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The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

Part 22 out of 34

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in twelve or thirteen months. When ripe, it is cut down close to
the stole, the stems are divided into lengths of about three
feet, which are made up into bundles, and carried to the mill,
to be crushed between rollers. In the process of crushing, the
juice runs down into a reservoir, from which, after a while, it
is drawn through a siphon; that is to say, the clear fluid is
taken from the scum. This fluid undergoes several processes of
drying and refining; the methods varying in different
manufactories. There are some large establishments engaged in
sugar-refining in the neighbourhoods of Blackwall and Bethnal
Green, London. The process is mostly in the hands of German
workmen. Sugar is adulterated with fine sand and sawdust. Pure
sugar is highly nutritious, adding to the fatty tissue of the
body; but it is not easy of digestion.

BAKED RAISIN PUDDING.

(_Plain and Economical_.)

1336. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 3/4 lb. of stoned raisins, 1/2 lb. of
suet, a pinch of salt, 1 oz. of sugar, a little grated nutmeg, milk.

_Mode_.--Chop the suet finely; stone the raisins and cut them in halves;
mix these with the suet, add the salt, sugar, and grated nutmeg, and
moisten the whole with sufficient milk to make it of the consistency of
thick batter. Put the pudding into a buttered pie-dish, and bake for
1-1/2 hour, or rather longer. Turn it out of the dish, strew sifted
sugar over, and serve. This is a very plain recipe, and suitable where
there is a family of children. It, of course, can be much improved by
the addition of candied peel, currants, and rather a larger proportion
of suet: a few eggs would also make the pudding richer.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ in winter.

INTRODUCTION OF SUGAR.--Sugar was first known as a drug, and
used by the apothecaries, and with them was a most important
article. At its first appearance, some said it was heating;
others, that it injured the chest; others, that it disposed
persons to apoplexy; the truth, however, soon conquered these
fancies, and the use of sugar has increased every day, and there
is no household in the civilized world which can do without it.

BOILED RAISIN PUDDING.

(_Plain and Economical_.)

1337. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 1/2 lb. of stoned raisins, 1/2 lb.
of chopped suet, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, milk.

_Mode_.--After having stoned the raisins and chopped the suet finely,
mix them with the flour, add the salt, and when these dry ingredients
are thoroughly mixed, moisten the pudding with sufficient milk to make
it into rather a stiff paste. Tie it up in a floured cloth, put it into
boiling water, and boil for 4 hours: serve with sifted sugar. This
pudding may, also, be made in a long shape, the same as a rolled
jam-pudding, and will then not require so long boiling;--2-1/2 hours
would then be quite sufficient.

_Time_.--Made round, 4 hours; in a long shape, 2-1/2 hours.

_Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 8 or 9 persons. _Seasonable_ in winter.

BOILED RHUBARB PUDDING.

1338. INGREDIENTS.--4 or 5 sticks of fine rhubarb, 1/4 lb. of moist
sugar, 3/4 lb. of suet-crust No. 1215.

_Mode_.--Make a suet-crust with 3/4 lb. of flour, by recipe No. 1215,
and line a buttered basin with it. Wash and wipe the rhubarb, and, if
old, string it--that is to say, pare off the outside skin. Cut it into
inch lengths, fill the basin with it, put in the sugar, and cover with
crust. Pinch the edges of the pudding together, tie over it a floured
cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil from 2 to 2-1/2 hours. Turn
it out of the basin, and serve with a jug of cream and sifted sugar.

_Time_.--2 to 2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ in spring.

RHUBARB TART.

1339. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of puff-paste No. 1206, about 5 sticks of
large rhubarb, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar.

_Mode_.--Make a puff-crust by recipe No. 1206; line the edges of a deep
pie-dish with it, and wash, wipe, and cut the rhubarb into pieces about
1 inch long. Should it be old and tough, string it, that is to say, pare
off the outside skin. Pile the fruit high in the dish, as it shrinks
very much in the cooking; put in the sugar, cover with crust, ornament
the edges, and bake the tart in a well-heated oven from 1/2 to 3/4 hour.
If wanted very nice, brush it over with the white of an egg beaten to a
stiff froth, then sprinkle on it some sifted sugar, and put it in the
oven just to set the glaze: this should be done when the tart is nearly
baked. A small quantity of lemon-juice, and a little of the peel minced,
are by many persons considered an improvement to the flavour of rhubarb
tart.

_Time_.--1/2 to 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ in spring.

[Illustration: RHUBARB.]

RHUBARB.--This is one of the most useful of all garden
productions that are put into pies and puddings. It was
comparatively little known till within the last twenty or thirty
years, but it is now cultivated in almost every British garden.
The part used is the footstalks of the leaves, which, peeled and
cut into small pieces, are put into tarts, either mixed with
apples or alone. When quite young, they are much better not
peeled. Rhubarb comes in season when apples are going out. The
common rhubarb is a native of Asia; the scarlet variety has the
finest flavour. Turkey rhubarb, the well-known medicinal drug,
is the root of a very elegant plant (_Rheum palmatum_), coming
to greatest perfection in Tartary. For culinary purposes, all
kinds of rhubarb are the better for being blanched.

RAISED PIE OF POULTRY OR GAME.

1340. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of flour allow 1/2 lb. of butter, 1/2
pint of water, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1/2 teaspoonful of salt (these are
for the crust); 1 large fowl or pheasant, a few slices of veal cutlet, a
few slices of dressed ham, forcemeat, seasoning of nutmeg, allspice,
pepper and salt, gravy.

[Illustration: RAISED PIE.]

_Mode_.--Make a stiff short crust with the above proportion of butter,
flour, water, and eggs, and work it up very smoothly; butter a
raised-pie mould, as shown in No. 1190, and line it with the paste.
Previously to making the crust, bone the fowl, or whatever bird is
intended to be used, lay it, breast downwards, upon a cloth, and season
the inside well with pounded mace, allspice, pepper, and salt; then
spread over it a layer of forcemeat, then a layer of seasoned veal, and
then one of ham, and then another layer of forcemeat, and roll the fowl
over, making the skin meet at the back. Line the pie with forcemeat, put
in the fowl, and fill up the cavities with slices of seasoned veal and
ham and forcemeat; wet the edges of the pie, put on the cover, pinch the
edges together with the paste-pincers, and decorate it with leaves;
brush it over with beaten yolk of egg, and bake in a moderate oven for 4
hours. In the mean time, make a good strong gravy from the bones, pour
it through a funnel into the hole at the top; cover this hole with a
small leaf, and the pie, when cold, will be ready for use. Let it be
remembered that the gravy must be considerably reduced before it is
poured into the pie, as, when cold, it should form a firm jelly, and not
be the least degree in a liquid state. This recipe is suitable for all
kinds of poultry or game, using one or more birds, according to the size
of the pie intended to be made; but the birds must always be boned.
Truffles, mushrooms, &c., added to this pie, make it much nicer; and, to
enrich it, lard the fleshy parts of the poultry or game with thin strips
of bacon. This method of forming raised pies in a mould is generally
called a _timbale_, and has the advantage of being more easily made than
one where the paste is raised by the hands; the crust, besides, being
eatable. (_See_ coloured plate N 1.) _Time_.--Large pie, 4 hours.
_Average cost_, 6s. 6d.

_Seasonable_, with poultry, all the year; with game, from September to
March.

RAISED PIE OF VEAL AND HAM.

1341. INGREDIENTS.--3 or 4 lbs. of veal cutlets, a few slices of bacon
or ham, seasoning of pepper, salt, nutmeg, and allspice, forcemeat No.
415, 2 lbs. of hot-water paste No. 1217, 1/2 pint of good strong gravy.

_Mode_.--To raise the crust for a pie with the hands is a very difficult
task, and can only be accomplished by skilled and experienced cooks. The
process should be seen to be satisfactorily learnt, and plenty of
practice given to the making of raised pies, as by that means only will
success be insured. Make a hot-water paste by recipe No. 1217, and from
the mass raise the pie with the hands; if this cannot be accomplished,
cut out pieces for the top and bottom, and a long piece for the sides;
fasten the bottom and side-piece together by means of egg, and pinch the
edges well together; then line the pie with forcemeat made by recipe No.
415, put in a layer of veal, and a plentiful seasoning of salt, pepper,
nutmeg, and allspice, as, let it be remembered, these pies taste very
insipid unless highly seasoned. Over the seasoning place a layer of
sliced bacon or cooked ham, and then a layer of forcemeat, veal
seasoning, and bacon, and so on until the meat rises to about an inch
above the paste; taking care to finish with a layer of forcemeat, to
fill all the cavities of the pie, and to lay in the meat firmly and
compactly. Brush the top edge of the pie with beaten egg, put on the
cover, press the edges, and pinch them round with paste-pincers. Make a
hole in the middle of the lid, and ornament the pie with leaves, which
should be stuck on with the white of an egg; then brush it all over with
the beaten yolk of an egg, and bake the pie in an oven with a soaking
heat from 3 to 4 hours. To ascertain when it is done, run a
sharp-pointed knife or skewer through the hole at the top into the
middle of the pie, and if the meat feels tender, it is sufficiently
baked. Have ready about 1/2 pint of very strong gravy, pour it through a
funnel into the hole at the top, stop up the hole with a small leaf of
baked paste, and put the pie away until wanted for use. Should it
acquire too much colour in the baking, cover it with white paper, as the
crust should not in the least degree be burnt. Mushrooms, truffles, and
many other ingredients, may be added to enrich the flavour of these
pies, and the very fleshy parts of the meat may be larded. These pies
are more frequently served cold than hot, and form excellent dishes for
cold suppers or breakfasts. The cover of the pie is sometimes carefully
removed, leaving the perfect edges, and the top decorated with square
pieces of very bright aspic jelly: this has an exceedingly pretty
effect.

_Time_.--About 4 hours. _Average cost_, 6s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for a very large pie. _Seasonable_ from March to October.

BAKED RICE PUDDING.

I.

