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The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

Part 17 out of 34

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head and neck, draw the strings or sinews of the thighs, and cut off the
legs at the first joint; draw the legs into the body, fill the breast
with forcemeat made by recipe No. 417; run a skewer through the wing and
the middle joint of the leg, quite into the leg and wing on the opposite
side; break the breastbone, and make the bird look as round and as
compact as possible.

[Illustration: BOILED TURKEY.]

_Mode_.--Put the turkey into sufficient _hot_ water to cover it; let it
come to a boil, then carefully remove all the scum: if this is attended
to, there is no occasion to boil the bird in a floured cloth; but it
should be well covered with the water. Let it simmer very gently for
about 1-1/2 hour to 1-3/4 hour, according to the size, and serve with
either white, celery, oyster, or mushroom sauce, or parsley-and-butter,
a little of which should be poured over the turkey. Boiled ham, bacon,
tongue, or pickled pork, should always accompany this dish; and when
oyster sauce is served, the turkey should be stuffed with oyster
forcemeat.

_Time_.--A small turkey, 1-1/2 hour; a large one, 1-3/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 5s. 6d. to 7s. 6d. each, but more expensive at
Christmas, on account of the great demand.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ from December to February.

THE TURKEY.--The turkey, for which fine bird we are indebted to
America, is certainly one of the most glorious presents made by
the New World to the Old. Some, indeed, assert that this bird
was known to the ancients, and that it was served at the
wedding-feast of Charlemagne. This opinion, however, has been
controverted by first-rate authorities, who declare that the
French name of the bird, _dindon_, proves its origin; that the
form of the bird is altogether foreign, and that it is found in
America alone in a wild state. There is but little doubt, from
the information which has been gained at considerable trouble,
that it appeared, generally, in Europe about the end of the 17th
century; that it was first imported into France by Jesuits, who
had been sent out missionaries to the West; and that from France
it spread over Europe. To this day, in many localities in
France, a turkey is called a Jesuit. On the farms of N. America,
where turkeys are very common, they are raised either from eggs
which have been found, or from young ones caught in the woods:
they thus preserve almost entirely their original plumage. The
turkey only became gradually acclimated, both on the continent
and in England: in the middle of the 18th century, scarcely 10
out of 20 young turkeys lived; now, generally speaking, 15 out
of the same number arrive at maturity.

CROQUETTES OF TURKEY (Cold Meat Cookery).

987. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold turkey; to every 1/2 lb. of meat
allow 2 oz. of ham or bacon, 2 shalots, 1 oz. of butter, 1 tablespoonful
of flour, the yolks of 2 eggs, egg and bread crumbs.

_Mode_.--The smaller pieces, that will not do for a fricassee or hash,
answer very well for this dish. Mince the meat finely with ham or bacon
in the above proportion; make a gravy of the bones and trimmings, well
seasoning it; mince the shalots, put them into a stewpan with the
butter, add the flour; mix well, then put in the mince, and about 1/2
pint of the gravy made from the bones. (The proportion of the butter
must be increased or diminished according to the quantity of mince.)
When just boiled, add the yolks of 2 eggs; put the mixture out to cool,
and then shape it in a wineglass. Cover the croquettes with egg and
bread crumbs, and fry them a delicate brown. Put small pieces of
parsley-stems for stalks, and serve with, rolled bacon cut very thin.

_Time_.--8 minutes to fry the croquettes.

_Seasonable_ from December to February.

THE WILD TURKEY.--In its wild state, the turkey is gregarious,
going together in extensive flocks, numbering as many as five
hundred. These frequent the great swamps of America, where they
roost; but, at sunrise, leave these situations to repair to the
dry woods, in search of berries and acorns. They perch on the
boughs of trees, and, by rising from branch to branch, attain
the height they desire. They usually mount to the highest tops,
apparently from an instinctive conception that the loftier they
are the further they are out of danger. They fly awkwardly, but
run with great swiftness, and, about the month of March become
so fat as not to be able to take a flight beyond three or four
hundred yards, and are then, also, easily run down by a
horseman. Now, however, it rarely happens that wild turkeys are
seen in the inhabited parts of America. It is only in the
distant and more unfrequented parts that they are found in great
numbers.

FRICASSEED TURKEY (Cold Meat Cookery).

988. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast or boiled turkey; a strip
of lemon-peel, a bunch of savoury herbs, 1 onion, pepper and salt to
taste, 1 pint of water, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, the yolk of an egg.

