be very much out of place. As a general rule, it may
be said, both in reference to this and all other occasions, it is better
to be under-dressed than over-dressed.

A strict account should be kept of ceremonial visits, and notice
how soon your visits have been returned. An opinion may thus be
formed as to whether your frequent visits are, or are not,
desirable. There are, naturally, instances when the
circumstances of old age or ill health will preclude any return
of a call; but when this is the case, it must not interrupt the
discharge of the duty.

30. IN PAYING VISITS OF CONDOLENCE, it is to be remembered that they
should be paid within a week after the event which occasions them. If
the acquaintance, however, is but slight, then immediately after the
family has appeared at public worship. A lady should send in her card,
and if her friends be able to receive her, the visitor's manner and
conversation should be subdued and in harmony with the character of her
visit. Courtesy would dictate that a mourning card should be used, and
that visitors, in paying condoling visits, should be dressed in black,
either silk or plain-coloured apparel. Sympathy with the affliction of
the family, is thus expressed, and these attentions are, in such cases,
pleasing and soothing.

In all these visits, if your acquaintance or friend be not at
home, a card should be left. If in a carriage, the servant will
answer your inquiry and receive your card; if paying your visits
on foot, give your card to the servant in the hall, but leave to
go in and rest should on no account be asked. The form of words,
"Not at home," may be understood in different senses; but the
only courteous way is to receive them as being perfectly true.
You may imagine that the lady of the house is really at home,
and that she would make an exception in your favour, or you may
think that your acquaintance is not desired; but, in either
case, not the slightest word is to escape you, which would
suggest, on your part, such an impression.

31. IN RECEIVING MORNING CALLS, the foregoing description of the
etiquette to be observed in paying them, will be of considerable
service. It is to be added, however, that the occupations of drawing,
music, or reading should be suspended on the entrance of morning
visitors. If a lady, however, be engaged with light needlework, and none
other is appropriate in the drawing-room, it may not be, under some
circumstances, inconsistent with good breeding to quietly continue it
during conversation, particularly if the visit be protracted, or the
visitors be gentlemen.

Formerly the custom was to accompany all visitors quitting the
house to the door, and there take leave of them; but modern
society, which has thrown off a great deal of this kind of
ceremony, now merely requires that the lady of the house should
rise from her seat, shake hands, or courtesy, in accordance with
the intimacy she has with her guests, and ring the bell to
summon the servant to attend them and open the door. In making a
first call, either upon a newly-married couple, or persons newly
arrived in the neighbourhood, a lady should leave her husband's
card together with her own, at the same time, stating that the
profession or business in which he is engaged has prevented him
from having the pleasure of paying the visit, with her. It is a
custom with many ladies, when on the eve of an absence from
their neighbourhood, to leave or send their own and husband's
cards, with the letters P. P. C. in the right-hand corner. These
letters are the initials of the French words, "_Pour prendre
conge_," meaning, "To take leave."

32. THE MORNING CALLS BEING PAID OR RECEIVED, and their etiquette
properly attended to, the next great event of the day in most
establishments is "The Dinner;" and we only propose here to make a few
general remarks on this important topic, as, in future pages, the whole
"Art of Dining" will be thoroughly considered, with reference to its
economy, comfort, and enjoyment.

33. IN GIVING OR ACCEPTING AN INVITATION FOR DINNER, the following is
the form of words generally made use of. They, however, can be varied in
proportion to the intimacy or position of the hosts and guests:--

Mr. and Mrs. A---- present their compliments to Mr. and Mrs. B----,
and request the honour, [or hope to have the pleasure] of their
company
to dinner on Wednesday, the 6th of December next.

A---- STREET,
_November 13th, 1859. R. S. V. P._

The letters in the corner imply "_Repondez, s'il vous plait;_" meaning,
"an answer will oblige." The reply, accepting the invitation, is couched
in the following terms:--

Mr. and Mrs. B---- present their compliments to Mr. and Mrs. A---, and
will do themselves the honour of, [or will have much pleasure in]
accepting their kind invitation to dinner on the 6th of December next.

B---- SQUARE,
_November 18th, 1859._

Cards, or invitations for a dinner-party, should be issued a
fortnight or three weeks (sometimes even a month) beforehand,
and care should be taken by the hostess, in the selection of the
invited guests, that they should be suited to each other. Much
also of the pleasure of a dinner-party will depend on the
arrangement of the guests at table, so as to form a due
admixture of talkers and listeners, the grave and the gay. If an
invitation to dinner is accepted, the guests should be punctual,
and the mistress ready in her drawing-room to receive them. At
some periods it has been considered fashionable to come late to
dinner, but lately _nous avons change tout cela_.

34. THE HALF-HOUR BEFORE DINNER has always been considered as the great
ordeal through which the mistress, in giving a dinner-party, will either
pass with flying colours, or, lose many of her laurels. The anxiety to
receive her guests,--her hope that all will be present in due time,--her
trust in the skill of her cook, and the attention of the other
domestics, all tend to make these few minutes a trying time. The
mistress, however, must display no kind of agitation, but show her tact
in suggesting light and cheerful subjects of conversation, which will be
much aided by the introduction of any particular new book, curiosity of
art, or article of vertu, which may pleasantly engage the attention of
the company. "Waiting for Dinner," however, is a trying time, and there
are few who have not felt--

"How sad it is to sit and pine,
The long _half-hour_ before we dine!
Upon our watches oft to look,
Then wonder at the clock and cook,
* * * * *
"And strive to laugh in spite of Fate!
But laughter forced soon quits the room,
And leaves it in its former gloom.
But lo! the dinner now appears,
The object of our hopes and fears,
The end of all our pain!"

In giving an entertainment of this kind, the mistress should
remember that it is her duty to make her guests feel happy,
comfortable, and quite at their ease; and the guests should also
consider that they have come to the house of their hostess to be
happy. Thus an opportunity is given to all for innocent
enjoyment and intellectual improvement, when also acquaintances
may be formed that may prove invaluable through life, and
information gained that will enlarge the mind. Many celebrated
men and women have been great talkers; and, amongst others, the
genial Sir Walter Scott, who spoke freely to every one, and a
favourite remark of whom it was, that he never did so without
learning something he didn't know before.

35. DINNER BEING ANNOUNCED, the host offers his arm to, and places on
his right hand at the dinner-table, the lady to whom he desires to pay
most respect, either on account of her age, position, or from her being
the greatest stranger in the party. If this lady be married and her
husband present, the latter takes the hostess to her place at table, and
seats himself at her right hand. The rest of the company follow in
couples, as specified by the master and mistress of the house, arranging
the party according to their rank and other circumstances which may be
known to the host and hostess.

