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The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

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TO MAKE BEEF TEA.

1858. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of lean gravy-beef, 1 quart of water, 1
saltspoonful of salt.

_Mode_.--Have the meat cut without fat and bone, and choose a nice
fleshy piece. Cut it into small pieces about the size of dice, and put
it into a clean saucepan. Add the water _cold_ to it; put it on the
fire, and bring it to the boiling-point; then skim well. Put in the salt
when the water boils, and _simmer_ the beef tea _gently_ from 1/2 to 3/4
hour, removing any more scum should it appear on the surface. Strain the
tea through a hair sieve, and set it by in a cool place. When wanted for
use, remove every particle of fat from the top; warm up as much as may
be required, adding, if necessary, a little more salt. This preparation
is simple beef tea, and is to be administered to those invalids to whom
flavourings and seasonings are not allowed. When the patient is very
low, use double the quantity of meat to the same proportion of water.
Should the invalid be able to take the tea prepared in a more palatable
manner, it is easy to make it so by following the directions in the next
recipe, which is an admirable one for making savoury beef tea. Beef tea
is always better when made the day before it is wanted, and then warmed
up. It is a good plan to put the tea into a small cup or basin, and to
place this basin in a saucepan of boiling water. When the tea is warm,
it is ready to serve.

_Time_.--1/4 to 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 6d. per pint.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1 lb. of meat for a pint of good beef tea.

MISS NIGHTINGALE says, one of the most common errors among
nurses, with respect to sick diet, is the belief that beef tea
is the most nutritive of all article. She says, "Just try and
boil down a lb. of beef into beef tea; evaporate your beef tea,
and see what is left of your beef: you will find that there is
barely a teaspoonful of solid nourishment to 1/4 pint of water
in beef tea. Nevertheless, there is a certain reparative quality
in it,--we do not know what,--as there is in tea; but it maybe
safely given in almost any inflammatory disease, and is as
little to be depended upon with the healthy or convalescent,
where much nourishment is required."

SAVOURY BEEF TEA.

(_Soyer's Recipe_.)

1859. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of solid beef, 1 oz. of butter, 1 clove, 2
button onions or 1/2 a large one, 1 saltspoonful of salt, 1 quart of
water.

_Mode_.--Cut the beef into very small dice; put it into a stewpan with
the butter, clove, onion, and salt; stir the meat round over the fire
for a few minutes, until it produces a thin gravy; then add the water,
and let it simmer gently from 1/2 to 3/4 hour, skimming off every
particle of fat. When done, strain it through a sieve, and put it by in
a cool place until required. The same, if wanted quite plain, is done by
merely omitting the vegetables, salt, and clove; the butter cannot be
objectionable, as it is taken out in skimming.

_Time_.--1/2 to 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 8d. per pint.
_Sufficient_.--Allow 1 lb. of beef to make 1 pint of good beef tea.

_Note_.--The meat loft from beef tea may be boiled a little longer, and
pounded, with spices, &c., for potting. It makes a very nice breakfast
dish.

DR. CHRISTISON says that "every one will be struck with the
readiness with which certain classes of patients will often take
diluted meat juice, or beef tea repeatedly, when they refuse all
other kinds of food." This is particularly remarkable in case of
gastric fever, in which, he says, little or nothing else besides
beef tea, or diluted meat juice, has been taken for weeks, or
even months; and yet a pint of beef tea contains scarcely 1/4
oz. of anything but water. The result is so striking, that he
asks, "What is its mode of action? Not simple nutriment; 1/4 oz.
of the most nutritive material cannot nearly replace the daily
wear and tear of the tissue in any circumstances." Possibly, he
says, it belongs to a new denomination of remedies.

BAKED BEEF TEA.

1860. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of fleshy beef, 1-1/2 pint of water, 1/4
saltspoonful of salt.

_Mode_.--Cut the beef into small square pieces, after trimming off all
the fat, and put it into a baking-jar, with the above proportion of
water and salt; cover the jar well, place it in a warm, but not hot
oven, and bake for 3 or 4 hours. When the oven is very fierce in the
daytime, it is a good plan to put the jar in at night, and let it remain
till the next morning, when the tea will be done. It should be strained,
and put by in a cool place until wanted. It may also be flavoured with
an onion, a clove, and a few sweet herbs, &c., when the stomach is
sufficiently strong to take those.

_Time_.--3 or 4 hours, or to be left in the oven all night.

_Average cost_, 6d. per pint.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1 lb. of meat for 1 pint of good beef tea.

BAKED OR STEWED CALF'S FOOT.

1861. INGREDIENTS.--1 calf's foot, 1 pint of milk, 1 pint of water, 1
blade of mace, the rind of 1/4 lemon, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Well clean the foot, and either stew or bake it in the
milk-and-water with the other ingredients from 3 to 4 hours. To enhance
the flavour, an onion and a small quantity of celery may be added, if
approved; 1/2 a teacupful of cream, stirred in just before serving, is
also a great improvement to this dish.

_Time_.--3 to 4 hours. _Average cost_, in full season, 9d. each.

_Sufficient_ for 1 person. _Seasonable_ from March to October.

CALF'S-FOOT BROTH.

1862. INGREDIENTS.--1 calf's foot, 3 pints of water, 1 small lump of
sugar, nutmeg to taste, the yolk of 1 egg, a piece of butter the size of
a nut.

_Mode_.--Stew the foot in the water, with the lemon-peel, very gently,
until the liquid is half wasted, removing any scum, should it rise to
the surface. Set it by in a basin until quite cold, then take off every
particle of fat. Warm up about 1/2 pint of the broth, adding the butter,
sugar, and a very small quantity of grated nutmeg; take it off the fire
for a minute or two, then add the beaten yolk of the egg; keep stirring
over the fire until the mixture thickens, but do not allow it to boil
again after the egg is added, or it will curdle, and the broth will be
spoiled.

_Time_.--To be boiled until the liquid is reduced one half.

_Average cost_, in full season, 9d. each.

_Sufficient_ to make 1-1/4 pint of broth.

_Seasonable_ from March to October.

CHICKEN BROTH.

1863. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 fowl, or the inferior joints of a whole one; 1
quart of water, 1 blade of mace, 1/2 onion, a small bunch of sweet
herbs, salt to taste, 10 peppercorns.

_Mode_.--An old fowl not suitable for eating may be converted into very
good broth, or, if a young one be used, the inferior joints may be put
in the broth, and the best pieces reserved for dressing in some other
manner. Put the fowl into a saucepan, with all the ingredients, and
simmer gently for 1-1/2 hour, carefully skimming the broth well. When
done, strain, and put by in a cool place until wanted; then take all the
fat off the top, warm up as much as may be required, and serve. This
broth is, of course, only for those invalids whose stomachs are strong
enough to digest it, with a flavouring of herbs, &c. It may be made in
the same manner as beef tea, with water and salt only; but the
preparation will be but tasteless and insipid. When the invalid cannot
digest this chicken broth with the flavouring, we would recommend plain
beef tea in preference to plain chicken tea, which it would be without
the addition of herbs, onions, &c.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour.

_Sufficient_ to make rather more than 1 pint of broth.

NUTRITIOUS COFFEE.

1864. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 oz. of ground coffee, 1 pint of milk.

_Mode_.--Let the coffee be freshly ground; put it into a saucepan, with
the milk, which should be made nearly boiling before the coffee is put
in, and boil both together for 3 minutes; clear it by pouring some of it
into a cup, and then back again, and leave it on the hob for a few
minutes to settle thoroughly. This coffee may be made still more
nutritious by the addition of an egg well beaten, and put into the
coffee-cup.

_Time_.--5 minutes to boil, 5 minutes to settle.

_Sufficient_ to make 1 large breakfast-cupful of coffee.

