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The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

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_Mode_.--Pick the stalks from the cherries, put them, with the sugar,
into a _deep_ pie-dish just capable of holding them, with a small cup
placed upside down in the midst of them. Make a short crust with 1/2 lb.
of flour, by either of the recipes 1210 or 1211; lay a border round the
edge of the dish; put on the cover, and ornament the edges; bake in a
brisk oven from 1/2 hour to 40 minutes; strew finely-sifted sugar over,
and serve hot or cold, although the latter is the more usual mode. It is
more economical to make two or three tarts at one time, as the trimmings
from one tart answer for lining the edges of the dish for another, and
so much paste is not required as when they are made singly. Unless for
family use, never make fruit pies in very _large_ dishes; select them,
however, as deep as possible.

_Time_.--1/2 hour to 40 minutes.

_Average cost_, in full season, 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ in June, July, and August.

_Note_.--A few currants added to the cherries will be found to impart a
nice piquant taste to them.

[Illustration: CHERRY.]

CHERRIES.--According to Lucullus, the cherry-tree was known in
Asia in the year of Rome 680. Seventy different species of
cherries, wild and cultivated, exist, which are distinguishable
from each other by the difference of their form, size, and
colour. The French distil from cherries a liqueur Darned
_kirsch-waser_ (_eau de cerises_); the Italians prepare, from a
cherry called marusca, the liqueur named _marasquin_, sweeter
and more agreeable than the former. The most wholesome cherries
have a tender and delicate skin; those with a hard skin should
be very carefully masticated. Sweetmeats, syrups, tarts,
entremets, &c., of cherries, are universally approved.

COLD PUDDING.

1262. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 1 pint of milk, sugar to taste, a little
grated lemon-rind, 2 oz. of raisins, 4 tablespoonfuls of marmalade, a
few slices of sponge cake.

_Mode_.--Sweeten the milk with lump sugar, add a little grated
lemon-rind, and stir to this the eggs, which should be well whisked;
line a buttered mould with the raisins, stoned and cut in half; spread
the slices of cake with the marmalade, and place them in the mould; then
pour in the custard, tie the pudding down with paper and a cloth, and
boil gently for 1 hour: when cold, turn it out, and serve.

_Time_.--1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 1d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

COLLEGE PUDDINGS.

1263. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of bread crumbs, 6 oz. of finely-chopped
suet, 1/4 lb. of currants, a few thin slices of candied peel, 3 oz. of
sugar, 1/4 nutmeg, 3 eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

_Mode_.--Put the bread crumbs into a basin; add the suet, currants,
candied peel, sugar, and nutmeg, grated, and stir these ingredients
until they are thoroughly mixed. Beat up the eggs, moisten the pudding
with these, and put in the brandy; beat well for a few minutes, then
form the mixture into round balls or egg-shaped pieces; fry these in hot
butter or lard, letting them stew in it until thoroughly done, and turn
them two or three times, till of a fine light brown; drain them on a
piece of blotting-paper before the fire; dish, and serve with wine
sauce.

_Time_.--15 to 20 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 puddings. _Seasonable_ at any time.

CURRANT DUMPLINGS.

1264. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of suet, 1/2 lb. of currants,
rather more than 1/2 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Chop the suet finely, mix it with the flour, and add the
currants, which should be nicely washed, picked, and dried; mix the
whole to a limp paste with the water (if wanted very nice, use milk);
divide it into 7 or 8 dumplings; tie them in cloths, and boil for 1-1/4
hour. They may be boiled without a cloth: they should then be made into
round balls, and dropped into boiling water, and should be moved about
at first, to prevent them from sticking to the bottom of the saucepan.
Serve with a cut lemon, cold butter, and sifted sugar.

_Time_.--In a cloth, 1-1/4 hour; without, 3/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 9 d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: ZANTE CURRANTS.]

ZANTE CURRANTS.--The dried fruit which goes by the name of
currants in grocers' shops is not a currant really, but a small
kind of grape, chiefly cultivated in the Morea and the Ionian
Islands, Corfu, Zante, &c. Those of Zante are cultivated in an
immense plain, under the shelter of mountains, on the shore of
the island, where the sun has great power, and brings them to
maturity. When gathered and dried by the sun and air, on mats,
they are conveyed to magazines, heaped together, and left to
cake, until ready for shipping. They are then dug out by iron
crowbars, trodden into casks, and exported. The fertile vale of
"Zante the woody" produces about 9,000,000 lbs. of currants
annually. In cakes and puddings this delicious little grape is
most extensively used; in fact, we could not make a plum pudding
without the currant.

BOILED CURRANT PUDDING.

(_Plain and Economical_.)

1265. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 1/2 lb. of suet, 1/2 lb. of
currants, milk.

_Mode_.--Wash the currants, dry them thoroughly, and pick away any
stalks or grit; chop the suet finely; mix all the ingredients together,
and moisten with sufficient milk to make the pudding into a stiff
batter; tie it up in a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and
boil for 3-1/2 hours; serve with a cut lemon, cold butter, and sifted
sugar.

_Time_.--3-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

BLACK or RED CURRANT PUDDING.

1266. INGREDIENTS.--1 quart of red or black currants, measured with the
stalks, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, suet crust No. 1215, or butter crust No.
1213.

_Mode_.--Make, with 3/4 lb. of flour, either a suet crust or butter
crust (the former is usually made); butter a basin, and line it with
part of the crust; put in the currants, which should be stripped from
the stalks, and sprinkle the sugar over them; put the cover of the
pudding on; make the edges very secure, that the juice does not escape;
tie it down with a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil
from 2-1/2 to 3 hours. Boiled without a basin, allow 1/2 hour less. We
have allowed rather a large proportion of sugar; but we find fruit
puddings are so much more juicy and palatable when _well sweetened_
before they are boiled, besides being more economical. A few raspberries
added to red-currant pudding are a very nice addition: about 1/2 pint
would be sufficient for the above quantity of fruit. Fruit puddings are
very delicious if, when they are turned out of the basin, the crust is
browned with a salamander, or put into a very hot oven for a few minutes
to colour it: this makes it crisp on the surface.

_Time_.--2-1/2 to 3 hours; without a basin, 2 to 2-1/2 hours.

_Average cost_, in full season, 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ in June, July, and August.

[Illustration: CURRANTS.]

CURRANTS.--The utility of currants, red, black, or white, has
long been established in domestic economy. The juice of the red
species, if boiled with an equal weight of loaf sugar, forms an
agreeable substance called _currant jelly_, much employed in
sauces, and very valuable in the cure of sore throats and colds.
The French mix it with sugar and water, and thus form an
agreeable beverage. The juice of currants is a valuable remedy
in obstructions of the bowels; and, in febrile complaints, it is
useful on account of its readily quenching thirst, and for its
cooling effect on the stomach. White and flesh-coloured
currants have, with the exception of the fullness of flavour, in
every respect, the same qualities as the red species. Both white
and red currants are pleasant additions to the dessert, but the
black variety is mostly used for culinary and medicinal
purposes, especially in the form of jelly for quinsies. The
leaves of the black currant make a pleasant tea.

RED-CURRANT AND RASPBERRY TART.

1267. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 pint of picked currants, 1/2 pint of
raspberries, 3 heaped tablespoonfuls of moist sugar, 1/2 lb. of short
crust.

_Mode_.--Strip the currants from the stalks, and put them into a deep
pie-dish, with a small cup placed in the midst, bottom upwards; add the
raspberries and sugar; place a border of paste round the edge of the
dish, cover with crust, ornament the edges, and bake from 1/2 to 3/4
hour: strew some sifted sugar over before being sent to table. This tart
is more generally served cold than hot.

_Time_.--1/2 to 3/4 hour.

_Average cost_.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ in June, July, and August.

[Illustration: RASPBERRY.]

RASPBERRIES.--There are two sorts of raspberries, the red and
the white. Both the scent and flavour of this fruit are very
refreshing, and the berry itself is exceedingly wholesome, and
invaluable to people of a nervous or bilious temperament. We are
not aware, however, of its being cultivated with the same amount
of care which is bestowed upon some other of the berry tribe,
although it is far from improbable that a more careful
cultivation would not be repaid by a considerable improvement in
the size and flavour of the berry; neither, as an eating fruit,
is it so universally esteemed as the strawberry, with whose
lusciousness and peculiarly agreeable flavour it can bear no
comparison. In Scotland, it is found in large quantities,
growing wild, and is eagerly sought after, in the woods, by
children. Its juice is rich and abundant, and to many, extremely
agreeable.

BAKED CUSTARD PUDDING.

1268. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 pint of milk, the rind of 1/4 lemon, 1/4 lb.
of moist sugar, 4 eggs.

_Mode_.--Put the milk into a saucepan with the sugar and lemon-rind, and
let this infuse for about 4 hour, or until the milk is well flavoured;
whisk the eggs, yolks and whites; pour the milk to them, stirring all
the while; then have ready a pie-dish, lined at the edge with paste
ready baked; strain the custard into the dish, grate a little nutmeg
over the top, and bake in a _very slow_ oven for about 1/2 hour, or
rather longer. The flavour of this pudding may be varied by substituting
bitter almonds for the lemon-rind; and it may be very much enriched by
using half cream and half milk, and doubling the quantity of eggs.

_Time_.--1/2 to 3/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--This pudding is usually served cold with fruit tarts.

BOILED CUSTARD PUDDING.

1269. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of milk, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 4 eggs,
flavouring to taste.