It will be found of great assistance to the placing of a party
at the dinner-table, to have the names of the guests neatly (and
correctly) written on small cards, and placed at that part of
the table where it is desired they should sit. With respect to
the number of guests, it has often been said, that a private
dinner-party should consist of not less than the number of the
Graces, or more than that of the Muses. A party of ten or twelve
is, perhaps, in a general way, sufficient to enjoy themselves
and be enjoyed. White kid gloves are worn by ladies at
dinner-parties, but should be taken off before the business of
dining commences.

36. THE GUESTS BEING SEATED AT THE DINNER-TABLE, the lady begins to help
the soup, which is handed round, commencing with the gentleman on her
right and on her left, and continuing in the same order till all are
served. It is generally established as a rule, not to ask for soup or
fish twice, as, in so doing, part of the company may be kept waiting too
long for the second course, when, perhaps, a little revenge is taken by
looking at the awkward consumer of a second portion. This rule, however,
may, under various circumstances, not be considered as binding.

It is not usual, where taking wine is _en regle_, for a
gentleman to ask a lady to take wine until the fish or soup is
finished, and then the gentleman honoured by sitting on the
right of the hostess, may politely inquire if she will do him
the honour of taking wine with him. This will act as a signal to
the rest of the company, the gentleman of the house most
probably requesting the same pleasure of the ladies at his right
and left. At many tables, however, the custom or fashion of
drinking wine in this manner, is abolished, and the servant
fills the glasses of the guests with the various wines suited to
the course which is in progress.

37. WHEN DINNER IS FINISHED, THE DESSERT is placed on the table,
accompanied with finger-glasses. It is the custom of some gentlemen to
wet a corner of the napkin; but the hostess, whose behaviour will set
the tone to all the ladies present, will merely wet the tips of her
fingers, which will serve all the purposes required. The French and
other continentals have a habit of gargling the mouth; but it is a
custom which no English gentlewoman should, in the slightest degree,
imitate.

38. WHEN FRUIT HAS BEEN TAKEN, and a glass or two of wine passed round,
the time will have arrived when the hostess will rise, and thus give the
signal for the ladies to leave the gentlemen, and retire to the
drawing-room. The gentlemen of the party will rise at the same time, and
he who is nearest the door, will open it for the ladies, all remaining
courteously standing until the last lady has withdrawn. Dr. Johnson has
a curious paragraph on the effects of a dinner on men. "Before dinner,"
he says, "men meet with great inequality of understanding; and those who
are conscious of their inferiority have the modesty not to talk. When
they have drunk wine, every man feels himself happy, and loses that
modesty, and grows impudent and vociferous; but he is not improved, he
is only not sensible of his defects." This is rather severe, but there
may be truth in it.

In former times, when the bottle circulated freely amongst the
guests, it was necessary for the ladies to retire earlier than
they do at present, for the gentlemen of the company soon became
unfit to conduct themselves with that decorum which is essential
in the presence of ladies. Thanks, however, to the improvements
in modern society, and the high example shown to the nation by
its most illustrious personages, temperance is, in these happy
days, a striking feature in the character of a gentleman.
Delicacy of conduct towards the female sex has increased with
the esteem in which they are now universally held, and thus, the
very early withdrawing of the ladies from the dining-room is to
be deprecated. A lull in the conversation will seasonably
indicate the moment for the ladies' departure.

39. AFTER-DINNER INVITATIONS MAY BE GIVEN; by which we wish to be
understood, invitations for the evening. The time of the arrival of
these visitors will vary according to their engagements, or sometimes
will be varied in obedience to the caprices of fashion. Guests invited
for the evening are, however, generally considered at liberty to arrive
whenever it will best suit themselves,--usually between nine and twelve,
unless earlier hours are specifically named. By this arrangement, many
fashionable people and others, who have numerous engagements to fulfil,
often contrive to make their appearance at two or three parties in the
course of one evening.

40. THE ETIQUETTE OF THE DINNER-PARTY TABLE being disposed of, let us
now enter slightly into that of an evening party or ball. The
invitations issued and accepted for either of these, will be written in
the same style as those already described for a dinner-party. They
should be sent out _at least_ three weeks before the day fixed for the
event, and should be replied to within a week of their receipt. By
attending to these courtesies, the guests will have time to consider
their engagements and prepare their dresses, and the hostess will, also,
know what will be the number of her party.

If the entertainment is to be simply an evening party, this must
be specified on the card or note of invitation. Short or verbal
invitations, except where persons are exceedingly intimate, or
are very near relations, are very far from proper, although, of
course, in this respect and in many other respects, very much
always depends on the manner in which the invitation is given.
True politeness, however, should be studied even amongst the
nearest friends and relations; for the mechanical forms of good
breeding are of great consequence, and too much familiarity may
have, for its effect, the destruction of friendship.

41. AS THE LADIES AND GENTLEMEN ARRIVE, each should be shown to a room
exclusively provided for their reception; and in that set apart for the
ladies, attendants should be in waiting to assist in uncloaking, and
helping to arrange the hair and toilet of those who require it. It will
be found convenient, in those cases where the number of guests is large,
to provide numbered tickets, so that they can be attached to the cloaks
and shawls of each lady, a duplicate of which should be handed to the
guest. Coffee is sometimes provided in this, or an ante-room, for those
who would like to partake of it.

42. AS THE VISITORS ARE ANNOUNCED BY THE SERVANT, it is not necessary
for the lady of the house to advance each time towards the door, but
merely to rise from her seat to receive their courtesies and
congratulations. If, indeed, the hostess wishes to show particular
favour to some peculiarly honoured guests, she may introduce them to
others, whose acquaintance she may imagine will be especially suitable
and agreeable. It is very often the practice of the master of the house
to introduce one gentleman to another, but occasionally the lady
performs this office; when it will, of course, be polite for the persons
thus introduced to take their seats together for the time being.

The custom of non-introduction is very much in vogue in many
houses, and guests are thus left to discover for themselves the
position and qualities of the people around them. The servant,
indeed, calls out the names of all the visitors as they arrive,
but, in many instances, mispronounces them; so that it will not
be well to follow this information, as if it were an unerring
guide. In our opinion, it is a cheerless and depressing custom,
although, in thus speaking, we do not allude to the large
assemblies of the aristocracy, but to the smaller parties of the
middle classes.