_Mode_.--Cut some nice slices from the remains of a cold turkey, and put
the bones and trimmings into a stewpan, with the lemon-peel, herbs,
onion, pepper, salt, add the water; stew for an hour, strain the gravy,
and lay in the pieces of turkey. When warm through, add the cream and
the yolk of an egg; stir it well round, and, when getting thick, take
out the pieces, lay them on a hot dish, and pour the sauce over. Garnish
the fricassee with sippets of toasted bread. Celery or cucumbers, cut
into small pieces, may be put into the sauce; if the former, it must be
boiled first.

_Time_.--1 hour to make the gravy.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the cold turkey, 4d.

_Seasonable_ from December to February.

THE TURKEY.--This is one of the gallinaceous birds, the
principal genera of which are Pheasants, Turkeys, Peacocks,
Bustards, Pintatoes, and Grouse. They live mostly on the ground,
scraping the earth with their feet, and feeding on seeds and
grains, which, previous to digestion, are macerated in their
crops. They usually associate in families, consisting of one
male and several females. Turkeys are particularly fond of the
seeds of nettles, whilst the seeds of the foxglove will poison
them. The common turkey is a native of North America, and, in
the reign of Henry VIII., was introduced into England. According
to Tusser's "Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry," it began
about the year 1585 to form a dish at our rural Christmas
feasts:--

"Beefe, mutton, and pork, shred pies of the best,
Pig, veal, goose, and capon, and turkey well drest;
Cheese, apples, and nuts, jolly carols to hear,
As then in the country is counted good cheer."

The turkey is one of the most difficult birds to rear, and its
flesh is much esteemed.

THE DISPOSITION OF THE TURKEY.--Among themselves, turkeys are
extremely furious, whilst amongst other animals they are usually
both weak and cowardly. The domestic cock frequently makes them
keep at a distance, whilst they will rarely attack him but in a
united body, when the cock is rather crushed by their weight
than defeated by their prowess. The disposition of the female is
in general much more gentle than that of the male. When leading
forth her young to collect their food, though so large and
apparently so powerful a bird, she gives them very slight
protection from the attacks of any rapacious animal which may
appear against them. She rather warns them of their danger than
offers to defend them; yet she is extremely affectionate to her
young.

HASHED TURKEY.

989. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast turkey, 1 onion, pepper and
salt to taste, rather more than 1 pint of water, 1 carrot, 1 turnip, 1
blade of mace, a bunch of savoury herbs, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom
ketchup, 1 tablespoonful of port wine, thickening of butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Cut the turkey into neat joints; the best pieces reserve for
the hash, the inferior joints and trimmings put into a stewpan with an
onion cut in slices, pepper and salt, a carrot, turnip, mace, herbs, and
water in the above proportion; simmer these for an hour, then strain the
gravy, thicken it with butter and flour, flavour with ketchup and port
wine, and lay in the pieces of turkey to warm through; if there is any
stuffing left, put that in also, as it so much improves the flavour of
the gravy. When it boils, serve, and garnish the dish with sippets of
toasted bread.

_Time_.--1 hour to make the gravy.

_Seasonable_ from December to February.

HUNTING TURKEYS.--Formerly, in Canada, hunting turkeys was one
of the principal diversions of the natives of that country. When
they discovered the retreat of the birds, which was generally
near a field of nettles, or where grain of any kind was
plentiful, they would send a well-trained dog into the midst of
the flock. The turkeys no sooner perceived their enemy than they
would run off at full speed, and with such swiftness that they
would leave the dog far behind. He, however, would follow in
their wake, and as they could not, for a great length of time,
continue at their speed, they were at last forced to seek
shelter in the trees. There they would sit, spent with fatigue,
till the hunters would approach, and, with long poles, knock
them down one after the other.

ROAST TURKEY.

