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The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

Part 24 out of 34

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soft, put it into teacups, or _small_ round jars, and let it remain
until cold; then turn the rice out on a deep glass dish, pour over a
custard made by recipe No. 1423, and, on the top of each ball place a
small piece of bright-coloured preserve or jelly. Lemon-peel or vanilla
may be boiled with the rice instead of the essence of almonds, when
either of these is preferred; but the flavouring of the custard must
correspond with that of the rice.

_Time_.--About 3/4 hour to swell the rice in the milk.

_Average cost_, with the custard, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 children.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

RICE SOUFFLE.

1480. INGREDIENTS.--3 tablespoonfuls of ground rice, 1 pint of milk, 5
eggs, pounded sugar to taste, flavouring of lemon-rind, vanilla, coffee,
chocolate, or anything that may be preferred, a piece of butter the size
of a walnut.

_Mode_.--Mix the ground rice with 6 tablespoonfuls of the milk quite
smoothly, and put it into a saucepan with the remainder of the milk and
butter, and keep stirring it over the fire for about 1/4 hour, or until
the mixture thickens. Separate the yolks from the whites of the eggs,
beat the former in a basin, and stir to them the rice and sufficient
pounded sugar to sweeten the souffle; but add this latter ingredient as
sparingly as possible, as, the less sugar there is used, the lighter
will be the souffle. Now whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth
or snow; mix them with the other preparation, and pour the whole into a
souffle-dish, and put it instantly into the oven; bake it about 1/2 hour
in a moderate oven; take it out, hold a salamander or hot shovel over
the top, sprinkle sifted sugar over it, and send the souffle to table in
the dish it was baked in, either with a napkin pinned round, or inclosed
in a more ornamental dish. The excellence of this fashionable dish
entirely depends on the proper whisking of the whites of the eggs, the
manner of baking, and the expedition with which it is sent to table.
Souffles should be served _instantly_ from the oven, or they will sink,
and be nothing more than an ordinary pudding.

_Time_.--About 1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

TO MAKE A SOUFFLE.

1481. INGREDIENTS.--3 heaped tablespoonfuls of potato-flour, rice-flour,
arrowroot, or tapioca, 1 pint of milk, 5 eggs, a piece of butter
the size of a walnut, sifted sugar to taste, 1/4 saltspoonful of salt
flavouring.

_Mode_.--Mix the potato-flour, or whichever one of the above ingredients
is used, with a little of the milk; put it into a saucepan, with the
remainder of the milk, the butter, salt, and sufficient pounded sugar to
sweeten the whole nicely. Stir these ingredients over the fire until the
mixture thickens; then take it off the fire, and let it cool a little.
Separate the whites from the yolks of the eggs, beat the latter, and
stir them into the souffle batter. Now whisk the whites of the eggs to
the firmest possible froth, for on this depends the excellence of the
dish; stir them to the other ingredients, and add a few drops of essence
of any flavouring that may be preferred; such as vanilla, lemon, orange,
ginger, &c. &c. Pour the batter into a souffle-dish, put it immediately
into the oven, and bake for about 1/2 hour; then take it out, put the
dish into another more ornamental one, such as is made for the purpose;
hold a salamander or hot shovel over the souffle, strew it with sifted
sugar, and send it instantly to table. The secret of making a souffle
well, is to have the eggs well whisked, but particularly the whites, the
oven not too hot, and to send it to table the moment it comes from the
oven. If the souffle be ever so well made, and it is allowed to stand
before being sent to table, its appearance and goodness will be entirely
spoiled. Souffles may be flavoured in various ways, but must be named
accordingly. Vanilla is one of the most delicate and recherche
flavourings that can be used for this very fashionable dish.

_Time_.--About 1/2 hour in the oven; 2 or 3 minutes to hold the
salamander over.

_Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

SNOW EGGS, or OEUFS A LA NEIGE.

(_A very pretty Supper Dish_.)

1482. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 3/4 pint of milk, pounded sugar to taste,
flavouring of vanilla, lemon-rind, or orange-flower water.

_Mode_.--Put the milk into a saucepan with sufficient sugar to sweeten
it nicely, and the rind of 1/2 lemon. Let this steep by the side of the
fire for 1/2 hour, when take out the peel; separate the whites from the
yolks of the eggs, and whisk the former to a perfectly stiff froth, or
until there is no liquid remaining; bring the milk to the boiling-point,
and drop in the snow a tablespoonful at a time, and keep turning the
eggs until sufficiently cooked. Then place them on a glass dish, beat up
the yolks of the eggs, stir to them the milk, add a little more sugar,
and strain this mixture into a jug; place the jug in a saucepan of
boiling water, and stir it one way until the mixture thickens, but do
not allow it to boil, or it will curdle. Pour this custard over the
eggs, when they should rise to the surface. They make an exceedingly
pretty addition to a supper, and should be put in a cold place after
being made. When they are flavoured with vanilla or orange-flower water,
it is not necessary to steep the milk. A few drops of the essence of
either may be poured in the milk just before the whites are poached. In
making the custard, a little more flavouring and sugar should always be
added.

_Time_.--About 2 minutes to poach the whites; 8 minutes to stir the
custard.

_Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

STONE CREAM OF TOUS LES MOIS.

1483. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of preserve, 1 pint of milk, 2 oz. of lump
sugar, 1 heaped tablespoonful of tous les mois, 3 drops of essence of
cloves, 3 drops of almond-flavouring.

_Mode_.--Place the preserve at the bottom of a glass dish; put the milk
into a lined saucepan, with the sugar, and make it boil. Mix to a smooth
batter the tous les mois, with a very little cold milk; stir it briskly
into the boiling milk, add the flavouring, and simmer for 2 minutes.
When rather cool, but before turning solid, pour the cream over the jam,
and ornament it with strips of red-currant jelly or preserved fruit.

_Time_.--2 minutes. _Average cost_, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

STRAWBERRY JELLY.

1484. INGREDIENTS.--Strawberries, pounded sugar; to every pint of juice
allow 1-1/4 oz. of isinglass.

_Mode_.--Pick the strawberries, put them into a pan, squeeze them well
with a wooden spoon, add sufficient pounded sugar to sweeten them
nicely, and let them remain for 1 hour, that the juice may be extracted;
then add 1/2 pint of water to every pint of juice. Strain the
strawberry-juice and water through a bag; measure it, and to every pint
allow 1-1/4 oz. of isinglass, melted and clarified in 1/4 pint of water.
Mix this with the juice; put the jelly into a mould, and set the mould
in ice. A little lemon-juice added to the strawberry-juice improves the
flavour of the jelly, if the fruit is very ripe; but it must be well
strained before it is put to the other ingredients, or it will make the
jelly muddy.

_Time_.--1 hour to draw the juice.

_Average cost_, with the best isinglass, 3s.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1-1/2 pint of jelly for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ in June, July, and August.

SWISS CREAM.

1485. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of macaroons or 6 small sponge-cakes,
sherry, 1 pint of cream, 5 oz. of lump sugar, 2 large tablespoonfuls of
arrowroot, the rind of 1 lemon, the juice of 1/2 lemon, 3 tablespoonfuls
of milk.

_Mode_.--Lay the macaroons or sponge-cakes in a glass dish, and pour
over them as much sherry as will cover them, or sufficient to soak them
well. Put the cream into a lined saucepan, with the sugar and
lemon-rind, and let it remain by the side of the fire until the cream is
well flavoured, when take out the lemon-rind. Mix the arrowroot smoothly
with the cold milk; add this to the cream, and let it boil gently for
about 3 minutes, keeping it well stirred. Take it off the fire, stir
till nearly cold, when add the lemon-juice, and pour the whole over the
cakes. Garnish the cream with strips of angelica, or candied citron cut
thin, or bright-coloured jelly or preserve. This cream is exceedingly
delicious, flavoured with vanilla instead of lemon: when this flavouring
is used, the sherry may be omitted, and the mixture poured over the
_dry_ cakes.

_Time_.--About 1/2 hour to infuse the lemon-rind; 5 minutes to boil the
cream.

_Average cost_, with cream at 1s. per pint, 3s.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

TO MAKE SYLLABUB.

1486. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of sherry or white wine, 1/2 grated nutmeg,
sugar to taste, 1-1/2 pint of milk.

_Mode_.--Put the wine into a bowl, with the grated nutmeg and plenty of
pounded sugar, and milk into it the above proportion of milk frothed up.
Clouted cream may be laid on the top, with pounded cinnamon or nutmeg
and sugar; and a little brandy may be added to the wine before the milk
is put in. In some counties, cider is substituted for the wine: when
this is used, brandy must always be added. Warm milk may be poured on
from a spouted jug or teapot; but it must be held very high.

_Average cost_, 2s.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

TIPSY CAKE.

1487. INGREDIENTS.--1 moulded sponge-or Savoy-cake, sufficient sweet
wine or sherry to soak it, 6 tablespoonfuls of brandy, 2 oz. of sweet
almonds, 1 pint of rich custard.

[Illustration: TIPSY CAKE.]

_Mode_.--Procure a cake that is three or four days old,--either sponge,
Savoy, or rice answering for the purpose of a tipsy cake. Cut the bottom
of the cake level, to make it stand firm in the dish; make a small hole
in the centre, and pour in and over the cake sufficient sweet wine or
sherry, mixed with the above proportion of brandy, to soak it nicely.
When the cake is well soaked, blanch and cut the almonds into strips,
stick them all over the cake, and pour round it a good custard, made by
recipe No. 1423, allowing 8 eggs instead of 5 to the pint of milk. The
cakes are sometimes crumbled and soaked, and a whipped cream heaped over
them, the same as for trifles.

_Time_.--About 2 hours to soak the cake. _Average cost_, 4s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 dish. _Seasonable_ at any time.

ALMOND.--The almond-tree is a native of warmer climates than
Britain, and is indigenous to the northern parts of Africa and
Asia; but it is now commonly cultivated in Italy, Spain, and the
south of France. It is not usually grown in Britain, and the
fruit seldom ripens in this country: it is much admired for the
beauty of its blossoms. In the form of its leaves and blossoms
it strongly resembles the peach-tree, and is included in the
same genus by botanists; but the fruit, instead of presenting a
delicious pulp like the peach, shrivels up as it ripens, and
becomes only a tough coriaceous covering to the stone inclosing
the eatable kernel, which is surrounded by a thin bitter skin.
It flowers early in the spring, and produces fruit in August.
There are two sorts of almonds,--sweet and bitter; but they are
considered to be only varieties of the species; and though the
qualities of the kernels are very different, they are not
distinguishable by their appearance.