43. A SEPARATE ROOM OR CONVENIENT BUFFET should be appropriated for
refreshments, and to which the dancers may retire; and cakes and
biscuits, with wine negus, lemonade, and ices, handed round. A supper is
also mostly provided at the private parties of the middle classes; and
this requires, on the part of the hostess, a great deal of attention and
supervision. It usually takes place between the first and second parts
of the programme of the dances, of which there should be several
prettily written or printed copies distributed about the ball-room.

_In private parties_, a lady is not to refuse the invitation of
a gentleman to dance, unless she be previously engaged. The
hostess must he supposed to have asked to her house only those
persons whom she knows to be perfectly respectable and of
unblemished character, as well as pretty equal in position; and
thus, to decline the offer of any gentleman present, would be a
tacit reflection on the master and mistress of the house. It may
be mentioned here, more especially for the young who will read
this book, that introductions at balls or evening parties, cease
with the occasion that calls them forth, no introduction, at
these times, giving a gentleman a right to address, afterwards,
a lady. She is, consequently, free, next morning, to pass her
partner at a ball of the previous evening without the slightest
recognition.

44. THE BALL IS GENERALLY OPENED, that is, the first place in the first
quadrille is occupied, by the lady of the house. When anything prevents
this, the host will usually lead off the dance with the lady who is
either the highest in rank, or the greatest stranger. It will be well
for the hostess, even if she be very partial to the amusement, and a
graceful dancer, not to participate in it to any great extent, lest her
lady guests should have occasion to complain of her monopoly of the
gentlemen, and other causes of neglect. A few dances will suffice to
show her interest in the entertainment, without unduly trenching on the
attention due to her guests. In all its parts a ball should be
perfect,--

"The music, and the banquet, and the wine;
The garlands, the rose-odours, and the flowers."

The hostess or host, during the progress of a ball, will
courteously accost and chat with their friends, and take care
that the ladies are furnished with seats, and that those who
wish to dance are provided with partners. A gentle hint from the
hostess, conveyed in a quiet ladylike manner, that certain
ladies have remained unengaged during several dances, is sure
not to be neglected by any gentleman. Thus will be studied the
comfort and enjoyment of the guests, and no lady, in leaving the
house, will be able to feel the chagrin and disappointment of
not having been invited to "stand up" in a dance during the
whole of the evening.

45. WHEN ANY OF THE CARRIAGES OF THE GUESTS ARE ANNOUNCED, or the time
for their departure arrived, they should make a slight intimation to the
hostess, without, however, exciting any observation, that they are about
to depart. If this cannot be done, however, without creating too much
bustle, it will be better for the visitors to retire quietly without
taking their leave. During the course of the week, the hostess will
expect to receive from every guest a call, where it is possible, or
cards expressing the gratification experienced from her entertainment.
This attention is due to every lady for the pains and trouble she has
been at, and tends to promote social, kindly feelings.

46. HAVING THUS DISCOURSED of parties of pleasure, it will be an
interesting change to return to the more domestic business of the house,
although all the details we have been giving of dinner-parties, balls,
and the like, appertain to the department of the mistress. Without a
knowledge of the etiquette to be observed on these occasions, a mistress
would be unable to enjoy and appreciate those friendly pleasant meetings
which give, as it were, a fillip to life, and make the quiet happy home
of an English gentlewoman appear the more delightful and enjoyable. In
their proper places, all that is necessary to be known respecting the
dishes and appearance of the breakfast, dinner, tea, and supper tables,
will be set forth in this work.

47. A FAMILY DINNER AT HOME, compared with either giving or going to a
dinner-party, is, of course, of much more frequent occurrence, and many
will say, of much greater importance. Both, however, have to be
considered with a view to their nicety and enjoyment; and the latter
more particularly with reference to economy. These points will be
especially noted in the following pages on "Household Cookery." Here we
will only say, that for both mistress and servants, as well in large as
small households, it will be found, by far, the better plan, to cook and
serve the dinner, and to lay the tablecloth and the sideboard, with the
same cleanliness, neatness, and scrupulous exactness, whether it be for
the mistress herself alone, a small family, or for "company." If this
rule be strictly adhered to, all will find themselves increase in
managing skill; whilst a knowledge of their daily duties will become
familiar, and enable them to meet difficult occasions with ease, and
overcome any amount of obstacles.

48. OF THE MANNER OF PASSING EVENINGS AT HOME, there is none pleasanter
than in such recreative enjoyments as those which relax the mind from
its severer duties, whilst they stimulate it with a gentle delight.
Where there are young people forming a part of the evening circle,
interesting and agreeable pastime should especially be promoted. It is
of incalculable benefit to them that their homes should possess all the
attractions of healthful amusement, comfort, and happiness; for if they
do not find pleasure there, they will seek it elsewhere. It ought,
therefore, to enter into the domestic policy of every parent, to make
her children feel that home is the happiest place in the world; that to
imbue them with this delicious home-feeling is one of the choicest gifts
a parent can bestow.

Light or fancy needlework often forms a portion of the evening's
recreation for the ladies of the household, and this may be
varied by an occasional game at chess or backgammon. It has
often been remarked, too, that nothing is more delightful to the
feminine members of a family, than the reading aloud of some
good standard work or amusing publication. A knowledge of polite
literature may be thus obtained by the whole family, especially
if the reader is able and willing to explain the more difficult
passages of the book, and expatiate on the wisdom and beauties
it may contain. This plan, in a great measure, realizes the
advice of Lord Bacon, who says, "Read not to contradict and
refute, nor to believe and take for granted, nor to find talk
and discourse, but to weigh and consider."

49. IN RETIRING FOR THE NIGHT, it is well to remember that early rising
is almost impossible, if late going to bed be the order, or rather
disorder, of the house. The younger members of a family should go early
and at regular hours to their beds, and the domestics as soon as
possible after a reasonably appointed hour. Either the master or the
mistress of a house should, after all have gone to their separate rooms,
see that all is right with respect to the lights and fires below; and no
servants should, on any account, be allowed to remain up after the heads
of the house have retired.

50. HAVING THUS GONE FROM EARLY RISING TO EARLY RETIRING, there remain
only now to be considered a few special positions respecting which the
mistress of the house will be glad to receive some specific information.

51. WHEN A MISTRESS TAKES A HOUSE in a new locality, it will be
etiquette for her to wait until the older inhabitants of the
neighbourhood call upon her; thus evincing a desire, on their part, to
become acquainted with the new comer. It may be, that the mistress will
desire an intimate acquaintance with but few of her neighbours; but it
is to be specially borne in mind that all visits, whether of ceremony,
friendship, or condolence, should be punctiliously returned.