Our great nurse Miss Nightingale remarks, that "a great deal too
much against tea is said by wise people, and a great deal too
much of tea is given to the sick by foolish people. When you see
the natural and almost universal craving in English sick for
their 'tea,' you cannot but feel that Nature knows what she is
about. But a little tea or coffee restores them quite as much as
a great deal; and a great deal of tea, and especially of coffee,
impairs the little power of digestion they have. Yet a nurse,
because she sees how one or two cups of tea or coffee restore
her patient, thinks that three or four cups will do twice as
much. This is not the case at all; it is, however, certain that
there is nothing yet discovered which is a substitute to the
English patient for his cup of tea; he can take it when he can
take nothing else, and he often can't take anything else, if he
has it not. Coffee is a better restorative than tea, but a
greater impairer of the digestion. In making coffee, it is
absolutely necessary to buy it in the berry, and grind it at
home; otherwise, you may reckon upon its containing a certain
amount of chicory, at least. This is not a question of the
taste, or of the wholesomeness of chicory; it is, that chicory
has nothing at all of the properties for which you give coffee,
and, therefore, you may as well not give it."

THE INVALID'S CUTLET.

1865. INGREDIENTS.--1 nice cutlet from a loin or neck of mutton, 2
teacupfuls of water, 1 very small stick of celery, pepper and salt to
taste.

_Mode_.--Have the cutlet cut from a very nice loin or neck of mutton;
take off all the fat; put it into a stewpan, with the other ingredients;
stew _very gently_ indeed for nearly 2 hours, and skim off every
particle of fat that may rise to the surface from time to time. The
celery should be cut into thin slices before it is added to the meat,
and care must be taken not to put in too much of this ingredient, or the
dish will not be good. If the water is allowed to boil fast, the cutlet
will be hard.

_Time_.--2 hours' very gentle stewing. _Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 person. _Seasonable_ at any time.

EEL BROTH.

1866. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of eels, a small bunch of sweet herbs,
including parsley; 1/2 onion, 10 peppercorns, 3 pints of water, 2
cloves, salt and pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--After having cleaned and skinned the eel, cut it into small
pieces, and put it into a stewpan, with the other ingredients; simmer
gently until the liquid is reduced nearly half, carefully removing the
scum as it rises. Strain it through a hair sieve; put it by in a cool
place, and, when wanted, take off all the fat from the top, warm up as
much as is required, and serve with sippets of toasted bread. This is a
very nutritious broth, and easy of digestion.

_Time_.--To be simmered until the liquor is reduced to half.

_Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ to make 1-1/2 pint of broth.

_Seasonable_ from June to March.

EGG WINE.

1867. INGREDIENTS.--1 egg, 1 tablespoonful and 1/2 glass of cold water,
1 glass of sherry, sugar and grated nutmeg to taste.

_Mode_.--Beat the egg, mixing with it a tablespoonful of cold water;
make the wine-and-water hot, but not boiling; pour it on the egg,
stirring all the time. Add sufficient lump sugar to sweeten the mixture,
and a little grated nutmeg; put all into a very clean saucepan, set it
on a gentle fire, and stir the contents one way until they thicken, but
_do not allow them to boil_. Serve in a glass with sippets of toasted
bread or plain crisp biscuits. When the egg is not warmed, the mixture
will be found easier of digestion, but it is not so pleasant a drink.

_Sufficient_ for 1 person.

TO MAKE GRUEL.

1868. INGREDIENTS.--1 tablespoonful of Robinson's patent groats, 2
tablespoonfuls of cold water, 1 pint of boiling water.

_Mode_.--Mix the prepared groats smoothly with the cold water in a
basin; pour over them the boiling water, stirring it all the time. Put
it into a very clean saucepan; boil the gruel for 10 minutes, keeping it
well stirred; sweeten to taste, and serve. It may be flavoured with a
small piece of lemon-peel, by boiling it in the gruel, or a little
grated nutmeg may be put in; but in these matters the taste of the
patient should be consulted. Pour the gruel in a tumbler and serve. When
wine is allowed to the invalid, 2 tablespoonfuls of sherry or port make
this preparation very nice. In cases of colds, the same quantity of
spirits is sometimes added instead of wine.

_Time_.--10 minutes.

_Sufficient_ to make a pint of gruel.

INVALID'S JELLY.

1869. INGREDIENTS.--12 shanks of mutton, 3 quarts of water, a bunch of
sweet herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 3 blades of mace, 1 onion, 1 lb.
of lean beef, a crust of bread toasted brown.

_Mode_.--Soak the shanks in plenty of water for some hours, and scrub
them well; put them, with the beef and other ingredients, into a
saucepan with the water, and let them simmer very gently for 5 hours.
Strain the broth, and, when cold, take off all the fat. It may be eaten
either warmed up or cold as a jelly.

_Time_.--5 hours. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ to make from 1-1/2 to 2 pints of jelly.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

LEMONADE FOR INVALIDS.

1870. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lemon, lump sugar to taste, 1 pint of boiling
water.

_Mode_.--Pare off the rind of the lemon thinly; cut the lemon into 2 or
3 thick slices, and remove as much as possible of the white outside
pith, and all the pips. Put the slices of lemon, the peel, and lump
sugar into a jug; pour over the boiling water; cover it closely, and in
2 hours it will be fit to drink. It should either be strained or poured
off from the sediment.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 2d.

_Sufficient_ to make 1 pint of lemonade. _Seasonable_ at any time.

NOURISHING LEMONADE.

1871. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 pint of boiling water, the juice of 4 lemons,
the rinds of 2, 1/2 pint of sherry, 4 eggs, 6 oz. of loaf sugar.

_Mode_.--Pare off the lemon-rind thinly, put it into a jug with the
sugar, and pour over the boiling water. Let it cool, then strain it; add
the wine, lemon-juice, and eggs, previously well beaten, and also
strained, and the beverage will be ready for use. If thought desirable,
the quantity of sherry and water could be lessened, and milk substituted
for them. To obtain the flavour of the lemon-rind properly, a few lumps
of the sugar should be rubbed over it, until some of the yellow is
absorbed.

_Time_.--Altogether 1 hour to make it. _Average cost_, 1s. 8d.

_Sufficient_ to make 2-1/2 pints of lemonade. _Seasonable_ at any time.

TO MAKE MUTTON BROTH.

1872. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of the scrag end of the neck of mutton, 1
onion, a bunch of sweet herbs, 4 turnip, 1/2 pints of water, pepper and
salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Put the mutton into a stewpan; pour over the water cold and add
the other ingredients. When it boils, skim it very carefully, cover the
pan closely, and let it simmer very gently for an hour; strain it, let
it cool, take off all the fat from the surface, and warm up as much as
may be required, adding, if the patient be allowed to take it, a
teaspoonful of minced parsley which has been previously scalded. Pearl
barley or rice are very nice additions to mutton broth, and should be
boiled as long as the other ingredients. When either of these is added,
the broth must not be strained, but merely thoroughly skimmed. Plain
mutton broth without seasoning is made by merely boiling the mutton,
water, and salt together, straining it, letting the broth cool, skimming
all the fat off, and warming up as much as is required. This preparation
would be very tasteless and insipid, but likely to agree with very
delicate stomachs, whereas the least addition of other ingredients would
have the contrary effect.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, _7d._

_Sufficient_ to make from 1-1/2 to 2 pints of broth.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Veal broth may be made in the same manner; the knuckle of a leg
or shoulder is the part usually used for this purpose. It is very good
with the addition of the inferior joints of a fowl, or a few
shank-bones.

MUTTON BROTH, QUICKLY MADE.