AN EASY WAY OF MAKING A TIPSY CAKE.

1488. INGREDIENTS.--12 stale small sponge-cakes, raisin wine, 1/2 lb. of
jam, 1 pint of custard No. 1423.

_Mode_.--Soak the sponge-cakes, which should be stale (on this account
they should be cheaper), in a little raisin wine; arrange them on a deep
glass dish in four layers, putting a layer of jam between each, and pour
round them a pint of custard, made by recipe No. 1423, decorating the
top with cut preserved fruit.

_Time_.--2 hours to soak the cakes. Average cost_, 2s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 dish. _Seasonable_ at any time.

TO MAKE A TRIFLE.

1489. INGREDIENTS.--For the whip, 1 pint of cream, 3 oz. of pounded
sugar, the whites of 2 eggs, a small glass of sherry or raisin wine. For
the trifle, 1 pint of custard, made with 8 eggs to a pint of milk; 6
small sponge-cakes, or 6 slices of sponge-cake; 12 macaroons, 2 dozen
ratafias, 2 oz. of sweet almonds, the grated rind of 1 lemon, a layer of
raspberry or strawberry jam, 1/2 pint of sherry or sweet wine, 6
tablespoonfuls of brandy.

[Illustration: TRIFLE.]

_Mode_.--The whip to lay over the top of the trifle should be made the
day before it is required for table, as the flavour is better, and it is
much more solid than when prepared the same day. Put into a large bowl
the pounded sugar, the whites of the eggs, which should be beaten to a
stiff froth, a glass of sherry or sweet wine, and the cream. Whisk these
ingredients well in a cool place, and take off the froth with a skimmer
as fast as it rises, and put it on a sieve to drain; continue the
whisking till there is sufficient of the whip, which must be put away in
a cool place to drain. The next day, place the sponge-cakes, macaroons,
and ratafias at the bottom of a trifle-dish; pour over them 1/2 pint of
sherry or sweet wine, mixed with 6 tablespoonfuls of brandy, and, should
this proportion of wine not be found quite sufficient, add a little
more, as the cakes should be well soaked. Over the cakes put the grated
lemon-rind, the sweet almonds, blanched and cut into strips, and a layer
of raspberry or strawberry jam. Make a good custard by recipe No. 1423,
using 8 instead of 5 eggs to the pint of milk, and let this cool a
little; then pour it over the cakes, &c. The whip being made the day
previously, and the trifle prepared, there remains nothing to do now but
heap the whip lightly over the top: this should stand as high as
possible, and it may be garnished with strips of bright currant jelly,
crystallized sweetmeats, or flowers; the small coloured comfits are
sometimes used for the purpose of garnishing a trifle, but they are now
considered rather old-fashioned. (See coloured plate, V1.)

_Average cost_, with cream at 1s. per pint, 5s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 trifle. _Seasonable_ at any time.

VANILLA CREAM.

1490. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of milk, the yolks of 8 eggs, 6 oz. of sugar,
1 oz. of isinglass, flavouring to taste of essence of vanilla.

[Illustration: VANILLA-CREAM MOULD.]

_Mode_.--Put the milk and sugar into a saucepan, and let it get hot over
a slow fire; beat up the yolks of the eggs, to which add gradually the
sweetened milk; flavour the whole with essence of vanilla, put the
mixture into a jug, and place this jug in a saucepan of boiling water.
Stir the contents with a wooden spoon one way until the mixture
thickens, but do not allow it to boil, or it will be full of lumps. Take
it off the fire; stir in the isinglass, which should be previously
dissolved in about 1/4 pint of water, and boiled for 2 or 3 minutes;
pour the cream into an oiled mould, put it in a cool place to set, and
turn it out carefully on a dish. Instead of using the essence of
vanilla, a pod may be boiled in the milk instead, until the flavour is
well extracted. A pod, or a pod and a half, will be found sufficient for
the above proportion of ingredients.

_Time_.--About 10 minutes to stir the mixture.

_Average cost_, with the best isinglass, 2s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ to fill a quart mould. _Seasonable_ at any time.

VANILLE or VANILLA, is the fruit of the vanillier, a parasitical
herbaceous plant, which flourishes in Brazil, Mexico, and Peru.
The fruit is a long capsule, thick and fleshy. Certain species
of this fruit contain a pulp with a delicious perfume and
flavour. Vanilla is principally imported from Mexico. The
capsules for export are always picked at perfect maturity. The
essence is the form in which it is used generally and most
conveniently. Its properties are stimulating and exciting. It is
in daily use for ices, chocolates, and flavouring confections
generally.

VICTORIA SANDWICHES.

1491. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs; their weight in pounded sugar, butter, and
flour; 1/4 saltspoonful of salt, a layer of any kind of jam or
marmalade.

_Mode_.--Beat the butter to a cream; dredge in the flour and pounded
sugar; stir these ingredients well together, and add the eggs, which
should be previously thoroughly whisked. When the mixture has been well
beaten for about 10 minutes, butter a Yorkshire-pudding tin, pour in the
batter, and bake it in a moderate oven for 20 minutes. Let it cool,
spread one half of the cake with a layer of nice preserve, place over it
the other half of the cake, press the pieces slightly together, and then
cut it into long finger-pieces; pile them in crossbars on a glass dish,
and serve.

_Time_.--20 minutes.

_Average cost_, 1s. 3d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

WHIPPED CREAM, for putting on Trifles, serving in Glasses, &c.

1492. INGREDIENTS.--To every pint of cream allow 3 oz. of pounded sugar,
1 glass of sherry or any kind of sweet white wine, the rind of 1/2
lemon, the white of 1 egg.

[Illustration: PASTRY LEAF.]

_Mode_.--Rub the sugar on the lemon-rind, and pound it in a mortar until
quite fine, and beat up the white of the egg until quite stiff; put the
cream into a large bowl, with the sugar, wine, and beaten egg, and whip
it to a froth; as fast as the froth rises, take it off with a skimmer,
and put it on a sieve to drain, in a cool place. This should be made the
day before it is wanted, as the whip is then so much firmer. The cream
should be whipped in a cool place, and in summer, over ice, if it is
obtainable. A plain whipped cream may be served on a glass dish, and
garnished with strips of angelica, or pastry leaves, or pieces of
bright-coloured jelly: it makes a very pretty addition to the
supper-table.

_Time_.--About 1 hour to whip the cream.

_Average cost_, with cream at 1s. per pint, 1s. 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 dish or 1 trifle.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

WHIPPED SYLLABUBS.

1493. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of cream, 1/4 pint of sherry, half that
quantity of brandy, the juice of 1/2 lemon, a little grated nutmeg, 3
oz. of pounded sugar, whipped cream the same as for trifle No. 1489.

_Mode_.--Mix all the ingredients together, put the syllabub into
glasses, and over the top of them heap a little whipped cream, made in
the same manner as for trifle No. 1489. Solid syllabub is made by
whisking or milling the mixture to a stiff froth, and putting it in the
glasses, without the whipped cream at the top.

_Average cost_, 1s. 8d.

_Sufficient_ to fill 8 or 9 glasses.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

THE CURE'S OMELET.

"Every one knows," says Brillat Savarin, in his "Physiology of Taste,"
"that for twenty years Madame Recamier was the most beautiful woman in
Paris. It is also well known that she was exceedingly charitable, and
took a great interest in every benevolent work. Wishing to consult the
Cure of ---- respecting the working of an institution, she went to his
house at five o'clock in the afternoon, and was much astonished at
finding him already at his dinner-table.

"Madame Recamier wished to retire, but the Cure would not hear of it. A
neat white cloth covered the table; some good old wine sparkled in a
crystal decanter; the porcelain was of the best; the plates had heaters
of boiling water beneath them; a neatly-costumed maid-servant was in
attendance. The repast was a compromise between frugality and luxury.
The crawfish-soup had just been removed, and there was on the table a
salmon-trout, an omelet, and a salad.

"'My dinner will tell you,' said the worthy Cure, with a smile, 'that it
is fast-day, according to our Church's regulations.' Madame Recamier and
her host attacked the trout, the sauce served with which betrayed a
skilful hand, the countenance of the Cure the while showing
satisfaction.

"And now they fell upon the omelet, which was round, sufficiently thick,
and cooked, so to speak, to a hair's-breadth.

"As the spoon entered the omelet, a thick rich juice issued from it,
pleasant to the eye as well as to the smell; the dish became full of it;
and our fair friend owns that, between the perfume and the sight, it
made her mouth water.

"'It is an _omelette au thon_' (that is to say, a tunny omelet), said
the Cure, noticing, with the greatest delight, the emotion of Madame
Recamier, 'and few people taste it without lavishing praises on it.'

"'It surprises me not at all,' returned the beauty; 'never has so
enticing an omelet met my gaze at any of our lay tables.'

"'My cook understands them well, I think.'

"'Yes,' added Madame, 'I never ate anything so delightful.'"

Then came the salad, which Savarin recommends to all who place
confidence in him. It refreshes without exciting; and he has a theory
that it makes people younger.

Amidst pleasant converse the dessert arrived. It consisted of three
apples, cheese, and a plate of preserves; and then upon a little round
table was served the Mocha coffee, for which France has been, and is, so
justly famous.

"'I never,' said the Cure, 'take spirits; I always offer liqueurs to my
guests but reserve the use of them, myself, to my old age, if it should
please Providence to grant me that.'

"Finally, the charming Madame Recamier took her leave, and told all her
friends of the delicious omelet which she had seen and partaken of."

And Brillat Savarin, in his capacity as the Layard of the concealed
treasures of Gastronomia, has succeeded in withdrawing from obscurity
the details of the preparation of which so much had been said, and which
he imagines to be as wholesome as it was agreeable.

Here follows the recipe:--

OMELETTE AU THON.