_Mode_.--Flavour the milk by infusing in it a little lemon-rind or
cinnamon; whisk the eggs, stir the flour gradually to these, and pour
over them the milk, and stir the mixture well. Butter a basin that will
exactly hold it; put in the custard, and tie a floured cloth over;
plunge it into boiling water, and turn it about for a few minutes, to
prevent the flour from settling in one part. Boil it slowly for 1/2
hour; turn it out of the basin, and serve. The pudding may be garnished
with red-currant jelly, and sweet sauce may be sent to table with it.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

DAMSON TART.

1270. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/4 pint of damsons, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, 1/2
lb. of short or puff crust.

_Mode_.--Put the damsons, with the sugar between them, into a deep
pie-dish, in the midst of which, place a small cup or jar turned upside
down; pile the fruit high in the middle, line the edges of the dish with
short or puff crust, whichever may be preferred; put on the cover,
ornament the edges, and bake from 1/2 to 3/4 hour in a good oven. If
puff-crust is used, about 10 minutes before the pie is done, take it out
of the oven, brush it over with the white of an egg beaten to a froth
with the blade of a knife; strew some sifted sugar over, and a few drops
of water, and put the tart back to finish baking: with short crust, a
little plain sifted sugar, sprinkled over, is all that will be required.

_Time_.--1/2 to 3/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ in September and October.

[Illustration: DAMSONS.]

DAMSONS.--Whether for jam, jelly, pie, pudding, water, ice,
wine, dried fruit or preserved, the damson, or _damascene_ (for
it was originally brought from Damascus, whence its name), is
invaluable. It combines sugary and acid qualities in happy
proportions, when full ripe. It is a fruit easily cultivated;
and, if budded nine inches from the ground on vigorous stocks,
it will grow several feet high in the first year, and make fine
standards the year following. Amongst the list of the best sorts
of baking plums, the damson stands first, not only on account of
the abundance of its juice, but also on account of its soon
softening. Because of the roughness of its flavour, it requires
a large quantity of sugar.

DAMSON PUDDING.

1271. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 pint of damsons, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar, 3/4
lb. of suet or butter crust.

_Mode_.--Make a suet crust with 3/4 lb. of flour by recipe No. 1215;
line a buttered pudding-basin with a portion of it; fill the basin with
the damsons, sweeten them, and put on the lid; pinch the edges of the
crust together, that the juice does not escape; tie over a floured
cloth, put the pudding into boiling water, and boil from 2-1/2 to 3
hours.

_Time_.--2-1/2 to 3 hours.

_Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ in September and October.

DELHI PUDDING.

1272. INGREDIENTS.--4 large apples, a little grated nutmeg, 1
teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 2 large tablespoonfuls of sugar, 6 oz.
of currants, 3/4 lb. of suet crust No. 1215.

_Mode_.--Pare, core, and cut the apples into slices; put them into a
saucepan, with the nutmeg, lemon-peel, and sugar; stir them over the
fire until soft; then have ready the above proportion of crust, roll it
out thin, spread the apples over the paste, sprinkle over the currants,
roll the pudding up, closing the ends properly, tie it in a floured
cloth, and boil for 2 hours.

_Time_.--2 hours.

_Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ from August to March.

EMPRESS PUDDING.

1273. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of rice, 2 oz. of butter, 3 eggs, jam,
sufficient milk to soften the rice.

_Mode_.--Boil the rice in the milk until very soft; then add the butter
boil it for a few minutes after the latter ingredient is put in, and set
it by to cool. Well beat the eggs, stir these in, and line a dish with
puff-paste; put over this a layer of rice, then a thin layer of any kind
of jam, then another layer of rice, and proceed in this manner until the
dish is full; and bake in a moderate oven for 3/4 hour. This pudding may
be eaten hot or cold; if the latter, it will be much improved by having
a boiled custard poured over it.

_Time_.--3/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

EXETER PUDDING.

(_Very rich_.)

1274. INGREDIENTS.--10 oz. of bread crumbs, 4 oz. of sago, 7 oz. of
finely-chopped suet, 6 oz. of moist sugar, the rind of 1/2 lemon, 1/4
pint of rum, 7 eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, 4 small sponge cakes, 2
oz. of ratafias, 1/2 lb. of jam.

_Mode_.--Put the bread crumbs into a basin with the sago, suet, sugar,
minced lemon-peel, rum, and 4 eggs; stir these ingredients well
together, then add 3 more eggs and the cream, and let the mixture be
well beaten. Then butter a mould, strew in a few bread crumbs, and cover
the bottom with a layer of ratafias; then put in a layer of the mixture,
then a layer of sliced sponge cake spread thickly with any kind of jam;
then add some ratafias, then some of the mixture and sponge cake, and so
on until the mould is full, taking care that a layer of the mixture is
on the top of the pudding. Bake in a good oven from 3/4 to 1 hour, and
serve with the following sauce:--Put 3 tablespoonfuls of black-currant
jelly into a stewpan, add 2 glasses of sherry, and, when warm, turn the
pudding out of the mould, pour the sauce over it, and serve hot.

_Time_.--From 1 to 1-1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 2s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

FIG PUDDING.

I.

1275. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of figs, 1 lb. of suet, 1/2 lb. of flour, 1/2
lb. of bread crumbs, 2 eggs, milk.

_Mode_.--Cut the figs into small pieces, grate the bread finely, and
chop the suet very small; mix these well together, add the flour, the
eggs, which should be well beaten, and sufficient milk to form the whole
into a stiff paste; butter a mould or basin, press the pudding into it
very closely, tie it down with a cloth, and boil for 3 hours, or rather
longer; turn it out of the mould, and serve with melted butter,
wine-sauce, or cream.

_Time_.--3 hours, or longer. _Average cost_, 2s.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_.--Suitable for a winter pudding.

II.

(_Staffordshire Recipe_.)

1276. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of figs, 6 oz. of suet, 3/4 lb. of flour,
milk.

_Mode_.--Chop the suet finely, mix with it the flour, and make these
into a smooth paste with milk; roll it out to the thickness of about 1/2
inch, cut the figs in small pieces, and strew them over the paste; roll
it up, make the ends secure, tie the pudding in a cloth, and boil it
from 1-1/2 to 2 hours.

_Time_.--1-1/2 to 2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 1d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

FOLKESTONE PUDDING-PIES.

1277. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of milk, 3 oz. of ground rice, 3 oz. of
butter, 1/4 lb. of sugar, flavouring of lemon-peel or bay-leaf, 6 eggs,
puff-paste, currants.

_Mode_.--Infuse 2 laurel or bay leaves, or the rind of 1/2 lemon, in the
milk, and when it is well flavoured, strain it, and add the rice; boil
these for 1/4 hour, stirring all the time; then take them off the fire,
stir in the butter, sugar, and eggs, and let these latter be well beaten
before they are added to the other ingredients; when nearly cold, line
some patty-pans with puff-paste, fill with the custard, strew over each
a few currants, and bake from 20 to 25 minutes in a moderate oven.

_Time_.--20 to 25 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. 1d.

_Sufficient_ to fill a dozen patty-pans.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

FRUIT TURNOVERS (suitable for Pic-Nics).

1278. INGREDIENTS.--Puff-paste No. 1206, any kind of fruit, sugar to
taste.

_Mode_.--Make some puff-paste by recipe No. 1206; roll it out to the
thickness of about 1/4 inch, and cut it out in pieces of a circular
form; pile the fruit on half of the paste, sprinkle over some sugar, wet
the edges and turn the paste over. Press the edges together, ornament
them, and brush the turnovers over with the white of an egg; sprinkle
over sifted sugar, and bake on tins, in a brisk oven, for about 20
minutes. Instead of putting the fruit in raw, it may be boiled down with
a little sugar first, and then inclosed in the crust; or jam, of any
kind, may be substituted for fresh fruit.

-Time_.--20 minutes.

_Sufficient_--1/2 lb. of puff-paste will make a dozen turnovers.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

GERMAN PUDDING.

1279. INGREDIENTS.--2 teaspoonfuls of flour, 1 teaspoonful of arrowroot,
1 pint of milk, 2 oz. of butter, sugar to taste, the rind of 1/2 lemon,
4 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

_Mode_.--Boil the milk with the lemon-rind until well flavoured; then
strain it, and mix with it the flour, arrowroot, butter, and sugar. Boil
these ingredients for a few minutes, keeping them well stirred; then
take them off the fire and mix with them the eggs, yolks and whites,
beaten separately and added separately. Boil some sugar to candy; line a
mould with this, put in the brandy, then the mixture; tie down with a
cloth, and boil for rather more than 1 hour. When turned out, the brandy
and sugar make a nice sauce.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

DAMPFNUDELN, or GERMAN PUDDINGS.

1280. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 1/4 lb. of butter, 5 eggs, 2 small
tablespoonfuls of yeast, 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-pounded sugar, milk,
a very little salt.

_Mode_.--Put the flour into a basin, make a hole in the centre, into
which put the yeast, and rather more than 1/4 pint of warm milk; make
this into a batter with the middle of the flour, and let the sponge rise
in a warm temperature. When sufficiently risen, mix the eggs, butter,
sugar, and salt with a little more warm milk, and knead the whole well
together with the hands, beating the dough until it is perfectly smooth,
and it drops from the fingers. Then cover the basin with a cloth, put it
in a warm place, and when the dough has nicely risen, knead it into
small balls; butter the bottom of a deep saute-pan, strew over some
pounded sugar, and let the dampfnudeln be laid in, but do not let them
touch one another; then pour over sufficient milk to cover them, put on
the lid, and let them rise to twice their original size by the side of
the fire. Now place them in the oven for a few minutes, to acquire a
nice brown colour, and serve them on a napkin, with custard sauce
flavoured with vanilla, or a _compote_ of any fruit that may be
preferred.