1342. INGREDIENTS.--1 small teacupful of rice, 4 eggs, 1 pint of milk, 2
oz. of fresh butter, 2 oz. of beef marrow, 1/4 lb. of currants, 2
tablespoonfuls of brandy, nutmeg, 1/4 lb. of sugar, the rind of 1/2
lemon.

_Mode_.--Put the lemon-rind and milk into a stewpan, and let it infuse
till the milk is well flavoured with the lemon; in the mean time, boil
the rice until tender in water, with a very small quantity of salt, and,
when done, let it be thoroughly drained. Beat the eggs, stir to them the
milk, which should be strained, the butter, marrow, currants, and
remaining ingredients; add the rice, and mix all well together. Line the
edges of the dish with puff-paste, put in the pudding, and bake for
about 3/4 hour in a slow oven. Slices of candied-peel may be added at
pleasure, or Sultana raisins may be substituted for the currants.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_.--Suitable for a winter pudding, when fresh fruits are not
obtainable.

RICE, with proper management in cooking it, forms a very
valuable and cheap addition to our farinaceous food, and, in
years of scarcity, has been found eminently useful in lessening
the consumption of flour. When boiled, it should be so managed
that the grains, though soft, should be as little broken and as
dry as possible. The water in which it is dressed should only
simmer, and not boil hard. Very little water should be used, as
the grains absorb a great deal, and, consequently, swell much;
and if they take up too much at first, it is difficult to get
rid of it. Baking it in puddings is the best mode of preparing
it.

II.

(_Plain and Economical; a nice Pudding for Children_.)

1343. INGREDIENTS.--1 teacupful of rice, 2 tablespoonfuls of moist
sugar, 1 quart of milk, 1/2 oz. of butter or 2 small tablespoonfuls of
chopped suet, 1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg.

_Mode_.--Wash the rice, put it into a pie-dish with the sugar, pour in
the milk, and stir these ingredients well together; then add the butter
cut up into very small pieces, or, instead of this, the above proportion
of finely-minced suet; grate a little nutmeg over the top, and bake the
pudding, in a moderate oven, from 1-1/2 to 2 hours. As the rice is not
previously cooked, care must be taken that the pudding be very slowly
baked, to give plenty of time for the rice to swell, and for it to be
very thoroughly done.

_Time_.--1-1/2 to 2 hours. _Average cost_, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 children. _Seasonable_ at any time.

PLAIN BOILED RICE PUDDING.

1344. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of rice.

_Mode_.--Wash the rice, tie it in a pudding-cloth, allowing room for the
rice to swell, and put it into a saucepan of cold water; boil it gently
for 2 hours, and if, after a time, the cloth seems tied too loosely,
take the rice up and tighten the cloth. Serve with sweet melted butter,
or cold butter and sugar, or stewed fruit, jam, or marmalade; any of
which accompaniments are suitable for plain boiled rice.

_Time_.--2 hours after the water boils. _Average cost_, 2d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

BOILED RICE PUDDING.

I.

1345. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of rice, 1-1/2 pint of new milk, 2 oz. of
butter, 4 eggs, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, 4 large tablespoonfuls of
moist sugar, flavouring to taste.

_Mode_.--Stew the rice very gently in the above proportion of new milk,
and, when it is tender, pour it into a basin; stir in the butter, and
let it stand to cool; then beat the eggs, add these to the rice with the
sugar, salt, and any flavouring that may be approved, such as nutmeg,
powdered cinnamon, grated lemon-peel, essence of bitter almonds, or
vanilla. When all is well stirred, put the pudding into a buttered
basin, tie it down with a cloth, plunge it into boiling water, and boil
for 1-1/4 hour.

_Time_.--1-1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

VARIETIES OF RICE.--Of the varieties of rice brought to our
market, that from Bengal is chiefly of the species denominated
_cargo_ rice, and is of a coarse reddish-brown cast, but
peculiarly sweet and large-grained; it does not readily separate
from the husk, but it is preferred by the natives to all the
others. _Patua_ rice is more esteemed in Europe, and is of very
superior qualify; it is small-grained, rather long and wiry, and
is remarkably white. The _Carolina_ rice is considered as the
best, and is likewise the dearest in London.

II.

(_With Dried or Fresh fruit; a nice dish for the Nursery_.)

1346. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of rice, 1 pint of any kind of fresh fruit
that may be preferred, or 1/2 lb. of raisins or currants.

_Mode_.--Wash the rice, tie it in a cloth, allowing room for it to
swell, and put it into a saucepan of cold water; let it boil for an
hour, then take it up, untie the cloth, stir in the fruit, and tie it up
again tolerably tight, and put it into the water for the remainder of
the time. Boil for another hour, or rather longer, and serve with sweet
sauce, if made with dried fruit, and with plain sifted sugar and a
little cream or milk, if made with fresh fruit.

_Time_.--1 hour to boil the rice without the fruit; 1 hour, or longer,
afterwards.

_Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 children. _Seasonable_ at any time.

Note.--This pudding is very good made with apples: they should be pared
cored, and cut into thin slices.

BOILED RICE FOR CURRIES, &c.

1347. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 lb. of rice, water, salt.

_Mode_.--Pick, wash, and soak the rice in plenty of cold water; then
have ready a saucepan of boiling water, drop the rice into it, and keep
it boiling quickly, with the lid uncovered, until it is tender, but not
soft. Take it up, drain it, and put it on a dish before the fire to dry:
do not handle it much with a spoon, but shake it about a little with two
forks, that it may all be equally dried, and strew over a little salt.
It is now ready to serve, and may be heaped lightly on a dish by itself,
or be laid round the dish as a border, with a curry or fricassee in the
centre. Some cooks smooth the rice with the back of a spoon, and then
brush it over with the yolk of an egg, and set it in the oven to colour;
but the rice well boiled, white, dry, and with every grain distinct, is
by far the more preferable mode of dressing it. During the process of
boiling, the rice should be attentively watched, that it be not
overdone, as, if this is the case, it will have a mashed and soft
appearance.

_Time_.--15 to 25 minutes, according to the quality of the rice.

_Average cost_, 3d.

_Sufficient_ for a large dish of curry.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

RICE, in the native rough state, with the husk on, is called
_paddy_, both in India and America, and it will keep better, and
for a much longer time, in this state, than after the husk has
been removed; besides which, prepared rice is apt to become
dirty from rubbing about in the voyage on board ship, and in the
warehouses. It is sometimes brought to England in the shape of
paddy, and the husk detached here. Paddy pays less duty than
shelled rice.

TO BOIL RICE FOR CURRIES, &c.

(_Soyer's Recipe_.)

1348. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of the best Carolina rice, 2 quarts of water,
1-1/2 oz. of butter, a little salt.

_Mode_.--Wash the rice well in two waters; make 2 quarts of water
boiling, and throw the rice into it; boil it until three-parts done,
then drain it on a sieve. Butter the bottom and sides of a stewpan, put
in the rice, place the lid on tightly, and set it by the side of the
fire until the rice is perfectly tender, occasionally shaking the pan to
prevent its sticking. Prepared thus, every grain should be separate and
white. Either dish it separately, or place it round the curry as a
border.

_Time_.--15 to 25 minutes.

_Average cost_, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for 2 moderate-sized curries.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BUTTERED RICE.

1349. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of rice, 1-1/2 pint of milk, 2 oz. of
butter, sugar to taste, grated nutmeg or pounded cinnamon.

_Mode_.--Wash and pick the rice, drain and put it into a saucepan with
the milk; let it swell gradually, and, when tender, pour off the milk;
stir in the butter, sugar, and nutmeg or cinnamon, and, when the butter
is thoroughly melted, and the whole is quite hot, serve. After the milk
is poured off, be particular that the rice does not burn: to prevent
this, do not cease stirring it.

_Time_.--About 3/4 hour to swell the rice.

_Average cost_, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

RICE was held in great esteem by the ancients: they considered it as a
very beneficial food for the chest; therefore it was recommended in
cases of consumption, and to persons subject to spitting of blood.

SAVOURY CASSEROLE OF RICE.

Or Rice Border, for Ragouts, Fricassees, &c. (an Entree).

1350. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lb. of rice, 3 pints of weak stock or broth, 2
slices of fat ham, 1 teaspoonful of salt.

[Illustration: CASSEROLE OF RICE.]

_Mode_.--A casserole of rice, when made in a mould, is not such a
difficult operation as when it is moulded by the hand. It is an elegant
and inexpensive entree, as the remains of cold fish, flesh, or fowl may
be served as ragouts, fricassees, &c., inclosed in the casserole. It
requires great nicety in its preparation, the principal thing to attend
to being the boiling of the rice, as, if this is not sufficiently
cooked, the casserole, when moulded, will have a rough appearance, which
would entirely spoil it. After having washed the rice in two or three
waters, drain it well, and put it into a stewpan with the stock, ham,
and salt; cover the pan closely, and let the rice gradually swell over a
slow fire, occasionally stirring, to prevent its sticking. When it is
quite soft, strain it, pick out the pieces of ham, and, with the back of
a large wooden spoon, mash the rice to a perfectly smooth paste. Then
well grease a mould (moulds are made purposely for rice borders), and
turn it upside down for a minute or two, to drain away the fat, should
there be too much; put some rice all round the bottom and sides of it;
place a piece of soft bread in the middle, and cover it with rice; press
it in equally with the spoon, and let it cool. Then dip the mould into
hot water, turn the casserole carefully on to a dish, mark where the lid
is to be formed on the top, by making an incision with the point of a
knife about an inch from the edge all round, and put it into a _very
hot_ oven. Brush it over with a little clarified butter, and bake about
1/2 hour, or rather longer; then carefully remove the lid, which will be
formed by the incision having been made all round, and remove the bread,
in small pieces, with the point of a penknife, being careful not to
injure the casserole. Fill the centre with the ragout or fricassee,
which should be made thick; put on the cover, glaze it, place it in the
oven to set the glaze, and serve as hot as possible. The casserole
should not be emptied too much, as it is liable to crack from the weight
of whatever is put in; and in baking it, let the oven be very hot, or
the casserole will probably break.