52. YOU MAY PERHAPS HAVE BEEN FAVOURED with letters of introduction from
some of your friends, to persons living in the neighbourhood to which
you have just come. In this case inclose the letter of introduction in
an envelope with your card. Then, if the person, to whom it is
addressed, calls in the course of a few days, the visit should be
returned by you within the week, if possible. Any breach of etiquette,
in this respect, will not readily be excused.

In the event of your being invited to dinner under the above
circumstances, nothing but necessity should prevent you from
accepting the invitation. If, however, there is some distinct
reason why you cannot accept, let it be stated frankly and
plainly, for politeness and truthfulness should be ever allied.
An opportunity should, also, be taken to call in the course of a
day or two, in order to politely express your regret and
disappointment at not having been able to avail yourself of
their kindness.

53. IN GIVING A LETTER OF INTRODUCTION, it should always be handed to
your friend, unsealed. Courtesy dictates this, as the person whom you
are introducing would, perhaps, wish to know in what manner he or she
was spoken of. Should you _receive_ a letter from a friend, introducing
to you any person known to and esteemed by the writer, the letter should
be immediately acknowledged, and your willingness expressed to do all in
your power to carry out his or her wishes.

54. SUCH ARE THE ONEROUS DUTIES which enter into the position of the
mistress of a house, and such are, happily, with a slight but continued
attention, of by no means difficult performance. She ought always to
remember that she is the first and the last, the Alpha and the Omega in
the government of her establishment; and that it is by her conduct that
its whole internal policy is regulated. She is, therefore, a person of
far more importance in a community than she usually thinks she is. On
her pattern her daughters model themselves; by her counsels they are
directed; through her virtues all are honoured;--"her children rise up
and call her blessed; her husband, also, and he praiseth her."
Therefore, let each mistress always remember her responsible position,
never approving a mean action, nor speaking an unrefined word. Let her
conduct be such that her inferiors may respect her, and such as an
honourable and right-minded man may look for in his wife and the mother
of his children. Let her think of the many compliments and the sincere
homage that have been paid to her sex by the greatest philosophers and
writers, both in ancient and modern times. Let her not forget that she
has to show herself worthy of Campbell's compliment when he said,--

"The world was sad! the garden was a wild!
And man the hermit sigh'd, till _woman_ smiled."

Let her prove herself, then, the happy companion of man, and able to
take unto herself the praises of the pious prelate, Jeremy Taylor, who
says,--"A good wife is Heaven's last best gift to man,--his angel and
minister of graces innumerable,--his gem of many virtues,--his casket of
jewels--her voice is sweet music--her smiles his brightest day;--her
kiss, the guardian of his innocence;--her arms, the pale of his safety,
the balm of his health, the balsam of his life;--her industry, his
surest wealth;--her economy, his safest steward;--her lips, his faithful
counsellors;--her bosom, the softest pillow of his cares; and her
prayers, the ablest advocates of Heaven's blessings on his head."

Cherishing, then, in her breast the respected utterances of the good and
the great, let the mistress of every house rise to the responsibility of
its management; so that, in doing her duty to all around her, she may
receive the genuine reward of respect, love, and affection!

_Note_.--Many mistresses have experienced the horrors of house-hunting,
and it is well known that "three removes are as good (or bad, rather) as
a fire." Nevertheless, it being quite evident that we must, in these
days at least, live in houses, and are sometimes obliged to change our
residences, it is well to consider some of the conditions which will add
to, or diminish, the convenience and comfort of our homes.

Although the choice of a house must be dependent on so many different
circumstances with different people, that to give any specific
directions on this head would be impossible and useless; yet it will be
advantageous, perhaps, to many, if we point out some of those general
features as to locality, soil, aspect, &c., to which the attention of
all house-takers should be carefully directed.

Regarding the locality, we may say, speaking now more particularly of a
town house, that it is very important to the health and comfort of a
family, that the neighbourhood of all factories of any kind, producing
unwholesome effluvia or smells, should be strictly avoided. Neither is
it well to take a house in the immediate vicinity of where a noisy trade
is carried on, as it is unpleasant to the feelings, and tends to
increase any existing irritation of the system.

Referring to soils; it is held as a rule, that a gravel soil is superior
to any other, as the rain drains through it very quickly, and it is
consequently drier and less damp than clay, upon which water rests a far
longer time. A clay country, too, is not so pleasant for walking
exercise as one in which gravel predominates.

The aspect of the house should be well considered, and it should be
borne in mind that the more sunlight that comes into the house, the
healthier is the habitation. The close, fetid smell which assails one on
entering a narrow court, or street, in towns, is to be assigned to the
want of light, and, consequently, air. A house with a south or
south-west aspect, is lighter, warmer, drier, and consequently more
healthy, than one facing the north or north-east.

Great advances have been made, during the last few years, in the
principles of sanitary knowledge, and one most essential point to be
observed in reference to a house, is its "drainage," as it has been
proved in an endless number of cases, that bad or defective drainage is
as certain to destroy health as the taking of poisons. This arises from
its injuriously affecting the atmosphere; thus rendering the air we
breathe unwholesome and deleterious. Let it be borne in mind, then, that
unless a house is effectually drained, the health of its inhabitants is
sure to suffer; and they will be susceptible of ague, rheumatism,
diarrhoea, fevers, and cholera.

We now come to an all-important point,--that of the water supply. The
value of this necessary article has also been lately more and more
recognized in connection with the question of health and life; and most
houses are well supplied with every convenience connected with water.
Let it, however, be well understood, that no house, however suitable in
other respects, can be desirable, if this grand means of health and
comfort is, in the slightest degree, scarce or impure. No caution can be
too great to see that it is pure and good, as well as plentiful; for,
knowing, as we do, that not a single part of our daily food is prepared
without it, the importance of its influence on the health of the inmates
of a house cannot be over-rated.

Ventilation is another feature which must not be overlooked. In a
general way, enough of air is admitted by the cracks round the doors and
windows; but if this be not the case, the chimney will smoke; and other
plans, such as the placing of a plate of finely-perforated zinc in the
upper part of the window, must be used. Cold air should never be
admitted under the doors, or at the bottom of a room, unless it be close
to the fire or stove; for it will flow along the floor towards the
fireplace, and thus leave the foul air in the upper part of the room,
unpurified, cooling, at the same time, unpleasantly and injuriously, the
feet and legs of the inmates.

The rent of a house, it has been said, should not exceed one-eighth of
the whole income of its occupier; and, as a general rule, we are
disposed to assent to this estimate, although there may be many
circumstances which would not admit of its being considered infallible.