1873. INGREDIENTS.--1 or 2 chops from a neck of mutton, 1 pint of water,
a small bunch of sweet herbs, 1/4 of an onion, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the meat into small pieces, put it into a saucepan with the
bones, but no skin or fat; add the other ingredients; cover the
saucepan, and bring the water quickly to boil. Take the lid off, and
continue the rapid boiling for 20 minutes, skimming it well during the
process; strain the broth into a basin; if there should be any fat left
on the surface, remove it by laying a piece of thin paper on the top:
the greasy particles will adhere to the paper, and so free the
preparation from them. To an invalid nothing is more disagreeable than
broth served with a quantity of fat floating on the top; to avoid this,
it is always better to allow it to get thoroughly cool, the fat can then
be so easily removed.

_Time_.--20 minutes after the water boils. _Average cost_, 5d.

_Sufficient_ to make 1/2 pint of broth. _Seasonable_ at any time.

STEWED RABBITS IN MILK.

1874. INGREDIENTS.--2 very young rabbits, not nearly half grown; 1-1/2
pint of milk, 1 blade of mace, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, a little salt
and cayenne.

_Mode_.--Mix the flour very smoothly with 4 tablespoonfuls of the milk,
and when this is well mixed, add the remainder. Cut up the rabbits into
joints, put them into a stewpan, with the milk and other ingredients,
and simmer them _very gently_ until quite tender. Stir the contents from
time to time, to keep the milk smooth and prevent it from burning. 1/2
hour will be sufficient for the cooking of this dish.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, from 1s. to 1s. 6d. each.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 meals. _Seasonable_ from September to February.

RICE-MILK.

1875. INGREDIENTS.--3 tablespoonfuls of rice, 1 quart of milk, sugar to
taste; when liked, a little grated nutmeg.

_Mode_.--Well wash the rice, put it into a saucepan with the milk, and
simmer gently until the rice is tender, stirring it from time to time to
prevent the milk from burning; sweeten it, add a little grated nutmeg,
and serve. This dish is also very suitable and wholesome for children;
it may be flavoured with a little lemon-peel, and a little finely-minced
suet may be boiled with it, which renders it more strengthening and more
wholesome. Tapioca, semolina, vermicelli, and macaroni, may all be
dressed in the same manner.

_Time_.--From 3/4 to 1 hour. _Seasonable_ at any time.

TO MAKE TOAST-AND-WATER.

1876. INGREDIENTS.--A slice of bread, 1 quart of boiling water.

_Mode_.--Cut a slice from a stale loaf (a piece of hard crust is better
than anything else for the purpose), toast it of a nice brown on every
side, but _do not allow it to burn or blacken_. Put it into a jug, pour
the boiling water over it, cover it closely, and let it remain until
cold. When strained, it will be ready for use. Toast-and-water should
always be made a short time before it is required, to enable it to get
cold: if drunk in a tepid or lukewarm state, it is an exceedingly
disagreeable beverage. If, as is sometimes the case, this drink is
wanted in a hurry, put the toasted bread into a jug, and only just cover
it with the boiling water; when this is cool, cold water may be added in
the proportion required,--the toast-and-water strained; it will then be
ready for use, and is more expeditiously prepared than by the above
method.

TOAST SANDWICHES.

1877. INGREDIENTS.--Thin cold toast, thin slices of bread-and-butter,
pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Place a very thin piece of cold toast between 2 slices of thin
bread-and-butter in the form of a sandwich, adding a seasoning of pepper
and salt. This sandwich may be varied by adding a little pulled meat, or
very fine slices of cold meat, to the toast, and in any of these forms
will be found very tempting to the appetite of an invalid.

1878. Besides the recipes contained in this chapter, there are, in the
previous chapters on cookery, many others suitable for invalids, which
it would be useless to repeat here. Recipes for fish simply dressed,
light soups, plain roast meat, well-dressed vegetables, poultry, simple
puddings, jelly, stewed fruits, &c. &c., all of which dishes may be
partaken of by invalids and convalescents, will be found in preceding
chapters.

DINNERS AND DINING.

CHAPTER XL.

1879. Man, it has been said, is a dining animal. Creatures of the
inferior races eat and drink; man only dines. It has also been said that
he is a cooking animal; but some races eat food without cooking it. A
Croat captain said to M. Brillat Savarin, "When, in campaign, we feel
hungry, we knock over the first animal we find, cut off a steak, powder
it with salt, put it under the saddle, gallop over it for half a mile,
and then eat it." Huntsmen in Dauphiny, when out shooting, have been
known to kill a bird, pluck it, salt and pepper it, and cook it by
carrying it some time in their caps. It is equally true that some races
of men do not dine any more than the tiger or the vulture. It is not a
_dinner_ at which sits the aboriginal Australian, who gnaws his bone
half bare and then flings it behind to his squaw. And the native of
Terra-del-Fuego does not dine when he gets his morsel of red clay.
Dining is the privilege of civilization. The rank which a people occupy
in the grand scale may be measured by their way of taking their meals,
as well as by their way of treating their women. The nation which knows
how to dine has learnt the leading lesson of progress. It implies both
the will and the skill to reduce to order, and surround with idealisms
and graces, the more material conditions of human existence; and
wherever that will and that skill exist, life cannot be wholly ignoble.

1880. Dinner, being the grand solid meal of the day, is a matter of
considerable importance; and a well-served table is a striking index of
human, ingenuity and resource. "Their table," says Lord Byron, in
describing a dinner-party given by Lord and Lady Amundevillo at Norman
Abbey,--

"Their table was a board to tempt even ghosts
To pass the Styx for more substantial feasts.
I will not dwell upon ragouts or roasts,
Albeit all human history attests
That happiness for man--the hungry sinner!--
Since Eve ate apples, much depends on dinner."

And then he goes on to observe upon the curious complexity of the
results produced by human cleverness and application catering for the
modifications which occur in civilized life, one of the simplest of the
primal instincts:--

"The mind is lost in mighty contemplation
Of intellect expended on two courses;
And indigestion's grand multiplication
Requires arithmetic beyond my forces.
Who would suppose, from Adam's simple ration,
That cookery could have call'd forth such resources,
As form a science and a nomenclature
From out the commonest demands of nature?"

And we may well say, Who, indeed, would suppose it? The gulf between the
Croat, with a steak under his saddle, and Alexis Soyer getting up a
great dinner at the Reform-Club, or even Thackeray's Mrs. Raymond Gray
giving "a little dinner" to Mr. Snob (with one of those famous
"roly-poly puddings" of hers),--what a gulf it is!

1881. That Adam's "ration," however, was "simple," is a matter on which
we have contrary judgments given by the poets. When Raphael paid that
memorable visit to Paradise,--which we are expressly told by Milton he
did exactly at dinner-time,--Eve seems to have prepared "a little
dinner" not wholly destitute of complexity, and to have added ice-creams
and perfumes. Nothing can be clearer than the testimony of the poet on
these points:--

"And Eve within, due at her home prepared
For dinner savoury fruits, of taste to please
True appetite, and not disrelish thirst
Of nectarous draughts between....
.... With dispatchful looks in haste
She turns, on hospitable thoughts intent,
What choice to choose for delicacy best,
What order so contrived as not to mix
Tastes not well join'd, inelegant, but bring
Taste after taste, upheld with kindliest change--
* * * * *
"She _tempers dulcet creams_....
.... _then strews the ground
With rose and odours._"

It may be observed, in passing, that the poets, though they have more to
say about wine than solid food, because the former more directly
stimulates the intellect and the feelings, do not flinch from the
subject of eating and drinking. There is infinite zest in the above
passage from Milton, and even more in the famous description of a dainty
supper, given by Keats in his "Eve of Saint Agnes." Could Queen Mab
herself desire to sit down to anything nicer, both as to its
appointments and serving, and as to its quality, than the collation
served by Porphyro in the lady's bedroom while she slept?--

"There by the bedside, where the faded moon
Made a dim silver twilight, soft he set
A table, and, half-anguish'd, threw thereor
A cloth of woven crimson, gold, and jet.
* * * * *
"While he, from forth the closet, brought a heap
Of candied apple, quince, and plum, and gourd;
With jellies smoother than the creamy curd,
And lucent syrups tinct with cinnamon;
Manna and dates, in argosy transferr'd
From Fez; and spiced dainties, every one,
From silken Samarcand to cedar'd Lebanon."