1494. Take, for 6 persons, the roes of 2 carp; [Footnote: An American
writer says he has followed this recipe, substituting pike, shad, &c.,
in the place of carp, and can recommend all these also, with a quiet
conscience. Any fish, indeed, may be used with success.] bleach them, by
putting them, for 5 minutes, in boiling water slightly salted. Take a
piece of fresh tunny about the size of a hen's egg, to which add a small
shalot already chopped; hash up together the roe and the tunny, so as to
mix them well, and throw the whole into a saucepan, with a sufficient
quantity of very good butter: whip it up until the butter is melted!
This constitutes the specialty of the omelet. Take a second piece of
butter, _a discretion_, mix it with parsley and herbs, place it in a
long-shaped dish destined to receive the omelet; squeeze the juice of a
lemon over it, and place it on hot embers. Beat up 12 eggs (the fresher
the better); throw up the saute of roe and tunny, stirring it so as to
mix all well together; then make your omelet in the usual manner,
endeavouring to turn it out long, thick, and soft. Spread it carefully
on the dish prepared for it, and serve at once. This dish ought to be
reserved for recherche dejeuners, or for assemblies where amateurs meet
who know how to eat well; washed down with a good old wine, it will work
wonders.

_Note_.--The roe and the tunny must be beaten up (saute) without
allowing them to boil, to prevent their hardening, which would prevent
them mixing well with the eggs. Your dish should be hollowed towards the
centre, to allow the gravy to concentrate, that it may be helped with a
spoon. The dish ought to be slightly heated, otherwise the cold china
will extract all the heat from the omelet.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

CHAPTER XXX.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON PRESERVES, CONFECTIONARY, ICES, AND DESSERT
DISHES.

PRESERVES.

1495. From the nature of vegetable substances, and chiefly from their
not passing so rapidly into the putrescent state as animal bodies, the
mode of preserving them is somewhat different, although the general
principles are the same. All the means of preservation are put in
practice occasionally for fruits and the various parts of vegetables,
according to the nature of the species, the climate, the uses to which
they are applied, &c. Some are dried, as nuts, raisins, sweet herbs,
&c.; others are preserved by means of sugar, such as many fruits whose
delicate juices would be lost by drying; some are preserved by means of
vinegar, and chiefly used as condiments or pickles; a few also by
salting, as French beans; while others are preserved in spirits. We
have, however, in this place to treat of the best methods of preserving
fruits. Fruit is a most important item in the economy of health; the
epicurean can scarcely be said to have any luxuries without it;
therefore, as it is so invaluable, when we cannot have it fresh, we must
have it preserved. It has long been a desideratum to preserve fruits by
some cheap method, yet by such as would keep them fit for the various
culinary purposes, as making tarts and other similar dishes. The expense
of preserving them with sugar is a serious objection; for, except the
sugar is used in considerable quantities, the success is very uncertain.
Sugar also overpowers and destroys the sub-acid taste so desirable in
many fruits: these which are preserved in this manner are chiefly
intended for the dessert. Fruits intended for preservation should be
gathered in the morning, in dry weather, with the morning sun upon them,
if possible; they will then have their fullest flavour, and keep in good
condition longer than when gathered at any other time. Until fruit can
be used, it should be placed in the dairy, an ice-house, or a
refrigerator. In an icehouse it will remain fresh and plump for several
days. Fruit gathered in wet or foggy weather will soon be mildewed, and
be of no service for preserves.

1496. Having secured the first and most important contribution to the
manufacture of preserves,--the fruit, the next consideration is the
preparation of the syrup in which the fruit is to be suspended; and this
requires much care. In the confectioner's art there is a great nicety in
proportioning the degree of concentration of the syrup very exactly to
each particular case; and they know this by signs, and express it by
certain technical terms. But to distinguish these properly requires very
great attention and considerable experience. The principal thing to be
acquainted with is the fact, that, in proportion as the syrup is longer
boiled, its water will become evaporated, and its consistency will be
thicker. Great care must be taken in the management of the fire, that
the syrup does not boil over, and that the boiling is not carried to
such an extent as to burn the sugar.

1497. The first degree of consistency is called _the thread_, which is
subdivided into the little and great thread. If you dip the finger into
the syrup and apply it to the thumb, the tenacity of the syrup will, on
separating the finger and thumb, afford a thread, which shortly breaks:
this is the little thread. If the thread, from the greater tenacity,
and, consequently, greater strength of the syrup, admits of a greater
extension of the finger and thumb, it is called the great thread. There
are half a dozen other terms and experiments for testing the various
thickness of the boiling sugar towards the consistency called _caramel_;
but that degree of sugar-boiling belongs to the confectioner. A solution
of sugar prepared by dissolving two parts of double-refined sugar (the
best sugar is the most economical for preserves) in one of water, and
boiling this a little, affords a syrup of the right degree of strength,
and which neither ferments nor crystallizes. This appears to be the
degree called _smooth_ by the confectioners, and is proper to be used
for the purposes of preserves. The syrup employed should sometimes be
clarified, which is done in the following manner:--Dissolve 2 lbs. of
loaf sugar in a pint of water; add to this solution the white of an egg,
and beat it well. Put the preserving-pan upon the fire with the
solution; stir it with a wooden spatula, and, when it begins to swell
and boil up, throw in some cold water or a little oil, to damp the
boiling; for, as it rises suddenly, if it should boil over, it would
take fire, being of a very inflammable nature. Let it boil up again;
then take it off, and remove carefully the scum that has risen. Boil the
solution again, throw in a little more cold water, remove the scum, and
so on for three or four times successively; then strain it. It is
considered to be sufficiently boiled when some taken up in a spoon pours
out like oil.

1498. Although sugar passes so easily into the state of fermentation,
and is, in fact, the only substance capable of undergoing the vinous
stage of that process, yet it will not ferment at all if the quantity be
sufficient to constitute a very strong syrup: hence, syrups are used to
preserve fruits and other vegetable substances from the changes they
would undergo if left to themselves. Before sugar was in use, honey was
employed to preserve many vegetable productions, though this substance
has now given way to the juice of the sugar-cane.

1499. The fruits that are the most fit for preservation in syrup are,
apricots, peaches, nectarines, apples, greengages, plums of all kinds,
and pears. As an example, take some apricots not too ripe, make a small
slit at the stem end, and push out the stone; simmer them in water till
they are softened and about half done, and afterwards throw them into
cold water. When they have cooled, take them out and drain them. Put the
apricots into the pie-serving-pan with sufficient syrup to cover them;
let them boil up three or four times, and then skim them; remove them
from the fire, pour them into an earthen pan, and let them cool till
next day. Boil them up three days successively, skimming each time, and
they will then be finished and in a state fit to be put into pots for
use. After each bailing, it is proper to examine into the state of the
syrup when cold; if too thin, it will bear additional boiling; if too
thick, it may be lowered with more syrup of the usual standard. The
reason why the fruit is emptied out of the preserving-pan into an
earthen pan is, that the acid of the fruit acts upon the copper, of
which the preserving-pans are usually made. From this example the
process of preserving fruits by syrup will be easily comprehended. The
first object is to soften the fruit by blanching or boiling it in water,
in order that the syrup by which it is preserved may penetrate through
its substance.

1500. Many fruits, when preserved by boiling, lose much of their
peculiar and delicate flavour, as, for instance, pine-apples; and this
inconvenience may, in some instances, be remedied by preserving them
without heat. Cut the fruit in slices about one fifth of an inch thick,
strew powdered loaf sugar an eighth of an inch thick on the bottom of a
jar, and put the slices on it. Put more sugar on this, and then another
layer of the slices, and so on till the jar is full. Place the jar with
the fruit up to the neck in boiling water, and keep it there till the
sugar is completely dissolved, which may take half an hour, removing the
scum as it rises. Lastly, tie a wet bladder over the mouth of the jar,
or cork and wax it.

1501. Any of the fruits that have been preserved in syrup may be
converted into dry preserves, by first draining them from the syrup, and
then drying them in a stove or very moderate oven, adding to them a
quantity of powdered loaf sugar, which will gradually penetrate the
fruit, while the fluid parts of the syrup gently evaporate. They should
be dried in the stove or oven on a sieve, and turned every six or eight
hours, fresh powdered sugar being sifted over them every time they are
turned. Afterwards, they are to be kept in a dry situation, in drawers
or boxes. Currants and cherries preserved whole in this manner, in
bunches, are extremely elegant, and have a fine flavour. In this way it
is, also, that orange and lemon chips are preserved.

1502. Marmalades, jams, and fruit pastes are of the same nature, and are
now in very general request. They are prepared without difficulty, by
attending to a very few directions; they are somewhat expensive, but may
be kept without spoiling for a considerable time. Marmalades and jams
differ little from each other: they are preserves of a half-liquid
consistency, made by boiling the pulp of fruits, and sometimes part of
the rinds, with sugar. The appellation of marmalade is applied to those
confitures which are composed of the firmer fruits, as pineapples or the
rinds of oranges; whereas jams are made of the more juicy berries, such
as strawberries, raspberries, currants, mulberries, &c. Fruit pastes are
a kind of marmalades, consisting of the pulp of fruits, first evaporated
to a proper consistency, and afterwards boiled with sugar. The mixture
is then poured into a mould, or spread on sheets of tin, and
subsequently dried in the oven or stove till it has acquired the state
of a paste. From a sheet of this paste, strips may be cut and formed
into any shape that may be desired, as knots, rings, &c. Jams require
the same care and attention in the boiling as marmalade; the slightest
degree of burning communicates a disagreeable empyreumatic taste, and if
they are not boiled sufficiently, they will not keep. That they may
keep, it is necessary not to be sparing of sugar.

1503. In all the operations for preserve-making, when the preserving-pan
is used, it should not be placed on the fire, but on a trivet, unless
the jam is made on a hot plate, when this is not necessary. If the pan
is placed close on to the fire, the preserve is very liable to burn, and
the colour and flavour be consequently spoiled.

1504. Fruit jellies are compounds of the juices of fruits combined with
sugar, concentrated, by boiling, to such a consistency that the liquid,
upon cooling, assumes the form of a tremulous jelly.

1505. Before fruits are candied, they must first be boiled in syrup,
after which they are taken out and dried on a stove, or before the fire;
the syrup is then to be concentrated, or boiled to a candy height, and
the fruit dipped in it, and again laid on the stove to dry and candy:
they are then to be put into boxes, and kept dry.

1506. Conserves consist of fresh vegetable matters beat into a uniform
mass with refined sugar, and they are intended to preserve the virtues
and properties of recent flowers, leaves, roots, peels, or fruits,
unaltered, and as near as possible to what they were when fresh
gathered, and to give them an agreeable taste.