990. INGREDIENTS.--Turkey; forcemeat No. 417.

_Choosing and Trussing_.--Choose cock turkeys by their short spurs and
black legs, in which case they are young; if the spurs are long, and the
legs pale and rough, they are old. If the bird has been long killed, the
eyes will appear sunk and the feet very dry; but, if fresh, the contrary
will be the case. Middling-sized fleshy turkeys are by many persons
considered superior to those of an immense growth, as they are,
generally speaking, much more tender. They should never be dressed the
same day they are killed; but, in cold weather, should hang at least 8
days; if the weather is mild, 4 or 5 days will be found sufficient.
Carefully pluck the bird, singe it with white paper, and wipe it
thoroughly with a cloth; draw it, preserve the liver and gizzard, and be
particular not to break the gall-bag, as no washing will remove the
bitter taste it imparts where it once touches. Wash it _inside_ well,
and wipe it thoroughly dry with a cloth; the _outside_ merely requires
nicely wiping, as we have just stated. Cut off the neck close to the
back, but leave enough of the crop-skin to turn over; break the leg-bone
close below the knee, draw out the strings from the thighs, and flatten
the breastbone to make it look plump. Have ready a forcemeat made by
recipe No. 417; fill the breast with this, and, if a trussing-needle is
used, sew the neck over to the back; if a needle is not at hand, a
skewer will answer the purpose. Run a skewer through the pinion and
thigh into the body to the pinion and thigh on the other side, and press
the legs as much as possible between the breast and the side bones, and
put the liver under one pinion and the gizzard under the other. Pass a
string across the back of the bird, catch it over the points of the
skewer, tie it in the centre of the back, and be particular that the
turkey is very firmly trussed. This may be more easily accomplished with
a needle and twine than with skewers.

[Illustration: ROAST TURKEY.]

_Mode_.--Fasten a sheet of buttered paper on to the breast of the bird,
put it down to a bright fire, at some little distance _at first_
(afterwards draw it nearer), and keep it well basted the whole of the
time it is cooking. About 1/4 hour before serving, remove the paper,
dredge the turkey lightly with flour, and put a piece of butter into the
basting-ladle; as the butter melts, baste the bird with it. When of a
nice brown and well frothed, serve with a tureen of good brown gravy and
one of bread sauce. Fried sausages are a favourite addition to roast
turkey; they make a pretty garnish, besides adding very much to the
flavour. When these are not at hand, a few forcemeat balls should be
placed round the dish as a garnish. Turkey may also be stuffed with
sausage-meat, and a chestnut forcemeat with the same sauce is, by many
persons, much esteemed as an accompaniment to this favourite dish.--See
coloured plate, A1.

_Time_.--Small turkey, 1-1/2 hour; moderate-sized one, about 10 lbs., 2
hours; large turkey, 2-1/2 hours, or longer.

_Average cost_, from 10s. to 12s., but expensive at Christmas, on
account of the great demand.

_Sufficient_.--A moderate-sized turkey for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ from December to February.

ENGLISH TURKEYS.--These are reared in great numbers in Suffolk,
Norfolk, and several other counties, whence they were wont to be
driven to the London market in flocks of several hundreds; the
improvements in our modes of travelling now, however, enable
them to be brought by railway. Their drivers used to manage them
with great facility, by means of a bit of red rag tied to the
end of a long stick, which, from the antipathy these birds have
to that colour, effectually answered the purpose of a scourge.
There are three varieties of the turkey in this country,--the
black, the white, and the speckled, or copper-coloured. The
black approaches nearest to the original stock, and is esteemed
the best. Its flesh is white and tender, delicate, nourishing,
and of excellent flavour; it greatly deteriorates with age,
however, and is then good for little but stewing.

ROAST TURKEY POULTS.

991. INGREDIENTS.--Turkey poult; butter.

_Choosing and Trussing_.--Choose a plump bird, and truss it in the
following manner:--After it has been carefully plucked, drawn, and
singed, skin the neck, and fasten the head under the wing; turn the legs
at the first joint, and bring the feet close to the thighs, as a
woodcock should be trussed, _and do not stuff it_.

_Mode_.--Put it down to a bright fire, keep it well basted, and at first
place a piece of paper on the breast to prevent its taking too much
colour. About 10 minutes before serving, dredge it lightly with flour,
and baste well; when nicely frothed, send it to table immediately, with
a little gravy in the dish, and some in a tureen. If at hand, a few
water-cresses may be placed round the turkey as a garnish, or it may be
larded.

_Time_.--About 1 hour. _Average cost_, 7s. to 8s. each.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_.--In full season from June to October.

THE FUTURE OF THE TURKEY.--Human ingenuity subjects almost every
material to the purposes of ornament or use and the feathers of
turkeys have been found adapted for more ends than one. The
American Indians convert then into an elegant clothing, and, by
twisting the inner ribs into a strong double string, with hemp
or the inner bark of the mulberry tree, work it like matting.
This fabric has a very rich and glossy appearance and is as fine
as silk shag. The natives of Louisiana used to make fans of the
tail; and four of that appendage joined together was formerly
constructed into a parasol by the French.

