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The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

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the macaroni, over which sprinkle the grated cheese and the butter
broken into small pieces; brown with a salamander, or before the fire,
and serve.

_Time_.--1-1/2 to 1-3/4 hour to boil the macaroni, 5 minutes to thicken
the eggs and cream, 5 minutes to brown.

_Average cost_, 1s. 2d.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

III.

1647. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of pipe macaroni, 1/2 pint of brown gravy
No. 436, 6 oz. of grated Parmesan cheese.

_Mode_.--Wash the macaroni, and boil it in salt and water until quite
tender; drain it, and put it into rather a deep dish. Have ready a pint
of good brown gravy, pour it hot over the macaroni, and send it to table
with grated Parmesan served on a separate dish. When the flavour is
liked, a little pounded mace may be added to the water in which the
macaroni is boiled; but this must always be sparingly added, as it will
impart a very strong flavour.

_Time_.--1-1/2 to 1-3/4 hour to boil the macaroni.

_Average cost_, with the gravy and cheese, 1s. 3d.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

POUNDED CHEESE.

1648. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of cheese allow 3 oz. of fresh butter.

_Mode_.--To pound cheese is an economical way of using it, if it has
become dry; it is exceedingly good spread on bread, and is the best way
of eating it for those whose digestion is weak. Cut up the cheese into
small pieces, and pound it smoothly in a mortar, adding butter in the
above proportion. Press it down into a jar, cover with clarified butter,
and it will keep for several days. The flavour may be very much
increased by adding mixed mustard (about a teaspoonful to every lb.), or
cayenne, or pounded mace. Curry-powder is also not unfrequently mixed
with it.

RAMAKINS, to serve with the CHEESE COURSE.

1649. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of Cheshire cheese, 1/4 lb. of Parmesan
cheese, 1/4 lb. of fresh butter, 4 eggs, the crumb of a small roll;
pepper, salt, and pounded mace to taste.

_Mode_.--Boil the crumb of the roll in milk for 5 minutes; strain, and
put it into a mortar; add the cheese, which should be finely scraped,
the butter, the yolks of the eggs, and seasoning, and pound these
ingredients well together. Whisk the whites of the eggs, mix them with
the paste, and put it into small pans or saucers, which should not be
more than half filled. Bake them from 10 to 12 minutes, and serve them
very hot and very quickly. This batter answers equally well for macaroni
after it is boiled tender.

_Time_--10 to 12 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

PASTRY RAMAKINS, to serve with the CHEESE COURSE.

1650. INGREDIENTS.--Any pieces of very good light puff-paste Cheshire,
Parmesan, or Stilton cheese.

_Mode_.--The remains or odd pieces of paste left from large tarts, &c.
answer for making these little dishes. Gather up the pieces of paste,
roll it out evenly, and sprinkle it with grated cheese of a nice
flavour. Fold the paste in three, roll it out again, and sprinkle more
cheese over; fold the paste, roll it out, and with a paste-cutter shape
it in any way that may be desired. Bake the ramakins in a brisk oven
from 10 to 15 minutes, dish them on a hot napkin, and serve quickly. The
appearance of this dish may be very much improved by brushing the
ramakins over with yolk of egg before they are placed in the oven. Where
expense is not objected to, Parmesan is the best kind of cheese to use
for making this dish.

_Time_.--10 to 15 minutes. _Average cost_, with 1/2 lb. of paste, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

TOASTED CHEESE, or SCOTCH RARE-BIT.

1651. INGREDIENTS.--A few slices of rich cheese, toast, mustard, and
pepper.

[Illustration: HOT-WATER CHEESE-DISH.]

_Mode_.--Cut some nice rich sound cheese into rather thin slices; melt
it in a cheese-toaster on a hot plate, or over steam, and, when melted,
add a small quantity of mixed mustard and a seasoning of pepper; stir
the cheese until it is completely dissolved, then brown it before the
fire, or with a salamander. Fill the bottom of the cheese-toaster with
hot water, and serve with dry or buttered toasts, whichever may be
preferred. Our engraving illustrates a cheese-toaster with hot-water
reservoir: the cheese is melted in the upper tin, which is placed in
another vessel of boiling water, so keeping the preparation beautifully
hot. A small quantity of porter, or port wine, is sometimes mixed with
the cheese; and, if it be not very rich, a few pieces of butter may be
mixed with it to great advantage. Sometimes the melted cheese is spread
on the toasts, and then laid in the cheese-dish at the top of the hot
water. Whichever way it is served, it is highly necessary that the
mixture be very hot, and very quickly sent to table, or it will be
worthless.

_Time_.--About 5 minutes to melt the cheese.

_Average cost_, 1-1/2d. per slice.

_Sufficient_.--Allow a slice to each person. _Seasonable_ at any time.

TOASTED CHEESE, or WELSH RARE-BIT.

1652. INGREDIENTS.--Slices of bread, butter, Cheshire or Gloucester
cheese, mustard, and pepper.

_Mode_.--Cut the bread into slices about 1/2 inch in thickness; pare off
the crust, toast the bread slightly without hardening or burning it, and
spread it with butter. Cut some slices, not quite so large as the bread,
from a good rich fat cheese; lay them on the toasted bread in a
cheese-toaster; be careful that the cheese does not burn, and let it be
equally melted. Spread over the top a little made mustard and a
seasoning of pepper, and serve very hot, with very hot plates. To
facilitate the melting of the cheese, it may be cut into thin flakes or
toasted on one side before it is laid on the bread. As it is so
essential to send this dish hot to table, it is a good plan to melt the
cheese in small round silver or metal pans, and to send these pans to
table, allowing one for each guest. Slices of dry or buttered toast
should always accompany them, with mustard, pepper, and salt.

_Time_.--About 5 minutes to melt the cheese.

_Average cost_, 1-1/2d. each slice.

_Sufficient_.--Allow a slice to each person. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Should the cheese be dry, a little butter mixed with it will be
an improvement.

"COW CHEESE."--It was only fifty years after Aristotle--the
fourth century before Christ--that butter began to be noticed as
an aliment. The Greeks, in imitation of the Parthians and
Scythians, who used to send it to them, had it served upon their
tables, and called it at first "oil of milk," and later,
_bouturos_, "cow cheese."

SCOTCH WOODCOCK.

1653. INGREDIENTS.--A few slices of hot buttered toast; allow 1 anchovy
to each slice. For the sauce,--1/4 pint of cream, the yolks of 3 eggs.

_Mode_.--Separate the yolks from the whites of the eggs; beat the
former, stir to them the cream, and bring the sauce to the
boiling-point, but do not allow it to boil, or it will curdle. Have
ready some hot buttered toast, spread with anchovies pounded to a paste;
pour a little of the hot sauce on the top, and serve very hot and very
quickly.

_Time_.--5 minutes to make the sauce hot.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1/2 slice to each person. _Seasonable_ at any time.

TO CHOOSE EGGS.

1654. In choosing eggs, apply the tongue to the large end of the egg,
and, if it feels warm, it is new, and may be relied on as a fresh egg.
Another mode of ascertaining their freshness is to hold them before a
lighted candle, or to the light, and if the egg looks clear, it will be
tolerably good; if thick, it is stale; and if there is a black spot
attached to the shell, it is worthless. No egg should be used for
culinary purposes with the slightest taint in it, as it will render
perfectly useless those with which it has been mixed. Eggs that are
purchased, and that cannot be relied on, should always be broken in a
cup, and then put into a basin: by this means stale or bad eggs may be
easily rejected, without wasting the others.

EGGS contain, for their volume, a greater quantity of nutriment
than any other article of food. But it does not follow that they
are always good for weak stomachs; quite the contrary; for it is
often a great object to give the stomach a large surface to work
upon, a considerable volume of _ingesta_, over which the
nutritive matter is diffused, and so exposed to the action of
the gastric juice at many points. There are many persons who
cannot digest eggs, however cooked. It is said, however, that
their digestibility decreases in proportion to the degree in
which they are hardened by boiling.

TO KEEP EGGS FRESH FOR SEVERAL WEEKS.

1655. Have ready a large saucepan, capable of holding 3 or 4 quarts,
full of boiling water. Put the eggs into a cabbage-net, say 20 at a
time, and hold them in the water (which must be kept boiling) _for_ 20
_seconds_. Proceed in this manner till you have done as many eggs as you
wish to preserve; then pack them away in sawdust. We have tried this
method of preserving eggs, and can vouch for its excellence: they will
be found, at the end of 2 or 3 months, quite good enough for culinary
purposes; and although the white may be a little tougher than that of a
new-laid egg, the yolk will be nearly the same. Many persons keep eggs
for a long time by smearing the shells with butter or sweet oil: they
should then be packed in plenty of bran or sawdust, and the eggs not
allowed to touch each other. Eggs for storing should be collected in
fine weather, and should not be more than 24 hours old when they are
packed away, or their flavour, when used, cannot be relied on. Another
simple way of preserving eggs is to immerse them in lime-water soon
after they have been laid, and then to put the vessel containing the
lime-water in a cellar or cool outhouse.

_Seasonable_.--The best time for preserving eggs is from July to
September.

EGGS.--The quality of eggs is said to be very much affected by
the food of the fowls who lay them. Herbs and grain together
make a better food than grain only. When the hens eat too many
insects, the eggs have a disagreeable flavour.

TO BOIL EGGS FOR BREAKFAST, SALADS, &c.

[Illustration: EGG-STAND FOR THE BREAKFAST-TABLE.]

1656. Eggs for boiling cannot be too fresh, or boiled too soon after
they are laid; but rather a longer time should be allowed for boiling a
new-laid egg than for one that is three or four days old. Have ready a
saucepan of boiling water; put the eggs into it gently with a spoon,
letting the spoon touch the bottom of the saucepan before it is
withdrawn, that the egg may not fall, and consequently crack. For those
who like eggs lightly boiled, 3 minutes will be found sufficient; 3-3/4
to 4 minutes will be ample time to set the white nicely; and, if liked
hard, 6 to 7 minutes will not be found too long. Should the eggs be
unusually large, as those of black Spanish fowls sometimes are, allow an
extra 1/2 minute for them. Eggs for salads should be boiled from 10
minutes to 1/4 hour, and should be placed in a basin of cold water for a
few minutes; they should then be rolled on the table with the hand, and
the shell will peel off easily.

_Time_.--To boil eggs lightly, for invalids or children, 3 minutes; to
boil eggs to suit the generality of tastes, 3-3/4 to 4 minutes; to boil
eggs hard, 6 to 7 minutes; for salads, 10 to 15 minutes.

_Note_.--Silver or plated egg-dishes, like that shown in our engraving,
are now very much used. The price of the one illustrated is L2. 2s., and
may be purchased of Messrs. R. & J. Slack, 336, Strand.