_Time_.--About 3/4 hour to swell the rice.

_Sufficient_ for 2 moderate-sized casseroles.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

SWEET CASSEROLE OF RICE (an Entremets).

1351. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lb. of rice, 3 pints of milk, sugar to taste,
flavouring of bitter almonds, 3 oz. of butter, the yolks of 3 eggs.

_Mode_.--This is made in precisely the same manner as a savoury
casserole, only substituting the milk and sugar for the stock and salt.
Put the milk into a stewpan, with sufficient essence of bitter almonds
to flavour it well; then add the rice, which should be washed, picked,
and drained, and let it swell gradually in the milk over a slow fire.
When it is tender, stir in the sugar, butter, and yolks of eggs; butter
a mould, press in the rice, and proceed in exactly the same manner as in
recipe No. 1350. When the casserole is ready, fill it with a compote of
any fruit that may be preferred, or with melted apricot-jam, and serve.

_Time_.--From 3/4 to 1 hour to swell the rice, 1/2 to 3/4 hour to bake
the casserole.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the compote or jam, 1s. 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 2 casseroles.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

FRENCH RICE PUDDING, or GATEAU DE RIZ.

1352. INGREDIENTS.--To every 1/4 lb. of rice allow 1 quart of milk, the
rind of 1 lemon, 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, sugar to taste, 4 oz. of
butter, 6 eggs, bread crumbs.

_Mode_.--Put the milk into a stewpan with the lemon-rind, and let it
infuse for 1/2 hour, or until the former is well flavoured; then take
out the peel; have ready the rice washed, picked, and drained; put it
into the milk, and let it gradually swell over a very slow fire. Stir in
the butter, salt, and sugar, and when properly sweetened, add the yolks
of the eggs, and then the whites, both of which should be well beaten,
and added separately to the rice. Butter a mould, strew in some fine
bread crumbs, and let them be spread equally over it; then carefully
pour in the rice, and bake the pudding in a _slow_ oven for 1 hour. Turn
it out of the mould, and garnish the dish with preserved cherries, or
any bright-coloured jelly or jam. This pudding would be exceedingly
nice, flavoured with essence of vanilla.

_Time_.--3/4 to 1 hour for the rice to swell; to be baked 1 hour in a
slow oven.

_Average cost_, 1s. 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

BAKED OR BOILED GROUND RICE PUDDING.

1353. INGREDIENTS.--2 pints of milk, 6 tablespoonfuls of ground rice,
sugar to taste, 4 eggs, flavouring of lemon-rind, nutmeg, bitter almonds
or bay-leaf.

_Mode_.--Put 1-1/2 pint of the milk into a stewpan, with any of the
above flavourings, and bring it to the boiling-point, and, with the
other 1/2 pint of milk, mix the ground rice to a smooth batter; strain
the boiling milk to this, and stir over the fire until the mixture is
tolerably thick; then pour it into a basin, leave it uncovered, and when
nearly or quite cold, sweeten it to taste, and add the eggs, which
should be previously well beaten, with a little salt. Put the pudding
into a well-buttered basin, tie it down with a cloth, plunge it into
boiling water, and boil for 1-1/2 hour. For a baked pudding, proceed in
precisely the same manner, only using half the above proportion of
ground rice, with the same quantity of all the other ingredients: an
hour will bake the pudding in a moderate oven. Stewed fruit, or
preserves, or marmalade, may be served with either the boiled or baked
pudding, and will be found an improvement.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour to boil, 1 hour to bake. _Average cost_, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

ICED RICE PUDDING.

1354. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, 1/2 lb. of sugar,
the yolks of 6 eggs, 1 small teaspoonful of essence of vanilla.

_Mode_.--Put the rice into a stewpan, with the milk and sugar, and let
these simmer over a gentle fire until the rice is sufficiently soft to
break up into a smooth mass, and should the milk dry away too much, a
little more may be added. Stir the rice occasionally, to prevent its
burning, then beat it to a smooth mixture; add the yolks of the eggs,
which should be well whisked, and the vanilla (should this flavouring
not be liked, essence of bitter almonds may be substituted for it); put
this rice custard into the freezing-pot, and proceed as directed in
recipe No. 1290. When wanted for table, turn the pudding out of the
mould, and pour over the top, and round it, a _compote_ of oranges, or
any other fruit that may be preferred, taking care that the flavouring
in the pudding harmonizes well with the fruit that is served with it.

_Time_.--1/2 hour to freeze the mixture.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.; exclusive of the _compote_, 1s. 4d.

_Seasonable_.--Served all the year round.

MINIATURE RICE PUDDINGS.

1355. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of rice, 1-1/2 pint of milk, 2 oz. of fresh
butter, 4 eggs, sugar to taste; flavouring of lemon-peel, bitter
almonds, or vanilla; a few strips of candied peel.

_Mode_.--Let the rice swell in 1 pint of the milk over a slow fire,
putting with it a strip of lemon-peel; stir to it the butter and the
other 1/2 pint of milk, and let the mixture cool. Then add the
well-beaten eggs, and a few drops of essence of almonds or essence of
vanilla, whichever may be preferred; butter well some small cups or
moulds, line them with a few pieces of candied peel sliced very thin,
fill them three parts full, and bake for about 40 minutes; turn them out
of the cups on to a white d'oyley, and serve with sweet sauce. The
flavouring and candied peel might be omitted, and stewed fruit or
preserve served instead, with these puddings.

_Time_.--40 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 puddings. _Seasonable_ at any time.

ARROWROOT SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.

1356. INGREDIENTS.--2 small teaspoonfuls of arrowroot, 4
dessert-spoonfuls of pounded sugar, the juice of 1 lemon, 1/4
teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 1/2 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Mix the arrowroot smoothly with the water; put this into a
stewpan; add the sugar, strained lemon-juice, and grated nutmeg. Stir
these ingredients over the fire until they boil, when the sauce is ready
for use. A small quantity of wine, or any liqueur, would very much
improve the flavour of this sauce: it is usually served with bread,
rice, custard, or any dry pudding that is not very rich.

_Time_.--Altogether, 15 minutes.

_Average cost_, 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

CHERRY SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS.

(_German Recipe_.)

1357. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of cherries, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 oz.
of butter, 1/2 pint of water, 1 wineglassful of port wine, a little
grated lemon-rind, 4 pounded cloves, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice,
sugar to taste.

_Mode_.--Stone the cherries, and pound the kernels in a mortar to a
smooth paste; put the butter and flour into a saucepan; stir them over
the fire until of a pale brown; then add the cherries, the pounded
kernels, the wine, and the water. Simmer these gently for 1/4 hour, or
until the cherries are quite cooked, and rub the whole through a hair
sieve; add the remaining ingredients, let the sauce boil for another 5
minutes, and serve. This is a delicious sauce to serve with boiled
batter pudding, and when thus used, should be sent to table poured over
the pudding.

_Time_.--20 minutes to 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 1d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ in June, July, and August.

LEMON SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS.

1358. INGREDIENTS.--The rind and juice of 1 lemon, 1 tablespoonful of
flour, 1 oz. of butter, 1 large wineglassful of sherry, 1 wineglassful
of water, sugar to taste, the yolks of 4 eggs.

_Mode_.--Rub the rind of the lemon on to some lumps of sugar; squeeze
out the juice, and strain it; put the butter and flour into a saucepan,
stir them over the fire, and when of a pale brown, add the wine, water,
and strained lemon-juice. Crush the lumps of sugar that were rubbed on
the lemon; stir these into the sauce, which should be very sweet. When
these ingredients are well mixed, and the sugar is melted, put in the
beaten yolks of 4 eggs; keep stirring the sauce until it thickens, when
serve. Do not, on any account, allow it to boil, or it will curdle, and
be entirely spoiled.

_Time_.--Altogether, 15 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. 2d.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

SOYER'S SAUCE FOR PLUM-PUDDING.

1359. INGREDIENTS.--The yolks of 3 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of powdered
sugar, 1 gill of milk, a very little grated lemon-rind, 2 small
wineglassfuls of brandy.

_Mode_.--Separate the yolks from the whites of 3 eggs, and put the
former into a stewpan; add the sugar, milk, and grated lemon-rind, and
stir over the fire until the mixture thickens; but do _not_ allow it to
_boil_. Put in the brandy; let the sauce stand by the side of the fire,
to get quite hot; keep stirring it, and serve in a boat or tureen
separately, or pour it over the pudding.

_Time_.--Altogether, 10 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

SWEET SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.

1360. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter made with milk,
4 heaped teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar, flavouring; of grated
lemon-rind, or nutmeg, or cinnamon.

_Mode_.--Make 1/2 pint of melted butter by recipe No. 380, omitting the
salt; stir in the sugar, add a little grated lemon-rind, nutmeg, or
powdered cinnamon, and serve. Previously to making the melted butter,
the milk can be flavoured with bitter almonds, by infusing about half a
dozen of them in it for about 1/2 hour; the milk should then be strained
before it is added to the other ingredients. This simple sauce may be
served for children with rice, batter, or bread pudding.

_Time_.--Altogether, 15 minutes. _Average cost_, 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

VANILLA CUSTARD SAUCE, to serve with Puddings.

1361. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of milk, 2 eggs, 2 oz. of sugar, 10 drops
of essence of vanilla.

_Mode_.--Beat the eggs, sweeten the milk; stir these ingredients well
together, and flavour them with essence of vanilla, regulating the
proportion of this latter ingredient by the strength of the essence, the
size of the eggs, &c. Put the mixture into a small jug, place this jug
in a saucepan of boiling water, and stir the sauce _one way_ until it
thickens; but do not allow it to boil, or it will instantly curdle.
Serve in a boat or tureen separately, with plum, bread, or any kind of
dry pudding. Essence of bitter almonds or lemon-rind may be substituted
for the vanilla, when they are more in accordance with the flavouring of
the pudding with which the sauce is intended to be served.

_Time_.--To be stirred in the jug from 8 to 10 minutes.

_Average cost_, 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

AN EXCELLENT WINE SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.