TO BONE A TURKEY OR FOWL WITHOUT OPENING IT.

(_Miss Acton's Recipe_.)

992. After the fowl has been drawn and singed, wipe it inside and out
with a clean cloth, but do not wash it. Take off the head, cut through
the skin all round the first joint of the legs, and pull them from the
fowl, to draw out the large tendons. Raise the flesh first from the
lower part of the backbone, and a little also from the end of the
breastbone, if necessary; work the knife gradually to the socket of the
thigh; with the point of the knife detach the joint from it, take the
end of the bone firmly in the fingers, and cut the flesh clean from it
down to the next joint, round which pass the point of the knife
carefully, and when the skin is loosened from it in every part, cut
round the next bone, keeping; the edge of the knife close to it, until
the whole of the leg is done. Remove the bones of the other leg in the
same manner; then detach the flesh from the back--and breast-bone
sufficiently to enable you to reach the upper joints of the wings;
proceed with these as with the legs, but be especially careful not to
pierce the skin of the second joint: it is usual to leave the pinions
unboned, in order to give more easily its natural form to the fowl when
it is dressed. The merrythought and neck-bones may now easily be cut
away, the back-and side-bones taken out without being divided, and the
breastbone separated carefully from the flesh (which, as the work
progresses, must be turned back from the bones upon the fowl, until it
is completely inside out). After the one remaining bone is removed, draw
the wings and legs back to their proper form, and turn the fowl right
side outwards.

993. A turkey is boned exactly in the same manner; but as it requires a
very large proportion of forcemeat to fill it entirely, the logs and
wings are sometimes drawn into the body, to diminish the expense of
this. If very securely trussed, and sewn, the bird may be either boiled,
or stewed in rich gravy, as well as roasted, after being boned and
forced; but it must be most gently cooled, or it may burst.

ANOTHER MODE OF BONING A TURKEY OR FOWL. (_Miss Acton's Recipe_.)

994. Cut through the skin down the centre of the back, and raise the
flesh carefully on either side with the point of a sharp knife, until
the sockets of the wings and thighs are reached. Till a little practice
has been gained, it will perhaps be bettor to bone these joints before
proceeding further; but after they are once detached from it, the whole
of the body may easily be separated from the flesh and taken out entire:
only the neck-bones and merrythought will then remain to be removed. The
bird thus prepared may either be restored to its original form, by
filling the legs and wings with forcemeat, and the body with the livers
of two or three fowls, mixed with alternate layers of parboiled tongue
freed from the rind, fine sausage-meat, or veal forcemeat, or thin
slices of the nicest bacon, or aught else of good flavour, which will
give a marbled appearance to the fowl when it is carved; and then be
sewn up and trussed as usual; or the legs and wings may be drawn inside
the body, and the bird being first flattened on a table, may be covered
with sausage-meat, and the various other ingredients we have named, so
placed that it shall be of equal thickness in every part; then tightly
rolled, bound firmly together with a fillet of broad tape, wrapped in a
thin pudding-cloth, closely tied at both ends, and dressed as
follows:--Put it into a braising-pan, stewpan, or thick iron saucepan,
bright in the inside, and fitted as nearly as may be to its size; add
all the chicken-bones, a bunch of sweet herbs, two carrots, two
bay-leaves, a large blade of mace, twenty-four white peppercorns, and
any trimmings or bones of undressed veal which may be at hand; cover the
whole with good veal broth, add salt, if needed, and stew it very
softly, from an hour and a quarter to an hour and a half; let it cool in
the liquor in which it was stewed; and after it is lifted out, boil down
the gravy to a jelly and strain it; let it become cold, clear off the
fat, and serve it cut into large dice or roughed, and laid round the
fowl, which is to be served cold. If restored to its form, instead of
being rolled, it must be stewed gently for an hour, and may then be sent
to table hot, covered with mushroom, or any other good sauce that may be
preferred; or it may be left until the following day, and served
garnished with the jelly, which should be firm, and very clear and
well-flavoured: the liquor in which a calf's foot has been boiled down,
added to the broth, will give it the necessary degree of consistence.

TO BONE FOWLS FOR FRICASSEES, CURRIES, & PIES.

995. First carve them entirely into joints, then remove the bones,
beginning with the legs and wings, at the head of the largest bone; hold
this with the fingers, and work the knife as directed in the recipe
above. The remainder of the birds is too easily done to require any
instructions.

TO DRESS WHEATEARS.