EGGS.--When fresh eggs are dropped into a vessel _full_ of
boiling water, they crack, because the eggs being well filled,
the shells give way to the efforts of the interior fluids,
dilated by heat. If the volume of hot water be small, the shells
do not crack, because its temperature is reduced by the eggs
before the interior dilation can take place. Stale eggs, again,
do not crack, because the air inside is easily compressed.

BUTTERED EGGS.

1657. INGREDIENTS.--4 new-laid eggs, 2 oz. of butter.

_Mode_.--Procure the eggs new-laid if possible; break them into a basin,
and beat them well; put the butter into another basin, which place in
boiling water, and stir till the butter is melted. Pour that and the
eggs into a lined saucepan; hold it over a gentle fire, and, as the
mixture begins to warm, pour it two or three times into the basin, and
back again, that the two ingredients may be well incorporated. Keep
stirring the eggs and butter one way until they are hot, _without
boiling_, and serve on hot buttered toast. If the mixture is allowed to
boil, it will curdle, and so be entirely spoiled.

_Time_.--About 5 minutes to make the eggs hot. _Average cost_, 7d.

_Sufficient_.--Allow a slice to each person. _Seasonable_ at any time.

DUCKS' EGGS.

1658. Ducks' eggs are usually so strongly flavoured that, plainly
boiled, they are not good for eating; they answer, however, very well
for various culinary preparations where eggs are required; such as
custards, &c. &c. Being so large and highly-flavoured, 1 duck's egg will
go as far as 2 small hen's eggs; besides making whatever they are mixed
with exceedingly rich. They also are admirable when used in puddings.

PRIMITIVE METHOD OF COOKING EGGS.--The shepherds of Egypt had a
singular manner of cooking eggs without the aid of fire. They
placed them in a sling, which they turned so rapidly that the
friction of the air heated them to the exact point required for
use.

FRIED EGGS.

1659. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 1/4 lb. of lard, butter or clarified
dripping.

[Illustration: FRIED EGGS ON BACON.]

_Mode_.--Place a delicately-clean frying-pan over a gentle fire; put in
the fat, and allow it to come to the boiling-point. Break the eggs into
cups, slip them into the boiling fat, and let them remain until the
whites are delicately set; and, whilst they are frying, ladle a little
of the fat over them. Take them up with a slice, drain them for a minute
from their greasy moisture, trim them neatly, and serve on slices of
fried bacon or ham; or the eggs may be placed in the middle of the dish,
with the bacon put round as a garnish.

_Time_.--2 to 3 minutes. Average cost_, 1d. each; 2d. when scarce.

_Sufficient_ for 2 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

VENERATION FOR EGGS.--Many of the most learned philosophers held
eggs in a kind of respect, approaching to veneration, because
they saw in them the emblem of the world and the four elements.
The shell, they said, represented the earth; the white, water;
the yolk, fire; and air was found under the shell at one end of
the egg.

EGGS A LA MAITRE D'HOTEL.

1660. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of fresh butter, 1 tablespoonful of flour,
1/2 pint of milk, pepper and salt to taste, 1 tablespoonful of minced
parsley, the juice of 1/2 lemon, 6 eggs.

_Mode_.--Put the flour and half the butter into a stewpan; stir them
over the fire until the mixture thickens; pour in the milk, which should
be boiling; add a seasoning of pepper and salt, and simmer the whole for
5 minutes. Put the remainder of the butter into the sauce, and add the
minced parsley; then boil the eggs hard, strip off the shells, cut the
eggs into quarters, and put them on a dish. Bring the sauce to the
boiling-point, add the lemon-juice, pour over the eggs, and serve.

_Time_.--5 minutes to boil the sauce; the eggs, 10 to 15 minutes.

_Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

OEUFS AU PLAT, or AU MIROIR, served on the Dish in which they are
Cooked.

1661. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 1 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Butter a dish rather thickly with good fresh butter; melt it,
break the eggs into it the same as for poaching, sprinkle them with
white pepper and fine salt, and put the remainder of the butter, cut
into very small pieces, on the top of them. Put the dish on a hot plate,
or in the oven, or before the fire, and let it remain until the whites
become set, but not hard, when serve immediately, placing the dish they
were cooked in on another. To hasten the cooking of the eggs, a
salamander may be held over them for a minute; but great care must be
taken that they are not too much done. This is an exceedingly nice dish,
and one very easily prepared for breakfast.

_Time_.--3 minutes. _Average cost_, 5d.

_Sufficient_ for 2 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

PLOVERS' EGGS.

1662. Plovers' eggs are usually served boiled hard, and sent to table in
a napkin, either hot or cold. They may also be shelled, and served the
same as eggs a la Tripe, with a good Bechamel sauce, or brown gravy,
poured over them. They are also used for decorating salads, the
beautiful colour of the white being generally so much admired.

POACHED EGGS.

[Illustration: EGGS POACHED ON TOAST.]

[Illustration: TIN EGG-POACHER.]

1663. INGREDIENTS.--Eggs, water. To every pint of water allow 1
tablespoonful of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Eggs for poaching should be perfectly fresh, but not quite
new-laid; those that are about 36 hours old are the best for the
purpose. If quite new-laid, the white is so milky it is almost
impossible to set it; and, on the other hand, if the egg be at all
stale, it is equally difficult to poach it nicely. Strain some boiling
water into a deep clean frying-pan; break the egg into a cup without
damaging the yolk, and, when the water boils, remove the pan to the side
of the fire, and gently slip the egg into it. Place the pan over a
gentle fire, and keep the water simmering until the white looks nicely
set, when the egg is ready. Take it up gently with a slice, cut away the
ragged edges of the white, and serve either on toasted bread or on
slices of ham or bacon, or on spinach, &c. A poached egg should not be
overdone, as its appearance and taste will be quite spoiled if the yolk
be allowed to harden. When the egg is slipped into the water, the white
should be gathered together, to keep it a little in form, or the cup
should be turned over it for 1 minute. To poach an egg to perfection is
rather a difficult operation; so, for inexperienced cooks, a tin
egg-poacher may be purchased, which greatly facilitates this manner of
dressing ecgs. Our illustration clearly shows what it is: it consists of
a tin plate with a handle, with a space for three perforated cups. An
egg should be broken into each cup, and the machine then placed in a
stewpan of boiling water, which has been previously strained. When the
whites of the eggs appear set, they are done, and should then be
carefully slipped on to the toast or spinach, or with whatever they are
served. In poaching eggs in a frying-pan, never do more than four at a
time; and, when a little vinegar is liked mixed with the water in which
the eggs are done, use the above proportion.

_Time_.--2-1/2 to 3-1/2 minutes, according to the size of the egg.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 2 eggs to each person.

_Seasonable_ at any time, but less plentiful in winter.

POACHED EGGS, WITH CREAM.

1664. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of water, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 4
teaspoonfuls of vinegar, 4 fresh eggs, 1/2 gill of cream, salt, pepper,
and pounded sugar to taste, 1 oz. of butter.

_Mode_.--Put the water, vinegar, and salt into a frying-pan, and break
each egg into a separate cup; bring the water, &c. to boil, and slip the
eggs gently into it without breaking the yolks. Simmer them from 3 to 4
minutes, but not longer, and, with a slice, lift them out on to a hot
dish, and trim the edges. Empty the pan of its contents, put in the
cream, add a seasoning to taste of pepper, salt, and pounded sugar;
bring the whole to the boiling-point; then add the butter, broken into
small pieces; toss the pan round and round till the butter is melted;
pour it over the eggs, and serve. To insure the eggs not being spoiled
whilst the cream, &c., is preparing, it is a good plan to warm the cream
with the butter, &c., before the eggs are poached, so that it may be
poured over them immediately after they are dished.

_Time_.--3 to 4 minutes to poach the eggs, 5 minutes to warm the cream.

_Average cost_ for the above quantity, 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 2 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

1665. COMPARATIVE SIZES OF EGGS.

[Illustration: 1 SWAN'S EGG. 2 TURKEY'S EGG. 3 DUCK'S EGG. 4 PLOVER'S
EGG.]

SCOTCH EGGS.

1666. INGREDIENTS.--6 eggs, 6 tablespoonfuls of forcemeat No. 417, hot
lard, 1/2 pint of good brown gravy.

_Mode_.--Boil the eggs for 10 minutes; strip them from the shells, and
cover them with forcemeat made by recipe No. 417; or substitute pounded
anchovies for the ham. Fry the eggs a nice brown in boiling lard, drain
them before the fire from their greasy moisture, dish them, and pour
round from 1/4 to 1/2 pint of good brown gravy. To enhance the
appearance of the eggs, they may be rolled in beaten egg and sprinkled
with bread crumbs; but this is scarcely necessary if they are carefully
fried. The flavour of the ham or anchovy in the forcemeat must
preponderate, as it should be very relishing.

_Time_.--10 minutes to boil the eggs, 5 to 7 minutes to fry them.

_Average cost_, 1s. 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

EGGS A LA TRIPE.

1667. INGREDIENTS.--8 eggs, 3/4 pint of Bechamel sauce No. 368,
dessertspoonful of finely-minced parsley.

_Mode_.--Boil the eggs hard; put them into cold water, peel them, take
out the yolks whole, and shred the whites. Make 3/4 pint of Bechamel
sauce by recipe No. 368; add the parsley, and, when the sauce is quite
hot, put the yolks of the eggs into the middle of the dish, and the
shred whites round them; pour over the sauce, and garnish with leaves of
puff-paste or fried croutons. There is no necessity for putting the eggs
into the saucepan with the Bechamel; the sauce, being quite hot, will
warm the eggs sufficiently.

_Time_.--10 minutes to boil the eggs.

_Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

CHAPTER XXXIV.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON BREAD, BISCUITS, AND CAKES.

BREAD AND BREAD-MAKING.

1668. AMONG the numerous vegetable products yielding articles of food
for man, the Cereals hold the first place. By means of skilful
cultivation, mankind have transformed the original forms of these
growths, poor and ill-flavoured as they perhaps were, into various
fruitful and agreeable species, which yield an abundant and pleasant
supply. Classified according to their respective richness in alimentary
elements, the Cereals stand thus:--Wheat, and its varieties, Rye,
Barley, Oats, Rice, Indian Corn. Everybody knows it is wheat flour which
yields the best bread. Rye-bread is viscous, hard, less easily soluble
by the gastric juice, and not so rich in nutritive power. Flour produced
from barley, Indian corn, or rice, is not so readily made into bread;
and the article, when made, is heavy and indigestible.