_Time_.--1/2 to 3/4 hour for the sponge to rise; 10 to 15 minutes for
the puddings to rise; 10 minutes to bake them in a brisk oven.

_Sufficient_ for 10 or 12 dampfnudeln.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

GINGER PUDDING.

1281. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of flour, 1/4 lb. of suet, 1/4 lb. of moist
sugar, 2 large teaspoonfuls of grated ginger.

_Mode_.--Shred the suet very fine, mix it with the flour, sugar, and
ginger; stir all well together; butter a basin, and put the mixture in
_dry_; tie a cloth over, and boil for 3 hours.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

GOLDEN PUDDING.

1282. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 1/4 lb. of suet, 1/4 lb. of
marmalade, 1/4 lb. of sugar, 4 eggs.

_Mode_.--Put the bread crumbs into a basin; mix with them the suet,
which should be finely minced, the marmalade, and the sugar; stir all
these ingredients well together, beat the eggs to a froth, moisten the
pudding with these, and when well mixed, put it into a mould or buttered
basin; tie down with a floured cloth, and boil for 2 hours. When turned
out, strew a little fine-sifted sugar over the top, and serve.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 11d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The mould may be ornamented with stoned raisins, arranged in
any fanciful pattern, before the mixture is poured in, which would add
very much to the appearance of the pudding. For a plainer pudding,
double the quantities of the bread crumbs, and if the eggs do not
moisten it sufficiently, use a little milk.

BAKED GOOSEBERRY PUDDING.

1283. INGREDIENTS.--Gooseberries, 3 eggs, 1-1/2 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint
of bread crumbs, sugar to taste.

_Mode_.--Put the gooseberries into a jar, previously cutting off the
tops and tails; place this jar in boiling water, and let it boil until
the gooseberries are soft enough to pulp; then beat them through a
coarse sieve, and to every pint of pulp add 3 well-whisked eggs, 1-1/2
oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of bread crumbs, and sugar to taste; beat the
mixture well, put a border of puff-paste round the edge of a pie-dish,
put in the pudding, bake for about 40 minutes, strew sifted sugar over,
and serve.

_Time_.--About 40 minutes. _Average cost_, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from May to July.

BOILED GOOSEBERRY PUDDING.

1284. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 lb. of suet crust No. 1215, 1-1/2 pint of green
gooseberries, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar.

_Mode_.--Line a pudding-basin with suet crust no. 1215, rolled out to
about 1/2 inch in thickness, and, with a pair of scissors, cut off the
tops and tails of the gooseberries; fill the basin with the fruit, put
in the sugar, and cover with crust. Pinch the edges of the pudding
together, tie over it a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and
boil from 2-1/2 to 3 hours; turn it out of the basin, and serve with a
jug of cream.

_Time_.--2-1/2 to 3 hours. _Average cost_, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ from May to July.

GOOSEBERRY TART.

1285. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 pint of gooseberries, 1/2 lb. of short crust
No. 1211, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar.

_Mode_.--With a pair of scissors cut off the tops and tails of the
gooseberries; put them into a deep pie-dish, pile the fruit high in the
centre, and put in the sugar; line the edge of the dish with short
crust, put on the cover, and ornament the edges of the tart; bake in a
good oven for about 3/4 hour, and before being sent to table, strew over
it some fine-sifted sugar. A jug of cream, or a dish of boiled or baked
custards, should always accompany this dish.

_Time_.--3/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ from May to July.

[Illustration: GOOSEBERRY.]

GOOSEBERRIES.--The red and the white are the two principal
varieties of gooseberries. The red are rather the more acid;
but, when covered with white sugar, are most wholesome, because
the sugar neutralizes their acidity. Red gooseberries make an
excellent jelly, which is light and refreshing, but not very
nourishing. It is good for bilious and plethoric persons, and to
invalids generally who need light and digestible food. It is a
fruit from which many dishes might be made. All sorts of
gooseberries are agreeable when stewed, and, in this country
especially, there is no fruit so universally in favour. In
Scotland, there is scarcely a cottage-garden without its
gooseberry-bush. Several of the species are cultivated with the
nicest care.

HALF-PAY PUDDING.

1286. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of suet, 1/4 lb. of currants, 1/4 lb. of
raisins, 1/4 lb. of flour, 1/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 2 tablespoonfuls of
treacle, 1/2 pint of milk.

_Mode_.--Chop the suet finely; mix with it the currants, which should be
nicely washed and dried, the raisins, which should be stoned, the flour,
bread crumbs, and treacle; moisten with the milk, beat up the
ingredients until all are thoroughly mixed, put them into a buttered
basin, and boil the pudding for 3-1/2 hours.

_Time_.--3-1/2 hours.

_Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

HERODOTUS PUDDING.

1287. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 1/2 lb. of good figs, 6 oz.
of suet, 6 oz. of moist sugar, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt, 3 eggs, nutmeg
to taste.

_Mode_.--Mince the suet and figs very finely; add the remaining
ingredients, taking care that the eggs are well whisked; beat the
mixture for a few minutes, put it into a buttered mould, tie it down
with a floured cloth, and boil the pudding for 5 hours. Serve with wine
sauce.

_Time_.--5 hours.

_Average cost_, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

HUNTER'S PUDDING.

1288. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of raisins, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of suet,
1 lb. of bread crumbs, 3 lb. of moist sugar, 8 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of
flour, 3 lb. of mixed candied peel, 1 glass of brandy, 10 drops of
essence of lemon, 10 drops of essence of almonds, 1/2 nutmeg, 2 blades
of mace, 6 cloves.

_Mode_.--Stone and shred the raisins rather small, chop the suet finely,
and rub the bread until all lumps are well broken; pound the spice to
powder, cut the candied peel into thin shreds, and mix all these
ingredients well together, adding the sugar. Beat the eggs to a strong
froth, and as they are beaten, drop into them the essence of lemon and
essence of almonds; stir these to the dry ingredients, mix well, and add
the brandy. Tie the pudding firmly in a cloth, and boil it for 6 hours
at the least: 7 or 8 hours would be still better for it. Serve with
boiled custard, or red-currant jelly, or brandy sauce.

_Time_.--6 to 8 hours.

_Average cost_, 3s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 9 or 10 persons.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

ICED PUDDING.

(_Parisian Recipe_.)

[Illustration: ICED-PUDDING MOULD.]

1289. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of sweet almonds, 2 oz. of bitter ones, 3/4
lb. of sugar, 8 eggs, 1-1/2 pint of milk.

_Mode_.--Blanch and dry the almonds thoroughly in a cloth, then pound
them in a mortar until reduced to a smooth paste; add to these the
well-beaten eggs, the sugar, and milk; stir these ingredients over the
fire until they thicken, but do not allow them to boil; then strain and
put the mixture into the freezing-pot; surround it with ice, and freeze
it as directed in recipe 1290. When quite frozen, fill an iced-pudding
mould, put on the lid, and keep the pudding in ice until required for
table; then turn it out on the dish, and garnish it with a _compote_ of
any fruit that may be preferred, pouring a little over the top of the
pudding. This pudding may be flavoured with vanilla, Curacoa, or
Maraschino.

_Time_.--1/2 hour to freeze the mixture.

_Seasonable_.--Served all the year round.

ICED APPLE PUDDING. (_French Recipe, after Careme_.)

1290. INGREDIENTS.--2 dozen apples, a small pot of apricot-jam, 1/2 lb.
of sugar, 1 Seville orange, 1/4 pint of preserved cherries, 1/4 lb. of
raisins, 1 oz. of citron, 2 oz. of almonds, 1 gill of Curacoa, 1 gill of
Maraschino, 1 pint of cream.

_Mode_.--Peel, core, and cut the apples into quarters, and simmer them
over the fire until soft; then mix with them the apricot-jam and the
sugar, on which the rind of the orange should be previously rubbed; work
all these ingredients through a sieve, and put them into the
freezing-pot. Stone the raisins, and simmer them in a little syrup for a
few minutes; add these, with the sliced citron, the almonds cut in dice,
and the cherries drained from their syrup, to the ingredients in the
freezing-pot; put in the Curacoa and Maraschino, and freeze again; add
as much whipped cream as will be required, freeze again, and fill the
mould. Put the lid on, and plunge the mould into the ice-pot; cover it
with a wet cloth and pounded ice and saltpetre, where it should remain
until wanted for table. Turn the pudding out of the mould on to a clean
and neatly-folded napkin, and serve, as sauce, a little iced whipped
cream, in a sauce-tureen or glass dish.

[Illustration: ICE-SPATTLE.]

[Illustration: ICE-FREEZING PAIL.]

_Time_.--1/2 hour to freeze the mixture.

_Seasonable_ from August to March.

_Method of working the freezing Apparatus_.--Put into the outer pail
some pounded ice, upon which strew some saltpetre; then fix the pewter
freezing-pot upon this, and surround it entirely with ice and saltpetre.
Wipe the cover and edges of the pot, pour in the preparation, and close
the lid; a quarter of an hour after, begin turning the freezing-pan from
right to left, and when the mixture begins to be firm round the sides of
the pot, stir it about with the slice or spattle, that the preparation
may be equally congealed. Close the lid again, keep working from right
to left, and, from time to time, remove the mixture from the sides, that
it may be smooth; and when perfectly frozen, it is ready to put in the
mould; the mould should then be placed in the ice again, where it should
remain until wanted for table.

ROLY-POLY JAM PUDDING.