But Tennyson has ventured beyond dates, and quinces, and syrups, which
may be thought easy to be brought in by a poet. In his idyl of "Audley
Court" he gives a most appetizing description of a pasty at a pic-nic:--

"There, on a slope of orchard, Francis laid
A damask napkin wrought with horse and hound;
Brought out a dusky loaf that smelt of home,
And, half cut down, a pasty costly made,
Where quail and pigeon, lark and leveret, lay
Like fossils of the rock, with golden yolks
Imbedded and injellied."

We gladly quote passages like these, to show how eating and drinking may
be surrounded with poetical associations, and how man, using his
privilege to turn any and every repast into a "feast of reason," with a
warm and plentiful "flow of soul," may really count it as not the least
of his legitimate prides, that he is "a dining animal."

1882. It has been said, indeed, that great men, in general, are great
diners. This, however, can scarcely be true of any great men but men of
action; and, in that case, it would simply imply that persons of
vigorous constitution, who work hard, eat heartily; for, of course, a
life of action _requires_ a vigorous constitution, even though there may
be much illness, as in such cases as William III. and our brave General
Napier. Of men of thought, it can scarcely be true that they eat so
much, in a general way, though even they eat more than they are apt to
suppose they do; for, as Mr. Lewes observes, "nerve-tissue is very
expensive." Leaving great men of all kinds, however, to get their own
dinners, let us, who are not great, look after ours. Dine we must, and
we may as well dine elegantly as well as wholesomely.

1883. There are plenty of elegant dinners in modern days, and they were
not wanting in ancient times. It is well known that the dinner-party, or
symposium, was a not unimportant, and not unpoetical, feature in the
life of the sociable, talkative, tasteful Greek. Douglas Jerrold said
that such is the British humour for dining and giving of dinners, that
if London were to be destroyed by an earthquake, the Londoners would
meet at a public dinner to consider the subject. The Greeks, too, were
great diners: their social and religious polity gave them many chances
of being merry and making others merry on good eating and drinking. Any
public or even domestic sacrifice to one of the gods, was sure to be
followed by a dinner-party, the remains of the slaughtered "offering"
being served up on the occasion as a pious _piece de resistance;_ and as
the different gods, goddesses, and demigods, worshipped by the community
in general, or by individuals, were very numerous indeed, and some very
religious people never let a day pass without offering up something or
other, the dinner-parties were countless. A birthday, too, was an excuse
for a dinner; a birthday, that is, of any person long dead and buried,
as well as of a living person, being a member of the family, or
otherwise esteemed. Dinners were, of course, eaten on all occasions of
public rejoicing. Then, among the young people, subscription dinners,
very much after the manner of modern times, were always being got up;
only that they would be eaten not at an hotel, but probably at the house
of one of the _heterae_. A Greek dinner-party was a handsome,
well-regulated affair. The guests came in elegantly dressed and crowned
with flowers. A slave, approaching each person as he entered, took off
his sandals and washed his feet. During the repast, the guests reclined
on couches with pillows, among and along which were set small tables.
After the solid meal came the "symposium" proper, a scene of music,
merriment, and dancing, the two latter being supplied chiefly by young
girls. There was a chairman, or symposiarch, appointed by the company to
regulate the drinking; and it was his duty to mix the wine in the
"mighty bowl." From this bowl the attendants ladled the liquor into
goblets, and, with the goblets, went round and round the tables, filling
the cups of the guests.

1884. The elegance with which a dinner is served is a matter which
depends, of course, partly upon the means, but still more upon the taste
of the master and mistress of the house. It may be observed, in general,
that there should always be flowers on the table, and as they form no
item of expense, there is no reason why they should not be employed
every day.

1885. The variety in the dishes which furnish forth a modern
dinner-table, does not necessarily imply anything unwholesome, or
anything capricious. Food that is not well relished cannot be well
digested; and the appetite of the over-worked man of business, or
statesman, or of any dweller in towns, whose occupations are exciting
and exhausting, is jaded, and requires stimulation. Men and women who
are in rude health, and who have plenty of air and exercise, eat the
simplest food with relish, and consequently digest it well; but those
conditions are out of the reach of many men. They must suit their mode
of dining to their mode of living, if they cannot choose the latter. It
is in serving up food that is at once appetizing and wholesome that the
skill of the modern housewife is severely tasked; and she has scarcely a
more important duty to fulfil. It is, in fact, her particular vocation,
in virtue of which she may be said to hold the health of the family, and
of the friends of the family, in her hands from day to day. It has been
said that "the destiny of nations depends on the manner in which they
are fed;" and a great gastronomist exclaims, "Tell me what kind of food
you eat, and I will tell you what kind of man you are." The same writer
has some sentences of the same kind, which are rather hyperbolical, but
worth quoting:--"The pleasures of the table belong to all ages, to all
conditions, to all countries, and to all eras; they mingle with all
other pleasures, and remain, at last, to console us for their departure.
The discovery of a new dish confers more happiness upon humanity than
the discovery of a new star."

1886. The gastronomist from whom we have already quoted, has some
aphorisms and short directions in relation to dinner-parties, which are
well deserving of notice:--"Let the number of your guests never exceed
twelve, so that the conversation may be general. [Footnote: We have seen
this varied by saying that the number should never exceed that of the
Muses or fall below that of the Graces.] Let the temperature of the
dining-room be about 68 deg.. Let the dishes be few in number in the first
course, but proportionally good. The order of food is from the most
substantial to the lightest. The order of drinking wine is from the
mildest to the most foamy and most perfumed. To invite a person to your
house is to take charge of his happiness so long as he is beneath your
roof. The mistress of the house should always be certain that the coffee
be excellent; whilst the master should be answerable for the quality of
his wines and liqueurs."

BILLS OF FARE.

JANUARY.

1887.--DINNER FOR 18 PERSONS.

_First Course._

Mock Turtle Soup,
removed by
Cod's Head and Shoulders.

Stewed Eels. Vase of Red Mullet.
Flowers.

Clear Oxtail Soup,
removed by
Fried Filleted Soles.

_Entrees._

Riz de Veau aux
Tomates.

Ragout of Vase of Cotelettes de Pore
Lobster. Flowers. a la Roberts.

Poulet a la Marengo.

_Second Course._

Roast Turkey.

Pigeon Pie.

Boiled Turkey and Vase of Boiled Ham.
Celery Sauce. Flowers.

Tongue, garnished.

Saddle of Mutton.

_Third Course._

Charlotte Pheasants, Apricot Jam
a la Parisienne. removed by Tartlets.
Plum-pudding.

Jelly.

Cream. Vase of Cream.
Flowers.

Jelly.

Snipes,
removed by
Pommes a la Conde.

We have given above the plan of placing the various dishes of the 1st
Course, Entrees, 2nd Course, and 3rd Course. Following this will be
found bills of fare for smaller parties; and it will be readily seen, by
studying the above arrangement of dishes, how to place a less number for
the more limited company. Several _menus_ for dinners _a la Russe,_ are
also included in the present chapter.

1888.--DINNER FOR 12 PERSONS (January).

FIRST COURSE.
Carrot Soup a la Crecy.
Oxtail Soup.
Turbot and Lobster Sauce.
Fried Smelts, with Dutch Sauce.

ENTREES.
Mutton Cutlets, with Soubise Sauce.
Sweetbreads.
Oyster Patties.
Fillets of Rabbits.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Turkey.
Stewed Rump of Beef a la Jardiniere.
Boiled Ham, garnished with Brussels Sprouts.
Boiled Chickens and Celery Sauce.