1669. On examining a grain of corn from any of the numerous cereals
[Footnote: _Cereal,_ a corn-producing plant; from Ceres, the goddess of
agriculture.] used in the preparation of flour, such as wheat, maize,
rye, barley, &c., it will be found to consist of two parts,--the husk,
or exterior covering, which is generally of a dark colour, and the
inner, or albuminous part, which is more or less white. In grinding,
these two portions are separated, and the husk being blown away in the
process of winnowing, the flour remains in the form of a light brown
powder, consisting principally of starch and gluten. In order to render
it white, it undergoes a process called "bolting." It is passed through
a series of fine sieves, which separate the coarser parts, leaving
behind fine white flour,--the "fine firsts" of the corn-dealer. The
process of bolting, as just described, tends to deprive flour of its
gluten, the coarser and darker portion containing much of that
substance; while the lighter part is peculiarly rich in starch. Bran
contains a large proportion of gluten; hence it will be seen why brown
broad is so much more nutritious than white; in fact, we may lay it down
as a general rule, that the whiter the bread the less nourishment it
contains. Majendie proved this by feeding a dog for forty days with
white wheaten bread, at the end of which time he died; while another
dog, fed on brown bread made with flour mixed with bran, lived without
any disturbance of his health. The "bolting" process, then, is rather
injurious than beneficial in its result; and is one of the numerous
instances where fashion has chosen a wrong standard to go by. In ancient
times, down to the Emperors, no bolted flour was known. In many parts of
Germany the entire meal is used; and in no part of the world are the
digestive organs of the people in a better condition. In years of
famine, when corn is scarce, the use of bolted flour is most culpable,
for from 18 to 20 per cent, is lost in bran. Brown bread has, of late
years, become very popular; and many physicians have recommended it to
invalids with weak digestions with great success. This rage for white
bread has introduced adulterations of a very serious character,
affecting the health of the whole community. Potatoes are added for this
purpose; but this is a comparatively harmless cheat, only reducing the
nutritive property of the bread; but bone-dust and alum are also put in,
which are far from harmless.

1670. Bread-making is a very ancient art indeed. The Assyrians,
Egyptians, and Greeks, used to make bread, in which oil, with aniseed
and other spices, was an element; but this was unleavened. Every family
used to prepare the bread for its own consumption, the _trade_ of baking
not having yet taken shape. It is said, that somewhere about the
beginning of the thirtieth Olympiad, the slave of an archon, at Athens,
made leavened bread by accident. He had left some wheaten dough in an
earthen pan, and forgotten it; some days afterwards, he lighted upon it
again, and found it turning sour. His first thought was to throw it
away; but, his master coming up, he mixed this now acescent dough with
some fresh dough, which he was working at. The bread thus produced, by
the introduction of dough in which alcoholic fermentation had begun, was
found delicious by the archon and his friends; and the slave, being
summoned and catechised, told the secret. It spread all over Athens; and
everybody wanting leavened bread at once, certain persons set up as
bread-makers, or bakers. In a short time bread-baking became quite an
art, and "Athenian bread" was quoted all over Greece as the best bread,
just as the honey of Hyamettus was celebrated as the best honey.

1671. In our own times, and among civilized peoples, bread has become an
article of food of the first necessity; and properly so, for it
constitutes of itself a complete life-sustainer, the gluten, starch, and
sugar, which it contains, representing azotized and hydro-carbonated
nutrients, and combining the sustaining powers of the animal and
vegetable kingdoms in one product.

1672. WHEATEN BREAD.--The finest, wholesomest, and most savoury bread is
made from wheaten flour. There are, of wheat, three leading qualities,--
the soft, the medium, and the hard wheat; the last of which yields a
kind of bread that is not so white as that made from soft wheat, but is
richer in gluten, and, consequently, more nutritive.

1673. RYE BREAD.--This comes next to wheaten bread: it is not so rich in
gluten, but is said to keep fresh longer, and to have some laxative
qualities.

1674. BARLEY BREAD, INDIAN-CORN BREAD, &c.--Bread made from barley,
maize, oats, rice, potatoes, &c. "rises" badly, because the grains in
question contain but little gluten, which makes the bread heavy, close
in texture, and difficult of digestion; in fact, corn-flour has to be
added before panification can take place. In countries where wheat is
scarce and maize abundant, the people make the latter a chief article of
sustenance, when prepared in different forms.

BREAD-MAKING.

1675. PANIFICATION, or bread-making, consists of the following
processes, in the case of Wheaten Flour. Fifty or sixty per cent. of
water is added to the flour, with the addition of some leavening matter,
and, preferably, of yeast from malt and hops. All kinds of leavening
matter have, however, been, and are still used in different parts of the
world: in the East Indies, "toddy," which is a liquor that flows from
the wounded cocoa-nut tree; and, in the West Indies, "dunder," or the
refuse of the distillation of rum. The dough then undergoes the
well-known process called _kneading_. The yeast produces fermentation, a
process which may be thus described:--The dough reacting upon the
leavening matter introduced, the starch of the flour is transformed into
saccharine matter, the saccharine matter being afterwards changed into
alcohol and carbonic acid. The dough must be well "bound," and yet allow
the escape of the little bubbles of carbonic acid which accompany the
fermentation, and which, in their passage, cause the numerous little
holes which are seen in light bread.

1676. The yeast must be good and fresh, if the bread is to be digestible
and nice. Stale yeast produces, instead of vinous fermentation, an
acetous fermentation, which flavours the bread and makes it
disagreeable. A poor thin yeast produces an imperfect fermentation, the
result being a heavy unwholesome loaf.

1677. When the dough is well kneaded, it is left to stand for some time,
and then, as soon as it begins to swell, it is divided into loaves;
after which it is again left to stand, when it once more swells up, and
manifests, for the last time, the symptoms of fermentation. It is then
put into the oven, where the water contained in the dough is partly
evaporated, and the loaves swell up again, while a yellow crust begins
to form upon the surface. When the bread is sufficiently baked, the
bottom crust is hard and resonant if struck with the finger, while the
crumb is elastic, and rises again after being pressed down with the
finger. The bread is, in all probability, baked sufficiently if, on
opening the door of the oven, you are met by a cloud of steam which
quickly passes away.

1678. One word as to the unwholesomeness of new bread and hot rolls.
When bread is taken out of the oven, it is full of moisture; the starch
is held together in masses, and the bread, instead of being crusted so
as to expose each grain of starch to the saliva, actually prevents their
digestion by being formed by the teeth into leathery poreless masses,
which lie on the stomach like so many bullets. Bread should always be at
least a day old before it is eaten; and, if properly made, and kept in a
_cool dry_ place, ought to be perfectly soft and palatable at the end of
three or four days. Hot rolls, swimming in melted butter, and new bread,
ought to be carefully shunned by everybody who has the slightest respect
for that much-injured individual--the Stomach.

1679. AERATED BREAD.--It is not unknown to some of our readers that Dr.
Dauglish, of Malvern, has recently patented a process for making bread
"light" without the use of leaven. The ordinary process of bread-making
by fermentation is tedious, and much labour of human hands is requisite
in the kneading, in order that the dough may be thoroughly
interpenetrated with the leaven. The new process impregnates the bread,
by the application of machinery, with carbonic acid gas, or fixed air.
Different opinions are expressed about the bread; but it is curious to
note, that, as corn is now reaped by machinery, and dough is baked by
machinery, the whole process of bread-making is probably in course of
undergoing changes which will emancipate both the housewife and the
professional baker from a large amount of labour.

1680. In the production of Aerated Bread, wheaten flour, water, salt,
and carbonic acid gas (generated by proper machinery), are the only
materials employed. We need not inform our readers that carbonic acid
gas is the source of the effervescence, whether in common water coming
from a depth, or in lemonade, or any aerated drink. Its action, in the
new bread, takes the place of fermentation in the old.

1681. In the patent process, the dough is mixed in a great iron ball,
inside which is a system of paddles, perpetually turning, and doing the
kneading part of the business. Into this globe the flour is dropped till
it is full, and then the common atmospheric air is pumped out, and the
pure gas turned on. The gas is followed by the water, which has been
aerated for the purpose, and then begins the churning or kneading part
of the business.

1682. Of course, it is not long before we have the dough, and very
"light" and nice it looks. This is caught in tins, and passed on to the
floor of the oven, which is an endless floor, moving slowly through the
fire. Done to a turn, the loaves emerge at the other end of the
apartment,--and the Aerated Bread is made.

1683. It may be added, that it is a good plan to change one's baker from
time to time, and so secure a change in the quality of the bread that is
eaten.

1684. MIXED BREADS.--Rye bread is hard of digestion, and requires longer
and slower baking than wheaten bread. It is better when made with leaven
of wheaten flour rather than yeast, and turns out lighter. It should not
be eaten till two days old. It will keep a long time.

1685. A good bread may be made by mixing rye-flour, wheat-flour, and
rice-paste in equal proportions; also by mixing rye, wheat, and barley.
In Norway, it is said that they only bake their barley broad once a
year, such is its "keeping" quality.

1686. Indian-corn flour mixed with wheat-flour (half with half) makes a
nice bread; but it is not considered very digestible, though it keeps
well.

1687. Rice cannot be made into bread, nor can potatoes; but one-third
potato flour to three-fourths wheaten flour makes a tolerably good loaf.

1688. A very good bread, better than the ordinary sort, and of a
delicious flavour, is said to be produced by adopting the following
recipe:--Take ten parts of wheat-flour, five parts of potato-flour, one
part of rice-paste; knead together, add the yeast, and bake as usual.
This is, of course, cheaper than wheaten bread.

1689. Flour, when freshly ground, is too glutinous to make good bread,
and should therefore not be used immediately, but should be kept dry for
a few weeks, and stirred occasionally, until it becomes dry, and
crumbles easily between the fingers.

1690. Flour should be perfectly dry before being used for bread or
cakes; if at all damp, the preparation is sure to be heavy. Before
mixing it with the other ingredients, it is a good plan to place it for
an hour or two before the fire, until it feels warm and dry.

1691. Yeast from home-brewed beer is generally preferred to any other:
it is very bitter, and, on that account, should be well washed, and put
away until the thick mass settles. If it still continues bitter, the
process should be repeated; and, before being used, all the water
floating at the top must be poured off. German yeast is now very much
used, and should be moistened, and thoroughly mixed with the milk or
water with which the bread is to be made.

1692. The following observations are extracted from a valuable work on
Bread-making, [Footnote: "The English Bread-Book." By Eliza Acton.
London: Longman.] and will be found very useful to our readers:--

1693. The first thing required for making wholesome bread is the utmost
cleanliness; the next is the soundness and sweetness of all the
ingredients used for it; and, in addition to these, there must be
attention and care through the whole process.