1291. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 lb of suet-crust No. 1215, 3/4 lb. of any kind
of jam.

_Mode_.--Make a nice light suet-crust by recipe No. 1215, and roll it
out to the thickness of about 1/2 inch. Spread the jam equally over it,
leaving a small margin of paste without any, where the pudding joins.
Roll it up, fasten the ends securely, and tie it in a floured cloth; put
the pudding into boiling water, and boil for 2 hours. Mincemeat or
marmalade may be substituted for the jam, and makes excellent puddings.

_Time_.--2 hours.

_Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_.--Suitable for winter puddings, when fresh fruit is not
obtainable.

LEMON CHEESECAKES.

1292. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, 1 lb. of loaf sugar, 6 eggs, the
rind of 2 lemons and the juice of 3.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, carefully grating the
lemon-rind and straining the juice. Keep stirring the mixture over the
fire until the sugar is dissolved, and it begins to thicken: when of the
consistency of honey, it is done; then put it into small jars, and keep
in a dry place. This mixture will remain good 3 or 4 months. When made
into cheesecakes, add a few pounded almonds, or candied peel, or grated
sweet biscuit; line some patty-pans with good puff-paste, rather more
than half fill them with the mixture, and bake for about 1/4 hour in a
good brisk oven.

_Time_.--1/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 1s. 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 24 cheesecakes.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

LEMON MINCEMEAT.

1293. INGREDIENTS.--2 large lemons, 6 large apples, 1/2 lb. of suet, 1
lb. of currants, 1/2 lb. of sugar, 2 oz. of candied lemon-peel, 1 oz. of
citron, mixed spice to taste.

_Mode_.--Pare the lemons, squeeze them, and boil the peel until tender
enough to mash. Add to the mashed lemon-peel the apples, which should be
pared, cored, and minced; the chopped suet, currants, sugar, sliced
peel, and spice. Strain the lemon-juice to these ingredients, stir the
mixture well, and put it in a jar with a closely-fitting lid. Stir
occasionally, and in a week or 10 days the mincemeat will be ready for
use.

_Average cost_, 2s.

_Sufficient_ for 18 large or 24 small pies.

_Seasonable_.--Make this about the beginning of December.

LEMON DUMPLINGS.

1294. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of grated bread, 1/4 lb. of chopped suet,
1/4 lb. of moist sugar, 2 eggs, 1 large lemon.

[Illustration: LEMON DUMPLINGS.]

_Mode_.--Mix the bread, suet, and moist sugar well together, adding the
lemon-peel, which should be very finely minced. Moisten with the eggs
and strained lemon-juice; stir well, and put the mixture into small
buttered cups. Tie them down and boil for 3/4 hour. Turn them out on a
dish, strew sifted sugar over them, and serve with wine sauce.

_Time_.--3/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 dumplings.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BAKED LEMON PUDDING.

I.

1295. INGREDIENTS.--The yolks of 4 eggs, 4 oz. of pounded sugar, 1
lemon, 1/4 lb. of butter, puff-crust.

_Mode_.--Beat the eggs to a froth; mix with them the sugar and warmed
butter; stir these ingredients well together, putting in the grated rind
and strained juice of the lemon-peel. Line a shallow dish with
puff-paste; put in the mixture, and bake in a moderate oven for 40
minutes; turn the pudding out of the dish, strew over it sifted sugar,
and serve.

_Time_.--40 minutes.

_Average cost_, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

II.

1296. INGREDIENTS.--10 oz. of bread crumbs, 2 pints of milk, 2 oz. of
butter, 1 lemon, 1/4 lb. of pounded sugar, 4 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of
brandy.

_Mode_.--Bring the milk to the boiling point, stir in the butter, and
pour these hot over the bread crumbs; add the sugar and very
finely-minced lemon-peel; beat the eggs, and stir these in with the
brandy to the other ingredients; put a paste round the dish, and bake
for 3/4 hour.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 2d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: LEMON.]

LEMON.--The lemon is a variety of the citron. The juice of this
fruit makes one of our most popular and refreshing
beverages--lemonade, which is gently stimulating and cooling,
and soon quenches the thirst. It may he freely partaken by
bilious and sanguine temperaments; but persons with irritable
stomachs should avoid it, on account of its acid qualities. The
fresh rind of the lemon is a gentle tonic, and, when dried and
grated, is used in flavouring a variety of culinary
preparations. Lemons appear in company with the orange in most
orange-growing countries. They were only known to the Romans at
a very late period, and, at first, were used only to keep the
moths from their garments: their acidity was unpleasant to them.
In the time of Pliny, the lemon was hardly known otherwise than
as an excellent counter-poison.

III.

(_Very rich_.)

1297. INGREDIENTS.--The rind and juice of 2 large lemons, 1/2 lb. of
loaf sugar, 1/4 pint of cream, the yolks of 8 eggs, 2 oz. of almonds,
1/2 lb. of butter, melted.

_Mode_.--Mix the pounded sugar with the cream, and add the yolks of eggs
and the butter, which should be previously warmed. Blanch and pound the
almonds, and put these, with the grated rind and strained juice of the
lemons, to the other ingredients. Stir all well together; line a dish
with puff-paste, put in the mixture, and bake for 1 hour.

_Time_.--1 hour.

_Average cost_, 2s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BOILED LEMON PUDDING.

1298. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of chopped suet, 3/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 2
small lemons, 6 oz. of moist sugar, 1/4 lb. of flour, 2 eggs, milk.

_Mode_.--Mix the suet, bread crumbs, sugar, and flour well together,
adding the lemon-peel, which should be very finely minced, and the
juice, which should be strained. When these ingredients are well mixed,
moisten with the eggs and sufficient milk to make the pudding of the
consistency of thick batter; put it into a well-buttered mould, and boil
for 3-1/2 hours; turn it out, strew sifted sugar over, and serve with
wine sauce, or not, at pleasure.

_Time_.--3-1/2 hours.

_Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--This pudding may also be baked, and will be found very good. It
will take about 2 hours.

PLAIN LEMON PUDDING.

1299. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of lard or dripping, the
juice of 1 large lemon, 1 teaspoonful of flour, sugar.

_Mode_.--Make the above proportions of flour and lard into a smooth
paste, and roll it out to the thickness of about 1/2 inch. Squeeze the
lemon-juice, strain it into a cup, stir the flour into it, and as much
moist sugar as will make it into a stiff and thick paste; spread this
mixture over the paste, roll it up, secure the ends, and tie the pudding
in a floured cloth. Boil for 2 hours.

_Time_.--2 hours.

_Average cost_, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

MANCHESTER PUDDING (to eat Cold).

1300. INGREDIENTS.--3 oz. of grated bread, 1/2 pint of milk, a strip of
lemon-peel, 4 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, sugar to taste, puff-paste, jam, 3
tablespoonfuls of brandy.

_Mode_.--Flavour the milk with lemon-peel, by infusing it in the milk
for 1/2 hour; then strain it on to the bread crumbs, and boil it for 2
or 3 minutes; add the eggs, leaving out the whites of 2, the butter,
sugar, and brandy; stir all these ingredients well together; cover a
pie-dish with puff-paste, and at the bottom put a thick layer of any
kind of jam; pour the above mixture, cold, on the jam, and bake the
pudding for an hour. Serve cold, with a little sifted sugar sprinkled
over.

_Time_.--1 hour.

_Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

SWEET MACARONI PUDDING.

1301. INGREDIENTS.--2-1/2 oz. of macaroni, 2 pints of milk, the rind of
1/2 lemon, 3 eggs, sugar and grated nutmeg to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of
brandy.

_Mode_.--Put the macaroni, with a pint of the milk, into a saucepan with
the lemon-peel, and let it simmer gently until the macaroni is tender;
then put it into a pie-dish without the peel; mix the other pint of milk
with the eggs; stir these well together, adding the sugar and brandy,
and pour the mixture over the macaroni. Grate a little nutmeg over the
top, and bake in a moderate oven for 1/2 hour. To make this pudding look
nice, a paste should be laid round the edges of the dish, and, for
variety, a layer of preserve or marmalade may be placed on the macaroni:
in this case omit the brandy.

_Time_.--3/4 hour to simmer the macaroni; 1/2 hour to bake the pudding.

_Average cost_, 11d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

MACARONI is composed of wheaten flour, flavoured with other
articles, and worked up with water into a paste, to which, by a
peculiar process, a tubular or pipe form is given, in order that
it may cook more readily in hot water. That of smaller diameter
than macaroni (which is about the thickness of a goose-quill) is
called _vermicelli_; and when smaller still, _fidelini_. The
finest is made from the flour of the hard-grained Black-Sea
wheat. Macaroni is the principal article of food in many parts
of Italy, particularly Naples, where the best is manufactured,
and from whence, also, it is exported in considerable
quantities. In this country, macaroni and vermicelli are
frequently used in soups.

[Illustration: MACARONI.]

MANNA KROUP PUDDING.

1302. INGREDIENTS.--3 tablespoonfuls of manna kroup, 12 bitter almonds,
1 pint of milk, sugar to taste, 3 eggs.

_Mode_.--Blanch and pound the almonds in a mortar; mix them with the
manna kroup; pour over these a pint of boiling milk, and let them steep
for about 1/4 hour. When nearly cold, add sugar and the well-beaten
eggs; mix all well together; put the pudding into a buttered dish, and
bake for 1/2 hour.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

MANNA KROUP, SEMORA, or SEMOLINA, are three names given to a
flour made from ground wheat and rice. The preparation is white
when it is made only of these materials; the yellow colour which
it usually has, is produced by a portion of saffron and yolks of
eggs. Next to vermicelli, this preparation is the most useful
for thickening either meat or vegetable soups. As a food, it is
light, nutritious, wholesome, and easily digested. The best
preparation is brought from Arabia, and, next to that, from
Italy.