[Illustration]

CHAPTER II.

THE HOUSEKEEPER.

55. AS SECOND IN COMMAND IN THE HOUSE, except in large establishments,
where there is a house steward, the housekeeper must consider herself as
the immediate representative of her mistress, and bring, to the
management of the household, all those qualities of honesty, industry,
and vigilance, in the same degree as if she were at the head of her
_own_ family. Constantly on the watch to detect any wrong-doing on the
part of any of the domestics, she will overlook all that goes on in the
house, and will see that every department is thoroughly attended to, and
that the servants are comfortable, at the same time that their various
duties are properly performed.

Cleanliness, punctuality, order, and method, are essentials in
the character of a good housekeeper. Without the first, no
household can be said to be well managed. The second is equally
all-important; for those who are under the housekeeper will take
their "cue" from her; and in the same proportion as punctuality
governs her movements, so will it theirs. Order, again, is
indispensable; for by it we wish to be understood that "there
should be a place for everything, and everything in its place."
Method, too, is most necessary; for when the work is properly
contrived, and each part arranged in regular succession, it will
be done more quickly and more effectually.

56. A NECESSARY QUALIFICATION FOR A HOUSEKEEPER is, that she should
thoroughly understand accounts. She will have to write in her books an
accurate registry of all sums paid for any and every purpose, all the
current expenses of the house, tradesmen's bills, and other extraneous
matter. As we have mentioned under the head of the Mistress (_see_ 16),
a housekeeper's accounts should be periodically balanced, and examined
by the head of the house. Nothing tends more to the satisfaction of both
employer and employed, than this arrangement. "Short reckonings make
long friends," stands good in this case, as in others.

It will be found an excellent plan to take an account of every
article which comes into the house connected with housekeeping,
and is not paid for at the time. The book containing these
entries can then be compared with the bills sent in by the
various tradesmen, so that any discrepancy can be inquired into
and set right. An intelligent housekeeper will, by this means,
too, be better able to judge of the average consumption of each
article by the household; and if that quantity be, at any time,
exceeded, the cause may be discovered and rectified, if it
proceed from waste or carelessness.

57. ALTHOUGH IN THE DEPARTMENT OF THE COOK, the housekeeper does not
generally much interfere, yet it is necessary that she should possess a
good knowledge of the culinary art, as, in many instances, it may be
requisite for her to take the superintendence of the kitchen. As a rule,
it may be stated, that the housekeeper, in those establishments where
there is no house steward or man cook, undertakes the preparation of the
confectionary, attends to the preserving and pickling of fruits and
vegetables; and, in a general way, to the more difficult branches of the
art of cookery.

Much of these arrangements will depend, however, on the
qualifications of the cook; for instance, if she be an able
artiste, there will be but little necessity for the housekeeper
to interfere, except in the already noticed articles of
confectionary, &c. On the contrary, if the cook be not so clever
an adept in her art, then it will be requisite for the
housekeeper to give more of her attention to the business of the
kitchen, than in the former case. It will be one of the duties
of the housekeeper to attend to the marketing, in the absence of
either a house steward or man cook.

58. THE DAILY DUTIES OF A HOUSEKEEPER are regulated, in a great measure,
by the extent of the establishment she superintends. She should,
however, rise early, and see that all the domestics are duly performing
their work, and that everything is progressing satisfactorily for the
preparation of the breakfast for the household and family. After
breakfast, which, in large establishments, she will take in the
"housekeeper's room" with the lady's-maid, butler, and valet, and where
they will be waited on by the still-room maid, she will, on various days
set apart for each purpose, carefully examine the household linen, with
a view to its being repaired, or to a further quantity being put in hand
to be made; she will also see that the furniture throughout the house is
well rubbed and polished; and will, besides, attend to all the necessary
details of marketing and ordering goods from the tradesmen.

The housekeeper's room is generally made use of by the
lady's-maid, butler, and valet, who take there their breakfast,
tea, and supper. The lady's-maid will also use this apartment as
a sitting-room, when not engaged with her lady, or with some
other duties, which would call her elsewhere. In different
establishments, according to their size and the rank of the
family, different rules of course prevail. For instance, in the
mansions of those of very high rank, and where there is a house
steward, there are two distinct tables kept, one in the
steward's room for the principal members of the household, the
other in the servants' hall, for the other domestics. At the
steward's dinner-table, the steward and housekeeper preside; and
here, also, are present the lady's-maid, butler, valet, and head
gardener. Should any visitors be staying with the family, their
servants, generally the valet and lady's-maid, will be admitted
to the steward's table.

59. AFTER DINNER, the housekeeper, having seen that all the members of
the establishment have regularly returned to their various duties, and
that all the departments of the household are in proper working order,
will have many important matters claiming her attention. She will,
possibly, have to give the finishing touch to some article of
confectionary, or be occupied with some of the more elaborate processes
of the still-room. There may also be the dessert to arrange, ice-creams
to make; and all these employments call for no ordinary degree of care,
taste, and attention.

The still-room was formerly much more in vogue than at present;
for in days of "auld lang syne," the still was in constant
requisition for the supply of sweet-flavoured waters for the
purposes of cookery, scents and aromatic substances used in the
preparation of the toilet, and cordials in cases of accidents
and illness. There are some establishments, however, in which
distillation is still carried on, and in these, the still-room
maid has her old duties to perform. In a general way, however,
this domestic is immediately concerned with the housekeeper. For
the latter she lights the fire, dusts her room, prepares the
breakfast-table, and waits at the different meals taken in the
housekeeper's room (_see_ 58). A still-room maid may learn a
very great deal of useful knowledge from her intimate connection
with the housekeeper, and if she be active and intelligent, may
soon fit herself for a better position in the household.

60. IN THE EVENING, the housekeeper will often busy herself with the
necessary preparations for the next day's duties. Numberless small, but
still important arrangements, will have to be made, so that everything
may move smoothly. At times, perhaps, attention will have to be paid to
the breaking of lump-sugar, the stoning of raisins, the washing,
cleansing, and drying of currants, &c. The evening, too, is the best
time for setting right her account of the expenditure, and duly writing
a statement of moneys received and paid, and also for making memoranda
of any articles she may require for her storeroom or other departments.

Periodically, at some convenient time,--for instance, quarterly
or half-yearly, it is a good plan for the housekeeper to make an
inventory of everything she has under her care, and compare this
with the lists of a former period; she will then be able to
furnish a statement, if necessary, of the articles which, on
account of time, breakage, loss, or other causes, it has been
necessary to replace or replenish.