1694. An almost certain way of spoiling dough is to leave it half-made,
and to allow it to become cold before it is finished. The other most
common causes of failure are using yeast which is no longer sweet, or
which has been frozen, or has had hot liquid poured over it.

1695. Too small a proportion of yeast, or insufficient time allowed for
the dough to rise, will cause the bread to be heavy.

1696. Heavy bread will also most likely be the result of making the
dough very hard, and letting it become quite, cold, particularly in
winter.

1697. If either the sponge or the dough be permitted to overwork itself,
that is to say, if the mixing and kneading be neglected when it has
reached the proper point for either, sour bread will probably be the
consequence in warm weather, and bad bread in any. The goodness will
also be endangered by placing it so near a fire as to make any part of
it hot, instead of maintaining the gentle and equal degree of heat
required for its due fermentation.

1698. MILK OR BUTTER.--Milk which is not perfectly sweet will not only
injure the flavour of the bread, but, in sultry weather, will often
cause it to be quite uneatable; yet either of them, if fresh and good,
will materially improve its quality.

1699. To keep bread sweet and fresh, as soon as it is cold it should be
put into a clean earthen pan, with a cover to it: this pan should be
placed at a little distance from the ground, to allow a current of air
to pass underneath. Some persons prefer keeping bread on clean wooden
shelves, without being covered, that the crust may not soften. Stale
bread may be freshened by warming it through in a gentle oven. Stale
pastry, cakes, &c., may also be improved by this method.

1700. The utensils required for making bread, on a moderate scale, are a
kneading-trough or pan, sufficiently large that the dough may be kneaded
freely without throwing the flour over the edges, and also to allow for
its rising; a hair sieve for straining yeast, and one or two strong
spoons.

1701. Yeast must always be good of its kind, and in a fitting state to
produce ready and proper fermentation. Yeast of strong beer or ale
produces more effect than that of milder kinds; and the fresher the
yeast, the smaller the quantity will be required to raise the dough.

1702. As a general rule, the oven for baking bread should be rather
quick, and the heat so regulated as to penetrate the dough without
hardening the outside. The oven door should not be opened after the
bread is put in until the dough is set, or has become firm, as the cool
air admitted will have an unfavourable effect on it.

1703. Brick ovens are generally considered the best adapted for baking
bread: these should be heated with wood faggots, and then swept and
mopped out, to cleanse them for the reception of the bread. Iron ovens
are more difficult to manage, being apt to burn the surface of the bread
before the middle is baked. To remedy this, a few clean bricks should be
set at the bottom of the oven, close together, to receive the tins of
bread. In many modern stoves the ovens are so much improved that they
bake admirably; and they can always be brought to the required
temperature, when it is higher than is needed, by leaving the door open
for a time.

A FEW HINTS respecting the Making and Baking of CAKES.

1704. _Eggs_ should always be broken into a cup, the whites and yolks
separated, and they should always be strained. Breaking the eggs thus,
the bad ones may be easily rejected without spoiling the others, and so
cause no waste. As eggs are used instead of yeast, they should be very
thoroughly whisked; they are generally sufficiently beaten when thick
enough to carry the drop that falls from the whisk.

1705. _Loaf Sugar_ should be well pounded, and then sifted through a
fine sieve.

1706. _Currants_ should be nicely washed, picked, dried in a cloth, and
then carefully examined, that no pieces of grit or stone may be left
amongst them. They should then be laid on a dish before the fire, to
become thoroughly dry; as, if added damp to the other ingredients, cakes
will be liable to be heavy.

1707. _Good Butter_ should always be used in the manufacture of cakes;
and if beaten to a cream, it saves much time and labour to warm, but not
melt, it before beating.

1708. Less butter and eggs are required for cakes when yeast is mixed
with the other ingredients.

1709. The heat of the oven is of great importance, especially for large
cakes. If the heat be not tolerably fierce, the batter will not rise. If
the oven is too quick, and there is any danger of the cake burning or
catching, put a sheet of clean paper over the top. Newspaper, or paper
that has been printed on, should never be used for this purpose.

1710. To know when a cake is sufficiently baked, plunge a clean knife
into the middle of it; draw it quickly out, and if it looks in the least
sticky, put the cake back, and close the oven door until the cake is
done.

1711. Cakes should be kept in closed tin canisters or jars, and in a dry
place. Those made with yeast do not keep so long as those made without
it.

BISCUITS.

1712. Since the establishment of the large modern biscuit manufactories,
biscuits have been produced both cheap and wholesome, in, comparatively
speaking, endless variety. Their actual component parts are, perhaps,
known only to the various makers; but there are several kinds of
biscuits which have long been in use, that may here be advantageously
described.

1713. Biscuits belong to the class of unfermented bread, and are,
perhaps, the most wholesome of that class. In cases where fermented
bread does not agree with the human stomach, they may be recommended: in
many instances they are considered lighter, and less liable to create
acidity and flatulence. The name is derived from the French _bis cuit_,
"twice-baked," because, originally, that was the mode of entirely
depriving them of all moisture, to insure their keeping; but, although
that process is no longer employed, the name is retained. The use of
this kind of bread on land is pretty general, and some varieties are
luxuries; but, at sea, biscuits are articles of the first necessity.

1714. SEA, or SHIP BISCUITS, are made of wheat-flour from which only the
coarsest bran has been separated. The dough is made up as stiff as it
can be worked, and is then formed into shapes, and baked in an oven;
after which, the biscuits are exposed in lofts over the oven until
perfectly dry, to prevent them from becoming mouldy when stored.

1715. CAPTAINS' BISCUITS are made in a similar manner, only of fine
flour.

RECIPES.

CHAPTER XXXV.

TO MAKE YEAST FOR BREAD.

1716. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 oz. of hops, 3 quarts of water, 1 lb. of
bruised malt, 1/2 pint of yeast.

_Mode_.--Boil the hops in the water for 20 minutes; let it stand for
about 5 minutes, then add it to 1 lb. of bruised malt prepared as for
brewing. Let the mixture stand covered till about lukewarm; then put in
not quite 1/2 pint of yeast; keep it warm, and let it work 3 or 4 hours;
then put it into small 1/2-pint bottles (ginger-beer bottles are the
best for the purpose), cork them well, and tie them down. The yeast is
now ready for use; it will keep good for a few weeks, and 1 bottle will
be found sufficient for 18 lbs. of flour. When required for use, boil 3
lbs. of potatoes without salt, mash them in the same water in which they
were boiled, and rub them through a colander. Stir in about 1/2 lb. of
flour; then put in the yeast, pour it in the middle of the flour, and
let it stand warm on the hearth all night, and in the morning let it be
quite warm when it is kneaded. The bottles of yeast require very careful
opening, as it is generally exceedingly ripe.

_Time_.--20 minutes to boil the hops and water, the yeast to work 3 or 4
hours.

_Sufficient._--1/2 pint sufficient for 18 lbs. of flour.

KIRKLEATHAM YEAST.

1717. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of hops, 4 quarts of water, 1/2 lb. of flour,
1/2 pint of yeast.

_Mode_.--Boil the hops and water for 20 minutes; strain, and mix with
the liquid 1/2 lb. of flour and not quite 1/2 pint of yeast. Bottle it
up, and tie the corks down. When wanted for use, boil potatoes according
to the quantity of bread to be made (about 3 lbs. are sufficient for
about a peck of flour); mash them, add to them 1/2 lb. of flour, and mix
about 1/2 pint of the yeast with them; let this mixture stand all day,
and lay the bread to rise the night before it is wanted.

_Time_.--20 minutes to boil the hops and water.

_Sufficient_.--1/2 pint of this yeast sufficient for a peck of flour, or
rather more.

TO MAKE GOOD HOME-MADE BREAD.

(_Miss Acton's Recipe_.)

1718. INGREDIENTS.--1 quartern of flour, 1 large tablespoonful of solid
brewer's yeast, or nearly 1 oz. of fresh German yeast, 1-1/4 to 1-1/2
pint of warm milk-and-water.

[Illustration: COTTAGE LOAF.]

[Illustration: TIN BREAD.]

_Mode_.--Put the flour into a large earthenware bowl or deep pan; then,
with a strong metal or wooden spoon, hollow out the middle; but do not
clear it entirely away from the bottom of the pan, as, in that case, the
sponge (or leaven, as it was formerly termed) would stick to it, which
it ought not to do. Next take either a large tablespoonful of brewer's
yeast which has been rendered solid by mixing it with plenty of cold
water, and letting it afterwards stand to settle for a day and night; or
nearly an ounce of German yeast; put it into a large basin, and proceed
to mix it, so that it shall be as smooth as cream, with 3/4 pint of warm
milk-and-water, or with water only; though even a very little milk will
much improve the bread. Pour the yeast into the hole made in the flour,
and stir into it as much of that which lies round it as will make a
thick batter, in which there must be no lumps. Strew plenty of flour on
the top; throw a thick clean cloth over, and set it where the air is
warm; but do not place it upon the kitchen fender, for it will become
too much heated there. Look at it from time to time: when it has been
laid for nearly an hour, and when the yeast has risen and broken through
the flour, so that bubbles appear in it, you will know that it is ready
to be made up into dough. Then place the pan on a strong chair, or
dresser, or table, of convenient height; pour into the sponge the
remainder of the warm milk-and-water; stir into it as much of the flour
as you can with the spoon; then wipe it out clean with your fingers, and
lay it aside. Next take plenty of the remaining flour, throw it on the
top of the leaven, and begin, with the knuckles of both hands, to knead
it well. When the flour is nearly all kneaded in, begin to draw the
edges of the dough towards the middle, in order to mix the whole
thoroughly; and when it is free from flour and lumps and crumbs, and
does not stick to the hands when touched, it will be done, and may again
be covered with the cloth, and left to rise a second time. In 3/4 hour
look at it, and should it have swollen very much, and begin to crack, it
will be light enough to bake. Turn it then on to a paste-board or very
clean dresser, and with a large sharp knife divide it in two; make it up
quickly into loaves, and dispatch it to the oven: make one or two
incisions across the tops of the loaves, as they will rise more easily
if this be done. If baked in tins or pans, rub them with a tiny piece of
butter laid on a piece of clean paper, to prevent the dough from
sticking to them. All bread should be turned upside down, or on its
side, as soon as it is drawn from the oven: if this be neglected, the
under part of the loaves will become wet and blistered from the steam,
which cannot then escape from them. _To make the dough without setting a
sponge_, merely mix the yeast with the greater part of the warm
milk-and-water, and wet up the whole of the flour at once after a little
salt has been stirred in, proceeding exactly, in every other respect, as
in the directions just given. As the dough will _soften_ in the rising,
it should be made quite firm at first, or it will be too lithe by the
time it is ready for the oven.

[Illustration: ITALIAN MILLET.]