MANSFIELD PUDDING.

1303. INGREDIENTS.--The crumb of 2 rolls, 1 pint of milk, sugar to
taste, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, 6 oz. of chopped suet, 2
tablespoonfuls of flour, 1/2 lb. of currants, 1/2 teaspoonful of grated
nutmeg, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream.

_Mode_.--Slice the roll very thin, and pour upon it a pint of boiling
milk; let it remain covered close for 1/4 hour, then beat it up with a
fork, and sweeten with moist sugar; stir in the chopped suet, flour,
currants, and nutmeg. Mix these ingredients well together, moisten with
the eggs, brandy, and cream; beat the mixture for 2 or 3 minutes, put it
into a buttered dish or mould, and bake in a moderate oven for 1-1/4
hour. Turn it out, strew sifted sugar over, and serve.

_Time_.--1-1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 3d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

MARLBOROUGH PUDDING.

1304. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, 1/4 lb. of powdered lump sugar, 4
eggs, puff-paste, a layer of any kind of jam.

_Mode_.--Beat the butter to a cream, stir in the powdered sugar, whisk
the eggs, and add these to the other ingredients. When these are well
mixed, line a dish with puff-paste, spread over a layer of any kind of
jam that may be preferred, pour in the mixture, and bake the pudding for
rather more than 1/2 hour.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

MARMALADE AND VERMICELLI PUDDING.

1305. INGREDIENTS.--1 breakfastcupful of vermicelli, 2 tablespoonfuls of
marmalade, 1/4 lb. of raisins, sugar to taste, 3 eggs, milk.

_Mode_.--Pour some boiling milk on the vermicelli, and let it remain
covered for 10 minutes; then mix with it the marmalade, stoned raisins,
sugar, and beaten eggs. Stir all well together, put the mixture into a
buttered mould, boil for 1-1/2 hour, and serve with custard sauce.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_. 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

MARROW DUMPLINGS, to serve with Roast Meat, in Soup, with Salad, &c.

(_German Recipe_.)

1306. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of beef marrow, 1 oz. of butter, 2 eggs, 2
penny rolls, 1 teaspoonful of minced onion, 1 teaspoonful of minced
parsley, salt and grated nutmeg to taste.

_Mode_.--Beat the marrow and butter together to a cream; well whisk the
eggs, and add these to the other ingredients. When they are well
stirred, put in the rolls, which should previously be well soaked in
boiling milk, strained, and beaten up with a fork. Add the remaining
ingredients, omitting the minced onion where the flavour is very much
disliked, and form the mixture into small round dumplings. Drop these
into boiling broth, and let them simmer for about 20 minutes or 1/2
hour. They may be served in soup, with roast meat, or with salad, as in
Germany, where they are more frequently sent to table than in this
country. They are very good.

_Time_.--20 minutes to 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 dumplings. _Seasonable_ at any time.

BAKED OB BOILED MARROW PUDDING.

1307. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of bread crumbs, 1-1/2 pint of milk, 6 oz.
of marrow, 4 eggs, 1/4 lb. of raisins or currants, or 2 oz. of each;
sugar and grated nutmeg to taste.

_Mode_.--Make the milk boiling, pour it hot on to the bread crumbs, and
let these remain covered for about 1/2 hour; shred the marrow, beat up
the eggs, and mix these with the bread crumbs; add the remaining
ingredients, beat the mixture well, and either put it into a buttered
mould and boil it for 2-1/2 hours, or put it into a pie-dish edged with
puff-paste, and bake for rather more than 3/4 hour. Before sending it to
table, sift a little pounded sugar over, after being turned out of the
mould or basin.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours to boil, 3/4 hour to bake. _Average cost_, 1s. 2d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

MILITARY PUDDINGS.

1308. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of suet, 1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 1/2 lb. of
moist sugar, the rind and juice of 1 large lemon.

_Mode_.--Chop the suet finely, mix it with the bread crumbs and sugar,
and mince the lemon-rind and strain the juice; stir these into the other
ingredients, mix well, and put the mixture into small buttered cups, and
bake for rather more than 1/2 hour; turn them out on the dish, and serve
with lemon-sauce. The above ingredients may be made into small balls,
and boiled for about 1/2 hour; they should then be served with the same
sauce as when baked.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_ to fill 6 or 7 moderate-sized cups. _Seasonable_ at any
time.

MINCEMEAT.

1309. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of raisins, 3 lbs. of currants, 1-1/2 lb. of
lean beef, 3 lbs. of beef suet, 2 lbs. of moist sugar, 2 oz. of citron,
2 oz. of candied lemon-peel, 2 oz. of candied orange-peel, 1 small
nutmeg, 1 pottle of apples, the rind of 2 lemons, the juice of 1, 1/2
pint of brandy.

_Mode_.--Stone and _cut_ the raisins once or twice across, but do not
chop them; wash, dry, and pick the currants free from stalks and grit,
and mince the beef and suet, taking care that the latter is chopped very
fine; slice the citron and candied peel, grate the nutmeg, and pare,
core, and mince the apples; mince the lemon-peel, strain the juice, and
when all the ingredients are thus prepared, mix them well together,
adding the brandy when the other things are well blended; press the
whole into a jar, carefully exclude the air, and the mincemeat will be
ready for use in a fortnight.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 8s.

_Seasonable_.--Make this about the beginning of December.

EXCELLENT MINCEMEAT.

1310. INGREDIENTS.--3 large lemons, 3 large apples, 1 lb. of stoned
raisins, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of suet, 2 lbs. of moist sugar, 1 oz.
of sliced candied citron, 1 oz. of sliced candied orange-peel, and the
same quantity of lemon-peel, 1 teacupful of brandy, 2 tablespoonfuls of
orange marmalade.

_Mode_.--Grate the rinds of the lemons; squeeze out the juice, strain
it, and boil the remainder of the lemons until tender enough to pulp or
chop very finely. Then add to this pulp the apples, which should be
baked, and their skins and cores removed; put in the remaining
ingredients one by one, and, as they are added, mix everything very
thoroughly together. Put the mincemeat into a stone jar with a
closely-fitting lid, and in a fortnight it will be ready for use.

_Seasonable_.--This should be made the first or second week in December.

MINCE PIES.

1311. INGREDIENTS.--Good puff-paste No. 1205, mincemeat No. 1309.

[Illustration: MINCE PIES.]

_Mode_.--Make some good puff-paste by recipe No. 1205; roll it out to
the thickness of about 1/4 inch, and line some good-sized pattypans with
it; fill them with mincemeat, cover with the paste, and cut it off all
round close to the edge of the tin. Put the pies into a brisk oven, to
draw the paste up, and bake for 25 minutes, or longer, should the pies
be very large; brush them over with the white of an egg, beaten with the
blade of a knife to a stiff froth; sprinkle over pounded sugar, and put
them into the oven for a minute or two, to dry the egg; dish the pies on
a white d'oyley, and serve hot. They may be merely sprinkled with
pounded sugar instead of being glazed, when that mode is preferred. To
re-warm them, put the pies on the pattypans, and let them remain in the
oven for 10 minutes or 1/4 hour, and they will be almost as good as if
freshly made.

_Time_.--25 to 30 minutes; 10 minutes to re-warm them.

_Average cost_, 4d. each.

_Sufficient_--1/2 lb. of paste for 4 pies. _Seasonable_ at Christmas
time.

MONDAY'S PUDDING.

1312. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold plum-pudding, brandy, custard
made with 5 eggs to every pint of milk.

_Mode_.--Cut the remains of a _good_ cold plum-pudding into
finger-pieces, soak them in a little brandy, and lay them cross-barred
in a mould until full. Make a custard with the above proportion of milk
and eggs, flavouring it with nutmeg or lemon-rind; fill up the mould
with it; tie it down with a cloth, and boil or steam it for an hour.
Serve with a little of the custard poured over, to which has been added
a tablespoonful of brandy.

_Time_.--1 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the pudding, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

NESSELRODE PUDDING. (_A fashionable iced pudding--Careme's Recipe_.)

1313. INGREDIENTS.--40 chestnuts, 1 lb. of sugar, flavouring of vanilla,
1 pint of cream, the yolks of 12 eggs, 1 glass of Maraschino, 1 oz. of
candied citron, 2 oz. of currants, 2 oz. of stoned raisins, 1/2 pint of
whipped cream, 3 eggs.

_Mode_.--Blanch the chestnuts in boiling water, remove the husks, and
pound them in a mortar until perfectly smooth, adding a few spoonfuls of
syrup. Then rub them through a fine sieve, and mix them in a basin with
a pint of syrup made from 1 lb. of sugar, clarified, and flavoured with
vanilla, 1 pint of cream, and the yolks of 12 eggs. Set this mixture
over a slow fire, stirring it _without ceasing_, and just as it begins
to boil, take it off and pass it through a tammy. When it is cold, put
it into a freezing-pot, adding the Maraschino, and make the mixture set;
then add the sliced citron, the currants, and stoned raisins (these two
latter should be soaked the day previously in Maraschino and sugar
pounded with vanilla); the whole thus mingled, add a plateful of whipped
cream mixed with the whites of 3 eggs, beaten to a froth with a little
syrup. When the pudding is perfectly frozen, put it into a
pineapple-shaped mould; close the lid, place it again in the
freezing-pan, covered over with pounded ice and saltpetre, and let it
remain until required for table; then turn the pudding out, and serve.