61. IN CONCLUDING THESE REMARKS on the duties of the housekeeper, we
will briefly refer to the very great responsibility which attaches to
her position. Like "Caesar's wife," she should be "above suspicion," and
her honesty and sobriety unquestionable; for there are many temptations
to which she is exposed. In a physical point of view, a housekeeper
should be healthy and strong, and be particularly clean in her person,
and her hands, although they may show a degree of roughness, from the
nature of some of her employments, yet should have a nice inviting
appearance. In her dealings with the various tradesmen, and in her
behaviour to the domestics under her, the demeanour and conduct of the
housekeeper should be such as, in neither case, to diminish, by an undue
familiarity, her authority or influence.

_Note_.--It will be useful for the mistress and housekeeper to know the
best seasons for various occupations connected with Household
Management; and we, accordingly, subjoin a few hints which we think will
prove valuable.

As, in the winter months, servants have much more to do, in consequence
of the necessity there is to attend to the number of fires throughout
the household, not much more than the ordinary every-day work can be
attempted.

In the summer, and when the absence of fires gives the domestics more
leisure, then any extra work that is required, can be more easily
performed.

The spring is the usual period set apart for house-cleaning, and
removing all the dust and dirt, which will necessarily, with the best of
housewives, accumulate during the winter months, from the smoke of the
coal, oil, gas, &c. This season is also well adapted for washing and
bleaching linen, &c., as, the weather, not being then too hot for the
exertions necessary in washing counterpanes, blankets, and heavy things
in general, the work is better and more easily done than in the intense
heats of July, which month some recommend for these purposes. Winter
curtains should be taken down, and replaced by the summer white ones;
and furs and woollen cloths also carefully laid by. The former should be
well shaken and brushed, and then pinned upon paper or linen, with
camphor to preserve them from the moths. Furs, &c., will be preserved in
the same way. Included, under the general description of house-cleaning,
must be understood, turning out all the nooks and corners of drawers,
cupboards, lumber-rooms, lofts, &c., with a view of getting rid of all
unnecessary articles, which only create dirt and attract vermin;
sweeping of chimneys, taking up carpets, painting and whitewashing the
kitchen and offices, papering rooms, when needed, and, generally
speaking, the house putting on, with the approaching summer, a bright
appearance, and a new face, in unison with nature. Oranges now should be
preserved, and orange wine made.

The summer will be found, as we have mentioned above, in consequence of
the diminution of labour for the domestics, the best period for
examining and repairing household linen, and for "putting to rights" all
those articles which have received a large share of wear and tear during
the dark winter days. In direct reference to this matter, we may here
remark, that sheets should be turned "sides to middle" before they are
allowed to get very thin. Otherwise, patching, which is uneconomical
from the time it consumes, and is unsightly in point of appearance, will
have to be resorted to. In June and July, gooseberries, currants,
raspberries, strawberries, and other summer fruits, should be preserved,
and jams and jellies made. In July, too, the making of walnut ketchup
should be attended to, as the green walnuts will be approaching
perfection for this purpose. Mixed pickles may also be now made, and it
will be found a good plan to have ready a jar of pickle-juice (for the
making of which all information will be given in future pages), into
which to put occasionally some young French beans, cauliflowers, &c.

In the early autumn, plums of various kinds are to be bottled and
preserved, and jams and jellies made. A little later, tomato sauce, a
most useful article to have by you, may be prepared; a supply of apples
laid in, if you have a place to keep them, as also a few keeping pears
and filberts. Endeavour to keep also a large vegetable marrow,--it will
be found delicious in the winter.

In October and November, it will be necessary to prepare for the cold
weather, and get ready the winter clothing for the various members of
the family. The white summer curtains will now be carefully put away,
the fireplaces, grates, and chimneys looked to, and the House put in a
thorough state of repair, so that no "loose tile" may, at a future day,
interfere with your comfort, and extract something considerable from
your pocket.

In December, the principal household duty lies in preparing for the
creature comforts of those near and dear to us, so as to meet old
Christmas with a happy face, a contented mind, and a full larder; and in
stoning the plums, washing the currants, cutting the citron, beating the
eggs, and MIXING THE PUDDING, a housewife is not unworthily greeting the
genial season of all good things.

[Illustration]

CHAPTER III.

ARRANGEMENT AND ECONOMY OF THE KITCHEN.

62. "THE DISTRIBUTION OF A KITCHEN," says Count Rumford, the celebrated
philosopher and physician, who wrote so learnedly on all subjects
connected with domestic economy and architecture, "must always depend so
much on local circumstances, that general rules can hardly be given
respecting it; the principles, however, on which this distribution
ought, in all cases, to be made, are simple and easy to be understood,"
and, in his estimation, these resolve themselves into symmetry of
proportion in the building and convenience to the cook. The requisites
of a good kitchen, however, demand something more special than is here
pointed out. It must be remembered that it is the great laboratory of
every household, and that much of the "weal or woe," as far as regards
bodily health, depends upon the nature of the preparations concocted
within its walls. A good kitchen, therefore, should be erected with a
view to the following particulars. 1. Convenience of distribution in its
parts, with largeness of dimension. 2. Excellence of light, height of
ceiling, and good ventilation. 3. Easiness of access, without passing
through the house. 4. Sufficiently remote from the principal apartments
of the house, that the members, visitors, or guests of the family, may
not perceive the odour incident to cooking, or hear the noise of
culinary operations. 5. Plenty of fuel and water, which, with the
scullery, pantry, and storeroom, should be so near it, as to offer the
smallest possible trouble in reaching them.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 1.]

The kitchens of the Middle Ages, in England, are said to have
been constructed after the fashion of those of the Romans. They
were generally octagonal, with several fireplaces, but no
chimneys; neither was there any wood admitted into the building.
The accompanying cut, fig. 1, represents the turret which was
erected on the top of the conical roof of the kitchen at
Glastonbury Abbey, and which was perforated with holes to allow
the smoke of the fire, as well as the steam from cooking, to
escape. Some kitchens had funnels or vents below the eaves to
let out the steam, which was sometimes considerable, as the
Anglo-Saxons used their meat chiefly in a boiled state. From
this circumstance, some of their large kitchens had four ranges,
comprising a boiling-place for small boiled meats, and a
boiling-house for the great boiler. In private houses the
culinary arrangements were no doubt different; for Du Cange
mentions a little kitchen with a chamber, even in a solarium, or
upper floor.