_Time_.--To be left to rise an hour the first time, 3/4 hour the second
time; to be baked from 1 to 1-1/4 hour, or baked in one loaf from 1-1/2
to 2 hours.

ITALIAN MILLET, or Great Indian Millet, is cultivated in Egypt
and Nubia, where it is called _dhourra_, and is used as human
food, as well as for the fermentation of beer. It will grow on
poor soils, and is extremely productive. It has been introduced
into Italy, where they make a coarse bread from it; and it is
also employed in pastry and puddings: they also use it for
feeding horses and domestic fowls. It is the largest variety,
growing to the height of six feet; but it requires a warm
climate, and will not ripen in this country. A yellow variety,
called Golden Millet, is sold in the grocers' shops, for making
puddings, and is very delicate and wholesome.

TO MAKE A PECK OF GOOD BREAD.

1719. INGREDIENTS.--3 lbs. of potatoes, 6 pints of cold water, 1/2 pint
of good yeast, a peck of flour, 2 oz. of salt.

_Mode_.--Peel and boil the potatoes; beat them to a cream while warm;
then add 1 pint of cold water, strain through a colander, and add to it
1/2 pint of good yeast, which should have been put in water over-night,
to take off its bitterness. Stir all well together with a wooden spoon,
and pour the mixture into the centre of the flour; mix it to the
substance of cream, cover it over closely, and let it remain near the
fire for an hour; then add the 5 pints of water, milk-warm, with 2 oz.
of salt; pour this in, and mix the whole to a nice light dough. Let it
remain for about 2 hours; then make it into 7 loaves, and bake for about
1-1/2 hour in a good oven. When baked, the bread should weigh nearly 20
lbs.

_Time_.--About 1-1/2 hour.

THE RED VARIETIES OF WHEAT are generally hardier and more easily
grown than the white sorts, and, although of less value to the
miller, they are fully more profitable to the grower, in
consequence of the better crops which they produce. Another
advantage the red wheats possess is their comparative immunity
from the attacks of mildew and fly. The best English wheat comes
from the counties of Kent and Essex; the qualities under these
heads always bearing a higher price than others, as will be seen
by the periodical lists in the journals.

RICE BREAD.

1720. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of rice allow 4 lbs. of wheat flour,
nearly 3 tablespoonfuls of yeast, 1/4 oz. of salt. _Mode_.--Boil the
rice in water until it is quite tender; pour off the water, and put the
rice, before it is cold, to the flour. Mix these well together with the
yeast, salt, and sufficient warm water to make the whole into a smooth
dough; let it rise by the side of the fire, then form it into loaves,
and bake them from 1-1/2 to 2 hours, according to their size. If the
rice is boiled in milk instead of water, it makes very delicious bread
or cakes. When boiled in this manner, it may be mixed with the flour
without straining the liquid from it. _Time_.--1-1/2 to 2 hours.

INDIAN-CORN-FLOUR BREAD.

1721. INGREDIENTS.--To 4 lbs. of flour allow 2 lbs. of Indian-corn
flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of yeast, 3 pints of warm water, 1/4 oz. of
salt. _Mode_.--Mix the two flours well together, with the salt; make a
hole in the centre, and stir the yeast up well with 1/2 pint of the warm
water; put this into the middle of the flour, and mix enough of it with
the yeast to make a thin batter; throw a little flour over the surface
of this batter, cover the whole with a thick cloth, and set it to rise
in a warm place. When the batter has nicely risen, work the whole to a
nice smooth dough, adding the water as required; knead it well, and
mould the dough into loaves; let them rise for nearly 1/2 hour, then put
them into a well-heated oven. If made into 2 loaves, they will require
from 1-1/2 to 2 hours baking.

_Time_.--1-1/2 to 2 hours.

[Illustration: MAIZE PLANT.]

[Illustration: EAR OF MAIZE.]

MAIZE.--Next to wheat and rice, maize is the grain most used in
the nourishment of man. In Asia, Africa, and America, it is the
principal daily food of a large portion of the population,
especially of the colonists. In some of the provinces of France,
too, it is consumed in large quantities. There are eight
varieties of the maize; the most productive is the maize of
Cusco. The flour of maize is yellow, and it contains an oily
matter, which, when fresh, gives it an agreeable flavour and
odour; but the action of the air on it soon develops rancidity.
If carried any distance, it should be stored away in air-tight
vessels. An excellent soup is prepared with meat and
maize-flour. The inhabitants of some countries, where wheat is
scarce, make, with maize and water, or milk and salt, a kind of
biscuit, which is pleasant in taste, but indigestible. Some of
the preparations of maize-flour are very good, and, when
partaken in moderation, suitable food for almost everybody.

SODA BREAD.

1722. INGREDIENTS.--To every 2 lbs. of flour allow 1 teaspoonful of
tartaric acid, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful of carbonate of
soda, 2 breakfast-cupfuls of cold milk.

_Mode_.--Let the tartaric acid and salt be reduced to the finest
possible powder; then mix them well with the flour. Dissolve the soda in
the milk, and pour it several times from one basin to another, before
adding it to the flour. Work the whole quickly into a light dough,
divide it into 2 loaves, and put them into a well-heated oven
immediately, and bake for an hour. Sour milk or buttermilk may be used,
but then a little less acid will be needed.

_Time_.--1 hour.

POLISH AND POMERANIAN WHEAT are accounted by authorities most
excellent. Large raft-like barges convey this grain down the
rivers, from the interior of the country to the seaports. This
corn is described as being white, hard, and thin-skinned; and it
yields a large quantity of flour, having a small proportion of
bran.

EXCELLENT ROLLS.

1723. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of flour allow 1 oz. of butter, 1/4
pint of milk, 1 large teaspoonful of yeast, a little salt.

[Illustration: ROLLS.]

_Mode_.--Warm the butter in the milk, add to it the yeast and salt, and
mix these ingredients well together. Put the flour into a pan, stir in
the above ingredients, and let the dough rise, covered in a warm place.
Knead it well, make it into rolls, let them rise again for a few
minutes, and bake in a quick oven. Richer rolls may be made by adding 1
or 2 eggs and a larger proportion of butter, and their appearance
improved by brushing the tops over with yolk of egg or a little milk.

_Time_--1 lb. of flour, divided into 6 rolls, from 15 to 20 minutes.

HOT ROLLS.

1724. This dish, although very unwholesome and indigestible, is
nevertheless a great favourite, and eaten by many persons. As soon as
the rolls come from the baker's, they should be put into the oven,
which, in the early part of the morning, is sure not to be very hot; and
the rolls must not be buttered until wanted. When they are quite hot,
divide them lengthwise into three; put some thin flakes of good butter
between the slices, press the rolls together, and put them in the oven
for a minute or two, but not longer, or the butter would oil; take them
out of the oven, spread the butter equally over, divide the rolls in
half, and put them on to a very hot clean dish, and send them instantly
to table.

TO MAKE DRY TOAST.

1725. To make dry toast properly, a great deal of attention is required;
much more, indeed, than people generally suppose. Never use new bread
for making any kind of toast, as it eats heavy, and, besides, is very
extravagant. Procure a loaf of household bread about two days old; cut
off as many slices as may be required, not quite 1/4 inch in thickness;
trim off the crusts and ragged edges, put the bread on a toasting-fork,
and hold it before a very clear fire. Move it backwards and forwards
until the bread is nicely coloured; then turn it and toast the other
side, and do not place it so near the fire that it blackens. Dry toast
should be more gradually made than buttered toast, as its great beauty
consists in its crispness, and this cannot be attained unless the
process is slow and the bread is allowed gradually to colour. It should
never be made long before it is wanted, as it soon becomes tough, unless
placed on the fender in front of the fire. As soon as each piece is
ready, it should be put into a rack, or stood upon its edges, and sent
quickly to table.

TO MAKE HOT BUTTERED TOAST.

1726. A loaf of household bread about two days old answers for making
toast better than cottage bread, the latter not being a good shape, and
too crusty for the purpose. Cut as many nice even slices as may be
required, rather more than 1/4 inch in thickness, and toast them before
a very bright fire, without allowing the bread to blacken, which spoils
the appearance and flavour of all toast. When of a nice colour on both
sides, put it on a hot plate; divide some good butter into small pieces,
place them on the toast, set this before the fire, and when the butter
is just beginning to melt, spread it lightly over the toast. Trim off
the crust and ragged edges, divide each round into 4 pieces, and send
the toast quickly to table. Some persons cut the slices of toast across
from corner to corner, so making the pieces of a three-cornered shape.
Soyer recommends that each slice should be cut into pieces as soon as it
is buttered, and when all are ready, that they should be piled lightly
on the dish they are intended to be served on. He says that by cutting
through 4 or 5 slices at a time, all the butter is squeezed out of the
upper ones, while the bottom one is swimming in fat liquid. It is highly
essential to use good butter for making this dish.

MUFFINS.

1727. INGREDIENTS.--To every quart of milk allow 1-1/2 oz. of German
yeast, a little salt; flour.

[Illustration: MUFFINS.]

_Mode_.--Warm the milk, add to it the yeast, and mix these well
together; put them into a pan, and stir in sufficient flour to make the
whole into a dough of rather a soft consistence; cover it over with a
cloth, and place it in a warm place to rise, and, when light and nicely
risen, divide the dough into pieces, and round them to the proper shape
with the hands; place them, in a layer of flour about two inches thick,
on wooden trays, and let them rise again; when this is effected, they
each will exhibit a semi-globular shape. Then place them carefully on a
hot-plate or stove, and bake them until they are slightly browned,
turning them when they are done on one side. Muffins are not easily
made, and are more generally purchased than manufactured at home. _To
toast them_, divide the edge of the muffin all round, by pulling it
open, to the depth of about an inch, with the fingers. Put it on a
toasting-fork, and hold it before a very clear fire until one side is
nicely browned, but not burnt; turn, and toast it on the other. Do not
toast them too quickly, as, if this is done, the middle of the muffin
will not be warmed through. When done, divide them by pulling them open;
butter them slightly on both sides, put them together again, and cut
them into halves: when sufficient are toasted and buttered, pile them on
a very hot dish, and send them very quickly to table.

_Time_.--From 20 minutes to 1/2 hour to bake them.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1 muffin to each person.

CRUMPETS.

[Illustration: CRUMPETS.]

1728. These are made in the same manner as muffins; only, in making the
mixture, let it be more like batter than dough. Let it rise for about
1/2 hour; pour it into iron rings, which should be ready on a hot-plate;
bake them, and when one side appears done, turn them quickly on the
other. _To toast them_, have ready a very _bright clear_ fire; put the
crumpet on a toasting-fork, and hold it before the fire, _not too
close_, until it is nicely brown on one side, but do not allow it to
blacken. Turn it, and brown the other side; then spread it with good
butter, cut it in half, and, when all are done, pile them on a hot dish,
and send them quickly to table. Muffins and crumpets should always be
served on separate dishes, and both toasted and served as expeditiously
as possible.