1362. INGREDIENTS.--The yolks of 4 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 2 oz.
of pounded sugar, 2 oz. of fresh butter, 1/4 saltspoonful of salt, 1/2
pint of sherry or Madeira.

_Mode_.--Put the butter and flour into a saucepan, and stir them over
the fire until the former thickens; then add the sugar, salt, and wine,
and mix these ingredients well together. Separate the yolks from the
whites of 4 eggs; beat up the former, and stir them briskly to the
sauce; let it remain over the fire until it is on the point of
simmering; but do not allow it to boil, or it will instantly curdle.
This sauce is delicious with plum, marrow, or bread puddings; but should
be served separately, and not poured over the pudding.

_Time_.--From 5 to 7 minutes to thicken the butter; about 5 minutes to
stir the sauce over the fire.

_Average cost_, 1s. 10d.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

WINE OR BRANDY SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.

1363. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter No. 377, 3 heaped
teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar; 1 _large_ wineglassful of port or sherry,
or 3/4 of a _small_ glassful of brandy.

_Mode_.--Make 1/2 pint of melted butter by recipe No. 377, omitting the
salt; then stir in the sugar and wine or spirit in the above proportion,
and bring the sauce to the point of boiling. Serve in a boat or tureen
separately, and, if liked, pour a little of it over the pudding. To
convert this into punch sauce, add to the sherry and brandy a small
wineglassful of rum and the juice and grated rind of 1/2 lemon.
Liqueurs, such as Maraschino or Curacoa substituted for the brandy, make
excellent sauces.

_Time_.--Altogether, 15 minutes. _Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

WINE SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS.

1364. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of sherry, 1/4 pint of water, the yolks of
6 eggs, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, 1/2 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, a
few pieces of candied citron cut thin.

_Mode_.--Separate the yolks from the whites of 5 eggs; beat them, and
put them into a very clean saucepan (if at hand, a lined one is best);
add all the other ingredients, place them over a sharp fire, and keep
stirring until the sauce begins to thicken; then take it off and serve.
If it is allowed to boil, it will be spoiled, as it will immediately
curdle.

_Time_.--To be stirred over the fire 3 or 4 minutes; but it must not
boil.

_Average cost_, 2s.

_Sufficient_ for a large pudding; allow half this quantity for a
moderate-sized one.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

OPEN TART OF STRAWBERRY OR ANY OTHER KIND OF PRESERVE.

[Illustration: OPEN TART.]

[Illustration: OPEN-TART MOULD.]

1365. INGREDIENTS.--Trimmings of puff-paste, any kind of jam.

_Mode_.--Butter a tart-pan of the shape shown in the engraving, roll out
the paste to the thickness of 1/2 an inch, and line the pan with it;
prick a few holes at the bottom with a fork, and bake the tart in a
brisk oven from 10 to 15 minutes. Let the paste cool a little; then fill
it with preserve, place a few stars or leaves on it, which have been
previously cut out of the paste and baked, and the tart is ready for
table. By making it in this manner, both the flavour and colour of the
jam are preserved, which would otherwise be lost, were it baked in the
oven on the paste; and, besides, so much jam is not required.

_Time_.--10 to 15 minutes. _Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_.--1 tart for 3 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

STRAWBERRY.--The name of this favourite fruit is said to be derived from
an ancient custom of putting straw beneath the fruit when it began to
ripen, which is very useful to keep it moist and clean. The strawberry
belongs to temperate and rather cold climates; and no fruit of these
latitudes, that ripens without the aid of artificial heat, is at all
comparable with it in point of flavour. The strawberry is widely
diffused, being found in most parts of the world, particularly in Europe
and America.

QUICKLY-MADE PUDDINGS.

1366. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, 1/2 lb. of sifted sugar, 1/4 lb.
of flour, 1 pint of milk, 5 eggs, a little grated lemon-rind.

_Mode_.--Make the milk hot; stir in the butter, and let it cool before
the other ingredients are added to it; then stir in the sugar, flour,
and eggs, which should be well whisked, and omit the whites of 2;
flavour with a little grated lemon-rind, and beat the mixture well.
Butter some small cups, rather more than half fill them; bake from 20
minutes to 1/2 hour, according to the size of the puddings, and serve
with fruit, custard, or wine sauce, a little of which may be poured over
them.

_Time_.--20 minutes to 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 2d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 puddings. _Seasonable_ at any time.

SAGO PUDDING.

1367. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 pint of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of sago, the
rind of 1/2 lemon, 3 oz. of sugar, 4 eggs, 1-1/2 oz. of butter, grated
nutmeg, puff-paste.

_Mode_.--Put the milk and lemon-rind into a stewpan, place it by the
side of the fire, and let it remain until the milk is well flavoured
with the lemon; then strain it, mix with it the sago and sugar, and
simmer gently for about 15 minutes. Let the mixture cool a little, and
stir to it the eggs, which should be well beaten, and the butter. Line
the edges of a pie-dish with puff-paste, pour in the pudding, grate a
little nutmeg over the top, and bake from 3/4 to 1 hour.

_Time_.--3/4 to 1 hour, or longer if the oven is very slow.

_Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The above pudding may be boiled instead of baked; but then
allow 2 extra tablespoonfuls of sago, and boil the pudding in a buttered
basin from 1-1/4 to 1-3/4 hour.

SAGO.--Sago is the pith of a species of palm (_Cycas
circinalis_). Its form is that of a small round grain. There are
two sorts of sago,--the white and the yellow; but their
properties are the same. Sago absorbs the liquid in which it is
cooked, becomes transparent and soft, and retains its original
shape. Its alimentary properties are the same as those of
tapioca and arrowroot.

SAGO SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS.

1368. INGREDIENTS.--1 tablespoonful of sago, 1/3 pint of water, 1/4 pint
of port or sherry, the rind and juice of 1 small lemon, sugar to taste;
when the flavour is liked, a little pounded cinnamon.

_Mode_.--Wash the sago in two or three waters; then put it into a
saucepan, with the water and lemon-peel; let it simmer gently by the
side of the fire for 10 minutes; then take out the lemon-peel, add the
remaining ingredients, give one boil, and serve. Be particular to strain
the lemon-juice before adding it to the sauce. This, on trial, will be
found a delicious accompaniment to various boiled puddings, such as
those made of bread, raisins, rice, &c.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

BAKED SEMOLINA PUDDING.

1369. INGREDIENTS.--3 oz. of semolina, 1-1/2 pint of milk, 1/4 lb. of
sugar, 12 bitter almonds, 3 oz. of butter, 4 eggs.

_Mode_.--Flavour the milk with the bitter almonds, by infusing them in
it by the side of the fire for about 1/2 hour; then strain it, and mix
with it the semolina, sugar, and butter. Stir these ingredients over the
fire for a few minutes; then take them off, and gradually mix in the
eggs, which should be well beaten. Butter a pie-dish, line the edges
with puff-paste, put in the pudding, and bake in rather a slow oven from
40 to 50 minutes. Serve with custard sauce or stewed fruit, a little of
which may be poured over the pudding.

_Time_.--40 to 50 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. 2d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

SEMOLINA.--After vermicelli, semolina is the most useful
ingredient that can be used for thickening soups, meat or
vegetable, of rich or simple quality. Semolina is softening,
light, wholesome, easy of digestion, and adapted to the infant,
the aged, and the invalid. That of a clear yellow colour, well
dried and newly made, is the fittest for use.

TAPIOCA PUDDING.

1370. INGREDIENTS.--3 oz. of tapioca, 1 quart of milk, 2 oz. of butter,
1/4 lb. of sugar, 4 eggs, flavouring of vanilla, grated lemon-rind, or
bitter almonds.

_Mode_.--Wash the tapioca, and let it stew gently in the milk by the
side of the fire for 1/4 hour, occasionally stirring it; then let it
cool a little; mix with it the butter, sugar, and eggs, which should be
well beaten, and flavour with either of the above ingredients, putting
in about 12 drops of the essence of almonds or vanilla, whichever is
preferred. Butter a pie-dish, and line the edges with puff-paste; put in
the pudding, and bake in a moderate oven for an hour. If the pudding is
boiled, add a little more tapioca, and boil it in a buttered basin 1-1/2
hour.

_Time_.--1 hour to bake, 1-1/2 hour to boil.

_Average cost_, 1s. 2d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

TAPIOCA.--Tapioca is recommended to the convalescent, as being
easy of digestion. It may be used in soup or broth, or mixed
with milk or water, and butter. It is excellent food for either
the healthy or sick, for the reason that it is so quickly
digested without fatigue to the stomach.

TARTLETS.

1371. INGREDIENTS.--Trimmings of puff-paste, any jam or marmalade that
may be preferred.

[Illustration: DISH OF TARTLETS.]

_Mode_.--Roll out the paste to the thickness of about 1/2 inch; butter
some small round patty-pans, line them with it, and cut off the
superfluous paste close to the edge of the pan. Put a small piece of
bread into each tartlet (this is to keep them in shape), and bake in a
brisk oven for about 10 minutes, or rather longer. When they are done,
and are of a nice colour, take the pieces of bread out carefully, and
replace them by a spoonful of jam or marmalade. Dish them high on a
white d'oyley, piled high in the centre, and serve.

_Time_.--10 to 15 minutes. _Average cost_, 1d. each. _Sufficient_.--1
lb. of paste will make 2 dishes of tartlets. _Seasonable_ at any time.

ROLLED TREACLE PUDDING.

1372. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of suet crust No. 1215, 1 lb. of treacle, 1/2
teaspoonful of grated ginger.

_Mode_.--Make, with 1 lb. of flour, a suet crust by recipe No. 1215;
roll it out to the thickness of 1/2 inch, and spread the treacle equally
over it, leaving a small margin where the paste joins; close the ends
securely, tie the pudding in a floured cloth, plunge it into boiling
water, and boil for 2 hours. We have inserted this pudding, being
economical, and a favourite one with children; it is, of course, only
suitable for a nursery, or very plain family dinner. Made with a lard
instead of a suet crust, it would be very nice baked, and would be
sufficiently done in from 1-1/2 to 2 hours.