_Time_.--1/2 hour to freeze the mixture.

_Seasonable_ from October to February.

BAKED ORANGE PUDDING.

1314. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of stale sponge cake or bruised ratafias, 6
oranges, 1 pint of milk, 6 eggs, 1/2 lb. of sugar.

_Mode_.--Bruise the sponge cake or ratafias into fine crumbs, and pour
upon them the milk, which should be boiling. Rub the rinds of 2 of the
oranges on sugar, and add this, with the juice of the remainder, to the
other ingredients. Beat up the eggs, stir them in, sweeten to taste, and
put the mixture into a pie-dish previously lined with puff-paste. Bake
for rather more than 1/2 hour; turn it out of the dish, strew sifted
sugar over, and serve.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from November to May.

[Illustration: ORANGE.]

ORANGE (_Citrus Aurantium_).--The principal varieties are the
sweet, or China orange, and the bitter, or Seville orange; the
Maltese is also worthy of notice, from its red blood-like pulp.
The orange is extensively cultivated in the south of Europe, and
in Devonshire, on walls with a south aspect, it bears an
abundance of fruit. So great is the increase in the demand for
the orange, and so ample the supply, that it promises to rival
the apple in its popularity. The orange-tree is considered young
at the age of a hundred years. The pulp of the orange consists
of a collection of oblong vesicles filled with a sugary and
refreshing juice. The orange blossom is proverbially chosen for
the bridal wreath, and, from the same flower, an essential oil
is extracted hardly less esteemed than the celebrated ottar of
roses. Of all marmalades, that made from the Seville orange is
the best. The peel and juice of the orange are much used in
culinary preparations. From oranges are made preserves,
comfitures, jellies, glaces, sherbet, liqueurs, and syrups. The
juice of the orange in a glass _d'eau sucree_ makes a refreshing
and wholesome drink. From the clarified pulp of the orange the
French make a delicious jelly, which they serve in small pots,
and call _creme_. The rasped peel of the orange is used in
several sweet _entremets_, to which it communicates its perfume.
The confectioner manufactures a variety of dainties from all
parts of the orange. Confections of orange-peel are excellent
tonics and stomachics. Persons with delicate stomachs should
abstain from oranges at dessert, because their acidity is likely
to derange the digestive organs.

SMALL DISHES OF PASTRY FOE ENTREMETS, SUPPER-DISHES, &c.

FANCHONNETTES, or CUSTARD TARTLETS.

1315. INGREDIENTS.--For the custard, 4 eggs, 3/4 pint of milk, 2 oz. of
butter, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, 3 dessertspoonfuls of flour, flavouring
to taste; the whites of 2 eggs, 2 oz. of pounded sugar.

_Mode_.--Well beat the eggs; stir to them the milk, the butter, which
should be beaten to a cream, the sugar, and flour; mix these ingredients
well together, put them into a very clean saucepan, and bring them to
the simmering point, but do not allow them to boil. Flavour with essence
of vanilla, bitter almonds, lemon, grated chocolate, or any flavouring
ingredient that may be preferred. Line some round tartlet-pans with good
puff-paste; fill them with the custard, and bake in a moderate oven for
about 20 minutes; then take them out of the pans; let them cool, and in
the mean time whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth; stir into
this the pounded sugar, and spread smoothly over the tartlets a little
of this mixture. Put them in the oven again to set the icing, but be
particular that they do not scorch: when the icing looks crisp, they are
done. Arrange them, piled high in the centre, on a white napkin, and
garnish the dish, and in between the tartlets, with strips of bright
jelly, or very firmly-made preserve.

_Time_.--20 minutes to bake the tartlets; 5 minutes after being iced.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the paste, 1s.

_Sufficient_ to fill 10 or 12 tartlets.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The icing may be omitted on the top of the tartlets, and a
spoonful of any kind of preserve put at the bottom of the custard
instead: this varies both the flavour and appearance of this dish.

ALMOND FLOWERS.

1316. INGREDIENTS.--Puff-paste No. 1205; to every 1/2 lb. of paste allow
3 oz. of almonds, sifted sugar, the white of an egg.

_Mode_.--Roll the paste out to the thickness of 1/4 inch, and, with a
round fluted cutter, stamp out as many pieces as may be required. Work
the paste up again, roll it out, and, with a smaller cutter, stamp out
some pieces the size of a shilling. Brush the larger pieces over with
the white of an egg, and place one of the smaller pieces on each. Blanch
and cut the almonds into strips lengthwise; press them slanting into the
paste closely round the rings; and when they are all completed, sift
over some pounded sugar, and bake for about 1/4 hour or 20 minutes.
Garnish between the almonds with strips of apple jelly, and place in the
centre of the ring a small quantity of strawberry jam; pile them high on
the dish, and serve.

_Time_.--1/4 hour or 20 minutes.

_Sufficient_.--18 or 20 for a dish.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

FLUTED ROLLS.

1317. INGREDIENTS.--Puff-paste, the white of an egg, sifted sugar, jelly
or preserve.

_Mode_.--Make some good puff-paste by recipe No. 1205 (trimmings answer
very well for little dishes of this sort); roll it out to the thickness
of 1/4 inch, and, with a round fluted paste-cutter, stamp out as many
round pieces as may be required; brush over the upper side with the
white of an egg; roll up the pieces, pressing the paste lightly together
where it joins; place the rolls on a baking-sheet, and bake for about
1/4 hour. A few minutes before they are done, brush them over with the
white of an egg; strew over sifted sugar, put them back in the oven; and
when the icing is firm and of a pale brown colour, they are done. Place
a strip of jelly or preserve across each roll, dish them high on a
napkin, and serve cold.

_Time_.--1/4 hour before being iced; 5 to 10 minutes after.

_Average cost_, 1s. 3d.

_Sufficient_.--1/2 lb. of puff-paste for 2 dishes.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

PASTRY SANDWICHES.

1318. INGREDIENTS.--Puff-paste, jam of any kind, the white of an egg,
sifted sugar.

_Mode_.--Roll the paste out thin; put half of it on a baking-sheet or
tin, and spread equally over it apricot, greengage, or any preserve that
may be preferred. Lay over this preserve another thin paste; press the
edges together all round; and mark the paste in lines with a knife on
the surface, to show where to cut it when baked. Bake from 20 minutes to
1/2 hour; and, a short time before being done, take the pastry out of
the oven, brush it over with the white of an egg, sift over pounded
sugar, and put it back in the oven to colour. When cold, cut it into
strips; pile these on a dish pyramidically, and serve. These strips, cut
about 2 inches long, piled in circular rows, and a plateful of flavoured
whipped cream poured in the middle, make a very pretty dish.

_Time_.--20 minutes to 1 hour. _Average cost_, with 1/2 lb. of paste,
1s.

_Sufficient_.--1/2 lb. of paste will make 2 dishes of sandwiches.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

PETITES BOUCHEES.

1319. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of sweet almonds, 1/4 lb. of sifted sugar,
the rind of 1/2 lemon, the white of 1 egg, puff-paste.

_Mode_.--Blanch the almonds, and chop them fine; rub the sugar on the
lemon-rind, and pound it in a mortar; mix this with the almonds and the
white of the egg. Roll some puff-paste out; cut it in any shape that may
be preferred, such as diamonds, rings, ovals, &c., and spread the above
mixture over the paste. Bake the bouchees in an oven, not too hot, and
serve cold.

_Time_.--1/4 hour, or rather more. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient for 1/2 lb. of puff-paste. _Seasonable_ at any time.

POLISH TARTLETS.

1320. INGREDIENTS.--Puff-paste, the white of an egg, pounded sugar.

_Mode_.--Roll some good puff-paste out thin, and cut it into 2-1/2-inch
squares; brush each square over with the white of an egg, then fold down
the corners, so that they all meet in the middle of each piece of paste;
slightly press the two pieces together, brush them over with the egg,
sift over sugar, and bake in a nice quick oven for about 1/4 hour. When
they are done, make a little hole in the middle of the paste, and fill
it up with apricot jam, marmalade, or red-currant jelly. Pile them high
in the centre of a dish, on a napkin, and garnish with the same preserve
the tartlets are filled with.

_Time_.--1/4 hour or 20 minutes.

_Average cost_, with 1/2 lb. of puff-paste, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 2 dishes of pastry.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--It should be borne in mind, that, for all dishes of small
pastry, such as the preceding, trimmings of puff-pasty, left from larger
tarts, answer as well as making the paste expressly.

PUITS d'AMOUR, or PUFF-PASTE RINGS.

1321. INGREDIENTS.--Puff-paste No. 1205, the white of an egg, sifted
loaf sugar.

_Mode_.--Make some good puff-paste by recipe No. 1205; roll it out to
the thickness of about 1/4 inch, and, with a round fluted paste-cutter,
stamp out as many pieces as may be required; then work the paste up
again, and roll it out to the same thickness, and with a smaller cutter,
stamp out sufficient pieces to correspond with the larger ones. Again
stamp out the centre of these smaller rings; brush over the others with
the white of an egg, place a small ring on the top of every large
circular piece of paste, egg over the tops, and bake from 15 to 20
minutes. Sift over sugar, put them back in the oven to colour them; then
fill the rings with preserve of any bright colour. Dish them high on a
napkin, and serve. So many pretty dishes of pastry may be made by
stamping puff-paste out with fancy cutters, and filling the pieces, when
baked, with jelly or preserve, that our space will not allow us to give
a separate recipe for each of them; but, as they are all made from one
paste, and only the shape and garnishing varied, perhaps it is not
necessary, and by exercising a little ingenuity, variety may always be
obtained. Half-moons, leaves, diamonds, stars, shamrocks, rings, etc.,
are the most appropriate shapes for fancy pastry.