63. THE SIMPLICITY OF THE PRIMITIVE AGES has frequently been an object
of poetical admiration, and it delights the imagination to picture men
living upon such fruits as spring spontaneously from the earth, and
desiring no other beverages to slake their thirst, but such as fountains
and rivers supply. Thus we are told, that the ancient inhabitants of
Argos lived principally on pears; that the Arcadians revelled in acorns,
and the Athenians in figs. This, of course, was in the golden age,
before ploughing began, and when mankind enjoyed all kinds of plenty
without having to earn their bread "by the sweat of their brow." This
delightful period, however, could not last for ever, and the earth
became barren, and continued unfruitful till Ceres came and taught the
art of sowing, with several other useful inventions. The first whom she
taught to till the ground was Triptolemus, who communicated his
instructions to his countrymen the Athenians. Thence the art was carried
into Achaia, and thence into Arcadia. Barley was the first grain that
was used, and the invention of bread-making is ascribed to Pan.

The use of fire, as an instrument of cookery, must have been
coeval with this invention of bread, which, being the most
necessary of all kinds of food, was frequently used in a sense
so comprehensive as to include both meat and drink. It was, by
the Greeks, baked under the ashes.

64. IN THE PRIMARY AGES it was deemed unlawful to eat flesh, and when
mankind began to depart from their primitive habits, the flesh of swine
was the first that was eaten. For several ages, it was pronounced
unlawful to slaughter oxen, from an estimate of their great value in
assisting men to cultivate the ground; nor was it usual to kill young
animals, from a sentiment which considered it cruel to take away the
life of those that had scarcely tasted the joys of existence.

At this period no cooks were kept, and we know from Homer that
his ancient heroes prepared and dressed their victuals with
their own hands. Ulysses, for example, we are told, like a
modern charwoman, excelled at lighting a fire, whilst Achilles
was an adept at turning a spit. Subsequently, heralds, employed
in civil and military affairs, filled the office of cooks, and
managed marriage feasts; but this, no doubt, was after mankind
had advanced in the art of living, a step further than
_roasting_, which, in all places, was the ancient manner of
dressing meat.

65. THE AGE OF ROASTING we may consider as that in which the use of the
metals would be introduced as adjuncts to the culinary art; and amongst
these, iron, the most useful of them all, would necessarily take a
prominent place. This metal is easily oxidized, but to bring it to a
state of fusibility, it requires a most intense heat. Of all the metals,
it is the widest diffused and most abundant; and few stones or mineral
bodies are without an admixture of it. It possesses the valuable
property of being welded by hammering; and hence its adaptation to the
numerous purposes of civilized life.

Metallic grains of iron have been found in strawberries, and a
twelfth of the weight of the wood of dried oak is said to
consist of this metal. Blood owes its colour of redness to the
quantity of iron it contains, and rain and snow are seldom
perfectly free from it. In the arts it is employed in three
states,--as _cast_ iron, _wrought_ iron, and _steel_. In each of
these it largely enters into the domestic economy, and stoves,
grates, and the general implements of cookery, are usually
composed of it. In antiquity, its employment was, comparatively
speaking, equally universal. The excavations made at Pompeii
have proved this. The accompanying cuts present us with
specimens of stoves, both ancient and modern. Fig. 2 is the
remains of a kitchen stove found in the house of Pansa, at
Pompeii, and would seem, in its perfect state, not to have been
materially different from such as are in use at the present day.
Fig. 3 is a self-acting, simple open range in modern use, and
may be had of two qualities, ranging, according to their
dimensions, from L3. 10s. and L3. 18s. respectively, up to L4.
10s. and L7. 5s. They are completely fitted up with oven,
boiler, sliding cheek, wrought-iron bars, revolving shelves, and
brass tap. Fig. 4, is called the Improved Leamington Kitchener,
and is said to surpass any other range in use, for easy cooking
by one fire. It has a hot plate, which is well calculated for an
ironing-stove, and on which as many vessels as will stand upon
it, may be kept boiling, without being either soiled or injured.
Besides, it has a perfectly ventilated and spacious wrought-iron
roaster, with movable shelves, draw-out stand, double
dripping-pan, and meat-stand. The roaster can be converted into
an oven by closing the valves, when bread and pastry can be
baked in it in a superior manner. It also has a large iron
boiler with brass tap and steam-pipe, round and square gridirons
for chops and steaks, ash-pan, open fire for roasting, and a set
of ornamental covings with plate-warmer attached. It took a
first-class prize and medal in the Great Exhibition of 1851, and
was also exhibited, with all the recent improvements, at the
Dublin Exhibition in 1853. Fig. 5 is another kitchener, adapted
for large families. It has on the one side, a large ventilated
oven; and on the other, the fire and roaster. The hot plate is
over all, and there is a back boiler, made of wrought iron, with
brass tap and steam-pipe. In other respects it resembles Fig. 4,
with which it possesses similar advantages of construction.
Either maybe had at varying prices, according to size, from L5.
15s. up to L23. 10s. They are supplied by Messrs. Richard & John
Slack 336, Strand, London.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 2.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 3.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 4.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 5.]

66. FROM KITCHEN RANGES to the implements used in cookery is but a step.
With these, every kitchen should be well supplied, otherwise the cook
must not be expected to "perform her office" in a satisfactory manner.
Of the culinary utensils of the ancients, our knowledge is very limited;
but as the art of living, in every civilized country, is pretty much the
same, the instruments for cooking must, in a great degree, bear a
striking resemblance to each other. On referring to classical
antiquities, we find mentioned, among household utensils, leather bags,
baskets constructed of twigs, reeds, and rushes; boxes, basins, and
bellows; bread-moulds, brooms, and brushes; caldrons, colanders,
cisterns, and chafing-dishes; cheese-rasps, knives, and ovens of the
Dutch kind; funnels and frying-pans; handmills, soup-ladles, milk-pails,
and oil-jars; presses, scales, and sieves; spits of different sizes, but
some of them large enough to roast an ox; spoons, fire-tongs, trays,
trenchers, and drinking-vessels; with others for carrying food,
preserving milk, and holding cheese. This enumeration, if it does
nothing else, will, to some extent, indicate the state of the simpler
kinds of mechanical arts among the ancients.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 6.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 7.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 8.]

In so far as regards the shape and construction of many of the
kitchen utensils enumerated above, they bore a great resemblance
to our own. This will be seen by the accompanying cuts. Fig. 6
is an ancient stock-pot in bronze, which seems to have been made
to hang over the fire, and was found in the buried city of
Pompeii. Fig. 7 is one of modern make, and may be obtained
either of copper or wrought iron, tinned inside. Fig. 8 is
another of antiquity, with a large ladle and colander, with
holes attached. It is taken from the column of Trajan. The
modern ones can be obtained at all prices, according to size,
from 13s. 6d. up to L1. 1s.