_Time_.--From 10 to 15 minutes to bake them.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 2 crumpets to each person.

PLAIN BUNS.

1729. INGREDIENTS.--To every 2 lbs. of flour allow 6 oz. of moist sugar,
1/2 gill of yeast, 1/2 pint of milk, 1/2 lb. of butter, warm milk.

_Mode_.--Put the flour into a basin, mix the sugar well with it, make a
hole in the centre, and stir in the yeast and milk (which should be
lukewarm), with enough of the flour to make it the thickness of cream.
Cover the basin over with a cloth, and let the sponge rise in a warm
place, which will be accomplished in about 1-1/2 hour. Melt the butter,
but do not allow it to oil; stir it into the other ingredients, with
enough warm milk to make the whole into a soft dough; then mould it into
buns about the size of an egg; lay them in rows quite 3 inches apart;
set them again in a warm place, until they have risen to double their
size; then put them into a good brisk oven, and just before they are
done, wash them over with a little milk. From 15 to 20 minutes will be
required to bake them nicely. These buns may be varied by adding a few
currants, candied peel, or caraway seeds to the other ingredients; and
the above mixture answers for hot cross buns, by putting in a little
ground allspice; and by pressing a tin mould in the form of a cross in
the centre of the bun.

_Time_.--15 to 20 minutes. _Average cost_, 1d. each.

_Sufficient_ to make 18 buns.

TO MAKE GOOD PLAIN BUNS.

1730. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of good butter, 1/4 lb. of
sugar, 1 egg, nearly 1/4 pint of milk, 2 small teaspoonfuls of
baking-powder, a few drops of essence of lemon.

_Mode_.--Warm the butter, without oiling it; beat it with a wooden
spoon; stir the flour in gradually with the sugar, and mix these
ingredients well together. Make the milk lukewarm, beat up with it the
yolk of the egg and the essence of lemon, and stir these to the flour,
&c. Add the baking-powder, beat the dough well for about 10 minutes,
divide it into 24 pieces, put them into buttered tins or cups, and bake
in a brisk oven from 20 to 30 minutes.

_Time_.--20 to 30 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ to make 12 buns. _Seasonable_ at any time.

LIGHT BUNS.

[Illustration: BUNS.]

1731. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 teaspoonful of tartaric acid, 1/2 teaspoonful of
bicarbonate of soda, 1 lb. of flour, 2 oz. of butter, 2 oz. of loaf
sugar, 1/4 lb. of currants or raisins,--when liked, a few caraway seeds,
1/2 pint of cold new milk, 1 egg.

_Mode_.--Rub the tartaric acid, soda, and flour all together through a
hair sieve; work the butter into the flour; add the sugar, currants, and
caraway seeds, when the flavour of them latter is liked. Mix all these
ingredients well together; make a hole in the middle of the flour, and
pour in the milk, mixed with the egg, which should be well beaten; mix
quickly, and set the dough, with a fork, on baking-tins, and bake the
buns for about 20 minutes. This mixture makes a very good cake, and if
put into a tin, should be baked 1-1/2 hour. The same quantity of flour,
soda, and tartaric acid, with 1/2 pint of milk and a little salt, will
make either bread or teacakes, if wanted quickly.

_Time_.--20 minutes for the buns; if made into a cake, 1-1/2 hour.

_Sufficient_ to make about 12 buns.

VICTORIA BUNS.

1732. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of pounded loaf sugar, 1 egg, 1-1/2 oz. of
ground rice, 2 oz. of butter, 1-1/2 oz. of currants, a few thin slices
of candied peel; flour.

_Mode_.--Whisk the egg, stir in the sugar, and beat these ingredients
well together; beat the butter to a cream, stir in the ground rice,
currants, and candied peel, and as much flour as will make it of such a
consistency that it may be rolled into 7 or 8 balls. Put these on to a
buttered tin, and bake them from 1/2 to 3/4 hour. They should be put
into the oven immediately, or they will become heavy; and the oven
should be tolerably brisk.

_Time_.--1/2 to 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ to make 7 or 8 buns. _Seasonable_ at any time.

ITALIAN RUSKS.

1733. A stale Savoy or lemon cake may be converted into very good rusks
in the following manner. Cut the cake into slices, divide each slice in
two; put them on a baking-sheet, in a slow oven, and when they are of a
nice brown and quite hard, they are done. They should be kept in a
closed tin canister in a dry place, to preserve their crispness.

[Illustration: PANNICLED MILLET.]

PANNICLED MILLET.--This is the smallest-seeded of the
corn-plants, being a true grass; but the number of the seeds in
each ear makes up for their size. It grows in sandy soils that
will not do for the cultivation of many other kinds of grain,
and forms the chief sustenance in the arid districts of Arabia,
Syria, Nubia, and parts of India. It is not cultivated in
England, being principally confined to the East. The nations who
make use of it grind it, in the primitive manner, between two
stones, and make it into a diet which, cannot be properly called
bread, but rather a kind of soft thin cake half-baked. When we
take into account that the Arabians are fond of lizards and
locusts as articles of food, their _cuisine_, altogether, is
scarcely a tempting one.

TO MAKE RUSKS.

(_Suffolk Recipe_.)

1734. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of flour allow 2 oz. of butter, 1/4
pint of milk, 2 oz. of loaf sugar, 3 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of yeast.

[Illustration: RUSKS.]

_Mode_.--Put the milk and butter into a saucepan, and keep shaking it
round until the latter is melted. Put the flour into a basin with the
sugar, mix these well together, and beat the eggs. Stir them with the
yeast to the milk and butter, and with this liquid work the flour into a
smooth dough. Cover a cloth over the basin, and leave the dough to rise
by the side of the fire; then knead it, and divide it into 12 pieces;
place them in a brisk oven, and bake for about 20 minutes. Take the
rusks out, break them in half, and then set them in the oven to get
crisp on the other side. When cold, they should be put into tin
canisters to keep them dry; and, if intended for the cheese course, the
sifted sugar should be omitted.

_Time_.--20 minutes to bake the rusks; 5 minutes to render them crisp
after being divided.

_Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_ to make 2 dozen rusks. _Seasonable_ at any time.

ALMOND ICING FOR CAKES.

1735. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of finely-pounded loaf sugar allow 1
lb. of sweet almonds, the whites of 4 eggs, a little rose-water.

_Mode_.--Blanch the almonds, and pound them (a few at a time) in a
mortar to a paste, adding a little rose-water to facilitate the
operation. Whisk the whites of the eggs to a strong froth; mix them with
the pounded almonds, stir in the sugar, and beat altogether. When the
cake is sufficiently baked, lay on the almond icing, and put it into the
oven to dry. Before laying this preparation on the cake, great care must
be taken that it is nice and smooth, which is easily accomplished by
well beating the mixture.

SUGAR ICING FOR CAKES.

1736. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of loaf sugar allow the whites of 4
eggs, 1 oz. of fine starch.

_Mode_.--Beat the eggs to a strong froth, and gradually sift in the
sugar, which should be reduced to the finest possible powder, and
gradually add the starch, also finely powdered. Beat the mixture well
until the sugar is smooth; then with a spoon or broad knife lay the
icing equally over the cakes. These should then be placed in a very cool
oven, and the icing allowed to dry and harden, but not to colour. The
icing may be coloured with strawberry or currant-juice, or with prepared
cochineal. If it be put on the cakes as soon as they are withdrawn from
the oven, it will become firm and hard by the time the cakes are cold.
On very rich cakes, such as wedding, christening cakes, &c., a layer of
almond icing, No. 1735, is usually spread over the top, and over that
the white icing as described. All iced cakes should be kept in a very
dry place.

BISCUIT POWDER, generally used for Infants' Food.

1737. This powder may be purchased in tin canisters, and may also be
prepared at home. Dry the biscuits well in a slow oven; roll them and
grind them with a rolling-pin on a clean board, until they are reduced
to powder; sift it through a close hair sieve, and it is fit for use. It
should be kept in well-covered tins, and in a dry place.

ARROWROOT BISCUITS OR DROPS.

1738. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of butter, 6 eggs, 1/2 lb. of flour, 6 oz.
of arrowroot, 1/2 lb. of pounded loaf sugar.

_Mode_.--Beat the butter to a cream; whisk the eggs to a strong froth,
add them to the butter, stir in the flour a little at a time, and beat
the mixture well. Break down all the lumps from the arrowroot, and add
that with the sugar to the other ingredients. Mix all well together,
drop the dough on a buttered tin, in pieces the size of a shilling, and
bake the biscuits about 1/4 hour in a slow oven.

_Time_.--1/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 2s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ to make from 3 to 4 dozen biscuits.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

NICE BREAKFAST CAKES.

1739. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 1/2 teaspoonful of tartaric acid,
1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 1/2 teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, 1-1/2
breakfast-cupful of milk, 1 oz. of sifted loaf sugar, 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--These cakes are made in the same manner as the soda bread No.
1722, with the addition of eggs and sugar. Mix the flour, tartaric acid,
and salt well together, taking care that the two latter ingredients are
reduced to the finest powder, and stir in the sifted sugar, which should
also be very fine. Dissolve the soda in the milk, add the eggs, which
should be well whisked, and with this liquid work the flour, &c. into a
light dough. Divide it into small cakes, put them into the oven
immediately, and bake for about 20 minutes.

_Time_.--20 minutes.

COCOA-NUT BISCUITS OR CAKES.

1740. INGREDIENTS.--10 oz. of sifted sugar, 3 eggs, 6 oz. of grated
cocoa-nut.

_Mode_.--Whisk the eggs until they are very light; add the sugar
gradually; then stir in the cocoa-nut. Roll a tablespoonful of the paste
at a time in your hands in the form of a pyramid; place the pyramids on
paper, put the paper on tins, and bake the biscuits in rather a cool
oven until they are just coloured a light brown.

_Time_.--About 1/4 hour. _Seasonable_ at any time.

CRISP BISCUITS.

1741. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, the yolk of 1 egg, milk.

_Mode_.--Mix the flour and the yolk of the egg with sufficient milk to
make the whole into a very stiff paste; beat it well, and knead it until
it is perfectly smooth. Roll the paste out very thin; with a round
cutter shape it into small biscuits, and bake them a nice brown in a
slow oven from 12 to 18 minutes.

_Time_.--12 to 18 minutes. _Average cost_, 4d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

DESSERT BISCUITS, which may be flavoured with Ground Ginger, Cinnamon,
&c. &c.