_Time_.--Boiled pudding, 2 hours; baked pudding, 1-1/2 to 2 hours.

_Average cost_, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

MEAT OR SAUSAGE ROLLS.

1373. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of puff-paste No. 1206, sausage-meat No. 837,
the yolk of 1 egg.

_Mode_.--Make 1 lb. of puff-paste by recipe No. 1206; roll it out to the
thickness of about 1/2 inch, or rather less, and divide it into 8, 10,
or 12 squares, according to the size the rolls are intended to be. Place
some sausage-meat on one-half of each square, wet the edges of the
paste, and fold it over the meat; slightly press the edges together, and
trim them neatly with a knife. Brush the rolls over with the yolk of an
egg, and bake them in a well-heated oven for about 1/2 hour, or longer
should they be very large. The remains of cold chicken and ham, minced
and seasoned, as also cold veal or beef, make very good rolls.

_Time_.--1/2 hour, or longer if the rolls are large.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_.--1 lb. of paste for 10 or 12 rolls.

_Seasonable_, with sausage-meat, from September to March or April.

SOMERSETSHIRE PUDDINGS.

1374. INGREDIENTS.--3 eggs, their weight in flour, pounded sugar and
butter, flavouring of grated lemon-rind, bitter almonds, or essence of
vanilla.

_Mode_.--Carefully weigh the various ingredients, by placing on one side
of the scales the eggs, and on the other the flour; then the sugar, and
then the butter. Warm the butter, and with the hands beat it to a cream;
gradually dredge in the flour and pounded sugar, and keep stirring and
beating the mixture without ceasing until it is perfectly smooth. Then
add the eggs, which should be well whisked, and either of the above
flavourings that may be preferred; butter some small cups, rather more
than half-fill them, and bake in a brisk oven for about 1/2 hour. Turn
them out, dish them on a napkin, and serve custard or wine-sauce with
them. A pretty little supper-dish may be made of these puddings cold, by
cutting out a portion of the inside with the point of a knife, and
putting into the cavity a little whipped cream or delicate preserve,
such as apricot, greengage, or very bright marmalade. The paste for
these puddings requires a great deal of mixing, as the more it is
beaten, the better will the puddings be. When served cold, they are
usually called _gateaux a la Madeleine_.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 puddings. _Seasonable_ at any time.

SUET PUDDING, to serve with Roast Meat.

1375. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of finely-chopped suet, 1/2
saltspoonful of salt, 1/2 saltspoonful of pepper, 1/2 pint of milk or
water.

_Mode_.--Chop the suet very finely, after freeing it from skin, and mix
it well with the flour; add the salt and pepper (this latter ingredient
may be omitted if the flavour is not liked), and make the whole into a
smooth paste with the above proportion of milk or water. Tie the pudding
in a floured cloth, or put it into a buttered basin, and boil from 2-1/2
to 3 hours. To enrich it, substitute 3 beaten eggs for some of the milk
or water, and increase the proportion of suet.

_Time_.--2-1/2 to 3 hours. _Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--When there is a joint roasting or baking, this pudding may be
boiled in a long shape, and then cut into slices a few minutes before
dinner is served: these slices should be laid in the dripping-pan for a
minute or two, and then browned before the fire. Most children like this
accompaniment to roast meat. Where there is a large family of children,
and the means of keeping them are limited, it is a most economical plan
to serve up the pudding before the meat: as, in this case, the
consumption of the latter article will be much smaller than it otherwise
would be.

SUSSEX, or HARD DUMPLINGS.

1376. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 1/2 pint of water, 1/2 saltspoonful
of salt.

_Mode_.--Mix the flour and water together to a smooth paste, previously
adding a small quantity of salt. Form this into small round dumplings;
drop them into boiling water, and boil from 1/2 to 3/4 hour. They may be
served with roast or boiled meat; in the latter case they may be cooked
with the meat, but should be dropped into the water when it is quite
boiling.

_Time_.--1/2 to 3/4 hour.

_Sufficient_ for 10 or 12 dumplings. _Seasonable_ at any time.

VERMICELLI PUDDING.

1377. INGREDIENTS.--4 oz. of vermicelli, 1-1/2 pint of milk, 1/2 pint of
cream, 3 oz. of butter, 3 oz. of sugar, 4 eggs.

_Mode_.--Boil the vermicelli in the milk until it is tender; then stir
in the remaining ingredients, omitting the cream, if not obtainable.
Flavour the mixture with grated lemon-rind, essence of bitter almonds,
or vanilla; butter a pie-dish; line the edges with puff-paste, put in
the pudding, and bake in a moderate oven for about 3/4 hour.

_Time_.--3/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 1s. 2d. without cream.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

VERMICELLI.--The finest vermicelli comes from Marseilles, Nimes, and
Montpellier. It is a nourishing food, and owes its name to its peculiar
thread-like form. Vermicelli means, little worms.

VICARAGE PUDDING.

1378. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of flour, 1/4 lb. of chopped suet, 1/4 lb.
of currants, 1/4 lb. of raisins, 1 tablespoonful of moist sugar, 1/2
teaspoonful of ground ginger, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a basin, having previously stoned
the raisins, and washed, picked, and dried the currants; mix well with a
clean knife; dip the pudding-cloth into boiling water, wring it out, and
put in the mixture. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, plunge in
the pudding, and boil for 3 hours. Turn it out on the dish, and serve
with sifted sugar.

_Time_.--3 hours.

_Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_.--Suitable for a winter pudding.

VOL-AU-VENT (an Entree).

1379. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 to 1 lb. of puff-paste No. 1208, fricasseed
chickens, rabbits, ragouts, or the remains of cold fish, flaked and
warmed in thick white sauce.

[Illustration: VOL-AU-VENT.]

_Mode_.--Make from 3/4 to 1 lb. of puff-paste, by recipe No. 1208,
taking care that it is very evenly rolled out each time, to insure its
rising properly; and if the paste is not extremely light, and put into a
good hot oven, this cannot be accomplished, and the _vol-au-vent_ will
look very badly. Roll out the paste to the thickness of about 1-1/2
inch, and, with a fluted cutter, stamp it out to the desired shape,
either round or oval, and, with the point of a small knife, make a
slight incision in the paste all round the top, about an inch from the
edge, which, when baked, forms the lid. Put the _vol-au-vent_ into a
good brisk oven, and keep the door shut for a few minutes after it is
put in. Particular attention should he paid to the heating of the oven,
for the paste _cannot_ rise without a tolerable degree of heat When of a
nice colour, without being scorched, withdraw it from the oven,
instantly remove the cover where it was marked, and detach all the soft
crumb from the centre: in doing this, be careful not to break the edges
of the _vol-au-vent_; but should they look thin in places, stop them
with small flakes of the inside paste, stuck on with the white of an
egg. This precaution is necessary to prevent the fricassee or ragout
from bursting the case, and so spoiling the appearance of the dish. Fill
the _vol-au-vent_ with a rich mince, or fricassee, or ragout, or the
remains of cold fish flaked and warmed in a good white sauce, and do not
make them very liquid, for fear of the gravy bursting the crust: replace
the lid, and serve. To improve the appearance of the crust, brush it
over with the yolk of an egg after it has risen properly.--See coloured
plate O1.

_Time_.--3/4 hour to bake the _vol-au-vent_.

_Average cost_, exclusive of interior, 1s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: SMALL VOL-AU-VENTS.]

_Note_.--Small _vol-au-vents_ may be made like those shown in the
engraving, and filled with minced veal, chicken, &c. They should be made
of the same paste as the larger ones, and stamped out with a small
fluted cutter.

SWEET VOL-AU-VENT OF PLUMS, APPLES, OR ANY OTHER FRESH FRUIT.

1380. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 lb. of puff-paste No. 1208, about 1 pint of
fruit compote.

_Mode_.--Make 1/2 lb. of puff-paste by recipe No. 1208, taking care to
bake it in a good brisk oven, to draw it up nicely and make it look
light. Have ready sufficient stewed fruit, the syrup of which must be
boiled down until very thick; fill the _vol-au-vent_ with this, and pile
it high in the centre; powder a little sugar over it, and put it back in
the oven to glaze, or use a salamander for the purpose: the
_vol-au-vent_ is then ready to serve. They may be made with any fruit
that is in season, such as rhubarb, oranges, gooseberries, currants,
cherries, apples, &c.; but care must be taken not to have the syrup too
thin, for fear of its breaking through the crust.

_Time_.--1/2 hour to 40 minutes to bake the _vol-au-vent_.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the compote, 1s. 1d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 entremets.

VOL-AU-VENT OF FRESH STRAWBERRIES WITH WHIPPED CREAM.

1381. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 lb. of puff-paste No. 1208, 1 pint of
freshly-gathered strawberries, sugar to taste, a plateful of whipped
cream.

_Mode_.--Make a _vol-au-vent_ case by recipe No. 1379, only not quite so
large nor so high as for a savoury one. When nearly done, brush the
paste over with the white of an egg, then sprinkle on it some pounded
sugar, and put it back in the oven to set the glaze. Remove the
interior, or soft crumb, and, at the moment of serving, fill it with the
strawberries, which should be picked, and broken up with sufficient
sugar to sweeten them nicely. Place a few spoonfuls of whipped cream on
the top, and serve.

_Time_.--1/2 hour to 40 minutes to bake the _vol-au-vent_.

_Average cost_, 2s. 3d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 _vol-au-vent_.

_Seasonable_ in June and July.

STRAWBERRY.--Among the Greeks, the name of the strawberry
indicated its tenuity, this fruit forming hardly a mouthful.
With the Latins, the name reminded one of the delicious perfume
of this plant. Both nations were equally fond of it, and applied
the same care to its cultivation. Virgil appears to place it in
the same rank with flowers; and Ovid gives it a tender epithet,
which delicate palates would not disavow. Neither does this
luxurious poet forget the wild strawberry, which disappears
beneath its modest foliage, but whose presence the scented air
reveals.

WEST-INDIAN PUDDING.