67. IN THE MANUFACTURE OF THESE UTENSILS, bronze metal seems to have
been much in favour with the ancients. It was chosen not only for their
domestic vessels, but it was also much used for their public sculptures
and medals. It is a compound, composed of from six to twelve parts of
tin to one hundred of copper. It gives its name to figures and all
pieces of sculpture made of it. Brass was another favourite metal, which
is composed of copper and zinc. It is more fusible than copper, and not
so apt to tarnish. In a pure state it is not malleable, unless when hot,
and after it has been melted twice it will not bear the hammer. To
render it capable of being wrought, it requires 7 lb. of lead to be put
to 1 cwt. of its own material.

The Corinthian brass of antiquity was a mixture of silver, gold,
and copper. A fine kind of brass, supposed to be made by the
cementation of copper plates with calamine, is, in Germany,
hammered out into leaves, and is called Dutch metal in this
country. It is employed in the same way as gold leaf. Brass is
much used for watchworks, as well as for wire.

68. The braziers, ladles, stewpans, saucepans, gridirons, and colanders
of antiquity might generally pass for those of the English manufacture
of the present day, in so far as shape is concerned. In proof of this we
have placed together the following similar articles of ancient and
modern pattern, in order that the reader may, at a single view, see
wherein any difference that is between them, consists.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 9. Modern.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 10. Ancient.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 11. Modern.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 12. Ancient.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 13. Modern.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 14. Ancient.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 15. Modern.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 16. Modern.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 17. Ancient.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 18. Ancient.]

_Figs_. 9 and 10 are flat sauce or _saute_ pans, the ancient one
being fluted in the handle, and having at the end a ram's head.
Figs. 11 and 12 are colanders, the handle of the ancient one
being adorned, in the original, with carved representations of a
cornucopia, a satyr, a goat, pigs, and other animals. Any
display of taste in the adornment of such utensils, might seem
to be useless; but when we remember how much more natural it is
for us all to be careful of the beautiful and costly, than of
the plain and cheap, it may even become a question in the
economy of a kitchen, whether it would not, in the long run, be
cheaper to have articles which displayed some tasteful ingenuity
in their manufacture, than such as are so perfectly plain as to
have no attractions whatever beyond their mere suitableness to
the purposes for which they are made. Figs. 13 and 14 are
saucepans, the ancient one being of bronze, originally copied
from the cabinet of M. l'Abbe Charlet, and engraved in the
Antiquities of Montfaucon. Figs. 15 and 17 are gridirons, and 16
and 18 dripping-pans. In all these utensils the resemblance
between such as were in use 2,000 years ago, and those in use at
the present day, is strikingly manifest.

69. SOME OF THE ANCIENT UTENSILS represented in the above cuts, are
copied from those found amid the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii. These
Roman cities were, in the first century, buried beneath the lava of an
eruption of Vesuvius, and continued to be lost to the world till the
beginning of the last century, when a peasant, in digging for a well,
gradually discovered a small temple with some statues. Little notice,
however, was taken of this circumstance till 1736, when the king of
Naples, desiring to erect a palace at Portici, caused extensive
excavations to be made, when the city of Herculaneum was slowly unfolded
to view. Pompeii was discovered about 1750, and being easier cleared
from the lava in which it had so long been entombed, disclosed itself as
it existed immediately before the catastrophe which overwhelmed it,
nearly two thousand years ago. It presented, to the modern world, the
perfect picture of the form and structure of an ancient Roman city. The
interior of its habitations, shops, baths, theatres, and temples, were
all disclosed, with many of the implements used by the workmen in their
various trades, and the materials on which they were employed, when the
doomed city was covered with the lavian stream.

70. AMONGST THE MOST ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS of the kitchen are scales or
weighing-machines for family use. These are found to have existed among
the ancients, and must, at a very early age, have been both publicly and
privately employed for the regulation of quantities. The modern English
weights were adjusted by the 27th chapter of Magna Charta, or the great
charter forced, by the barons, from King John at Runnymede, in Surrey.
Therein it is declared that the weights, all over England, shall be the
same, although for different commodities there were two different kinds,
Troy and Avoirdupois. The origin of both is taken from a grain of wheat
gathered in the middle of an ear. The standard of measures was
originally kept at Winchester, and by a law of King Edgar was ordained
to be observed throughout the kingdom.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 19.]

[Illustration: _Fig_. 20.]

Fig. 19 is an ancient pair of common scales, with two basins and
a movable weight, which is made in the form of a head, covered
with the pileus, because Mercury had the weights and measures
under his superintendence. It is engraved on a stone in the
gallery of Florence. Fig. 20 represents a modern
weighing-machine, of great convenience, and generally in use in
those establishments where a great deal of cooking is carried
on.

71. ACCOMPANYING THE SCALES, or weighing-machines, there should be
spice-boxes, and sugar and biscuit-canisters of either white or japanned
tin. The covers of these should fit tightly, in order to exclude the
air, and if necessary, be lettered in front, to distinguish them. The
white metal of which they are usually composed, loses its colour when
exposed to the air, but undergoes no further change. It enters largely
into the composition of culinary utensils, many of them being entirely
composed of tinned sheet-iron; the inside of copper and iron vessels
also, being usually what is called _tinned_. This art consists of
covering any metal with a thin coating of tin; and it requires the metal
to be covered, to be perfectly clean and free from rust, and also that
the tin, itself, be purely metallic, and entirely cleared from all ashes
or refuse. Copper boilers, saucepans, and other kitchen utensils, are
tinned after they are manufactured, by being first made hot and the tin
rubbed on with resin. In this process, nothing ought to be used but pure
grain-tin. Lead, however, is sometimes mixed with that metal, not only
to make it lie more easily, but to adulterate it--a pernicious practice,
which in every article connected with the cooking and preparation of
food, cannot be too severely reprobated.--The following list, supplied
by Messrs. Richard & John Slack, 336, Strand, will show the articles
required for the kitchen of a family in the middle class of life,
although it does not contain all the things that may be deemed necessary
for some families, and may contain more than are required for others. As
Messrs. Slack themselves, however, publish a useful illustrated
catalogue, which may be had at their establishment _gratis_, and which
it will be found advantageous to consult by those about to furnish, it
supersedes the necessity of our enlarging that which we give:--

s. d.

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