1742. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 1/2 lb. of butter, 1/2 lb. of sifted
sugar, the yolks of 6 eggs, flavouring to taste.

_Mode_.--Put the butter into a basin; warm it, but do not allow it to
oil; then with the hand beat it to a cream. Add the flour by degrees,
then the sugar and flavouring, and moisten the whole with the yolks of
the eggs, which should previously be well beaten. When all the
ingredients are thoroughly incorporated, drop the mixture from a spoon
on to a buttered paper, leaving a distance between each cake, as they
spread as soon as they begin to get warm. Bake in rather a slow oven
from 12 to 18 minutes, and do not let the biscuits acquire too much
colour. In making the above quantity, half may be flavoured with ground
ginger and the other half with essence of lemon or currants, to make a
variety. With whatever the preparation is flavoured, so are the biscuits
called; and an endless variety may be made in this manner.

_Time_.--12 to 18 minutes, or rather longer, in a very slow oven.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ to make from 3 to 4 dozen cakes.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

LEMON BISCUITS.

1743--INGREDIENTS.--1-1/4 lb. of flour, 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar, 6 oz. of
fresh butter, 4 eggs, 1 oz. of lemon-peel, 2 dessertspoonfuls of
lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Rub the flour into the butter; stir in the pounded sugar and
very finely-minced lemon-peel, and when these ingredients are thoroughly
mixed, add the eggs, which should be previously well whisked, and the
lemon-juice. Beat the mixture well for a minute or two, then drop it
from a spoon on to a buttered tin, about 2 inches apart, as the cakes
will spread when they get warm; place the tin in the oven, and bake the
cakes of a pale brown from 15 to 20 minutes.

_Time_.--15 to 20 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

MACAROONS.

1744. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of sweet almonds, 1/2 lb. of sifted loaf
sugar, the whites of 3 eggs, wafer-paper.

[Illustration: MACAROONS.]

_Mode_.--Blanch, skin, and dry the almonds, and pound them well with a
little orange-flower water or plain water; then add to them the sifted
sugar and the whites of the eggs, which should be beaten to a stiff
froth, and mix all the ingredients well together. When the paste looks
soft, drop it at equal distances from a biscuit-syringe on to sheets of
wafer-paper; put a strip of almond on the top of each; strew some sugar
over, and bake the macaroons in rather a slow oven, of a light brown
colour when hard and set, they are done, and must not be allowed to get
very brown, as that would spoil their appearance. If the cakes, when
baked, appear heavy, add a little more white of egg, but let this always
be well whisked before it is added to the other ingredients. We have
given a recipe for making these cakes, but we think it almost or quite
as economical to purchase such articles as these at a good
confectioner's.

_Time_.--From 15 to 20 minutes, in a slow oven.

_Average cost_, 1s. 8d. per lb.

RATAFIAS.

[Illustration: RATAFIAS.]

1745. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of sweet almonds, 1/4 lb. of bitter ones,
3/4 lb. of sifted loaf sugar, the whites of 4 eggs.

_Mode_.--Blanch, skin, and dry the almonds, and pound them in a mortar
with the white of an egg; stir in the sugar, and gradually add the
remaining whites of eggs, taking care that they are very thoroughly
whisked. Drop the mixture through a small biscuit-syringe on to
cartridge paper, and bake the cakes from 10 to 12 minutes in rather a
quicker oven than for macaroons. A very small quantity should be dropped
on the paper to form one cake, as, when baked, the ratafias should be
about the size of a large button.

_Time_.--10 to 12 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. 8d. per lb.

RICE BISCUITS OR CAKES.

1746. INGREDIENTS.--To every 1/2 lb. of rice-flour allow 1/4 lb. of
pounded lump sugar, 1/4 lb. of butter, 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Beat the butter to a cream, stir in the rice-flour and pounded
sugar, and moisten the whole with the eggs, which should be previously
well beaten. Roll out the paste, shape it with a round paste-cutter into
small cakes, and bake them from 12 to 18 minutes in a very slow oven.

_Time_.--12 to 18 minutes. _Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_ to make about 18 cakes. _Seasonable_ at any time.

GROUND RICE, or rice-flour, is used for making several kinds of
cakes, also for thickening soups, and for mixing with wheaten
flour in producing Manna Kroup. The Americans make rice-bread,
and prepare the flour for it in the following manner:--When the
rice is thoroughly cleansed, the water is drawn off, and the
rice, while damp, bruised in a mortar: it is then dried, and
passed through a hair sieve.

ROCK BISCUITS.

1747. INGREDIENTS.--6 eggs, 1 lb. of sifted sugar, 1/2 lb. of flour, a
few currants.

_Mode_.--Break the eggs into a basin, beat them well until very light,
add the pounded sugar, and when this is well mixed with the eggs, dredge
in the flour gradually, and add the currants. Mix all well together, and
put the dough, with a fork, on the tins, making it look as rough as
possible. Bake the cakes in a moderate oven from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour;
when they are done, allow them to get cool, and store them away in a tin
canister, in a dry place.

_Time_.--20 minutes to 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 2d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

SAVOY BISCUITS OR CAKES.

1748. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 6 oz. of pounded sugar, the rind of 1 lemon,
6 oz. of flour.

_Mode_.--Break the eggs into a basin, separating the whites from the
yolks; beat the yolks well, mix with them the pounded sugar and grated
lemon-rind, and beat these ingredients together for 1/4 hour. Then
dredge in the flour gradually, and when the whites of the eggs have been
whisked to a solid froth, stir them to the flour, &c.; beat the mixture
well for another 5 minutes, then draw it along in strips upon thick
cartridge paper to the proper size of the biscuit, and bake them in
rather a hot oven; but let them be carefully watched, as they are soon
done, and a few seconds over the proper time will scorch and spoil them.
These biscuits, or ladies'-fingers, as they are called, are used for
making Charlotte russes, and for a variety of fancy sweet dishes.

_Time_.--5 to 8 minutes, in a quick oven.

_Average cost_, 1s. 8d. per lb., or 1/2d. each.

SEED BISCUITS.

1749. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 1/4 lb. of sifted sugar, 1/4 lb. of
butter, 1/2 oz. of caraway seeds, 3 eggs.

_Mode_.--Beat the butter to a cream; stir in the flour, sugar, and
caraway seeds; and when these ingredients are well mixed, add the eggs,
which should be well whisked. Roll out the paste, with a round cutter
shape out the biscuits, and bake them in a moderate oven from 10 to 15
minutes. The tops of the biscuits may be brushed over with a little milk
or the white of an egg, and then a little sugar strewn over.

_Time_.--10 to 15 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ to make 3 dozen biscuits. _Seasonable_ at any time.

SIMPLE HARD BISCUITS.

1750. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of flour allow 2 oz. of butter, about
1/2 pint of skimmed milk.

_Mode_.--Warm the butter in the milk until the former is dissolved, and
then mix it with the flour into a very stiff paste; beat it with a
rolling-pin until the dough looks perfectly smooth. Roll it out thin;
cut it with the top of a glass into round biscuits; prick them well, and
bake them from 6 to 10 minutes. The above is the proportion of milk
which we think would convert the flour into a stiff paste; but should it
be found too much, an extra spoonful or two of flour must be put in.
These biscuits are very nice for the cheese course.

_Time_.--6 to 10 minutes.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

SODA BISCUITS.

1751. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 1/2 lb. of pounded loaf sugar, 1/4
lb. of fresh butter, 2 eggs, 1 small teaspoonful of carbonate of soda.

_Mode_.--Put the flour (which should be perfectly dry) into a basin; rub
in the butter, add the sugar, and mix these ingredients well together.
Whisk the eggs, stir them into the mixture, and beat it well, until
everything is well incorporated. Quickly stir in the soda, roll the
paste out until it is about 1/2 inch thick, cut it into small round
cakes with a tin cutter, and bake them from 12 to 18 minutes in rather a
brisk oven. After the soda is added, great expedition is necessary in
rolling and cutting out the paste, and in putting the biscuits
_immediately_ into the oven, or they will be heavy.

_Time_.--12 to 18 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ to make about 3 dozen cakes. _Seasonable_ at any time.

ALMOND CAKE.

1752. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of sweet almonds, 1 oz. of bitter almonds, 6
eggs, 8 tablespoonfuls of sifted sugar, 5 tablespoonfuls of fine flour,
the grated rind of 1 lemon, 3 oz. of butter.

_Mode_.--Blanch and pound the almonds to a paste; separate the whites
from the yolks of the eggs; beat the latter, and add them to the
almonds. Stir in the sugar, flour, and lemon-rind; add the butter, which
should be beaten to a cream; and when all these ingredients are well
mixed, put in the whites of the eggs, which should be whisked to a stiff
froth. Butter a cake-mould, put in the mixture, and bake in a good oven
from 1-1/4 to 1-3/4 hour.

_Time_.--1-1/4 to 1-3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

RICH BRIDE OR CHRISTENING CAKE.

1753. INGREDIENTS.--5 lbs. of the finest flour, 3 lbs. of fresh butter,
5 lbs. of currants, 2 lbs. of sifted loaf sugar, 2 nutmegs, 1/4 oz. of
mace, half 1/4 oz. of cloves, 16 eggs, 1 lb. of sweet almonds, 1/2 lb.
of candied citron, 1/2 lb. each of candied orange and lemon peel, 1 gill
of wine, 1 gill of brandy.

_Mode_.--Let the flour be as fine as possible, and well dried and
sifted; the currants washed, picked, and dried before the fire; the
sugar well pounded and sifted; the nutmegs grated, the spices pounded;
the eggs thoroughly whisked, whites and yolks separately; the almonds
pounded with a little orange-flower water, and the candied peel cut in
neat slices. When all these ingredients are prepared, mix them in the
following manner. Begin working the butter with the hand till it becomes
of a cream-like consistency; stir in the sugar, and when the whites of
the eggs are whisked to a solid froth, mix them with the butter and
sugar; next, well beat up the yolks for 10 minutes, and, adding them to
the flour, nutmegs, mace, and cloves, continue beating the whole
together for 1/2 hour or longer, till wanted for the oven. Then mix in
lightly the currants, almonds, and candied peel with the wine and
brandy; and having lined a hoop with buttered paper, fill it with the
mixture, and bake the cake in a tolerably quick oven, taking care,
however, not to burn it: to prevent this, the top of it may be covered
with a sheet of paper. To ascertain whether the cake is done, plunge a
clean knife into the middle of it, withdraw it directly, and if the
blade is not sticky, and looks bright, the cake is sufficiently baked.
These cakes are usually spread with a thick layer of almond icing, and
over that another layer of sugar icing, and afterwards ornamented. In
baking a large cake like this, great attention must be paid to the heat
of the oven; it should not be too fierce, but have a good soaking heat.