THIRD COURSE.
Roast Hare.
Teal.
Eggs a la Neige.
Vol-au-Vent of Preserved Fruit.
1 Jelly. 1 Cream.
Potatoes a la Maitre d'Hotel.
Grilled Mushrooms.

DESSERT AND ICES.

1889.--DINNER FOR 10 PERSONS (January).

FIRST COURSE.
Soup a la Reine.
Whitings au Gratin.
Crimped Cod and Oyster Sauce.

ENTREES.
Tendrons de Veau.
Curried Fowl and Boiled Rice.

SECOND COURSE.
Turkey, stuffed with Chestnuts, and Chestnut Sauce.
Boiled Leg of Mutton, English Fashion,
with Capers Sauce and Mashed Turnips.

THIRD COURSE.
Woodcocks or Partridges.
Widgeon.
Charlotte a la Vanille.
Cabinet Pudding.
Orange Jelly.
Blancmange.
Artichoke Bottoms.
Macaroni, with Parmesan Cheese.

DESSERT AND ICES.

1890.--DINNER FOR 8 PERSONS (January).

FIRST COURSE.
Mulligatawny Soup.
Brill and Shrimp Sauce.
Fried Whitings.

ENTREES.
Fricasseed Chicken.
Pork Cutlets, with Tomato Sauce.

SECOND COURSE.
Haunch of Mutton.
Boiled Turkey and Celery Sauce.
Boiled Tongue, garnished with Brussels Sprouts.

THIRD COURSE.
Roast Pheasants.
Meringues a la Creme.
Compote of Apples.
Orange Jelly.
Cheesecakes.
Souffle of Rice.

DESSERT AND ICES.

1891.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (January).--I.

FIRST COURSE.
Julienne Soup.
Soles a la Normandie.

ENTREES.
Sweetbreads, with Sauce Piquante.
Mutton Cutlets, with Mashed Potatoes.

SECOND COURSE.
Haunch of Venison.
Boiled Fowls and Bacon, garnished with Brussels Sprouts.

THIRD COURSE.
Plum-pudding.
Custards in Glasses.
Apple Tart.
Fondue a la Brillat Savarin.

DESSERT.

1892.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (January).--II.

FIRST COURSE.
Vermicelli Soup.
Fried Slices of Codfish and Anchovy Sauce.
John Dory.

ENTREES.
Stewed Rump-steak a la Jardiniere Rissoles.
Oyster Patties.

SECOND COURSE.
Leg of Mutton.
Curried Rabbit and Boiled Rice.

THIRD COURSE.
Partridges.
Apple Fritters.
Tartlets of Greengage Jam.
Orange Jelly.
Plum-pudding.

DESSERT.

1893.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (January).--III.

FIRST COURSE.
Pea-soup.
Baked Haddock.
Soles a la Creme.

ENTREES.
Mutton Cutlets and Tomato Sauce.
Fricasseed Rabbit.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Pork and Apple Sauce.
Breast of Veal, Rolled and Stuffed.
Vegetables.

THIRD COURSE.
Jugged Hare.
Whipped Cream, Blancmange.
Mince Pies.
Cabinet Pudding.

1894.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (January).--IV.

FIRST COURSE.
Palestine Soup.
Fried Smelts.
Stewed Eels.

ENTREES.
Ragout of Lobster.
Broiled Mushrooms.
Vol-au-Vent of Chicken.

SECOND COURSE.
Sirloin of Beef.
Boiled Fowls and Celery Sauce.
Tongue, garnished with Brussels Sprouts.

THIRD COURSE.
Wild Ducks.
Charlotte aux Pommes.
Cheesecakes.
Transparent Jelly, inlaid with Brandy Cherries.
Blancmange.
Nesselrode Pudding.

PLAIN FAMILY DINNERS FOR JANUARY.

1895. _Sunday._--1, Boiled turbot and oyster sauce, potatoes. 2. Roast
leg or griskin of pork, apple sauce, brocoli, potatoes. 3. Cabinet
pudding, and damson tart made with preserved damsons.

1896. _Monday._--1. The remains of turbot warmed in oyster sauce,
potatoes. 2. Cold pork, stewed steak. 3. Open jam tart, which should
have been made with the pieces of paste left from the damson tart; baked
arrowroot pudding.

1897. _Tuesday._--1. Boiled neck of mutton, carrots, mashed turnips,
suet dumplings, and caper sauce: the broth should be served first, and a
little rice or pearl barley should be boiled with it along with the
meat. 2. Rolled jam pudding.

1898. _Wednesday._--1. Roast rolled ribs of beef, greens, potatoes, and
horseradish sauce. 2. Bread-and-butter pudding, cheesecakes.

1899. _Thursday._--1. Vegetable soup (the bones from the ribs of beef
should be boiled down with this soup), cold beef, mashed potatoes. 2.
Pheasants, gravy, bread sauce. 3. Macaroni.

1900. _Friday._--1. Fried whitings or soles. 2. Boiled rabbit and onion
sauce, minced beef, potatoes. 3. Currant dumplings.

1901. _Saturday._--1. Rump-steak pudding or pie, greens, and potatoes.
2. Baked custard pudding and stewed apples.

* * * * *

1902. _Sunday._--1. Codfish and oyster sauce, potatoes. 2. Joint of
roast mutton, either leg, haunch, or saddle; brocoli and potatoes,
red-currant jelly. 3. Apple tart and custards, cheese.

1903. _Monday._--1. The remains of codfish picked from the bone, and
warmed through in the oyster sauce; if there is no sauce left, order a
few oysters and make a little fresh; and do not let the fish boil, or it
will be watery. 2. Curried rabbit, with boiled rice served separately,
cold mutton, mashed potatoes. 3. Somersetshire dumplings with wine
sauce.

1904. _Tuesday._--1. Boiled fowls, parsley-and-butter; bacon garnished
with Brussels sprouts, minced or hashed mutton. 2. Baroness pudding.

1905. _Wednesday._--1. The remains of the fowls cut up into joints and
fricasseed; joint of roast pork and apple sauce, and, if liked,
sage-and-onion, served on a dish by itself; turnips and potatoes. 2.
Lemon pudding, either baked or boiled.

1906. _Thursday._--1. Cold pork and jugged hare, red-currant jelly,
mashed potatoes. 2. Apple pudding.

1907. _Friday._--1. Boiled beef, either the aitchbone or the silver side
of the round; carrots, turnips, suet dumplings, and potatoes: if there
is a marrowbone, serve the marrow on toast at the same time. 2. Rice
snowballs.

1908. _Saturday._--1. Pea-soup made from liquor in which beef was
boiled; cold beef, mashed potatoes. 2. Baked batter fruit pudding.

FEBRUARY.

1909.--DINNER FOR 18 PERSONS.
_First Course._

Hare Soup,
removed by
Turbot and Oyster Sauce.

Fried Eels. Vase of Fried Whitings.
Flowers.

Oyster Soup,
removed by
Crimped Cod a la Maitre
d'Hotel.

_Entrees._

Lark Pudding.

Lobster Patties. Vase of Filets de Perdrix.
Flowers.

Fricasseed Chicken.

_Second Course._

Braised Capon.
Boiled Ham, garnished.

Roast Fowls, garnished Vase of Boiled Fowls and
with Water-cresses. Flowers. White Sauce.

Pate Chaud.
Haunch of Mutton.

_Third Course_

Ducklings,
removed by
Ice Pudding.

Meringues. Coffee Cream. Cheesecakes.

Orange Jelly. Vase of Clear Jelly.
Flowers.

Victoria Blancmange. Gateau de
Sandwiches. Pommes.

Partridges,
removed by
Cabinet Pudding.

DESSERT AND ICES.

1910.--DINNER FOR 12 PERSONS (February).