1507. The last-mentioned, but not the least-important preparation of
fruit, is the _compote,_ a confiture made at the moment of need, and
with much less sugar than would be ordinarily put to preserves. They are
most wholesome things, suitable to most stomachs which cannot
accommodate themselves to raw fruit or a large portion of sugar: they
are the happy medium, and far better than ordinary stewed fruit.

CONFECTIONARY.

1508. In speaking of confectionary, it should be remarked that all the
various preparations above named come, strictly speaking, under that
head; for the various fruits, flowers, herbs, roots, and juices, which,
when boiled with sugar, were formerly employed in pharmacy as well as
for sweetmeats, were called _confections_, from the Latin word
_conficere_, 'to make up;' but the term confectionary embraces a very
large class indeed of sweet food, many kinds of which should not be
attempted in the ordinary cuisine. The thousand and one ornamental
dishes that adorn the tables of the wealthy should be purchased from the
confectioner: they cannot profitably be made at home. Apart from these,
cakes, biscuits, and tarts, &c., the class of sweetmeats called
confections may be thus classified:--1. Liquid confects, or fruits
either whole or in pieces, preserved by being immersed in a fluid
transparent syrup; as the liquid confects of apricots, green citrons,
and many foreign fruits. 2. Dry confects are those which, after having
been boiled in the syrup, are taken out and put to dry in an oven, as
citron and orange-peel, &c. 3. Marmalade, jams, and pastes, a kind of
soft compounds made of the pulp of fruits or other vegetable substances,
beat up with sugar or honey; such as oranges, apricots, pears, &c. 4.
Jellies are the juices of fruits boiled with sugar to a pretty thick
consistency, so as, upon cooling, to form a trembling jelly; as currant,
gooseberry, apple jelly, &c. 5. Conserves are a kind of dry confects,
made by beating up flowers, fruits, &c., with sugar, not dissolved. 6.
Candies are fruits candied over with sugar after having been boiled in
the syrup.

DESSERT DISHES.

1509. With moderns the dessert is not so profuse, nor does it hold the
same relationship to the dinner that it held with the ancients,--the
Romans more especially. On ivory tables they would spread hundreds of
different kinds of raw, cooked, and preserved fruits, tarts and cakes,
as substitutes for the more substantial comestibles with which the
guests were satiated. However, as late as the reigns of our two last
Georges, fabulous sums were often expended upon fanciful desserts. The
dessert certainly repays, in its general effect, the expenditure upon it
of much pains; and it may be said, that if there be any poetry at all in
meals, or the process of feeding, there is poetry in the dessert, the
materials for which should be selected with taste, and, of course, must
depend, in a great measure, upon the season. Pines, melons, grapes,
peaches, nectarines, plums, strawberries, apples, pears, oranges,
almonds, raisins, figs, walnuts, filberts, medlars, cherries, &c. &c.,
all kinds of dried fruits, and choice and delicately-flavoured cakes and
biscuits, make up the dessert, together with the most costly and
_recherche_ wines. The shape of the dishes varies at different periods,
the prevailing fashion at present being oval and circular dishes on
stems. The patterns and colours are also subject to changes of fashion;
some persons selecting china, chaste in pattern and colour; others,
elegantly-shaped glass dishes on stems, with gilt edges. The beauty of
the dessert services at the tables of the wealthy tends to enhance the
splendour of the plate. The general mode of putting a dessert on table,
now the elegant tazzas are fashionable, is, to place them down the
middle of the table, a tall and short dish alternately; the fresh fruits
being arranged on the tall dishes, and dried fruits, bon-bons, &c., on
small round or oval glass plates. The garnishing needs especial
attention, as the contrast of the brilliant-coloured fruits with
nicely-arranged foliage is very charming. The garnish _par excellence_
for dessert is the ice-plant; its crystallized dewdrops producing a
marvellous effect in the height of summer, giving a most inviting sense
of coolness to the fruit it encircles. The double-edged mallow,
strawberry, and vine leaves have a pleasing effect; and for winter
desserts, the bay, cuba, and laurel are sometimes used. In town, the
expense and difficulty of obtaining natural foliage is great, but paper
and composite leaves are to be purchased at an almost nominal price.
Mixed fruits of the larger sort are now frequently served on one dish.
This mode admits of the display of much taste in the arrangement of the
fruit: for instance, a pine in the centre of the dish, surrounded with
large plums of various sorts and colours, mixed with pears, rosy-cheeked
apples, all arranged with a due regard to colour, have a very good
effect. Again, apples and pears look well mingled with plums and grapes,
hanging from the border of the dish in a _neglige_ sort of manner, with
a large bunch of the same fruit lying on the top of the apples. A
dessert would not now be considered complete without candied and
preserved fruits and confections. The candied fruits may be purchased at
a less cost than they can be manufactured at home. They are preserved
abroad in most ornamental and elegant forms. And since, from the
facilities of travel, we have become so familiar with the tables of the
French, chocolate in different forms is indispensable to our desserts.

ICES.

510. Ices are composed, it is scarcely necessary to say, of congealed
cream or water, combined sometimes with liqueurs or other flavouring
ingredients, or more generally with the juices of fruits. At desserts,
or at some evening parties, ices are scarcely to be dispensed with. The
principal utensils required for making ice-creams are ice-tubs,
freezing-pots, spaddles, and a cellaret. The tub must be large enough to
contain about a bushel of ice, pounded small, when brought out of the
ice-house, and mixed very carefully with either _salt, nitre,_ or
_soda._ The freezing-pot is best made of pewter. If it be of tin, as is
sometimes the case, the congelation goes on too rapidly in it for the
thorough intermingling of its contents, on which the excellence of the
ice greatly depends. The spaddle is generally made of copper, kept
bright and clean. The cellaret is a tin vessel, in which ices are kept
for a short time from dissolving. The method to be pursued in the
freezing process must be attended to. When the ice-tub is prepared with
fresh-pounded ice and salt, the freezing-pot is put into it up to its
cover. The articles to be congealed are then poured into it and covered
over; but to prevent the ingredients from separating and the heaviest of
them from falling to the bottom of the mould, it is requisite to turn
the freezing-pot round and round by the handle, so as to keep its
contents moving until the congelation commences. As soon as this is
perceived (the cover of the pot being occasionally taken off for the
purpose of noticing when freezing takes place), the cover is immediately
closed over it, ice is put upon it, and it is left in this state till it
is served. The use of the spaddle is to stir up and remove from the
sides of the freezing pot the cream, which in the shaking may have
washed against it, and by stirring it in with the rest, to prevent waste
of it occurring. Any negligence in stirring the contents of the
freezing-pot before congelation takes place, will destroy the whole:
either the sugar sinks to the bottom and leaves the ice insufficiently
sweetened, or lumps are formed, which disfigure and discolour it.

1511. The aged, the delicate, and children should abstain from ices or
iced beverages; even the strong and healthy should partake of them in
moderation. They should be taken immediately after the repast, or some
hours after, because the taking these substances _during_ the process of
digestion is apt to provoke indisposition. It is necessary, then, that
this function should have scarcely commenced, or that it should be
completely finished, before partaking of ices. It is also necessary to
abstain from them when persons are very warm, or immediately after
taking violent exercise, as in some cases they have produced illnesses
which have ended fatally.

[Do ladies know to whom they are indebted for the introduction of ices,
which all the fair sex are passionately fond of?--To Catherine de'
Medici. Will not this fact cover a multitude of sins committed by the
instigator of St. Bartholomew ?]

RECIPES.

CHAPTER XXXI.

TO MAKE SYRUP FOR COMPOTES, &c.

1512. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of sugar allow 1-1/2 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Boil the sugar and water together for 1/4 hour, carefully
removing the scum as it rises: the syrup is then ready for the fruit.
The articles boiled in this syrup will not keep for any length of time,
it being suitable only for dishes intended to be eaten immediately. A
larger proportion of sugar must be added for a syrup intended to keep.

_Time_.--1/4 hour.

TO CLARIFY SUGAR OR SYRUP.

1513. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of sugar allow 1/2 pint of water and
1/2 the white of an egg.

_Mode_.--Put the sugar, water, and the white of the egg, which should,
be well beaten, into a preserving-pan or lined saucepan; and do not put
it on the fire till the sugar is dissolved. Then place it on the fire,
and when it boils, throw in a teacupful of cold water, and do not stir
the sugar after this is added. Bring it to the boiling-point again, and
then place the pan by the side of the fire, for the preparation to
settle. Remove all the scum, and the sugar will be ready for use. The
scum should be placed on a sieve, so that what syrup runs from it may be
boiled up again: this must also be well skimmed.

_Time_.--20 minutes for the sugar to dissolve; 5 minutes to boil.

_Note_.--The above two recipes are those used in the preparation of
dishes usually made at home. There are many degrees of boiling sugar,
which process requires great care, attention, and experience. Caramel
sugar, which makes an elegant cover for sweetmeats, is difficult to
prepare, and is best left to an experienced confectioner. We give the
recipe, for those of our readers who care to attempt the operation.

TO BOIL SUGAR TO CARAMEL.

1514. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of lump sugar allow 1 gill of spring
water.

_Mode_.--Boil the sugar and water together very quickly over a clear
fire, skimming it very carefully as soon as it boils. Keep it boiling
until the sugar snaps when a little of it is dropped in a pan of cold
water. If it remains hard, the sugar has attained the right degree; then
squeeze in a little lemon-juice, and let it remain an instant on the
fire. Set the pan into another of cold water, and the caramel is then
ready for use. The insides of well-oiled moulds are often ornamented
with this sugar, which with a fork should be spread over them in fine
threads or network. A dish of light pastry, tastefully arranged, looks
very prettily with this sugar spun lightly over it. The sugar must be
carefully watched, and taken up the instant it is done. Unless the cook
is very experienced and thoroughly understands her business, it is
scarcely worth while to attempt to make this elaborate ornament, as it
may be purchased quite as economically at a confectioner's, if the
failures in the preparation are taken into consideration.

COMPOTE OF APPLES.

_(Soyer's Recipe,--a Dessert Dish.)_

1515. INGREDIENTS.--6 ripe apples, 1 lemon, 1/2 lb. of lump sugar, 1/2
pint of water.

[Illustration: COMPOTE OF APPLES.]