_Time_.--15 to 25 minutes.

_Average cost_, with 1/2 lb. of paste, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 2 dishes of pastry.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

PARADISE PUDDING.

1322. INGREDIENTS.--3 eggs, 3 apples, 1/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 3 oz. of
sugar, 3 oz. of currants, salt and grated nutmeg to taste, the rind of
1/2 lemon, 1/2 wineglassful of brandy.

_Mode_.--Pare, core, and mince the apples into small pieces, and mix
them with the other dry ingredients; beat up the eggs, moisten the
mixture with these, and beat it well; stir in the brandy, and put the
pudding into a buttered mould; tie it down with a cloth, boil for 1-1/2
hour, and serve with sweet sauce.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

PEASE PUDDING.

1323. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 pint of split peas, 2 oz. of butter, 2 eggs,
pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Put the peas to soak over-night, in rain-water, and float off
any that are wormeaten or discoloured. Tie them loosely in a clean
cloth, leaving a little room for them to swell, and put them on to boil
in cold rain-water, allowing 2-1/2 hours after the water has simmered
up. When the peas are tender, take them up and drain; rub them through a
colander with a wooden spoon; add the butter, eggs, pepper, and salt;
beat all well together for a few minutes, until the ingredients are well
incorporated; then tie them tightly in a floured cloth; boil the pudding
for another hour, turn it on to the dish, and serve very hot. This
pudding should always be sent to table with boiled leg of pork, and is
an exceedingly nice accompaniment to boiled beef.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours to boil the peas, tied loosely in the cloth; 1 hour
for the pudding.

_Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

BAKED PLUM-PUDDING.

1324. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of flour, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of
raisins, 1 lb. of suet, 2 eggs, 1 pint of milk, a few slices of candied
peel.

_Mode_.--Chop the suet finely; mix with it the flour, currants, stoned
raisins, and candied peel; moisten with the well-beaten eggs, and add
sufficient milk to make the pudding of the consistency of very thick
batter. Put it into a buttered dish, and bake in a good oven from 2-1/4
to 2-1/2 hours; turn it out, strew sifted sugar over, and serve. For a
very plain pudding, use only half the quantity of fruit, omit the eggs,
and substitute milk or water for them. The above ingredients make a
large family pudding; for a small one, half the quantity would be found
ample; but it must be baked quite 1-1/2 hour.

_Time_.--Large pudding, 2-1/4 to 2-1/2 hours; half the size, 1-1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 2s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 9 or 10 persons.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

[Illustration: RAISIN-GRAPE.]

RAISIN GRAPE.--All the kinds of raisins have much the same
virtues; they are nutritive and balsamic, but they are very
subject to fermentation with juices of any kind; and hence, when
eaten immoderately, they often bring on colics. There are many
varieties of grape used for raisins; the fruit of Valencia is
that mostly dried for culinary purposes, whilst most of the
table kinds are grown in Malaga, and called Muscatels. The
finest of all table raisins come from Provence or Italy; the
most esteemed of all are those of Roquevaire; they are very
large and very sweet. This sort is rarely eaten by any but the
most wealthy. The dried Malaga, or Muscatel raisins, which come
to this country packed in small boxes, and nicely preserved in
bunches, are variable in their quality, but mostly of a rich
flavour, when new, juicy, and of a deep purple hue.

AN EXCELLENT PLUM-PUDDING, made without Eggs.

1325. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of raisins, 6 oz. of
currants, 1/4 lb. of chopped suet, 1/4 lb. of brown sugar, 1/4 lb. of
mashed carrot, 1/4 lb. of mashed potatoes, 1 tablespoonful of treacle, 1
oz. of candied lemon-peel, 1 oz. of candied citron.

_Mode_.--Mix the flour, currants, suet, and sugar well together; have
ready the above proportions of mashed carrot and potato, which stir into
the other ingredients; add the treacle and lemon-peel; but put no liquid
in the mixture, or it will be spoiled. Tie it loosely in a cloth, or, if
put in a basin, do not quite fill it, as the pudding should have room to
swell, and boil it for 4 hours. Serve with brandy-sauce. This pudding is
better for being mixed over-night.

_Time_.--4 hours.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

AN UNRIVALLED PLUM-PUDDING.

1326. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lb. of muscatel raisins, 1-3/4 lb. of
currants, 1 lb. of sultana raisins, 2 lbs. of the finest moist sugar, 2
lbs. of bread crumbs, 16 eggs, 2 lbs. of finely-chopped suet, 6 oz. of
mixed candied peel, the rind of 2 lemons, 1 oz. of ground nutmeg, 1 oz.
of ground cinnamon, 1/2 oz. of pounded bitter almonds, 1/4 pint of
brandy.

_Mode_.--Stone and cut up the raisins, but do not chop them; wash and
dry the currants, and cut the candied peel into thin slices. Mix all the
dry ingredients well together, and moisten with the eggs, which should
be well beaten and strained, to the pudding; stir in the brandy, and,
when all is thoroughly mixed, well butter and flour a stout new
pudding-cloth; put in the pudding, tie it down very tightly and closely,
boil from 6 to 8 hours, and serve with brandy-sauce. A few sweet
almonds, blanched and cut in strips, and stuck on the pudding, ornament
it prettily. This quantity may be divided and boiled in buttered moulds.
For small families this is the most desirable way, as the above will be
found to make a pudding of rather large dimensions.

_Time_.--6 to 8 hours. _Average cost_, 7s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ in winter. _Sufficient_ for 12 or 14 persons.

_Note_.--The muscatel raisins can be purchased at a cheap rate loose
(not in bunches): they are then scarcely higher in price than the
ordinary raisins, and impart a much richer flavour to the pudding.

[Illustration: SULTANA GRAPE.]

SULTANA GRAPE.--We have elsewhere stated that the small black
grape grown in Corinth and the Ionian Isles is, when dried, the
common currant of the grocers' shops; the white or yellow grape,
grown in the same places, is somewhat larger than the black
variety, and is that which produces the Sultana raisin. It has
been called Sultana from its delicate qualities and unique
growth: the finest are those of Smyrna. They have not sufficient
flavour and sugary properties to serve alone for puddings and
cakes, but they are peculiarly valuable for mixing, that is to
say, for introducing in company with the richer sorts of
Valencias or Muscatels. In white puddings, or cakes, too, where
the whiteness must be preserved, the Sultana raisin should be
used. But the greatest value of this fruit in the _cuisine_ is
that of its saving labour; for it has no stones. Half Muscatels
and half Sultanas are an admirable mixture for general purposes.

A PLAIN CHRISTMAS PUDDING FOR CHILDREN.

1327. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of flour, 1 lb. of bread crumbs, 3/4 lb. of
stoned raisins, 3/4 lb. of currants, 3/4 lb. of suet, 3 or 4 eggs, milk,
2 oz. of candied peel, 1 teaspoonful of powdered allspice, 1/2
saltspoonful of salt.

_Mode_.--Let the suet be finely chopped, the raisins stoned, and the
currants well washed, picked, and dried. Mix these with the other dry
ingredients, and stir all well together; beat and strain the eggs to the
pudding, stir these in, and add just sufficient milk to make it mix
properly. Tie it up in a well-floured cloth, put it into boiling water,
and boil for at least 5 hours. Serve with a sprig of holly placed in the
middle of the pudding, and a little pounded sugar sprinkled over it.

_Time_.--5 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 9 or 10 children. _Seasonable_ at Christmas.

RAISINS.--Raisins are grapes, prepared by suffering them to
remain on the vine until they are perfectly ripe, and then
drying them in the sun or by the heat of an oven. The sun-dried
grapes are sweet, the oven-dried of an acid flavour. The common
way of drying grapes for raisins is to tie two or three bunches
of them together, whilst yet on the vine, and dip them into a
hot lixivium of wood-ashes mixed with a little of the oil of
olives: this disposes them to shrink and wrinkle, after which
they are left on the vine three or four days, separated, on
sticks in a horizontal situation, and then dried in the sun at
leisure, after being cut from the tree.

CHRISTMAS PLUM-PUDDING.

(_Very Good_.)

1328. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lb. of raisins, 1/2 lb. of currants, 1/2 lb.
of mixed peel, 3/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 3/4 lb. of suet, 8 eggs, 1
wineglassful of brandy.

[Illustration: CHRISTMAS PLUM-PUDDING IN MOULD.]

_Mode_.--Stone and cut the raisins in halves, but do not chop them;
wash, pick, and dry the currants, and mince the suet finely; cut the
candied peel into thin slices, and grate down the bread into fine
crumbs. When all these dry ingredients are prepared, mix them well
together; then moisten the mixture with the eggs, which should be well
beaten, and the brandy; stir well, that everything may be very
thoroughly blended, and _press_ the pudding into a buttered mould; tie
it down tightly with a floured cloth, and boil for 5 or 6 hours. It may
be boiled in a cloth without a mould, and will require the same time
allowed for cooking. As Christmas puddings are usually made a few days
before they are required for table, when the pudding is taken out of the
pot, hang it up immediately, and put a plate or saucer underneath to
catch the water that may drain from it. The day it is to be eaten,
plunge it into boiling water, and keep it boiling for at least 2 hours;
then turn it out of the mould, and serve with brandy-sauce. On
Christmas-day a sprig of holly is usually placed in the middle of the
pudding, and about a wineglassful of brandy poured round it, which, at
the moment of serving, is lighted, and the pudding thus brought to table
encircled in flame.