FIRST COURSE.
Soup a la Reine.
Clear Gravy Soup.
Brill and Lobster Sauce.
Fried Smelts.

ENTREES.
Lobster Rissoles.
Beef Palates.
Pork Cutlets a la Soubise.
Grilled Mushrooms.

SECOND COURSE.
Braised Turkey.
Haunch of Mutton.
Boiled Capon and Oysters.
Tongue, garnished with tufts of Brocoli.
Vegetables and Salads.

THIRD COURSE.
Wild Ducks.
Plovers.
Orange Jelly.
Clear Jelly.
Charlotte Russe.
Nesselrode Pudding.
Gateau de Riz.
Sea-kale.
Maids of Honour.

DESSERT AND ICES.

1911.--DINNER FOR 10 PERSONS (February).

FIRST COURSE.
Palestine Soup.
John Dory, with Dutch Sauce.
Red Mullet, with Sauce Genoise.

ENTREES.
Sweetbread Cutlets, with Poivrade Sauce.
Fowl au Bechamel.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Saddle of Mutton.
Boiled Capon and Oysters.
Boiled Tongue, garnished with Brussels Sprouts.

THIRD COURSE.
Guinea-Fowls. Ducklings.
Pain de Rhubarb.
Orange Jelly.
Strawberry Cream.
Cheesecakes.
Almond Pudding.
Fig Pudding.

DESSERT AND ICES.

1912.--DINNER FOR 8 PERSONS (February).

FIRST COURSE.
Mock Turtle Soup.
Fillets of Turbot a la Creme.
Fried Filleted Soles and Anchovy Sauce.

ENTREES.
Larded Fillets of Rabbits.
Tendrons de Veau with Puree of Tomatoes.

SECOND COURSE.
Stewed Rump of Beef a la Jardiniere.
Roast Fowls.
Boiled Ham.

THIRD COURSE.
Roast Pigeons or Larks.
Rhubarb Tartlets.
Meringues.
Clear Jelly. Cream.
Ice Pudding.
Souffle.

DESSERT AND ICES.

1913.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (February)--I.

FIRST COURSE.
Rice Soup.
Red Mullet, with Genoise Sauce.
Fried Smelts.

ENTREES.
Fowl Pudding.
Sweetbreads.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Turkey and Sausages.
Boiled Leg of Pork.
Pease Pudding.

THIRD COURSE.
Lemon Jelly.
Charlotte a la Vanille.
Maids of Honour.
Plum-pudding, removed by Ice Pudding.

DESSERT.

1914.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (February).--II.

FIRST COURSE.
Spring Soup.
Boiled Turbot and Lobster Sauce.

ENTREES.
Fricasseed Rabbit.
Oyster Patties.

SECOND COURSE.
Boiled Round of Beef and Marrow-bones.
Roast Fowls, garnished with Water-cresses and rolled Bacon.
Vegetables.

THIRD COURSE.
Marrow Pudding.
Cheesecakes.
Tartlets of Greengage Jam.
Lemon Cream.
Rhubarb Tart.

DESSERT.

1915.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (February).--III.

FIRST COURSE.
Vermicelli Soup.
Fried Whitings. Stewed Eels.

ENTREES.
Poulet a la Marengo.
Breast of Veal stuffed and rolled.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Leg of Pork and Apple Sauce.
Boiled Capon and Oysters.
Tongue, garnished with tufts of Brocoli.

THIRD COURSE.
Wild Ducks.
Lobster Salad.
Charlotte aux Pommes.
Pain de Rhubarb.
Vanilla Cream.
Orange Jelly.

DESSERT.

1916.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (February).--IV.

FIRST COURSE.
Ox-tail Soup.
Cod a la Creme.
Fried Soles.

ENTREES.
Lark Pudding.
Fowl Scollops.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Leg of Mutton.
Boiled Turkey and Celery Sauce.
Pigeon Pie.
Small Ham, boiled and garnished.
Vegetables.

THIRD COURSE.
Game, when liked.
Tartlets of Raspberry Jam.
Vol-au-Vent of Rhubarb.
Swiss Cream. Cabinet Pudding.
Brocoli and Sea-kale.

DESSERT.

PLAIN FAMILY DINNERS FOR FEBRUARY.

1917. _Sunday_.--1. Ox-tail soup. 2 Roast beef, Yorkshire pudding,
brocoli, and potatoes. 3. Plum-pudding, apple tart. Cheese.

1918. _Monday_.--1. Fried soles, plain melted butter, and potatoes. 2.
Cold roast beef, mashed potatoes. 3. The remains of plum-pudding cut in
slices, warmed, and served with sifted sugar sprinkled over it. Cheese.

1919. _Tuesday_.--1. The remains of ox-tail soup from Sunday. 2. Pork
cutlets with tomato sauce; hashed beef. 3. Boiled jam pudding. Cheese.

1920. _Wednesday_.--1. Boiled haddock and plain melted butter. 2.
Rump-steak pudding, potatoes, greens. 3. Arrowroot, blancmange,
garnished with jam.

1921. _Thursday_.--1. Boiled leg of pork, greens, potatoes, pease
pudding. 2. Apple fritters, sweet macaroni.

1922. _Friday_.--1. Pea-soup made with liquor that the pork was boiled
in. 2. Cold pork, mashed potatoes. 3. Baked rice pudding.

1923. _Saturday_.--1. Broiled herrings and mustard sauce. 2. Haricot
mutton. 3. Macaroni, either served as a sweet pudding or with cheese.

* * * * *

1924. _Sunday_.--1. Carrot soup. 2. Boiled leg of mutton and caper
sauce, mashed turnips, roast fowls, and bacon. 3. Damson tart made with
bottled fruit, ratafia pudding.

1925. _Monday_.--1. The remainder of fowl curried and served with rice;
rump-steaks and oyster sauce, cold mutton. 2. Rolled jam pudding.

1926. _Tuesday_.--1. Vegetable soup made with liquor that the mutton was
boiled in on Sunday. 2. Roast sirloin of beef, Yorkshire pudding,
brocoli, and potatoes. 3. Cheese.

1927. _Wednesday_.--1. Fried soles, melted butter. 2. Cold beef and
mashed potatoes: if there is any cold boiled mutton left, cut it into
neat slices and warm it in a little caper sauce. 3. Apple tart.

1928. _Thursday_.--1. Boiled rabbit and onion sauce, stewed beef and
vegetables, made with the remains of cold beef and bones. 2. Macaroni.

1929. _Friday_.--1. Roast leg of pork, sage and onions and apple sauce;
greens and potatoes. 2. Spinach and poached eggs instead of pudding.
Cheese and water-cresses.

1930. _Saturday_.--1. Rump-steak-and-kidney pudding, cold pork and
mashed potatoes. 2. Baked rice pudding.

MARCH.

1931.--DINNER FOR 18 PERSONS.

_First Course._

Turtle or Mock Turtle Soup,
removed by
Salmon and dressed
Cucumber.

Red Mullet. Vase of Filets of Whitings.
Flowers.

Spring Soup,
removed by
Boiled Turbot and Lobster
Sauce.

_Entrees_

Fricasseed Chicken.

Vol-au-Vent. Vase of Compote of Pigeons.
Flowers.

Larded Sweetbreads.

_Second Course._

Fore-quarter of Lamb.

Braised Capon.

Boiled Tongue, Vase of Ham.
garnished. Flowers.

Roast Fowls.

Rump of Beef a la
Jardiniere.

_Third Course._

Guinea-Fowls, larded,
removed by
Cabinet Pudding.

Apricot Wine Jelly. Rhubarb
Tartlets. Tart.

Custards. Vase of Jelly in
Flowers. glasses.

Italian Cream.

Damson Tart. Ducklings, Cheesecakes.
removed by
Nesselrode Pudding.

DESSERT AND ICES.

1932.--DINNER FOR 12 PERSONS (March).