996. INGREDIENTS.--Wheatears; fresh butter.

_Mode_.--After the birds are picked, gutted, and cleaned, truss them
like larks, put them down to a quick fire, and baste them well with
fresh butter. When done, which will be in about 20 minutes, dish them on
fried bread crumbs, and garnish the dish with slices of lemon.

_Time_.--20 minutes.

_Seasonable_ from July to October.

THE WHEATEAR.--The wheatear is an annual visitor of England: it
arrives about the middle of March and leaves in September. The
females come about a fortnight before the males, and continue to
arrive till the middle of May. They are in season from July to
October, and are taken in large numbers on the South Downs, in
the neighbourhood of Eastbourne, Brighton, and other parts of
Sussex. They are taken by means of snares and nets, and numbers
of them are eaten on the spot by the inhabitants. The larger
ones are sent to London and potted, where they are by many as
much esteemed as the ortolans of the continent. Mr. Pennant
assigns as the reason of their abounding on the downs about
Eastbourne, the existence of a species of fly which forms their
favourite food, and which feeds on the wild thyme on the
adjacent hills.

[Illustration: THE GUINEA-PIG.]

997. THE GUINEA-PIG.--This common hutch-companion of the rabbit,
although originally a native of Brazil, propagates freely in
England and other European countries. Were it not that they
suffer cruelly from cats, and numerous other enemies, and that
it is the habit of the males to devour their own offspring,
their numbers would soon become overwhelming. Rats, however, it
is said, carefully avoid them; and for this reason they are
frequently bred by rabbit-fanciers, by way of protection for
their young stock against those troublesome vermin. The lower
tier of a rabbit-hutch is esteemed excellent quarters by the
guinea-pig: here, as he runs loose, he will devour the waste
food of his more admired companion. Home naturalists assert that
the guinea-pig will breed at two months old, the litter varying
from four to twelve at a time. It is varied in colour,--white,
fawn, and black, and a mixture of the three colours, forming a
tortoiseshell, which is the more generally admired hue.
Occasionally, the white ones have red eyes, like those of the
ferret and the white rabbit. Their flesh, although eatable, is
decidedly unfit for food; they have been tasted, however, we
presume by some enthusiast eager to advance the cause of
science, or by some eccentric epicure in search of a new
pleasure for his palate. Unless it has been that they deter rats
from intruding within the rabbit-hutch, they are as useless as
they are harmless. The usual ornament of an animal's hind
quarters is denied them; and were it not for this fact, and also
for their difference in colour, the Shaksperean locution, "a rat
without a tail," would designate them very properly.

[Illustration: THE CYGNET.]

998. THE CYGNET.--The Cygnet, or the young Swan, was formerly
much esteemed; but it has "fallen from its high estate," and is
now rarely seen upon the table. We are not sure that it is not
still fattened in Norwich for the corporation of that place.
Persons who have property on the river there, take the young
birds, and send them to some one who is employed by the
corporation, to be fed; and for this trouble he is paid, or was
wont to be paid, about half a guinea a bird. It is as the future
bird of elegance and grace that the young swan is mostly
admired; when it has become old enough to grace the waters, then
it is that all admire her, when she with
"Arched neck,
Between her white wings mantling,
proudly rows
Her state with oary feet."

POULTRY CARVING.

ROAST DUCK.

[Illustration: ROAST DUCK.]