_Mode_.--Select the apples of a moderate size, peel them, cut them in
halves, remove the cores, and rub each piece over with a little lemon.
Put the sugar and water together into a lined saucepan, and let them
boil until forming a thickish syrup, when lay in the apples with the
rind of the lemon cut thin, and the juice of the same. Let the apples
simmer till tender; then take them out very carefully, drain them on a
sieve, and reduce the syrup by boiling it quickly for a few minutes.
When both are cold, arrange the apples neatly on a glass dish, pour over
the syrup, and garnish with strips of green angelica or candied citron.
Smaller apples may be dressed in the same manner: they should not be
divided in half, but peeled and the cores pushed out with a
vegetable-cutter.

_Time_.--10 minutes to boil the sugar and water together; from 15 to 25
minutes to simmer the apples.

_Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from July to March.

APPLE GINGER.

(_A Dessert Dish_.)

1516 INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of any kind of hard apples, 2 lbs. of loaf
sugar, 1-1/2 pint of water, 1 oz. of tincture of ginger.

_Mode_.--Boil the sugar and water until they form a rich syrup, adding
the ginger when it boils up. Pare, core, and cut the apples into pieces;
dip them in cold water to preserve the colour, and boil them in the
syrup until transparent; but be careful not to let them break. Put the
pieces of apple into jars, pour over the syrup, and carefully exclude
the air, by well covering them. It will remain good some time, if kept
in a dry place.

_Time_.--From 5 to 10 minutes to boil the syrup; about 1/2 hour to
simmer the apples.

_Average cost_, 2s.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in September, October, or November.

APPLE JAM.

1517. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of fruit weighed after being pared,
cored, and sliced, allow 3/4 lb. of preserving-sugar, the grated rind of
1 lemon, the juice of 1/2 lemon.

_Mode_.--Peel the apples, core and slice them very thin, and be
particular that they are all the same sort. Put them into a jar, stand
this in a saucepan of boiling water, and let the apples stew until quite
tender. Previously to putting the fruit into the jar, weigh it, to
ascertain the proportion of sugar that may be required. Put the apples
into a preserving-pan, crush the sugar to small lumps, and add it, with
the grated lemon-rind and juice, to the apples. Simmer these over the
fire for 1/2 hour, reckoning from the time the jam begins to simmer
properly; remove the scum as it rises, and when the jam is done, put it
into pots for use. Place a piece of oiled paper over the jam, and to
exclude the air, cover the pots with tissue-paper dipped in the white of
an egg, and stretched over the top. This jam will keep good for a long
time.

_Time_.--About 2 hours to stew in the jar; 1/2 hour to boil after the
jam begins to simmer.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 6s.

_Sufficient._--7 or 8 lbs. of apples for 6 pots of jam.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in September, October, or November.

APPLE JELLY.

I.

1518. INGREDIENTS.--To 6 lbs. of apples allow 3 pints of water; to every
quart of juice allow 2 lbs. of loaf sugar;--the juice of 1/2 lemon.

_Mode_.--Pare, core, and cut the apples into slices, and put them into a
jar, with water in the above proportion. Place them in a cool oven, with
the jar well covered, and when the juice is thoroughly drawn and the
apples are quite soft, strain them through a jelly-bag. To every quart
of juice allow 2 lbs. of loaf sugar, which should be crushed to small
lumps, and put into a preserving-pan with the juice. Boil these together
for rather more than 1/2 hour, remove the scum as it rises, add the
lemon-juice just before it is done, and put the jelly into pots for use.
This preparation is useful for garnishing sweet dishes, and may be
turned out for dessert.

_Time_.--The apples to be put in the oven over-night, and left till
morning; rather more than 1/2 hour to boil the jelly.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 3s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 small pots of jelly.

_Seasonable_,--This should be made in September, October, or November.

II.

1519. INGREDIENTS.--Apples, water: to every pint of syrup allow 3/4 lb.
of loaf sugar.

_Mode_.--Pare and cut the apples into pieces, remove the cores, and put
them in a preserving-pan with sufficient cold water to cover them. Let
them boil for an hour; then drain the syrup from them through a hair
sieve or jelly-bag, and measure the juice; to every pint allow 3/4 lb.
of loaf sugar, and boil these together for 3/4 hour, removing every
particle of scum as it rises, and keeping the jelly well stirred, that
it may not burn. A little lemon-rind may be boiled with the apples, and
a small quantity of strained lemon-juice may be put in the jelly just
before it is done, when the flavour is liked. This jelly may be
ornamented with preserved greengages, or any other preserved fruit, and
will turn out very prettily for dessert. It should be stored away in
small pots.

_Time_.--1 hour to boil the fruit and water; 3/4 hour to boil the juice
with the sugar.

_Average cost_, for 6 lbs. of apples, with the other ingredients in
proportion, 3s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 small pots of jelly.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in September, October, or November.

TO PRESERVE APPLES IN QUARTERS, in imitation of Ginger.

1520. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of apples allow 3/4 lb. of sugar, 1-1/2
oz. of the best white ginger; 1 oz. of ginger to every 1/2 pint of
water.

_Mode_.--Peel, core, and quarter the apples, and put the fruit, sugar,
and ginger in layers into a wide-mouthed jar, and let them remain for 2
days; then infuse 1 oz. of ginger in 1/2 pint of boiling water, and
cover it closely, and let it remain for 1 day: this quantity of ginger
and water is for 3 lbs. of apples, with the other ingredients in
proportion. Put the apples, &c., into a preserving-pan with the water
strained from the ginger, and boil till the apples look clear and the
syrup is rich, which will be in about an hour. The rind of a lemon may
be added just before the apples have finished boiling; and great care
must be taken not to break the pieces of apple in putting them into the
jars. Serve on glass dishes for dessert.

_Time_.--2 days for the apples to remain in the jar with sugar, &c.; 1
day to infuse the ginger; about 1 hour to boil the apples.

_Average cost_, for 3 lbs. of apples, with the other ingredients in
proportion, 2s. 3d.

_Sufficient._--3 lbs. should fill 3 moderate-sized jars.

_Seasonable_.--This should be made in September, October, or November.

COMPOTE OF APRICOTS.

(_An elegant Dish_.)

1521. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of syrup No. 1512, 12 green apricots.

_Mode_.--Make the syrup by recipe No. 1512, and when it is ready, put in
the apricots whilst the syrup is boiling. Simmer them very gently until
tender, taking care not to let them break; take them out carefully,
arrange them on a glass dish, let the syrup cool a little, pour it over
the apricots, and, when cold, serve.

_Time_.--From 15 to 20 minutes to simmer the apricots.

_Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ in June and July, with green apricots.

APRICOT JAM or MARMALADE.

1522. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of ripe apricots, weighed after being
skinned and stoned, allow 1 lb. of sugar.

_Mode_.--Pare the apricots, which should be ripe, as thinly as possible,
break them in half, and remove the stones. Weigh the fruit, and to every
lb. allow the same proportion of loaf sugar. Pound the sugar very finely
in a mortar, strew it over the apricots, which should be placed on
dishes, and let them remain for 12 hours. Break the stones, blanch the
kernels, and put them with the sugar and fruit into a preserving-pan.
Let these simmer very gently until clear; take out the pieces of apricot
singly as they become so, and, as fast as the scum rises, carefully
remove it. Put the apricots into small jars, pour over them the syrup
and kernels, cover the jam with pieces of paper dipped in the purest
salad-oil, and stretch over the top of the jars tissue-paper, cut about
2 inches larger and brushed over with the white of an egg: when dry, it
will be perfectly hard and air-tight.

_Time_.--12 hours sprinkled with sugar; about 3/4 hour to boil the jam.

_Average cost.--When cheap, apricots may be purchased for preserving at
about 1s. 6d. per gallon.

_Sufficient_,--10 lbs. of fruit for 12 pots of jam.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in August or September.

BARBERRIES IN BUNCHES.

1523. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of syrup No. 1513, barberries.

_Mode_.--Prepare some small pieces of clean white wood, 3 inches long
and 1/4 inch wide, and tie the fruit on to these in nice bunches. Have
ready some clear syrup, made by recipe No. 1513; put in the barberries,
and simmer them in it for 2 successive days, boiling them for nearly 1/2
hour each day, and covering them each time with the syrup when cold.
When the fruit looks perfectly clear, it is sufficiently done, and
should be stored away in pots, with the syrup poured over, or the fruit
may be candied.

_Time_.--1/2 hour to simmer each day.

_Seasonable_ in autumn.

_Note_.--The berries in their natural state make a very pretty
garnishing for dishes, and may even be used for the same purpose,
preserved as above, and look exceedingly nice on sweet dishes.

TO MAKE BARLEY-SUGAR.

1524. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of sugar allow 1/2 pint of water, 1/2
the white of an egg.

_Mode_.--Put the sugar into a well-tinned saucepan, with the water, and,
when the former is dissolved, set it over a moderate fire, adding the
well-beaten egg before the mixture gets warm, and stir it well together.
When it boils, remove the scum as it rises, and keep it boiling until no
more appears, and the syrup looks perfectly clear; then strain it
through a fine sieve or muslin bag, and put it back into the saucepan.
Boil it again like caramel, until it is brittle, when a little is
dropped in a basin of cold water: it is then sufficiently boiled. Add a
little lemon-juice and a few drops of essence of lemon, and let it stand
for a minute or two. Have ready a marble slab or large dish, rubbed over
with salad-oil; pour on it the sugar, and cut it into strips with a pair
of scissors: these strips should then be twisted, and the barley-sugar
stored away in a very dry place. It may be formed into lozenges or
drops, by dropping the sugar in a very small quantity at a time on to
the oiled slab or dish.

_Time_.--1/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 sticks.

CARROT JAM TO IMITATE APRICOT PRESERVE.

1525. INGREDIENTS.--Carrots; to every lb. of carrot pulp allow 1 lb. of
pounded sugar, the grated rind of 1 lemon, the strained juice of 2, 6
chopped bitter almonds, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

_Mode_.--Select young carrots; wash and scrape them clean, cut them into
round pieces, put them into a saucepan with sufficient water to cover
them, and let them simmer until perfectly soft; then beat them through a
sieve. Weigh the pulp, and to every lb. allow the above ingredients. Put
the pulp into a preserving-pan with the sugar, and let this boil for 5
minutes, stirring and skimming all the time. When cold, add the
lemon-rind and juice, almonds and brandy; mix these well with the jam;
then put it into pots, which must be well covered and kept in a dry
place. The brandy may be omitted, but the preserve will then not keep:
with the brandy it will remain good for months.

_Time_.--About 3/4 hour to boil the carrots; 5 minutes to simmer the
pulp.

_Average cost_, 1s. 2d. for 1 lb. of pulp, with the other ingredients in
proportion.