FIRST COURSE.
White Soup.
Clear Gravy Soup.
Boiled Salmon, Shrimp Sauce, and dressed Cucumber.
Baked Mullets in paper cases.

ENTREES.
Filet de Boeuf and Spanish Sauce.
Larded Sweetbreads.
Rissoles.
Chicken Patties.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Fillet of Veal and Bechamel Sauce.
Boiled Leg of Lamb.
Roast Fowls, garnished with Water-cresses.
Boiled Ham, garnished with Carrots and mashed Turnips.
Vegetables--Sea-kale, Spinach, or Brocoli.

THIRD COURSE.
Two Ducklings.
Guinea-Fowl, larded.
Orange Jelly.
Charlotte Russe.
Coffee Cream.
Ice Pudding.
Macaroni with Parmesan Cheese.
Spinach, garnished with Croutons.

DESSERT AND ICES.

1933.--DINNER FOR 10 PERSONS (March).

FIRST COURSE.
Macaroni Soup.
Boiled Turbot and Lobster Sauce.
Salmon Cutlets.

ENTREES.
Compote of Pigeons.
Mutton Cutlets and Tomato Sauce.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Lamb.
Boiled Half Calf's Head, Tongue, and Brains.
Boiled Bacon-cheek, garnished with spoonfuls of Spinach.
Vegetables.

THIRD COURSE.
Ducklings.
Plum-pudding.
Ginger Cream.
Trifle.
Rhubarb Tart.
Cheesecakes.
Fondues, in cases.

DESSERT AND ICES.

1934.--DINNER FOR 8 PERSONS (March).

FIRST COURSE.
Calf's-Head Soup.
Brill and Shrimp Sauce.
Broiled Mackerel a la Maitre d'Hotel.

ENTREES.
Lobster Cutlets.
Calf's Liver and Bacon, aux fines herbes.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Loin of Veal.
Two Boiled Fowls a la Bechamel.
Boiled Knuckle of Ham.
Vegetables--Spinach or Brocoli.

THIRD COURSE.
Wild Ducks.
Apple Custards.
Blancmange.
Lemon Jelly.
Jam Sandwiches.
Ice Pudding.
Potatoes a la Maitre d'Hotel.

DESSERT AND ICES.

1935.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (March).--I.

FIRST COURSE.
Vermicelli Soup.
Soles a la Creme.

ENTREES.
Veal Cutlets.
Small Vols-au-Vent.

SECOND COURSE.
Small Saddle of Mutton.
Half Calf's Head.
Boiled Bacon-cheek, garnished with Brussels Sprouts.

THIRD COURSE.
Cabinet Pudding.
Orange Jelly.
Custards, in glasses.
Rhubarb Tart.
Lobster Salad.

DESSERT.

1936.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (March).--II.

FIRST COURSE.
Julienne Soup.
Baked Mullets.

ENTREES.
Chicken Cutlets.
Oyster Patties.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Lamb and Mint Sauce.
Boiled Leg of Pork.
Pease Pudding.
Vegetables.

THIRD COURSE.
Ducklings.
Swiss Cream.
Lemon Jelly.
Cheesecakes.
Rhubarb Tart.
Macaroni.

Dessert.

1937.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (March).--III.

FIRST COURSE.
Oyster Soup.
Boiled Salmon and dressed Cucumber.

ENTREES.
Rissoles. Fricasseed Chicken.

SECOND COURSE.
Boiled Leg of Mutton, Caper Sauce.
Roast Fowls, garnished with
Water-cresses.
Vegetables.

THIRD COURSE.
Charlotte aux Pommes.
Orange Jelly.
Lemon Cream.
Souffle of Arrowroot.
Sea-kale.

DESSERT.

1938.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (March).--IV.

FIRST COURSE.
Ox-tail Soup.
Boiled Mackerel.

ENTREES.
Stewed Mutton Kidneys.
Minced Veal and Oysters.

SECOND COURSE.
Stewed Shoulder of Veal.
Roast Ribs of Beef and Horseradish Sauce.
Vegetables.

THIRD COURSE.
Ducklings.
Tartlets of Strawberry Jam.
Cheesecakes.
Gateau de Riz.
Carrot Pudding.
Sea-kale.

DESSERT.

PLAIN FAMILY DINNERS FOR MARCH.

1939. _Sunday_.--1. Boiled 1/2 calf's head, pickled pork, the tongue on
a small dish with the brains round it; mutton cutlets and mashed
potatoes. 2. Plum tart made with bottled fruit, baked custard pudding,
Baroness pudding.

1940. _Monday_.--1. Roast shoulder of mutton and onion sauce, brocoli,
baked potatoes. 2. Slices of Baroness pudding warmed, and served with
sugar sprinkled over. Cheesecakes.

1941. _Tuesday_.--1. Mock turtle soup, made with liquor that calf's head
was boiled in, and the pieces of head. 2. Hashed mutton, rump-steaks and
oyster sauce. 3. Boiled plum-pudding.

1942. _Wednesday_.--1. Fried whitings, melted butter, potatoes. 2.
Boiled beef, suet dumplings, carrots, potatoes, marrow-bones. 3.
Arrowroot blancmange, and stewed rhubarb.

1943. _Thursday_.--1. Pea-soup made from liquor that beef was boiled in.
2. Stewed rump-steak, cold beef, mashed potatoes. 3. Rolled jam pudding.

1944. _Friday_.--1. Fried soles, melted butter, potatoes. 2. Roast loin
of mutton, brocoli, potatoes, bubble-and-squeak. 3. Rice pudding.

1945. _Saturday_.--1.--Rump-steak pie, haricot mutton made with remains
of cold loin. 2. Pancakes, ratafia pudding.

* * * * *

1946. _Sunday_.--1. Roast fillet of veal, boiled ham, spinach and
potatoes. 2. Rhubarb tart, custards in glasses, bread-and-butter
pudding.

1947. _Monday_.--1. Baked soles, potatoes. 2. Minced veal and rump-steak
pie. 3. Somersetshire dumplings with the remains of custards poured
round them; marmalade tartlets.

1948. _Tuesday_.--1. Gravy soup. 2. Boiled leg of mutton, mashed
turnips, suet dumplings, caper sauce, potatoes, veal rissoles made with
remains of fillet of veal. 3. Cheese.

1949. _Wednesday_.--1. Stewed mullets. 2. Roast fowls, bacon, gravy, and
bread sauce, mutton pudding, made with a few slices of the cold meat and
the addition of two kidneys. 3. Baked lemon pudding.

1950. _Thursday_.--1. Vegetable soup made with liquor that the mutton
was boiled in, and mixed with the remains of gravy soup. 2. Roast ribs
of beef, Yorkshire pudding, horseradish sauce, brocoli and potatoes. 3.
Apple pudding or macaroni.

1951. _Friday_.--1. Stewed eels, pork cutlets and tomato sauce. 2. Cold
beef, mashed potatoes. 3. Plum tart made with bottled fruit.

1952. _Saturday_.--1. Rump-steak-and-kidney pudding, broiled beef-bones,
greens and potatoes. 2. Jam tartlets made with pieces of paste from plum
tart, baked custard pudding.

APRIL.

1953.--DINNER FOR 18 PERSONS.

_First Course._

Spring Soup,
removed by
Salmon and Lobster Sauce.

Fillet of Mackerel. Vase of Fried Smelts.
Flowers.

Soles a la Creme.

_Entrees._

Lamb Cutlets and Asparagus Peas.

Curried Lobster. Vase of Oyster Patties.
Flowers.

Grenadines de Veau.

_Second Course._

Roast Ribs of Lamb.

Larded Capon.

Stewed Beef A la Vase of Boiled Ham.
Jardiniere. Flowers.

Spring Chickens.

Braised Turkey.

_Third Course._

Ducklings,
removed by
Cabinet Pudding.