1382. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of cream, 1/2 lb. of loaf-sugar, 1/2 lb. of
Savoy or sponge-cakes, 8 eggs, 3 oz. of preserved green ginger.
_Mode_.--Crumble down the cakes, put them into a basin, and pour over
them the cream, which should be previously sweetened and brought to the
boiling-point; cover the basin, well beat the eggs, and when the cream
is soaked up, stir them in. Butter a mould, arrange the ginger round it,
pour in the pudding carefully, and tie it down with a cloth; steam or
boil it slowly for 1-1/2 hour, and serve with the syrup from the ginger,
which should be warmed, and poured over the pudding.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, with cream at 1s. per pint, 2s. 8d.

Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

YEAST DUMPLINGS.

1383. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 quartern of dough, boiling water.

Mode.--Make a very light dough as for bread, using to mix it, milk,
instead of water; divide it into 7 or 8 dumplings; plunge them into
boiling water, and boil them for 20 minutes. Serve the instant they are
taken up, as they spoil directly, by falling and becoming heavy; and in
eating them do not touch them with a knife, but tear them apart with two
forks. They may be eaten with meat gravy, or cold butter and sugar, and
if not convenient to make the dough at home, a little from the baker's
answers as well, only it must be placed for a few minutes near the fire,
in a basin with a cloth over it, to let it rise again before it is made
into dumplings.

_Time_.--20 minutes. _Average cost_, 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

YEAST consists principally of a substance very similar in
composition, and in many of its sensible properties, to gluten;
and, when new or fresh, it is inflated and rendered frothy by a
large quantity of carbonic acid. When mixed with wort, this
substance acts upon the saccharine matter; the temperature
rises, carbonic acid is disengaged, and the result is _ale_,
which always contains a considerable proportion of alcohol, or
spirit. The quantity of yeast employed in brewing ale being
small, the saccharine matter is but imperfectly decomposed:
hence a considerable portion of it remains in the liquor, and
gives it that viscid quality and body for which it is
remarkable. The fermenting property of yeast is weakened by
boiling for ten minutes, and is entirely destroyed by continuing
the boiling. Alcohol poured upon it likewise renders it inert;
on which account its power lessens as the alcohol is formed
during fermentation.

YORKSHIRE PUDDING, to serve with hot Roast Beef.

1384. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 pint of milk, 6 _large_ tablespoonfuls of
flour, 3 eggs, 1 saltspoonful of salt.

[Illustration: YORKSHIRE PUDDING.]

_Mode_.--Put the flour into a basin with the salt, and stir gradually to
this enough milk to make it into a stiff batter. When this is perfectly
smooth, and all the lumps are well rubbed down, add the remainder of the
milk and the eggs, which should be well beaten. Beat the mixture for a
few minutes, and pour it into a shallow tin, which has been previously
well rubbed with beef dripping. Put the pudding into the oven, and bake
it for an hour; then, for another 1/2 hour, place it under the meat, to
catch a little of the gravy that flows from it. Cut the pudding into
small square pieces, put them on a hot dish, and serve. If the meat is
baked, the pudding may at once be placed under it, resting the former on
a small three-cornered stand.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

CHAPTER XXVIII.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON CREAMS, JELLIES, SOUFFLES, OMELETS, & SWEET
DISHES.

1385. CREAMS.--The yellowish-white, opaque fluid, smooth and unctuous to
the touch, which separates itself from new milk, and forms a layer on
its surface, when removed by skimming, is employed in a variety of
culinary preparations. The analyses of the contents of cream have been
decided to be, in 100 parts--butter, 3.5; curd, or matter of cheese,
3.5; whey, 92.0. That cream contains an oil, is evinced by its staining
clothes in the manner of oil; and when boiled for some time, a little
oil floats upon the surface. The thick animal oil which it contains, the
well-known _butter_, is separated only by agitation, as in the common
process of _churning_, and the cheesy matter remains blended with the
whey in the state of _buttermilk_. Of the several kinds of cream, the
principal are the Devonshire and Dutch clotted creams, the Costorphin
cream, and the Scotch sour cream. The Devonshire cream is produced by
nearly boiling the milk in shallow tin vessels over a charcoal fire, and
kept in that state until the whole of the cream is thrown up. It is used
for eating with fruits and tarts. The cream from Costorphin, a village
of that name near Edinburgh, is accelerated in its separation from three
or four days' old milk, by a certain degree of heat; and the Dutch
clotted cream--a coagulated mass in which a spoon will stand upright--is
manufactured from fresh-drawn milk, which is put into a pan, and stirred
with a spoon two or three times a day, to prevent the cream from
separating from the milk. The Scotch "sour cream" is a misnomer; for it
is a material produced without cream. A small tub filled with skimmed
milk is put into a larger one, containing hot water, and after remaining
there all night, the thin milk (called _wigg_) is drawn off, and the
remainder of the contents of the smaller vessel is "sour cream."

1386. JELLIES are not the nourishing food they were at one time
considered to be, and many eminent physicians are of opinion that they
are less digestible than the flesh, or muscular part of animals; still,
when acidulated with lemon-juice and flavoured with wine, they are very
suitable for some convalescents. Vegetable jelly is a distinct
principle, existing in fruits, which possesses the property of
gelatinizing when boiled and cooled; but it is a principle entirely
different from the gelatine of animal bodies, although the name of
jelly, common to both, sometimes leads to an erroneous idea on that
subject. Animal jelly, or gelatine, is glue, whereas vegetable jelly is
rather analogous to gum. Liebig places gelatine very low indeed in the
scale of usefulness. He says, "Gelatine, which by itself is tasteless,
and when eaten, excites nausea, possesses no nutritive value; that, even
when accompanied by the savoury constituents of flesh, it is not capable
of supporting the vital process, and when added to the usual diet as a
substitute for plastic matter, does not increase, but, on the contrary,
diminishes the nutritive value of the food, which it renders
insufficient in quantity and inferior in quality." It is this substance
which is most frequently employed in the manufacture of the jellies
supplied by the confectioner; but those prepared at home from calves'
feet do possess some nutrition, and are the only sort that should be
given to invalids. Isinglass is the purest variety of gelatine, and is
prepared from the sounds or swimming-bladders of certain fish, chiefly
the sturgeon. From its whiteness it is mostly used for making
blanc-mange and similar dishes.

1387. THE WHITE OF EGGS is perhaps the best substance that can be
employed in clarifying jelly, as well as some other fluids, for the
reason that when albumen (and the white of eggs is nearly pure albumen)
is put into a liquid that is muddy, from substances suspended in it, on
boiling the liquid, the albumen coagulates in a flocculent manner, and,
entangling with it the impurities, rises with them to the surface as a
scum, or sinks to the bottom, according to their weight.

1388. SOUFFLES, OMELETS, AND SWEET DISHES, in which eggs form the
principal ingredient, demand, for their successful manufacture, an
experienced cook. They are the prettiest, but most difficult of all
entremets. The most essential thing to insure success is to secure the
best ingredients from an honest tradesman. The entremets coming within
the above classification, are healthy, nourishing, and pleasant to the
taste, and may be eaten with safety by persons of the most delicate
stomachs.

RECIPES.

CHAPTER XXIX.

BAKED APPLE CUSTARD.

1389. INGREDIENTS.--1 dozen large apples, moist sugar to taste, 1 small
teacupful of cold water, the grated rind of one lemon, 1 pint of milk, 4
eggs, 2 oz. of loaf sugar.

_Mode_.--Peel, cut, and core the apples; put them into a lined saucepan
with the cold water, and as they heat, bruise them to a pulp; sweeten
with moist sugar, and add the grated lemon-rind. When cold, put the
fruit at the bottom of a pie-dish, and pour over it a custard, made with
the above proportion of milk, eggs, and sugar; grate a little nutmeg
over the top, place the dish in a moderate oven, and bake from 25 to 35
minutes. The above proportions will make rather a large dish.

_Time_.--25 to 35 minutes.

_Average cost_, 1s. 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ from July to March.

BUTTERED APPLES (Sweet Entremets).

1390. INGREDIENTS.--Apple marmalade No. 1395, 6 or 7 good boiling
apples, 1/2 pint of water, 6 oz. of sugar, 2 oz. of butter, a little
apricot jam.

_Mode_.--Pare the apples, and take out the cores without dividing them;
boil up the sugar and water for a few minutes; then lay in the apples,
and simmer them very gently until tender, taking care not to let them
break. Have ready sufficient marmalade made by recipe No. 1395, and
flavoured with lemon, to cover the bottom of the dish; arrange the
apples on this with a piece of butter placed in each, and in between
them a few spoonfuls of apricot jam or marmalade; place the dish in the
oven for 10 minutes, then sprinkle over the top sifted sugar; either
brown it before the fire or with a salamander, and serve hot.

_Time_.--From 20 to 30 minutes to stew the apples very gently, 10
minutes in the oven.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 entremets.

_Note_.--The syrup that the apples were boiled in should be saved for
another occasion.

FLANC OF APPLES, or APPLES IN A RAISED CRUST.

_(Sweet Entremets.)_

1391. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 lb. of short crust No. 1211 or 1212, 9
moderate-sized apples, the rind and juice of 1/2 lemon, 1/2 lb. of white
sugar, 3/4 pint of water, a few strips of candied citron.

_Mode_.--Make a short crust by either of the above recipes; roll it out
to the thickness of 1/2 inch, and butter an oval mould; line it with the
crust, and press it carefully all round the sides, to obtain the form of
the mould, but be particular not to break the paste. Pinch the part that
just rises above the mould with the paste-pincers, and fill the case
with flour; bake it for about 3/4 hour; then take it out of the oven,
remove the flour, put the case back in the oven for another 1/4 hour,
and do not allow it to get scorched. It is now ready for the apples,
which should be prepared in the following manner: peel, and take out the
cores with a small knife, or a cutter for the purpose, without dividing
the apples; put them into a small lined saucepan, just capable of
holding them, with sugar, water, lemon juice and rind, in the above
proportion. Let them simmer very gently until tender; then take out the
apples, let them cool, arrange them in the flanc or case, and boil down
the syrup until reduced to a thick jelly; pour it over the apples, and
garnish them with a few slices of candied citron.