_Time_.--5 or 6 hours the first time of boiling; 2 hours the day it is
to be served.

_Average cost_, 4s.

_Sufficient_ for a quart mould for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ on the 25th of December, and on various festive occasions
till March.

_Note_.--Five or six of these puddings should be made at one time, as
they will keep good for many weeks, and in cases where unexpected guests
arrive, will be found an acceptable, and, as it only requires warming
through, a quickly-prepared dish. Moulds of every shape and size are
manufactured for these puddings, and may be purchased of Messrs. R. & J.
Slack, 336, Strand.

BRANDY is the alcoholic or spirituous portion of wine, separated
from the aqueous part, the colouring matter, &c., by
distillation. The word is of German origin, and in its German
form, _brantuein_, signifies burnt wine, or wine that has
undergone the action of fire; brandies, so called, however, have
been made from potatoes, carrots, beetroot, pears, and other
vegetable substances; but they are all inferior to true brandy.
Brandy is prepared in most wine countries, but that of France is
the most esteemed. It is procured not only by distilling the
wine itself, but also by fermenting and distilling the _marc_,
or residue of the pressings of the grape. It is procured
indifferently from red or white wine, and different wines yield
very different proportions of it, the strongest, of course,
giving the largest quantity. Brandy obtained from marc has a
more acrid taste than that from wine. The celebrated brandy of
Cognac, a town in the department of Charente, and that brought
from Andraye, seem to owe their excellence from being made from
white wine. Like other spirit, brandy is colourless when
recently distilled; by mere keeping, however, owing, probably,
to some change in the soluble matter contained in it, it
acquires a slight colour, which is much increased by keeping in
casks, and is made of the required intensity by the addition of
burnt sugar or other colouring matter. What is called _British
brandy_ is not, in fact, brandy, which is the name, as we have
said, of a spirit distilled from _wine;_ but is a spirit made
chiefly from malt spirit, with the addition of mineral acids and
various flavouring ingredients, the exact composition being kept
secret. It is distilled somewhat extensively in this country;
real brandy scarcely at all. The brandies imported into England
are chiefly from Bordeaux, Rochelle, and Cognac.

A POUND PLUM-PUDDING.

1329. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of suet, 1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of stoned
raisins, 8 eggs, 1/2 grated nutmeg, 2 oz. of sliced candied peel, 1
teaspoonful of ground ginger, 1/2 lb. of bread crumbs, 1/2 lb. of flour,
1/2 pint of milk.

[Illustration: BAKED PUDDING OR CAKE-MOULD.]

_Mode_.--Chop the suet finely; mix with it the dry ingredients; stir
these well together, and add the well-beaten eggs and milk to moisten
with. Beat up the mixture well, and should the above proportion of milk
not be found sufficient to make it of the proper consistency, a little
more should be added. Press the pudding into a mould, tie it in a
floured cloth, and boil for 5 hours, or rather longer, and serve with
brandy-sauce.

_Time_.--5 hours, or longer. _Average cost_, 3s.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ in winter.

_Note_.--The above pudding may be baked instead of boiled; it should be
put into a buttered mould or tin, and baked for about 2 hours; a smaller
one would take about 1-1/4 hour.

CITRON.--The fruit of the citron-tree (_Citrus medica_) is
acidulous, antiseptic, and antiscorbutic: it excites the
appetite, and stops vomiting, and, like lemon-juice, has been
greatly extolled in chronic rheumatism, gout, and scurvy. Mixed
with cordials, it is used as an antidote to the _machineel
poison_. The candied peel is prepared in the same manner as
orange or lemon-peel; that is to say, the peel is boiled in
water until quite soft, and then suspended in concentrated syrup
(in the cold), after which it is either dried in a current of
warm air, or in a stove, at a heat not exceeding 120 deg.
Fahrenheit. The syrup must be kept fully saturated with sugar by
reboiling it once or twice during the process. It may be dusted
with powdered lump sugar, if necessary. The citron is supposed
to be the Median, Assyrian, or Persian apple of the Greeks. It
is described by Risso as having a majestic appearance, its
shining leaves and rosy flowers being succeeded by fruit whose
beauty and size astonish the observer, whilst their odour
gratifies his senses. In China there is an enormous variety, but
the citron is cultivated in all orange-growing countries.

PLUM-PUDDING OF FRESH FRUIT.

1330. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 lb. of suet crust No. 1-1/2 pint of Orleans or
any other kind of plum, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar.

_Mode_.--Line a pudding-basin with suet crust rolled out to the
thickness of about 1/2 inch; fill the basin with the fruit, put in the
sugar, and cover with crust. Fold the edges over, and pinch them
together, to prevent the juice escaping. Tie over a floured cloth, put
the pudding into boiling water, and boil from 2 to 2-1/2 hours. Turn it
out of the basin, and serve quickly.

_Time_.--2 to 2-1/2 hours.

_Average cost_, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_, with various kinds of plums, from the beginning of August
to the beginning of October.

[Illustration: PLUM.]

PLUMS.--Almost all the varieties of the cultivated plum are
agreeable and refreshing: it is not a nourishing fruit, and if
indulged in to excess, when unripe, is almost certain to cause
diarrhoea and cholera. Weak and delicate persons had better
abstain from plums altogether. The modes of preparing plums are
as numerous as the varieties of the fruit. The objections raised
against raw plums do not apply to the cooked fruit, which even
the invalid may eat in moderation.

PLUM TART.

1331. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of good short crust No. 1211, 1-1/2 pint of
plums, 1/4 lb. of moist sugar.

[Illustration: PLUM TART.]

_Mode_.--Line the edges of a deep tart-dish with crust made by recipe
No. 1211; fill the dish with plums, and place a small cup or jar, upside
down, in the midst of them. Put in the sugar, cover the pie with crust,
ornament the edges, and bake in a good oven from 1/2 to 3/4 hour. When
puff-crust is preferred to short crust, use that made by recipe No.
1206, and glaze the top by brushing it over with the white of an egg
beaten to a stiff froth with a knife; sprinkle over a little sifted
sugar, and put the pie in the oven to set the glaze.

_Time_.--1/2 to 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_, with various kinds of plums, from the beginning of August
to the beginning of October.

POTATO PASTY.

1332. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lb. of rump-steak or mutton cutlets, pepper
and salt to taste, 1/3 pint of weak broth or gravy, 1 oz. of butter,
mashed potatoes.

[Illustration: POTATO-PASTY PAN.]

_Mode_.--Place the meat, cut in small pieces, at the bottom of the pan;
season it with pepper and salt, and add the gravy and butter broken,
into small pieces. Put on the perforated plate, with its valve-pipe
screwed on, and fill up the whole space to the top of the tube with
nicely-mashed potatoes mixed with a little milk, and finish the surface
of them in any ornamental manner. If carefully baked, the potatoes will
be covered with a delicate brown crust, retaining all the savoury steam
rising from the meat. Send it to table as it comes from the oven, with a
napkin folded round it.

_Time_.--40 to 60 minutes. _Average cost_, 2s.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

POTATO PUDDING.

1333. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of mashed potatoes, 2 oz. of butter, 2 eggs,
1/4 pint of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of sherry, 1/4 saltspoonful of salt,
the juice and rind of 1 small lemon, 2 oz. of sugar.

_Mode_.--Boil sufficient potatoes to make 1/2 lb. when mashed; add to
these the butter, eggs, milk, sherry, lemon-juice, and sugar; mince the
lemon-peel very finely, and beat all the ingredients well together. Put
the pudding into a buttered pie-dish, and bake for rather more than 1/2
hour. To enrich it, add a few pounded almonds, and increase the quantity
of eggs and butter.

_Time_.--1/2 hour, or rather longer. _Average cost_, 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

TO ICE OR GLAZE PASTRY.

1334. To glaze pastry, which is the usual method adopted for meat or
raised pies, break an egg, separate the yolk from the white, and beat
the former for a short time. Then, when the pastry is nearly baked, take
it out of the oven, brush it over with this beaten yolk of egg, and put
it back in the oven to set the glaze.

1335. To ice pastry, which is the usual method adopted for fruit tarts
and sweet dishes of pastry, put the white of an egg on a plate, and with
the blade of a knife beat it to a stiff froth. When the pastry is nearly
baked, brush it over with this, and sift over some pounded sugar; put it
back into the oven to set the glaze, and, in a few minutes, it will be
done. Great care should be taken that the paste does not catch or burn
in the oven, which it is very liable to do after the icing is laid on.

_Sufficient_--Allow 1 egg and 1-1/8 oz. of sugar to glaze 3 tarts.

[Illustration: SUGAR CANES.]

SUGAR has been happily called "the honey of reeds." The
sugar-cane appears to be originally a native of the East Indies.
The Chinese have cultivated it for 2,000 years. The Egyptians,
Phoenicians, and Jews knew nothing about it. The Greek
physicians are the first who speak of it. It was not till the
year 1471 that a Venetian discovered the method of purifying
brown sugar and making loaf sugar. He gained an immense fortune
by this discovery. Our supplies are now obtained from Barbadoes,
Jamaica, Mauritius, Ceylon, the East and West Indies generally,
and the United States; but the largest supplies come from Cuba.
Sugar is divided into the following classes:--Refined sugar,
white clayed, brown clayed, brown raw, and molasses. The
sugarcane grows to the height of six, twelve, or even sometimes
twenty feet. It is propagated from cuttings, requires much
hoeing and weeding, giving employment to thousands upon
thousands of slaves in the slave countries, and attains maturity

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