_Sufficient_ to fill 3 pots.

_Seasonable_ from July to December.

TO MAKE CHERRY BRANDY.

1536. INGREDIENTS.--Morella cherries, good brandy; to every lb. of
cherries allow 3 oz. of pounded sugar.

_Mode_.--Have ready some glass bottles, which must be perfectly dry.
Ascertain that the cherries are not too ripe and are freshly gathered,
and cut off about half of the stalks. Put them into the bottles, with
the above proportion of sugar to every lb. of fruit; strew this in
between the cherries, and, when the bottles are nearly full, pour in
sufficient brandy to reach just below the cork. A few peach or apricot
kernels will add much to their flavour, or a few blanched bitter
almonds. Put corks or bungs into the bottles, tie over them a piece of
bladder, and store away in a dry place. The cherries will be fit to eat
in 2 or 3 months, and will remain good for years. They are liable to
shrivel and become tough if too much sugar be added to them.

_Average cost_, 1s. to 1s. 6d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--1 lb. of cherries and about 1/4 pint of brandy for a
quart bottle. _Seasonable_ in August and September.

DRIED CHERRIES.

1527. CHERRIES may be put in a slow oven and thoroughly dried before
they begin to change colour. They should then be taken out of the oven,
tied in bunches, and stored away in a dry place. In the winter, they may
be cooked with sugar for dessert, the same as Normandy pippins.
Particular care must be taken that the oven be not too hot. Another
method of drying cherries is to stone them, and to put them into a
preserving-pan, with plenty of loaf sugar strewed amongst them. They
should be simmered till the fruit shrivels, when they should be strained
from the juice. The cherries should then be placed in an oven, cool
enough to dry without baking them. About 5 oz. of sugar would be
required for 1 lb. of cherries, and the same syrup may be used again to
do another quantity of fruit.

CHERRY JAM.

1528. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of fruit, weighed before stoning, allow
1/2 lb. of sugar; to every 6 lbs. of fruit allow 1 pint of red-currant
juice, and to every pint of juice 1 lb. of sugar.

_Mode_.--Weigh the fruit before stoning, and allow half the weight of
sugar; stone the cherries, and boil them in a preserving-pan until
nearly all the juice is dried up; then add the sugar, which should be
crushed to powder, and the currant-juice, allowing 1 pint to every 6
lbs. of cherries (original weight), and 1 lb. of sugar to every pint of
juice. Boil all together until it jellies, which will be in from 20
minutes to 1/2 hour; skim the jam well, keep it well stirred, and, a few
minutes before it is done, crack some of the stones, and add the
kernels: these impart a very delicious flavour to the jam.

_Time_.--According to the quality of the cherries, from 3/4 to 1 hour to
boil them; 20 minutes to 1/2 hour with the sugar.

_Average cost_, from 7d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

_Sufficient_.--1 pint of fruit for a lb. pot of jam.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in July or August.

TO PRESERVE CHERRIES IN SYRUP.

(_Very delicious_.)

1529. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of cherries, 3 lbs. of sugar, 1 pint of
white-currant juice.

_Mode_.--Let the cherries be as clear and as transparent as possible,
and perfectly ripe; pick off the stalks, and remove the stones, damaging
the fruit as little as you can. Make a syrup with the above proportion
of sugar, by recipe No. 1512; mix the cherries with it, and boil them
for about 15 minutes, carefully skimming them; turn them gently into a
pan, and let them remain till the next day; then drain the cherries on a
sieve, and put the syrup and white-currant juice into the preserving-pan
again. Boil these together until the syrup is somewhat reduced and
rather thick; then put in the cherries, and let them boil for about 5
minutes; take them off the fire, skim the syrup, put the cherries into
small pots or wide-mouthed bottles; pour the syrup over, and when quite
cold, tie them down carefully, so that the air is quite excluded.

_Time_.--15 minutes to boil the cherries in the syrup; 10 minutes to
boil the syrup and currant-juice; 6 minutes to boil the cherries the
second time.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 3s. 6d.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in July or August.

BLACK-CURRANT JAM.

1530. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of fruit, weighed before being stripped
from the stalks, allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar, 1 gill of water.

_Mode_.--Let the fruit be very ripe, and gathered on a dry day. Strip it
from the stalks, and put it into a preserving-pan, with a gill of water
to each lb. of fruit; boil these together for 10 minutes; then add the
sugar, and boil the jam again for 30 minutes, reckoning from the time
when the jam simmers equally all over, or longer, should it not appear
to set nicely when a little is poured on to a plate. Keep stirring it to
prevent it from burning, carefully remove all the scum, and when done,
pour it into pots. Let it cool, cover the top of the jam with oiled
paper, and the top of the jars with a piece of tissue-paper brushed over
on both sides with the white of an egg: this, when cold, forms a hard
stiff cover, and perfectly excludes the air. Great attention must be
paid to the stirring of this jam, as it is very liable to burn, on
account of the thickness of the juice.

_Time_.--10 minutes to boil the fruit and water; 30 minutes with the
sugar, or longer.

_Average cost_, from 6d. to 8d. for a pot capable of holding 1 lb.

_Sufficient_.--Allow from 6 to 7 quarts of currants to make 1 dozen pots
of jam, each pot to hold 1 lb.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in July.

BLACK-CURRANT JELLY.

1531. INGREDIENTS.--Black currants; to every pint of juice allow 1/4
pint of water, 1 lb. of loaf sugar.

_Mode_.--Strip the currants from the stalks, which may be done in an
expeditious manner, by holding the bunch in one hand, and passing a
small silver fork down the currants: they will then readily fall from
the stalks. Put them into a jar, place this jar in a saucepan of boiling
water, and simmer them until their juice is extracted; then strain them,
and to every pint of juice allow the above proportion of sugar and
water; stir these ingredients together cold until the sugar is
dissolved; place the preserving-pan on the fire, and boil the jelly for
about 1/2 hour, reckoning from the time it commences to boil all over,
and carefully remove the scum as it rises. If the jelly becomes firm
when a little is put on a plate, it is done; it should then be put into
_small_ pots, and covered the same as the jam in the preceding recipe.
If the jelly is wanted very clear, the fruit should not be squeezed dry;
but, of course, so much juice will not be obtained. If the fruit is not
much squeezed, it may be converted into a jam for immediate eating, by
boiling it with a little common sugar: this answers very well for a
nursery preserve.

_Time_.--About 3/4 hour to extract the juice; 1/2 hour to boil the
jelly.

_Average cost_, from 8d. to 10d. per 1/2-lb. pot.

_Sufficient_.--From 3 pints to 2 quarts of fruit should yield a pint of
juice.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in July.

RED-CURRANT JAM.

1532. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of fruit allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar.

[Illustration: JAM-POT.]

_Mode_.--Let the fruit be gathered on a fine day; weigh it, and then
strip the currants from the stalks; put them into a preserving-pan with
sugar in the above proportion; stir them, and boil them for about 3/4
hour. Carefully remove the scum as it rises. Put the jam into pots, and,
when cold, cover with oiled papers; over these put a piece of
tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg; press
the paper round the top of the pot, and, when dry, the covering will be
quite hard and air-tight.

_Time_.--1/2 to 3/4 hour, reckoning from the time the jam boils all
over.

_Average cost_, for a lb. pot, from 6d. to 8d.

_Sufficient_.--Allow from 6 to 7 quarts of currants to make 12 1-lb,
pots of jam.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in July.

RED-CURRANT JELLY.

1533. INGREDIENTS.--Red currants; to every pint of juice allow 3/4 lb.
of loaf sugar.

_Mode_.--Have the fruit gathered in fine weather; pick it from the
stalks, put it into a jar, and place this jar in a saucepan of boiling
water over the fire, and let it simmer gently until the juice is well
drawn from the currants; then strain them through a jelly-bag or fine
cloth, and, if the jelly is wished very clear, do not squeeze them _too
much_, as the skin and pulp from the fruit will be pressed through with
the juice, and so make the jelly muddy. Measure the juice, and to each
pint allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar; put these into a preserving-pan, set
it over the fire, and keep stirring the jelly until it is done,
carefully removing every particle of scum as it rises, using a wooden or
silver spoon for the purpose, as metal or iron ones would spoil the
colour of the jelly when it has boiled from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour, put
a little of the jelly on a plate, and if firm when cool, it is done.
Take it off the fire, pour it into small gallipots, cover each of the
pots with an oiled paper, and then with a piece of tissue-paper brushed
over on both sides with the white of an egg. Label the pots, adding the
year when the jelly was made, and store it away in a dry place. A jam
may be made with the currants, if they are not squeezed too dry, by
adding a few fresh raspberries, and boiling all together, with
sufficient sugar to sweeten it nicely. As this preserve is not worth
storing away, but is only for immediate eating, a smaller proportion of
sugar than usual will be found enough: it answers very well for
children's puddings, or for a nursery preserve.

_Time_.--From 3/4 to 1 hour to extract the juice; 20 minutes to 1/2 hour
to boil the jelly.

_Average cost_, from 8d. to 10d. per 1/2-lb. pot. _Sufficient_.--8
quarts of currants will make from 10 to 12 pots of jelly.
_Seasonable_.--Make this in July. _Note_.--Should the above proportion
of sugar not be found sufficient for some tastes, add an extra 1/4 lb.
to every pint of juice, making altogether 1 lb.

WHITE-CURRANT JELLY.

1534. INGREDIENTS.--White currants; to every pint of juice allow 3/4 lb.
of good loaf sugar.

_Mode_.--Pick the currants from the stalks, and put them into a jar;
place this jar in a saucepan of boiling water, and simmer until the
juice is well drawn from the fruit, which will be in from 3/4 to 1 hour.
Then strain the currants through a fine cloth or jelly-bag; do not
squeeze them too much, or the jelly will not be clear, and put the juice
into a very clean preserving-pan, with the sugar. Let this simmer gently
over a clear fire until it is firm, and keep stirring and skimming until
it is done; then pour it into small pots, cover them, and store away in
a dry place.

_Time_.--3/4 hour to draw the juice; 1/2 hour to boil the jelly.

_Average cost_, from 8d. to 10d. per 1/2-lb. pot.

_Sufficient._--From 3 pints to 2 quarts of fruit should yield 1 pint of
juice.

_Seasonable_ in July and August.

BAKED DAMSONS FOR WINTER USE.