1392. A MORE SIMPLE FLANC may be made by rolling out the paste, cutting
the bottom of a round or oval shape, and then a narrow strip for the
sides: these should be stuck on with the white of an egg, to the bottom
piece, and the flanc then filled with raw fruit, with sufficient sugar
to sweeten it nicely. It will not require so long baking as in a mould;
but the crust must be made everywhere of an equal thickness, and so
perfectly joined, that the juice does not escape. This dish may also be
served hot, and should be garnished in the same manner, or a little
melted apricot jam may be poured over the apples, which very much
improves their flavour.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1 hour to bake the flanc from 30 to 40 minutes to
stew the apples very gently.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 entremets or side-dish.

_Seasonable_ from July to March.

APPLE FRITTERS.

1393. INGREDIENTS.--For the batter, 1/2 lb. of flour, 1/2 oz. of butter,
1/2 saltspoonful of salt, 2 eggs, milk, apples, hot lard or clarified
beef-dripping.

_Mode_.--Break the eggs; separate the whites from the yolks, and beat
them separately. Put the flour into a basin, stir in the butter, which
should be melted to a cream; add the salt, and moisten with sufficient
warm milk to make it of a proper consistency, that is to say, a batter
that will drop from the spoon. Stir this well, rub down any lumps that
may be seen, and add the whites of the eggs, which have been previously
well whisked; beat up the batter for a few minutes, and it is ready for
use. Now peel and cut the apples into rather thick whole slices, without
dividing them, and stamp out the middle of each slice, where the core
is, with a cutter. Throw the slices into the batter; have ready a pan of
boiling lard or clarified dripping; take out the pieces of apple one by
one, put them into the hot lard, and fry a nice brown, turning
them--when required. When done, lay them on a piece of blotting-paper
before the fire, to absorb the greasy moisture; then dish on a white
d'oyley, piled one above the other; strew over them some pounded sugar,
and serve very hot. The flavour of the fritters would be very much
improved by soaking the pieces of apple in a little wine, mixed with
sugar and lemon-juice, for 3 or 4 hours before wanted for table; the
batter, also, is better for being mixed some hours before the fritters
are made.

_Time_.--About 10 minutes to fry them; 5 minutes to drain them.

_Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from July to March.

ICED APPLES, or APPLE HEDGEHOG.

1394. INGREDIENTS.--About 3 dozen good boiling apples, 1/2 lb. of sugar,
1/2 pint of water, the rind of 1/2 lemon minced very fine, the whites of
2 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of pounded sugar, a few sweet almonds.

_Mode_.--Peel and core a dozen of the apples without dividing them, and
stew them very gently in a lined saucepan with 1/2 lb. of sugar and 1/2
pint of water, and when tender, lift them carefully on to a dish. Have
ready the remainder of the apples pared, cored, and cut into thin
slices; put them into the same syrup with the lemon-peel, and boil
gently until they are reduced to a marmalade: they must be kept stirred,
to prevent them from burning. Cover the bottom of a dish with some of
the marmalade, and over that a layer of the stewed apples, in the
insides of which, and between each, place some of the marmalade; then
place another layer of apples, and fill up the cavities with marmalade
as before, forming the whole into a raised oval shape. Whip the whites
of the eggs to a stiff froth, mix with them the pounded sugar, and cover
the apples very smoothly all over with the icing; blanch and cut each
almond into 4 or 5 strips; place these strips at equal distances over
the icing sticking up; strew over a little rough pounded sugar, and
place the dish in a very slow oven, to colour the almonds, and for the
apples to get warm through. This entremets may also be served cold, and
makes a pretty supper-dish.

_Time_.--From 20 to 30 minutes to stew the apples.

_Average cost_, 1s. 9d. to 2s.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ from July to March.

THICK APPLE JELLY OR MARMALADE, for Entremets or Dessert Dishes.

1395. INGREDIENTS.--Apples; to every lb. of pulp allow 3/4 lb. of sugar,
1/2 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel.

[Illustration: APPLE JELLY STUCK WITH ALMONDS.]

_Mode_.--Peel, core, and boil the apples with only sufficient water to
prevent them from burning; beat them to a pulp, and to every lb. of pulp
allow the above proportion of sugar in lumps. Dip the lumps into water;
put these into a saucepan, and boil till the syrup is thick and can be
well skimmed; then add this syrup to the apple pulp, with the minced
lemon-peel, and stir it over a quick fire for about 20 minutes, or until
the apples cease to stick to the bottom of the pan. The jelly is then
done, and may be poured into moulds which have been previously dipped in
water, when it will turn out nicely for dessert or a side-dish; for the
latter a little custard should be poured round, and it should be
garnished with strips of citron or stuck with blanched almonds.

_Time_.--From 1/2 to 3/4 hour to reduce the apples to a pulp; 20 minutes
to boil after the sugar is added.

_Sufficient._--1-1/2 lb. of apples sufficient for a small mould.

_Seasonable_ from July to March; but is best in September, October or
November.

CLEAR APPLE JELLY.

1396. INGREDIENTS.--2 dozen apples, 1-1/2 pint of spring-water; to every
pint of juice allow 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar, 1/2 oz. of isinglass, the
rind of 1/2 lemon.

_Mode_.--Pare, core, and cut the apples into quarters, and boil them,
with the lemon-peel, until tender; then strain off the apples, and run
the juice through a jelly-bag; put the strained juice, with the sugar
and isinglass, which has been previously boiled in 1/2 pint of water,
into a lined saucepan or preserving-pan; boil all together for about 1/4
hour, and put the jelly into moulds. When this jelly is nice and clear,
and turned out well, it makes a pretty addition to the supper-table,
with a little custard or whipped cream round it: the addition of a
little lemon-juice improves the flavour, but it is apt to render the
jelly muddy and thick. If required to be kept any length of time, rather
a larger proportion of sugar must be used.

_Time_.--From 1 to 1-1/2 hour to boil the apples; 1/4 hour the jelly.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for a 1-1/2-pint mould.

_Seasonable_ from July to March.

A PRETTY DISH OF APPLES AND RICE.

1397. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, the rind of 1/2
lemon, sugar to taste, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, 8 apples, 1/4 lb. of
sugar, 1/4 pint of water, 1/2 pint of boiled custard No. 1423.

_Mode_.--Flavour the milk with lemon-rind, by boiling them together for
a few minutes; then take out the peel, and put in the rice, with
sufficient sugar to sweeten it nicely, and boil gently until the rice is
quite soft; then let it cool. In the mean time pare, quarter, and core
the apples, and boil them until tender in a syrup made with sugar and
water in the above proportion; and, when soft, lift them out on a sieve
to drain. Now put a middling-sized gallipot in the centre of a dish; lay
the rice all round till the top of the gallipot is reached; smooth the
rice with the back of a spoon, and stick the apples into it in rows, one
row sloping to the right and the next to the left. Set it in the oven to
colour the apples; then, when required for table, remove the gallipot,
garnish the rice with preserved fruits, and pour in the middle
sufficient custard, made by recipe No. 1423, to be level with the top of
the rice, and serve hot.

_Time_.--From 20 to 30 minutes to stew the apples; 3/4 hour to simmer
the rice; 1/4 hour to bake.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ from July to March.

APPLES A LA PORTUGAISE.

1398. INGREDIENTS.--8 good boiling apples, 1/2 pint of water, 6 oz. of
sugar, a layer of apple marmalade No. 1395, 8 preserved cherries,
garnishing of apricot jam.

_Mode_.--Peel the apples, and, with a vegetable-cutter, push out the
cores; boil them in the above proportion of sugar and water, without
being too much done, and take care they do not break. Have ready a white
apple marmalade, made by recipe No. 1395; cover the bottom of the dish
with this, level it, and lay the apples in a sieve to drain, pile them
neatly on the marmalade, making them high in the centre, and place a
preserved cherry in the middle of each. Garnish with strips of candied
citron or apricot jam, and the dish is ready for table.

_Time_.--From 20 to SO minutes to stew the apples.

_Average cost_, 1s. 3d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 entremets.

_Seasonable_ from July to March.

APPLES IN RED JELLY.

(_A pretty Supper Dish_.)

1399. INGREDIENTS.--6 good-sized apples, 12 cloves, pounded sugar, 1
lemon, 2 teacupfuls of water, 1 tablespoonful of gelatine, a few drops
of prepared cochineal.

_Mode_.--Choose rather large apples; peel them and take out the cores,
either with a scoop or a small silver knife, and put into each apple 2
cloves and as much sifted sugar as they will hold. Place them, without
touching each other, in a large pie-dish; add more white sugar, the
juice of 1 lemon, and 2 teacupfuls of water. Bake in the oven, with a
dish over them, until they are done. Look at them frequently, and, as
each apple is cooked, place it in a glass dish. They must not be left in
the oven after they are done, or they will break, and so would spoil the
appearance of the dish. When the apples are neatly arranged in the dish
without touching each other, strain the liquor in which they have been
stewing, into a lined saucepan; add to it the rind of the lemon, and a
tablespoonful of gelatine which has been previously dissolved in cold
water, and, if not sweet, a little more sugar, and 6 cloves. Boil till
quite clear; colour with a few drops of prepared cochineal, and strain
the jelly through a double muslin into a jug; let it cool _a little_;
then pour it into the dish round the apples. When quite cold, garnish
the tops of the apples with a bright-coloured marmalade, a jelly, or the
white of an egg, beaten to a strong froth, with a little sifted sugar.

_Time_.--From 30 to 50 minutes to bake the apples.

_Average cost_, 1s., with the garnishing.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from July to March.

APPLES AND RICE.

_(A Plain Dish.)_

1400. INGREDIENTS.--8 good sized apples, 3 oz. of butter, the rind of
1/2 lemon minced very fine, 6 oz. of rice, 1-1/2 pint of milk, sugar to
taste, 1/2 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 6 tablespoonfuls of apricot
jam.