999. No dishes require so much knowledge and skill in their carving as
do game and poultry; for it is necessary to be well acquainted with the
anatomy of the bird and animal in order to place the knife at exactly
the proper point. A tough fowl and an old goose are sad triers of a
carver's powers and temper, and, indeed, sometimes of the good humour of
those in the neighbourhood of the carver; for a sudden tilt of the dish
may eventuate in the placing a quantity of the gravy in the lap of the
right or left-hand supporter of the host. We will endeavour to assist
those who are unacquainted with the "gentle art of carving," and also
those who are but slightly acquainted with it, by simply describing the
rules to follow, and referring to the distinctly-marked Illustrations of
each dish, which will further help to bring light to the minds of the
uninitiated. If the bird be a young duckling, it may be carved like a
fowl, viz., by first taking off the leg and the wing on either side, as
described at No. 1000; but in cases where the duckling is very small, it
will be as well not to separate the leg from the wing, as they will not
then form too large a portion for a single serving. After the legs and
wings are disposed of, the remainder of the duck will be also carved in
the same manner as a fowl; and not much difficulty will be experienced,
as ducklings are tender, and the joints are easily broken by a little
gentle forcing, or penetrated by the knife. In cases where the duck is a
large bird, the better plan to pursue is then to carve it like a goose,
that is, by cutting pieces from the breast in the direction indicated by
the lines marked from 1 to 2, commencing to carve the slices close to
the wing, and then proceeding upwards from that to the breastbone. If
more should be wanted than can be obtained from both sides of the
breast, then the legs and wings must be attacked, in the same way as is
described in connection with carving a fowl. It may be here remarked,
that as the legs of a duck are placed far more backward than those of a
fowl, their position causing the waddling motion of the bird, the
thigh-bones will be found considerably nearer towards the backbone than
in a chicken: this is the only difference worth mentioning. The carver
should ask each guest if a portion of stuffing would be agreeable; and
in order to get at this, a cut should be made below the breast, as shown
by the line from 3 to 4, at the part called the "apron," and the spoon
inserted. (As described in the recipe, it is an excellent plan, when a
couple of ducks are served, to have one with, and the other without
stuffing.) As to the prime parts of a duck, it has been said that "the
wing of a flier and the leg of a swimmer" are severally the best
portions. Some persons are fond of the feet of the duck; and, in
trussing, these should never be taken off. The leg, wing, and neckbone
are here shown; so that it will be easy to see the shape they should be
when cut off.

[Illustration: LEG, WING, AND NECKBONE OF DUCK.]

BOILED FOWL.

[Illustration: BOILED FOWL.]

[Illustration: LEG, WING, AND NECKBONE OF FOWL.]

1000. This will not be found a very difficult member of the poultry
family to carve, unless, as may happen, a very old farmyard occupant,
useless for egg-laying purposes, has, by some unlucky mischance, been
introduced info the kitchen as a "fine young chicken." Skill, however,
and the application of a small amount of strength, combined with a fine
keeping of the temper, will even get over that difficulty. Fixing the
fork firmly in the breast, let the knife be sharply passed along the
line shown from 1 to 2; then cut downwards from that line to fig. 3; and
the wing, it will be found, can be easily withdrawn. The shape of the
wing should be like the accompanying engraving. Let the fork be placed
inside the leg, which should be gently forced away from the body of the
fowl; and the joint, being thus discovered, the carver can readily cut
through it, and the leg can be served. When the leg is displaced, it
should be of the same shape as that shown in the annexed woodcut. The
legs and wings on either side having been taken off, the carver should
draw his knife through the flesh in the direction of the line 4 to 5: by
this means the knife can be slipped underneath the merrythought, which,
being lifted up and pressed backward, will immediately come off. The
collar--or neck-bones are the next to consider: these lie on each side
of the merrythought, close under the upper part of the wings; and, in
order to free these from the fowl, they must also be raised by the knife
at their broad end, and turned from the body towards the breastbone,
until the shorter piece of the bone, as shown in the cut, breaks off.
There will now be left only the breast, with the ribs. The breast can
be, without difficulty, disengaged from the ribs by cutting through the
latter, which will offer little impediment. The side-bones are now to be
taken off; and to do this, the lower end of the back should be turned
from the carver, who should press the point of the knife through the top
of the backbone, near the centre, bringing it down towards the end of
the back completely through the bone. If the knife is now turned in the
opposite direction, the joint will be easily separated from the
vertebra. The backbone being now uppermost, the fork should be pressed
firmly down on it, whilst at the same time the knife should be employed
in raising up the lower small end of the fowl towards the fork, and thus
the back will be dislocated about its middle. The wings, breast, and
merrythought are esteemed the prime parts of a fowl, and are usually
served to the ladies of the company, to whom legs, except as a matter of
paramount necessity, should not be given. Byron gave it as one reason
why he did not like dining with ladies, that they always had the wings
of the fowls, which he himself preferred. We heard a gentleman who, when
he might have had a wing, declare his partiality for a leg, saying that
he had been obliged to eat legs for so long a time, that he had at last
come to like them better than the other more prized parts. If the fowl
is, capon-like, very large, slices maybe carved from its breast in the
same manner as from a turkey's.

ROAST FOWL.

[Illustration: ROAST FOWL.]