_Time_.--5 to 6 hours. _Average cost_, 2s. per lb.

CHRISTMAS CAKE.

1754. INGREDIENTS.--5 teacupfuls of flour, 1 teacupful of melted butter,
1 teacupful of cream, 1 teacupful of treacle, 1 teacupful of moist
sugar, 2 eggs, 1/2 oz. of powdered ginger, 1/2 lb. of raisins, 1
teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, 1 tablespoonful of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Make the butter sufficiently warm to melt it, but do not allow
it to oil; put the flour into a basin; add to it the sugar, ginger, and
raisins, which should be stoned and cut into small pieces. When these
dry ingredients are thoroughly mixed, stir in the butter, cream,
treacle, and well-whisked eggs, and beat the mixture for a few minutes.
Dissolve the soda in the vinegar, add it to the dough, and be particular
that these latter ingredients are well incorporated with the others; put
the cake into a buttered mould or tin, place it in a moderate oven
immediately, and bake it from 1-3/4 to 2-1/4 hours.

_Time_.--1-3/4 to 2-1/4 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

COMMON CAKE, suitable for sending to Children at School.

1755. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of flour, 4 oz. of butter or clarified
dripping, 1/2 oz. of caraway seeds, 1/4 oz. of allspice, 1/2 lb. of
pounded sugar, 1 lb. of currants, 1 pint of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of
fresh yeast.

_Mode_.--Rub the butter lightly into the flour; add all the dry
ingredients, and mix these well together. Make the milk warm, but not
hot; stir in the yeast, and with this liquid make the whole into a light
dough; knead it well, and line the cake-tins with strips of buttered
paper; this paper should be about 6 inches higher than the top of the
tin. Put in the dough; stand it in a warm place to rise for more than an
hour; then bake the cakes in a well-heated oven. If this quantity be
divided in two, they will take from 1-1/2 to 2 hours' baking.

_Time_.--1-3/4 to 2-1/4 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 9d.

_Sufficient_ to make 2 moderate-sized cakes.

ECONOMICAL CAKE.

[Illustration: CAKE-MOULD.]

1756. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 1/4 lb. of sugar, 1/4 lb. of butter
or lard, 1/2 lb. of currants, 1 teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, the
whites of 4 eggs, 1/2 pint of milk.

_Mode_,--In making many sweet dishes, the whites of eggs are not
required, and if well beaten and added to the above ingredients, make an
excellent cake, with or without currants. Beat the butter to a cream,
well whisk the whites of the eggs, and stir all the ingredients together
but the soda, which must not be added until all is well mixed, and the
cake is ready to be put into the oven. When the mixture has been well
beaten, stir in the soda, put the cake into a buttered mould, and bake
it in a moderate oven for 1-1/2 hour.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d.

A NICE USEFUL CAKE.

1757. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, 6 oz. of currants, 1/4 lb. of
sugar 1 lb. of dried flour, 2 teaspoonfuls of baking-powder, 3 eggs, 1
teacupful of milk, 2 oz. of sweet almonds, 1 oz. of candied peel.

_Mode_.--Beat the butter to a cream; wash, pick, and dry the currants;
whisk the eggs; blanch and chop the almonds, and cut the peel into neat
slices. When all these are ready, mix the dry ingredients together; then
add the butter, milk, and eggs, and beat the mixture well for a few
minutes. Put the cake into a buttered mould or tin, and bake it for
rather more than 1-1/2 hour. The currants and candied peel may be
omitted, and a little lemon or almond flavouring substituted for them:
made in this manner, the cake will be found very good.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 9d.

HONEY CAKE.

1758. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 breakfast-cupful of sugar, 1 breakfast-cupful of
rich sour cream, 2 breakfast-cupfuls of flour, 1/2 teaspoonful of
carbonate of soda, honey to taste.

_Mode_.--Mix the sugar and cream together; dredge in the flour, with as
much honey as will flavour the mixture nicely; stir it well, that all
the ingredients may be thoroughly mixed; add the carbonate of soda, and
beat the cake well for another 5 minutes; put it into a buttered tin,
bake it from 1/2 to 3/4 hour, and let it be eaten warm.

_Time_.--1/2 to 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

RICH SWEETMEAT GINGERBREAD NUTS.

1759. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of treacle, 1/4 lb. of clarified butter, 1 lb.
of coarse brown sugar, 2 oz. of ground ginger, 1 oz. of candied
orange-peel, 1 oz. of candied angelica, 1/2 oz. of candied lemon-peel,
1/2 oz. of coriander seeds, 1/2 oz. of caraway seeds, 1 egg; flour.

_Mode_.--Put the treacle into a basin, and pour over it the butter,
melted so as not to oil, the sugar, and ginger. Stir these ingredients
well together, and whilst mixing, add the candied peel, which should be
cut into very small pieces, but not bruised, and the caraway and
coriander seeds, which should be pounded. Having mixed all thoroughly
together, break in an egg, and work the whole up with as much fine flour
as may be necessary to form a paste. Make this into nuts of any size,
put them on a tin plate, and bake in a slow oven from 1/4 to 1/2 hour.

_Time_.--1/4 to 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, from 1s. to 1s. 4d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

THICK GINGERBREAD.

1760. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of treacle, 1/4 lb. of butter, 1/4 lb. of
coarse brown sugar, 1-1/2 lb. of flour, 1 oz. of ginger, 1/2 oz. of
ground allspice, 1 teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, 1/4 pint of warm
milk, 3 eggs.

[Illustration: GINGERBREAD.]

_Mode_.--Put the flour into a basin, with the sugar, ginger, and
allspice; mix these together; warm the butter, and add it, with the
treacle, to the other ingredients. Stir well; make the milk just warm,
dissolve the carbonate of soda in it, and mix the whole into a nice
smooth dough with the eggs, which should be previously well whisked;
pour the mixture into a buttered tin, and bake it from 3/4 to 1 hour, or
longer, should the gingerbread be very thick. Just before it is done,
brush the top over with the yolk of an egg beaten up with a little milk,
and put it back in the oven to finish baking.

_Time_.--3/4 to 1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. per square.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

SUNDERLAND GINGERBREAD NUTS.

(_An Excellent Recipe_.)

1761. INGREDIENTS.--1-3/4 lb. treacle, 1 lb. of moist sugar, 1 lb. of
butter, 2-3/4 lbs. of flour, 1-1/2 oz. of ground ginger, 1-1/2 oz. of
allspice, 1-1/2 oz. of coriander seeds.

_Mode_.--Let the allspice, coriander seeds, and ginger be freshly
ground; put them into a basin, with the flour and sugar, and mix these
ingredients well together; warm the treacle and butter together; then
with a spoon work it into the flour, &c., until the whole forms a nice
smooth paste. Drop the mixture from the spoon on to a piece of buttered
paper, and bake in rather a slow oven from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour. A
little candied lemon-peel mixed with the above is an improvement, and a
great authority in culinary matters suggests the addition of a little
cayenne pepper in gingerbread. Whether it be advisable to use this
latter ingredient or not, we leave our readers to decide.

_Time_.--20 minutes to 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. to 1s. 4d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

WHITE GINGERBREAD.

1762. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 1/2 lb. of butter, 1/2 lb. of loaf
sugar, the rind of 1 lemon, 1 oz. of ground ginger, 1 nutmeg grated, 1/2
teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, 1 gill of milk.

_Mode_.--Rub the butter into the flour; add the sugar, which should be
finely pounded and sifted, and the minced lemon-rind, ginger, and
nutmeg. Mix these well together; make the milk just warm, stir in the
soda, and work the whole into a nice smooth paste; roll it out, cut it
into cakes, and bake in a moderate oven from 15 to 20 minutes.

_Time_.--15 to 20 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

GOOD HOLIDAY CAKE.

1763. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2d. worth of Borwick's German baking-powder, 2
lbs. of flour, 6 oz. of butter, 1/4 lb. of lard, 1 lb. of currants, 1/2
lb. of stoned and cut raisins, 1/4 lb. of mixed candied peel, 1/2 lb. of
moist sugar, 3 eggs, 3/4 pint of cold milk.

_Mode_.--Mix the baking-powder with the flour; then rub in the butter
and lard; have ready the currants, washed, picked, and dried the raisins
stoned and cut into small pieces (not chopped), and the peel cut into
neat slices. Add these with the sugar to the flour, &c., and mix all the
dry ingredients well together. Whisk the eggs, stir to them the milk,
and with this liquid moisten the cake; beat it up well, that all may be
very thoroughly mixed; line a cake-tin with buttered paper, put in the
cake, and bake it from 2-1/4 to 2-3/4 hours in a good oven. To ascertain
when it is done, plunge a clean knife into the middle of it, and if, on
withdrawing it, the knife looks clean, and not sticky, the cake is done.
To prevent its burning at the top, a piece of clean paper may be put
over whilst the cake is soaking, or being thoroughly cooked in the
middle. A steamer, such as is used for steaming potatoes, makes a very
good cake-tin, if it be lined at the bottom and sides with buttered
paper.

_Time_.--2-1/4 to 2-3/4 hours. _Average cost_, 2s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

LEMON CAKE.

1764. INGREDIENTS.--10 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of orange-flower water,
3/4 lb. of pounded loaf sugar, 1 lemon, 3/4 lb. of flour.

[Illustration: CAKE-MOULD.]

_Mode_.--Separate the whites from the yolks of the eggs whisk the former
to a stiff froth; add the orange-flower water, the sugar, grated
lemon-rind, and mix these ingredients well together. Then beat the yolks
of the eggs, and add them, with the lemon-juice, to the whites, &c.;
dredge in the flour gradually; keep beating the mixture well; put it
into a buttered mould, and bake the cake about an hour, or rather
longer. The addition of a little butter, beaten to a cream, we think,
would improve this cake.

_Time_.--About 1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 4d.

_Seasonable at any time.

LUNCHEON CAKE.

1765. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of butter, 1 lb. of flour, 1/2 oz. of
caraway seeds, 1/4 lb. of currants, 6 oz. of moist sugar, 1 oz. of
candied peel, 3 eggs, 1/2 pint of milk, 1 small teaspoonful of carbonate
of soda.

_Mode_.--Rub the butter into the flour until it is quite fine; add the
caraway seeds, currants (which should be nicely washed, picked, and
dried), sugar, and candied peel cut into thin slices; mix these well
together, and moisten with the eggs, which should be well whisked. Boil
the milk, and add to it, whilst boiling, the carbonate of soda, which
must be well stirred into it, and, with the milk, mix the other
ingredients. Butter a tin, pour the cake into it, and bake it in a
moderate oven from 3/4 to 1 hour.

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