_Mode_.--Peel the apples, halve them, and take out the cores; put them
into a stewpan with the butter, and strew sufficient sifted sugar over
to sweeten them nicely, and add the minced lemon-peel. Stew the apples
very gently until tender, taking care they do not break. Boil the rice,
with the milk, sugar, and nutmeg, until soft, and, when thoroughly done,
dish it, piled high in the centre; arrange the apples on it, warm the
apricot jam, pour it over the whole, and serve hot.

_Time_.--About 30 minutes to stew the apples very gently; about 3/4 hour
to cook the rice.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ from July to March.

APPLE SNOW.

(_A pretty Supper Dish_.)

1401. INGREDIENTS.--10 good-sized apples, the whites of 10 eggs, the
rind of 1 lemon, 1/2 lb. of pounded sugar.

_Mode_.--Peel, core, and cut the apples into quarters, and put them into
a saucepan with the lemon-peel and sufficient water to prevent them from
burning,--rather less than 1/2 pint. When they are tender, take out the
peel, beat them to a pulp, let them cool, and stir them to the whites of
the eggs, which should be previously beaten to a strong froth. Add the
sifted sugar, and continue the whisking until the mixture becomes quite
stiff; and either heap it on a glass dish, or serve it in small glasses.
The dish may be garnished with preserved barberries, or strips of
bright-coloured jelly; and a dish of custards should be served with it,
or a jug of cream.

_Time_.--From 30 to 40 minutes to stew the apples.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ to fill a moderate-sized glass dish.

_Seasonable_ from July to March.

APPLE SOUFFLE.

1402. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, the rind of 1/2
lemon, sugar to taste, the yolks of 4 eggs, the whites of 6, 1-1/2 oz.
of butter, 4 tablespoonfuls of apple marmalade No. 1395.

_Mode_.--Boil the milk with the lemon-peel until the former is well
flavoured; then strain it, put in the rice, and let it gradually swell
over a slow fire, adding sufficient sugar to sweeten it nicely. Then
crush the rice to a smooth pulp with the back of a wooden spoon; line
the bottom and sides of a round cake-tin with it, and put it into the
oven to set; turn it out of the tin carefully, and be careful that the
border of rice is firm in every part. Mix with the marmalade the beaten
yolks of eggs and the butter, and stir these over the fire until the
mixture thickens. Take it off the fire; to this add the whites of the
eggs, which should be previously beaten to a strong froth; stir all
together, and put it into the rice border. Bake in a moderate oven for
about 1/2 hour, or until the souffle rises very light. It should be
watched, and served instantly, or it will immediately fall after it is
taken from the oven.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from July to March.

STEWED APPLES AND CUSTARD.

(_A pretty Dish for a Juvenile Supper_.)

1403. INGREDIENTS.--7 good-sized apples, the rind of 1/2 lemon or 4
cloves, 1/2 lb. of sugar, 3/4 pint of water, 1/2 pint of custard No.
1423.

_Mode_.--Pare and take out the cores of the apples, without dividing
them, and, if possible, leave the stalks on; boil the sugar and water
together for 10 minutes; then put in the apples with the lemon-rind or
cloves, whichever flavour may be preferred, and simmer gently until they
are tender, taking care not to let them break. Dish them neatly on a
glass dish, reduce the syrup by boiling it quickly for a few minutes,
let it cool a little; then pour it over the apples. Have ready quite 1/2
pint of custard made by recipe No. 1423; pour it round, but not over,
the apples when they are quite cold, and the dish is ready for table. A
few almonds blanched and cut into strips, and stuck in the apples, would
improve their appearance.--See coloured plate Q1.

_Time_.--From 20 to 30 minutes to stew the apples.

_Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ to fill a large glass dish.

_Seasonable_ from July to March.

APPLE TRIFLE.

(_A Supper Dish_.)

1404. INGREDIENTS.--10 good-sized apples, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 6 oz.
of pounded sugar, 1/2 pint of milk, 1/2 pint of cream, 2 eggs, whipped
cream.

_Mode_.--Peel, core, and cut the apples into thin slices, and put them
into a saucepan with 2 tablespoonfuls of water, the sugar, and minced
lemon-rind. Boil all together until quite tender, and pulp the apples
through a sieve; if they should not be quite sweet enough, add a little
more sugar, and put them at the bottom of the dish to form a thick
layer. Stir together the milk, cream, and eggs, with a little sugar,
over the fire, and let the mixture thicken, but do not allow it to reach
the boiling-point. When thick, take it off the fire; let it cool a
little, then pour it over the apples. Whip some cream with sugar,
lemon-peel, &c., the same as for other trifles; heap it high over the
custard, and the dish is ready for table. It may be garnished as fancy
dictates, with strips of bright apple jelly, slices of citron, &c.

_Time_.--From 30 to 40 minutes to stew the apples; 10 minutes to stir
the custard over the fire.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized trifle.

_Seasonable_ from July to March.

APRICOT CREAM.

1405. INGREDIENTS.--12 to 16 ripe apricots, 1/4 lb. of sugar, 1-1/2 pint
of milk, the yolks of 8 eggs, 1 oz. of isinglass.

_Mode_.--Divide the apricots, take out the stones, and boil them in a
syrup made with 1/4 lb. of sugar and 1/4 pint of water, until they form
a thin marmalade, which rub through a sieve. Boil the milk with the
other 1/4 lb. of sugar, let it cool a little, then mix with it the yolks
of eggs which have been previously well beaten; put this mixture into a
jug, place this jug in boiling water, and stir it one way over the fire
until it thickens; but on no account let it boil. Strain through a
sieve, add the isinglass, previously boiled with a small quantity of
water, and keep stirring it till nearly cold; then mix the cream with
the apricots; stir well, put it into an oiled mould, and, if convenient,
set it on ice; at any rate, in a very cool place. It should turn out on
the dish without any difficulty.

_Time_.--From 20 to 30 minutes to boil the apricots.

_Average cost_, 3s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ to fill a quart mould.

_Seasonable_ in August, September, and October.

_Note_.--In winter-time, when fresh apricots are not obtainable, a
little jam may be substituted for them.

FLANC OF APRICOTS, or Compote of Apricots in a Raised Crust.

_(Sweet Entremets.)_

1406. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 lb. of short crust No. 1212, from 9 to 12
good-sized apricots, 3/4 pint of water, 1/2 lb. of sugar.

_Mode_.--Make a short crust by recipe No. 1212, and line a mould with it
as directed in recipe No. 1391. Boil the sugar and water together for 10
minutes; halve the apricots, take out the stones, and simmer them in the
syrup until tender; watch them carefully, and take them up the moment
they are done, for fear they break. Arrange them neatly in the flanc or
case; boil the syrup until reduced to a jelly, pour it over the fruit,
and serve either hot or cold. Greengages, plums of all kinds, peaches,
&c., may be done in the same manner, as also currants, raspberries,
gooseberries, strawberries, &c.; but with the last-named fruits, a
little currant-juice added to them will be found an improvement.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1 hour to bake the flanc, about 10 minutes to
simmer the apricots.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 entremets or side-dish.

_Seasonable_ in July, August, and September.

ARROWROOT BLANC-MANGE.

(_An inexpensive Supper Dish_.)

1407. INGREDIENTS.--4 heaped tablespoonfuls of arrowroot, 1-1/2 pint of
milk, 3 laurel-leaves or the rind of 1/2 lemon, sugar to taste.

_Mode_.--Mix to a smooth batter the arrowroot with 1/2 pint of the milk;
put the other pint on the fire, with laurel-leaves or lemon-peel,
whichever may be preferred, and let the milk steep until it is well
flavoured. Then strain the milk, and add it, boiling, to the mixed
arrowroot; sweeten it with sifted sugar, and let it boil, stirring it
all the time, till it thickens sufficiently to come from the saucepan.
Grease a mould with pure salad-oil, pour in the blanc-mange, and when
quite set, turn it out on a dish, and pour round it a compote of any
kind of fruit, or garnish it with jam. A tablespoonful of brandy,
stirred in just before the blanc-mange is moulded, very much improves
the flavour of this sweet dish.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 6d. without the garnishing.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BLANC-MANGE.

(_A Supper Dish_.)

1408. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of new milk, 1-1/4 oz. of isinglass, the rind
of 1/2 lemon, 1/4 lb. of loaf sugar, 10 bitter almonds, 1/2 oz. of sweet
almonds, 1 pint of cream.

[Illustration: BLANC-MANGE MOULD.]

_Mode_.--Put the milk into a saucepan, with the isinglass, lemon-rind,
and sugar, and let these ingredients stand by the side of the fire until
the milk is well flavoured; add the almonds, which should be blanched
and pounded in a mortar to a paste, and let the milk just boil up;
strain it through a fine sieve or muslin into a jug, add the cream, and
stir the mixture occasionally until nearly cold. Let it stand for a few
minutes, then pour it into the mould, which should be previously oiled
with the purest salad-oil, or dipped in cold water. There will be a
sediment at the bottom of the jug, which must not be poured into the
mould, as, when turned out, it would very much disfigure the appearance
of the blanc-mange. This blanc-mange may be made very much richer by
using 1-1/2 pint of cream, and melting the isinglass in 1/2 pint of
boiling water. The flavour may also be very much varied by adding
bay-leaves, laurel-leaves, or essence of vanilla, instead of the
lemon-rind and almonds. Noyeau, Maraschino, Curacoa, or any favourite
liqueur, added in small proportions, very much enhances the flavour of
this always favourite dish. In turning it out, just loosen the edges of
the blanc-mange from the mould, place a dish on it, and turn it quickly
over; it should come out easily, and the blanc-mange have a smooth
glossy appearance when the mould is oiled, which it frequently has not
when it is only dipped in water. It may be garnished as fancy dictates.

_Time_.--About 1-1/2 hour to steep the lemon-rind and almonds in the
milk.

_Average cost_, with cream at 1s. per pint, 3s. 3d.

_Sufficient_ to fill a quart mould. _Seasonable_ at any time.

CHEAP BLANC-MANGE.

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