1001. Generally speaking, it is not necessary so completely to cut up a
fowl as we have described in the preceding paragraphs, unless, indeed, a
large family party is assembled, and there are a number of "little
mouths" to be filled, or some other such circumstances prevail. A roast
fowl is carved in the same manner as a boiled fowl, No. 1000; viz., by
cutting along the line from. 1 to 2, and then round the leg between it
and the wing. The markings and detached pieces, as shown in the
engravings under the heading of "Boiled Fowl," supersede the necessity
of our lengthily again describing the operation. It may be added, that
the liver, being considered a delicacy, should be divided, and one half
served with each wing. In the case of a fowl being shifted, it will be
proper to give each guest a portion, unless it be not agreeable to some
one of the party.

ROAST GOOSE.

[Illustration: ROAST GOOSE.]

[Illustration: LEG, WING, AND NECK-BONE OF GOOSE.]

1002. It would not be fair to say that this dish bodes a great deal of
happiness to an inexperienced carver, especially if there is a large
party to serve, and the slices off the breast should not suffice to
satisfy the desires and cravings of many wholesome appetites, produced,
may be, by the various sports in vogue at Michaelmas and Christmas. The
beginning of the task, however, is not in any way difficult. Evenly-cut
slices, not too thick or too thin, should be carved from the breast in
the direction of the line from 2 to 3; after the first slice has been
cut, a hole should be made with the knife in the part called the apron,
passing it round the line, as indicated by the figures 1, 1, 1: here the
stuffing is located, and some of this should be served on each plate,
unless it is discovered that it is not agreeable to the taste of some
one guest. If the carver manages cleverly, he will be able to cut a very
large number of fine slices off the breast, and the more so if he
commences close down by the wing, and carves upwards towards the ridge
of the breastbone. As many slices as can be taken from the breast being
carved, the wings should be cut off; and the same process as described
in carving boiled fowl, is made use of in this instance, only more
dexterity and greater force will most probably be required: the shape of
the leg, when disengaged from the body of the goose, should be like that
shown in the accompanying engraving. It will be necessary, perhaps, in
taking off the leg, to turn the goose on its side, and then, pressing
down the small end of the leg, the knife should be passed under it from
the top quite down to the joint; the leg being now turned back by the
fork, the knife must cut through the joint, loosening the thigh-bone
from its socket. The merrythought, which in a goose is not so large as
might be expected, is disengaged in the same way as that of a fowl--by
passing the knife under it, and pressing it backwards towards the neck.
The neck-bones, of which we give a cut, are freed by the same process as
are those of a fowl; and the same may be said of all the other parts of
this bird. The breast of a goose is the part most esteemed; all parts,
however, are good, and full of juicy flavour.

PIGEON.

[Illustration: PIGEON.]

1003. A very straightforward plan is adopted in carving a pigeon: the
knife is carried sharply in the direction of the line as shown from 1 to
2, entirely through the bird, cutting it into two precisely equal and
similar parts. If it is necessary to make three pieces of it, a small
wing should be cut off with the leg on either side, thus serving two
guests; and, by this means, there will be sufficient meat left on the
breast to send to the third guest.

RABBITS.

[Illustration: BOILED RABBIT.]

1004. In carving a boiled rabbit, let the knife be drawn on each side of
the backbone, the whole length of the rabbit, as shown by the dotted
line 3 to 4: thus the rabbit will be in three parts. Now let the back be
divided into two equal parts in the direction of the line from 1 to 2;
then let the leg be taken off, as shown by the line 5 to 6, and the
shoulder, as shown by the line 7 to 8. This, in our opinion, is the best
plan to carve a rabbit, although there are other modes which are
preferred by some.

[Illustration: ROAST RABBIT.]

A roast rabbit is rather differently trussed from one that is meant to
be boiled; but the carving is nearly similar, as will be seen by the
cut. The back should be divided into as many pieces as it will give, and
the legs and shoulders can then be disengaged in the same manner as
those of the boiled animal.

ROAST TURKEY.

[Illustration: ROAST TURKEY.]

1005. A noble dish is a turkey, roast or boiled. A Christmas dinner,
with the middle classes of this empire, would scarcely be a Christmas
dinner without its turkey; and we can hardly imagine an object of
greater envy than is presented by a respected portly pater-familias
carving, at the season devoted to good cheer and genial charity, his own
fat turkey, and carving it well. The only art consists, as in the
carving of a goose, in getting from the breast as many fine slices as
possible; and all must have remarked the very great difference in the
large number of people whom a good carver will find slices for, and the
comparatively few that a bad carver will succeed in serving. As we have
stated in both the carving of a duck and goose, the carver should
commence cutting slices close to the wing from, 2 to 3, and then proceed
upwards towards the ridge of the breastbone: this is not the usual plan,
but, in practice, will be found the best. The breast is the only part
which is looked on as fine in a turkey, the legs being very seldom cut
off and eaten at table: they are usually removed to the kitchen, where
they are taken off, as here marked, to appear only in a form which seems
to have a special attraction at a bachelor's supper-table,--we mean
devilled: served in this way, they are especially liked and relished.