1535. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of fruit allow 6 oz. of pounded sugar;
melted mutton suet.

_Mode_.--Choose sound fruit, not too ripe; pick off the stalks, weigh
it, and to every lb. allow the above proportion of pounded sugar. Put
the fruit into large dry stone jars, sprinkling the sugar amongst it;
cover the jars with saucers, place them in a rather cool oven, and bake
the fruit until it is quite tender. When cold, cover the top of the
fruit with a piece of white paper cut to the size of the jar; pour over
this melted mutton suet about an inch thick, and cover the tops of the
jars with thick brown paper, well tied down. Keep the jars in a cool dry
place, and the fruit will remain good till the following Christmas, but
not much longer.

_Time_.--From 5 to 6 hours to bake the damsons, in a very cool oven.

_Seasonable_ in September and October.

DAMSON CHEESE.

1536. INGREDIENTS.--Damsons; to every lb. of fruit pulp allow 1/2 lb. of
loaf sugar.

_Mode_.--Pick the stalks from the damsons, and put them into a
preserving-pan; simmer them over the fire until they are soft,
occasionally stirring them; then beat them through a coarse sieve, and
put the pulp and juice into the preserving-pan, with sugar in the above
proportion, having previously carefully weighed them. Stir the sugar
well in, and simmer the damsons slowly for 2 hours. Skim well; then boil
the preserve quickly for 1/2 hour, or until it looks firm and hard in
the spoon; put it quickly into shallow pots, or very tiny earthenware
moulds, and, when cold, cover it with oiled papers, and the jars with
tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg. A few
of the stones may be cracked, and the kernels boiled with the damsons,
which very much improves the flavour of the cheese.

_Time_.--1 hour to boil the damsons without the sugar; 2 hours to simmer
them slowly, 1/2 hour quickly.

_Average cost_, from 8d. to 10d. per 1/3 lb. pot.

_Sufficient_.--1 pint of damsons to make a _very small_ pot of cheese.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in September or October.

COMPOTE OF DAMSONS.

1537. INGREDIENTS.--1 quart of damsons, 1 pint of syrup No. 1512.

_Mode_.--Procure sound ripe damsons; pick the stalks from them, and put
them into boiling syrup, made by recipe No. 1512. Simmer them gently
until the fruit is tender, but not sufficiently soft to break; take them
up, boil the syrup for 5 minutes; pour it over the damsons, and serve.
This should be sent to table in a glass dish.

_Time_.--About 1/4 hour to simmer the damsons; 5 minutes to boil the
syrup.

_Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ in September and October.

DAMSON JAM.

1538. INGREDIENTS.--Damsons; to every lb. of fruit allow 3/4 lb. of loaf
sugar.

_Mode_.--Have the fruit gathered in dry weather; pick it over, and
reject any that is at all blemished. Stone the damsons, weigh them, and
to every lb. allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar. Put the fruit and sugar into a
preserving-pan; keep stirring them gently until the sugar is dissolved,
and carefully remove the scum as it rises. Boil the jam for about an
hour, reckoning from the time it commences to simmer all over alike: it
must be well stirred all the time, or it will be liable to burn and
stick to the pan, which will cause the jam to have a very disagreeable
flavour. When the jam looks firm, and the juice appears to set, it is
done. Then take it off the fire, put into pots, cover it down, when
quite cold, with oiled and egged papers, the same as in recipe No. 1530,
and store it away in a dry place.

_Time_.--1 hour after the jam simmers all over.

_Average cost_, from 6d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

_Sufficient_.--1-1/2 pint of damsons for a lb. pot.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in September or October.

A VERY NICE PRESERVE OF DAMSONS.

1539. INGREDIENTS.--To every quart of damsons allow 1/2 lb. of loaf
sugar.

_Mode_.--Put the damsons (which should be picked from the stalks and
quite free from blemishes) into a jar, with pounded sugar sprinkled
amongst them in the above proportion; tie the jar closely down, set it
in a saucepan of cold water; bring it gradually to boil, and simmer
gently until the damsons are soft, without being broken. Let them stand
till cold; then strain the juice from them, boil it up well, strain it
through a jelly-bag, and pour it over the fruit. Let it cool, cover with
oiled papers, and the jars with tissue-paper brushed over on both sides
with the white of an egg, and store away in a dry cool place.

_Time_.--About 3/4 hour to simmer the fruit after the water boils; 1/4
hour to boil the juice.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in September or October.

TO PRESERVE DAMSONS, OR ANY KIND OF PLUMS.

(_Useful in Winter_.)

1540. INGREDIENTS.--Damsons or plums; boiling water.

_Mode_.--Pick the fruit into clean dry stone jars, taking care to leave
out all that are broken or blemished. When full, pour boiling water on
the plums, until it stands one inch above the fruit; cut a piece of
paper to fit the inside of the jar, over which pour melted mutton-suet;
cover down with brown paper, and keep the jars in a dry cool place. When
used, the suet should be removed, the water poured off, and the jelly at
the bottom of the jar used and mixed with the fruit.

_Seasonable_ in September and October.

COMPOTE OF GREEN FIGS.

[Illustration: COMPOTE OF FIGS.]

1541. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of syrup No. 1512, 1-1/2 pint of green figs,
the rind of 1/2 lemon.

_Mode_.--Make a syrup by recipe No. 1512, boiling with it the
lemon-rind, and carefully remove all the scum as it rises. Put in the
figs, and simmer them very slowly until tender; dish them on a glass
dish; reduce the syrup by boiling it quickly for 5 minutes; take out the
lemon-peel, pour the syrup over the figs, and the compote, when cold,
will be ready for table. A little port wine, or lemon-juice, added just
before the figs are done, will be found an improvement.

_Time_.--2 to 3 hours to stew the figs.

_Average cost_, figs, 2s. to 3s. per dozen.

_Seasonable_ in August and September.

TO BOTTLE FRESH FRUIT.

(_Very useful in Winter_.)

I.

1542. INGREDIENTS.--Fresh fruits, such as currants, raspberries,
cherries, gooseberries, plums of all kinds, damsons, &c.; wide-mouthed
glass bottles, new corks to fit them tightly.

_Mode_.--Let the fruit be full grown, but not too ripe, and gathered in
dry weather. Pick it off the stalks without bruising or breaking the
skin, and reject any that is at all blemished: if gathered in the damp,
or if the skins are cut at all, the fruit will mould. Have ready some
_perfectly dry_ glass bottles, and some nice new soft corks or bungs;
burn a match in each bottle, to exhaust the air, and quickly place the
fruit in to be preserved; gently cork the bottles, and put them into a
very cool oven, where let them remain until the fruit has shrunk away a
fourth part. Then take the bottles out; _do not open them,_ but
immediately beat the corks in tight, cut off the tops, and cover them
with melted resin. If kept in a dry place, the fruit will remain good
for months; and on this principally depends the success of the
preparation; for if stored away in a place that is in the least damp,
the fruit will soon spoil.

_Time_.--From 5 to 6 hours in a very slow oven.

II.

1543. INGREDIENTS.--Any kind of fresh fruit, such as currants, cherries,
gooseberries, all kinds of plums, &c.; wide-mouthed glass bottles, new
corks to fit them tightly.

_Mode_.--The fruit must be full-grown, not too ripe, and gathered on a
fine day. Let it be carefully picked and put into the bottles, which
must be clean and perfectly dry. Tie over the tops of the bottles pieces
of bladder; stand the bottles in a large pot, copper, or boiler, with
cold water to reach to their necks; kindle a fire under, let the water
boil, and as the bladders begin to rise and puff, prick them. As soon as
the water boils, extinguish the fire, and let the bottles remain where
they are, to become cold. The next day remove the bladders, and strew
over the fruit a thick layer of pounded sugar; fit the bottles with
corks, and let each cork lie close at hand to its own bottle. Hold for a
few moments, in the neck of the bottle, two or three lighted matches,
and when they have filled the bottle neck with gas, and before they go
out, remove them very quickly; instantly cork the bottle closely, and
dip it in bottle cement.

_Time_.--Altogether about 8 hours.

TO BOTTLE FRESH FRUIT WITH SUGAR.

(_Very useful in Winter_.)

1544. INGREDIENTS.--Any kind of fresh fruit; to each quart bottle allow
1/4 lb. of pounded sugar.

_Mode_.--Let the fruit be gathered in dry weather. Pick it carefully,
and drop it into _clean_ and _very dry_ quart glass bottles, sprinkling
over it the above proportion of pounded sugar to each quart. Put the
corks in the bottles, and place them in a copper of cold water up to
their necks, with small hay-wisps round them, to prevent the bottles
from knocking together. Light the fire under, bring the water gradually
to boil, and let it simmer gently until the fruit in the bottles is
reduced nearly one third. Extinguish the fire, _and let the bottles
remain in the water until it is perfectly cold;_ then take them out,
make the corks secure, and cover them with melted resin or wax.

_Time_.--About 1 hour from the time the water commences to boil.

TO FROST HOLLY-LEAVES, for garnishing and decorating Dessert and Supper
Dishes.

1545.--INGREDIENTS.--Sprigs of holly, oiled butter, coarsely-powdered
sugar.

_Mode_.--Procure some nice sprigs of holly; pick the leaves from the
stalks, and wipe them with a clean cloth free from all moisture; then
place them on a dish near the fire, to get thoroughly dry, but not too
near to shrivel the leaves; dip them into oiled butter, sprinkle over
them some coarsely-powdered sugar, and dry them before the fire. They
should be kept in a dry place, as the least damp would spoil their
appearance.

_Time_.--About 10 minutes to dry before the fire.

_Seasonable_.--These may be made at any time; but are more suitable for
winter garnishes, when fresh flowers are not easily obtained.

COMPOTE OF GOOSEBERRIES.

1546. INGREDIENTS.--Syrup made by recipe No. 1512; to 1 pint of syrup
allow nearly a quart of gooseberries.

_Mode_.--Top and tail the gooseberries, which should not be very ripe,
and pour over them some boiling water; then take them out, and plunge
them into cold water, with which has been mixed a tablespoonful of
vinegar, which will assist to keep the fruit a good colour. Make a pint
of syrup by recipe No. 1512, and when it boils, drain the gooseberries
and put them in; simmer them gently until the fruit is nicely pulped and
tender, without being broken; then dish the gooseberries on a glass
dish, boil the syrup for 2 or 3 minutes, pour over the gooseberries, and
serve cold.