Clear Jelly. Charlotte a la Parisienne. Orange Jelly.

Raspberry Jam Turtles. Vase of Cheese-Cakes.
Victoria Sandwiches. Flowers. Rhubarb Tart.

Raspberry Cream.

Nesselrode Pudding.

DESSERT AND ICES.

1954.--DINNER FOR 12 PERSONS (April).

FIRST COURSE.
Soup a la Reine.
Julienne Soup.
Turbot and Lobster Sauce.
Slices of Salmon a la Genevese.

ENTREES.
Croquettes of Leveret.
Fricandeau de Veau.
Vol-au-Vent.
Stewed Mushrooms.

SECOND COURSE.
Fore-quarter of Lamb.
Saddle of Mutton.
Boiled Chickens and Asparagus Peas.
Boiled Tongue garnished with Tufts of Brocoli.
Vegetables.

THIRD COURSE.
Ducklings. Larded Guinea-Fowls.
Charlotte a la Parisienne.
Orange Jelly.
Meringues.
Ratafia Ice Pudding.
Lobster Salad.
Sea-kale.

DESSERT AND ICES.

1955.--DINNER FOR 10 PERSONS (April).

FIRST COURSE
Gravy Soup.
Salmon and Dressed Cucumber.
Shrimp Sauce.
Fillets of Whitings.

ENTREES.
Lobster Cutlets.
Chicken Patties.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Fillet of Veal.
Boiled Leg of Lamb.
Ham, garnished with Brocoli.
Vegetables.

THIRD COURSE.
Ducklings.
Compote of Rhubarb.
Custards.
Vanilla Cream.
Orange Jelly.
Cabinet Pudding.
Ice Pudding.

DESSERT.

1956.--DINNER FOR 8 PERSONS (April).

FIRST COURSE.
Spring Soup.
Slices of Salmon and Caper Sauce.
Fried Filleted Soles.

ENTREES.
Chicken Vol-au-Vent.
Mutton Cutlets and Tomato Sauce.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Loin of Veal.
Boiled Fowls a la Bechamel.
Tongue.
Vegetables.

THIRD COURSE.
Guinea-Fowl.
Sea-kale.
Artichoke Bottoms.
Cabinet Pudding.
Blancmange.
Apricot Tartlets.
Rice Fritters.
Macaroni and Parmesan Cheese.

DESSERT.

1957.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (April).

FIRST COURSE.
Tapioca Soup.
Boiled Salmon and Lobster Sauce.

ENTREES.
Sweetbreads.
Oyster Patties.

SECOND COURSE.
Haunch of Mutton.
Boiled Capon and White Sauce.
Tongue.
Vegetables.

THIRD COURSE.
Souffle of Rice.
Lemon Cream.
Charlotte & la Parisienne.
Rhubarb Tart.

DESSERT.

1958.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (April).--II.

FIRST COURSE.
Julienne Soup.
Fried Whitings.
Red Mullet.

ENTREES.
Lamb Cutlets and Cucumbers.
Rissoles.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Ribs of Beef.
Neck of Veal a la Bechamel.
Vegetables.

THIRD COURSE.
Ducklings.
Lemon Pudding.
Rhubarb Tart.
Custards.
Cheesecakes.

DESSERT.

1959.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (April).--III.

FIRST COURSE.
Vermicelli Soup.
Brill and Shrimp Sauce.

ENTREES.
Fricandeau of Veal.
Lobster Cutlets.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Fore-quarter of Lamb.
Boiled Chickens.
Tongue.
Vegetables.

THIRD COURSE.
Goslings.

Sea-kale.
Plum-pudding.
Whipped Cream.
Compote of Rhubarb.
Cheesecakes.

DESSERT.

1960.--DINNER FOR 6 PERSONS (April).--IV.

FIRST COURSE.
Ox-tail Soup.
Crimped Salmon.

ENTREES.
Croquettes of Chicken.
Mutton Cutlets and Soubise Sauce.

SECOND COURSE.
Roast Fillet of Veal.
Boiled Bacon-cheek garnished with Sprouts.
Boiled Capon. Vegetables.

THIRD COURSE.
Sea-kale. Lobster Salad.
Cabinet Pudding.
Ginger Cream.
Raspberry Jam Tartlets.
Rhubarb Tart. Macaroni.

DESSERT.

PLAIN FAMILY DINNERS FOR APRIL.

1961. _Sunday._--1. Clear gravy soup. 2. Roast haunch of mutton,
sea-kale, potatoes. 3. Rhubarb tart, custards in glasses.

1962. _Monday._--1. Crimped skate and caper sauce. 2. Boiled knuckle of
veal and rice, cold mutton, mashed potatoes. 3. Baked plum-pudding.

1963. _Tuesday._--1. Vegetable soup. 2. Toad-in-the-hole, made from
remains of cold mutton. 3. Stewed rhubarb and baked custard pudding.

1964. _Wednesday._--1. Fried soles, anchovy sauce. 2. Boiled beef,
carrots, suet dumplings. 3. Lemon pudding.

1965. _Thursday._--1. Pea-soup made with liquor that beef was boiled in.
2. Cold beef, mashed potatoes, mutton cutlets and tomato sauce. 3.
Macaroni.

1966. _Friday._--1. Bubble-and-squeak, made with remains of cold beef.
Roast shoulder of veal stuffed, spinach, potatoes. 2. Boiled batter
pudding and sweet sauce.

1967. _Saturday._--1. Stewed veal with vegetables, made from the remains
of the shoulder. Broiled rump-steaks and oyster sauce. 2.
Yeast-dumplings.

* * * * *

1968. _Sunday._--1. Boiled salmon and dressed cucumber, anchovy sauce 2.
Roast fore-quarter of lamb, spinach, potatoes, mint sauce. 2. Rhubarb
tart, cheesecakes.

1969. _Monday._--1. Curried salmon, made with remains of salmon, dish of
boiled rice. 2. Cold lamb, Rump-steak-and-kidney pudding, potatoes. 3.
Spinach and poached eggs.

1970. _Tuesday._--1. Scotch mutton broth with pearl barley. 2. Boiled
neck of mutton, caper sauce, suet dumplings, carrots. 3. Baked
rice-pudding.

1971. _Wednesday._--1. Boiled mackerel and melted butter or fennel
sauce, potatoes. 2. Roast fillet of veal, bacon, and greens. 3. Fig
pudding.

1972. _Thursday._--1. Flemish soup. 2. Roast loin of mutton, brocoli,
potatoes; veal rolls made from remains of cold veal. 3. Boiled rhubarb
pudding.

1973. _Friday._--1. Irish stew or haricot, made from cold mutton, minced
veal. 2. Half-pay pudding.

1974. _Saturday._--1. Rump-steak pie, broiled mutton-chops. 2. Baked
arrowroot pudding.

MAY.

1975.--DINNER FOR 18 PERSONS.

_First Course._

Asparagus Soup,
removed by
Salmon and Lobster
Sauce.

Fried Filleted Vase of Fillets of Mackerel,
Soles Flowers. a la Maitre d'Hotel.

Oxtail Soup,
removed by
Brill & Shrimp Sauce.

_Entrees._

Lamb Cutlets and
Cucumbers.

Lobster Pudding. Vase of Curried Fowl.
Flowers.

Veal Ragout.

_Second Course._

Saddle of Lamb.

Raised Pie.

Roast Fowls. Vase of Boiled Capon
Flowers. and White Sauce.

Braised Ham.

Roast Veal.

_Third Course._

Almond Goslings, Lobster Salad.
Cheesecake removed by
College Puddings.

Noyeau Jelly.

Italian Vase of Charlotte a la
Cream. Flowers. Parisienne.

Inlaid Jelly.

Plovers' Ducklings,
Eggs. removed by Tartlets.
Nesselrode Pudding.

DESSERT AND ICES.

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