_Time_.--About 5 minutes to boil the gooseberries in the syrup; 3
minutes to reduce the syrup.

_Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_,--a quart of gooseberries for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ in June.

GOOSEBERRY JAM.

I.

1547. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of fruit allow 3/4 lb. of loaf sugar;
currant-juice.

_Mode_.--Select red hairy gooseberries; have them gathered in dry
weather, when quite ripe, without being too soft. Weigh them; with a
pair of scissors, cut off the tops and tails, and to every 6 lbs. of
fruit have ready 1/2 pint of red-currant juice, drawn as for jelly. Put
the gooseberries and currant-juice into a preserving-pan; let them boil
tolerably quickly, keeping them well stirred; when they begin to break,
add to them the sugar, and keep simmering until the jam becomes firm,
carefully skimming: and stirring it, that it does not burn at the
bottom. It should be boiled rather a long time, or it will not keep. Put
it into pots (not too large); let it get perfectly cold; then cover the
pots down with oiled and egged papers, as directed for red-currant jelly
No. 1533.

_Time_.--About 1 hour to boil the gooseberries in the currant-juice;
from 1/2 to 3/4 hour with the sugar.

_Average cost_, per lb. pot, from 6d. to 8d.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1-1/2 pint of fruit for a lb. pot.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in June or July.

II.

1548. INGREDIENTS.--To every 8 lbs. of red, rough, ripe gooseberries
allow 1 quart of red-currant juice, 5 lbs. of loaf sugar.

_Mode_.--Have the fruit gathered in dry weather, and cut off the tops
and tails. Prepare 1 quart of red-currant juice, the same as for
red-currant jelly No. 1533; put it into a preserving-pan with the sugar,
and keep stirring until the latter is dissolved. Keep it boiling for
about 5 minutes; skim well; then put in the gooseberries, and let them
boil from 1/2 to 3/4 hour; then turn the whole into an earthen pan, and
let it remain for 2 days. Boil the jam up again until it looks clear;
put it into pots, and when cold, cover with oiled paper, and over the
jars put tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an
egg, and store away in a dry place. Care must be taken, in making this,
to keep the jam well stirred and well skimmed, to prevent it burning at
the bottom of the pan, and to have it very clear.

_Time_.--5 minutes to boil the currant-juice and sugar after the latter
is dissolved; from 1/2 to 3/4 hour to simmer the gooseberries the first
time, 1/4 hour the second time of boiling.

_Average cost_, from 8d. to 10d. per lb. pot.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1-1/2 pint of fruit for a lb. pot.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in June or July.

WHITE OR GREEN GOOSEBERRY JAM.

1549. INGREDIENTS.--Equal weight of fruit and sugar.

_Mode_.--Select the gooseberries not very ripe, either white or green,
and top and tail them. Boil the sugar with water (allowing 1/2 pint to
every lb.) for about 1/4 hour, carefully removing the scum as it rises;
then put in the gooseberries, and simmer gently till clear and firm: try
a little of the jam on a plate; if it jellies when cold, it is done, and
should then be poured into pots. When cold, cover with oiled paper, and
tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the unbeaten white of an
egg, and store away in a dry place.

_Time_.--1/4 hour to boil the sugar and water, 3/4 hour the jam.

_Average cost_, from 6d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1-1/2 pint of fruit for a lb. pot.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in June.

GOOSEBERRY JELLY.

1550. INGREDIENTS.--Gooseberries; to every pint of juice allow 3/4 lb.
of loaf sugar.

_Mode_.--Put the gooseberries, after cutting off the tops and tails,
into a preserving-pan, and stir them over the fire until they are quite
soft; then strain them through a sieve, and to every pint of juice allow
3/4 lb. of sugar. Boil the juice and sugar together for nearly 3/4 hour,
stirring and skimming all the time; and if the jelly appears firm when a
little of it is poured on to a plate, it is done, and should then be
taken up and put into small pots. Cover the pots with oiled and egged
papers, the same as for currant jelly No. 1533, and store away in a dry
place.

_Time_.--3/4 hour to simmer the gooseberries without the sugar; 3/4 hour
to boil the juice.

_Average cost_, from 8d. to 10d. per 1/2-lb. pot.

_Seasonable_ in July.

COMPOTE OF GREENGAGES.

1551. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of syrup made by recipe No. 1512, 1 quart of
greengages.

_Mode_.--Make a syrup by recipe No. 1512, skim it well, and put in the
greengages when the syrup is boiling, having previously removed the
stalks and stones from the fruit. Boil gently for 1/4 hour, or until the
fruit is tender; but take care not to let it break, as the appearance of
the dish would be spoiled were the fruit reduced to a pulp. Take the
greengages carefully out, place them on a glass dish, boil the syrup for
another 5 minutes, let it cool a little, pour over the fruit, and, when
cold, it will be ready for use.

_Time_.--1/4 hour to simmer the fruit, 5 minutes the syrup.

_Average cost_, in full season, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ in July, August, and September.

GREENGAGE JAM.

1552. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of fruit, weighed before being stoned,
allow 3/4 lb. of lump sugar.

_Mode_.--Divide the greengages, take out the stones, and put them into a
preserving-pan. Bring the fruit to a boil, then add the sugar, and keep
stirring it over a gentle fire until it is melted. Remove all the scum
as it rises, and, just before the jam is done, boil it rapidly for 5
minutes. To ascertain when it is sufficiently boiled, pour a little on a
plate, and if the syrup thickens and appears firm, it is done. Have
ready half the kernels blanched; put them into the jam, give them one
boil, and pour the preserve into pots. When cold, cover down with oiled
papers, and, over these, tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with
the white of an egg.

_Time_.--3/4 hour after the sugar is added.

_Average cost_, from 6d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

_Sufficient._--Allow about 1-1/2 pint of fruit for every lb. pot of jam.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in August or September.

TO PRESERVE AND DRY GREENGAGES.

1553. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of sugar allow 1 lb. of fruit, 1/4 pint
of water.

_Mode_.--For this purpose, the fruit must be used before it is quite
ripe, and part of the stalk must be left on. Weigh the fruit, rejecting
all that is in the least degree blemished, and put it into a lined
saucepan with the sugar and water, which should have been previously
boiled together to a rich syrup. Boil the fruit in this for 10 minutes,
remove it from the fire, and drain the greengages. The next day, boil up
the syrup and put in the fruit again, and let it simmer for 3 minutes,
and drain the syrup away. Continue this process for 5 or 6 days, and the
last time place the greengages, when drained, on a hair sieve, and put
them in an oven or warm spot to dry; keep them in a box, with paper
between each layer, in a place free from damp.

_Time_.--10 minutes the first time of boiling.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in August or September.

PRESERVED GREENGAGES IN SYRUP.

1554. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of fruit allow 1 lb. of loaf sugar 1/4
pint of water.

_Mode_.--Boil the sugar and water together for about 10 minutes; divide
the greengages, take out the stones, put the fruit into the syrup, and
let it simmer gently until nearly tender. Take it off the fire, put it
into a large pan, and, the next day, boil it up again for about 10
minutes with the kernels from the stones, which should be blanched. Put
the fruit carefully into jars, pour over it the syrup, and, when cold,
cover down, so that the air is quite excluded. Let the syrup be well
skimmed both the first and second day of boiling, otherwise it will not
be clear.

_Time_.--10 minutes to boil the syrup; 1/4 hour to simmer the fruit the
first day, 10 minutes the second day.

_Average cost_, from 6d. to 8d. per lb. pot.

_Sufficient._--Allow about 1 pint of fruit to fill a 1-lb. pot.

_Seasonable_.--Make this in August or September.

TO MAKE FRUIT ICE-CREAMS.

1555. INGREDIENTS.--To every pint of fruit-juice allow 1 pint of cream;
sugar to taste.

_Mode_.--Let the fruit be well ripened; pick it off the stalks, and put
it into a large earthen pan. Stir it about with a wooden spoon, breaking
it until it is well mashed; then, with the back of the spoon, rub it
through a hair sieve. Sweeten it nicely with pounded sugar; whip the
cream for a few minutes, add it to the fruit, and whisk the whole again
for another 5 minutes. Put the mixture into the freezing-pot, and freeze
in the same manner as directed for Ice Pudding, No. 1290, taking care to
stir the cream, &c., two or three times, and to remove it from the sides
of the vessel, that the mixture may be equally frozen and smooth. Ices
are usually served in glasses, but if moulded, as they sometimes are for
dessert, must have a small quantity of melted isinglass added to them,
to enable them to keep their shape. Raspberry, strawberry, currant, and
all fruit ice-creams, are made in the same manner. A little pounded
sugar sprinkled over the fruit before it is mashed assists to extract
the juice. In winter, when fresh fruit is not obtainable, a little jam
may be substituted for it: it should be melted and worked through a
sieve before being added to the whipped cream; and if the colour should
not be good, a little prepared cochineal or beetroot may be put in to
improve its appearance.

_Time_.--1/2 hour to freeze the mixture.

_Average cost_, with cream at 1s. per pint, 4d. each ice.

_Seasonable_, with fresh fruit, in June, July, and August.

TO MAKE FRUIT-WATER ICES.

1556. INGREDIENTS.--To every pint of fruit-juice allow 1 pint of syrup
made by recipe No. 1513.

[Illustration: DISH OF ICES.]

_Mode_.--Select nice ripe fruit; pick off the stalks, and put it into a
large earthen pan, with a little pounded sugar strewed over; stir it
about with a wooden spoon until it is well broken, then rub it through a
hair sieve. Make the syrup by recipe No. 1513, omitting the white of the
egg; let it cool, add the fruit-juice, mix well together, and put the
mixture into the freezing-pot. Proceed as directed for Ice Puddings, No.
1290, and when the mixture is equally frozen, put it into small glasses.
Raspberry, strawberry, currant, and other fresh-fruit-water ices, are
made in the same manner.

_Time_.--1/2 hour to freeze the mixture.

_Average cost_, 3d. to 4d. each.

_Seasonable_, with fresh fruit, in June, July, and August.

LEMON-WATER ICE.

1557. INGREDIENTS.--To every pint of syrup, made by recipe No. 1513,
allow 1/3 pint of lemon-juice; the rind of 4 lemons.

_Mode_.--Rub the sugar on the rinds of the lemons, and with it make the
syrup by recipe No. 1513, omitting the white of egg. Strain the
lemon-juice, add it to the other ingredients, stir well, and put the

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