A boiled turkey is carved in the same manner as when roasted.

[Illustration]

CHAPTER XXII.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON GAME.

1006. THE COMMON LAW OF ENGLAND has a maxim, that goods, in which no
person can claim any property, belong, by his or her prerogative, to the
king or queen. Accordingly, those animals, those _ferae naturae_, which
come under the denomination of game, are, in our laws, styled his or her
majesty's, and may therefore, as a matter of course, be granted by the
sovereign to another; in consequence of which another may prescribe to
possess the same within a certain precinct or lordship. From this
circumstance arose the right of lords of manors or others to the game
within their respective liberties; and to protect these species of
animals, the game laws were originated, and still remain in force. There
are innumerable acts of parliament inflicting penalties on persons who
may illegally kill game, and some of them are very severe; but they
cannot be said to answer their end, nor can it be expected that they
ever will, whilst there are so many persons of great wealth who have not
otherwise the means of procuring game, except by purchase, and who will
have it. These must necessarily encourage poaching, which, to a very
large extent, must continue to render all game laws nugatory as to their
intended effects upon the rustic population.

1007. THE OBJECT OF THESE LAWS, however, is not wholly confined to the
restraining of the illegal sportsman. Even qualified or privileged
persons must not kill game at all seasons. During the day, the hours
allowed for sporting are from one hour before sunrise till one hour
after sunset; whilst the time of killing certain species is also
restricted to certain seasons. For example, the season for
bustard-shooting is from December 1 to March 1; for grouse, or red
grouse, from August 12 to December 10; heath-fowl, or black-game, from
August 20 to December 20; partridges from September 1 to February 12;
pheasants from October 1 to February 1; widgeons, wild ducks, wild
geese, wild fowls, at any time but in June, July, August, and September.
Hares may be killed at any time of the year, under certain restrictions
defined by an act of parliament of the 10th of George III.

1008. THE EXERCISE OR DIVERSION OF PURSUING FOUR-FOOTED BEASTS OF GAME
is called hunting, which, to this day, is followed in the field and the
forest, with gun and greyhound. Birds, on the contrary, are not hunted,
but shot in the air, or taken with nets and other devices, which is
called fowling; or they are pursued and taken by birds of prey, which is
called hawking, a species of sport now fallen almost entirely into
desuetude in England, although, in some parts, showing signs of being
revived.

1009. IN PURSUING FOUR-FOOTED BEASTS, such as deer, boars, and hares,
properly termed hunting, mankind were, from the earliest ages, engaged.
It was the rudest and the most obvious manner of acquiring human support
before the agricultural arts had in any degree advanced. It is an
employment, however, requiring both art and contrivance, as well as a
certain fearlessness of character, combined with the power of
considerable physical endurance. Without these, success could not be
very great; but, at best, the occupation is usually accompanied with
rude and turbulent habits; and, when combined with these, it constitutes
what is termed the savage state of man. As culture advances, and as the
soil proportionably becomes devoted to the plough or to the sustenance
of the tamer or more domesticated animals, the range of the huntsman is
proportionably limited; so that when a country has attained to a high
state of cultivation, hunting becomes little else than an amusement of
the opulent. In the case of fur-bearing animals, however, it is somewhat
different; for these continue to supply the wants of civilization with
one of its most valuable materials of commerce.

1010. THE THEMES WHICH FORM THE MINSTRELSY OF THE EARLIEST AGES, either
relate to the spoils of the chase or the dangers of the battle-field.
Even the sacred writings introduce us to Nimrod, the first mighty hunter
before the Lord, and tell us that Ishmael, in the solitudes of Arabia,
became a skilful bow-man; and that David, when yet young, was not afraid
to join in combat with the lion or the bear. The Greek mythology teems
with hunting exploits. Hercules overthrows the Nemaean lion, the
Erymanthean boar, and the hydra of Lerna; Diana descends to the earth,
and pursues the stag; whilst Aesculapius, Nestor, Theseus, Ulysses, and
Achilles are all followers of the chase. Aristotle, sage as he was,
advises young men to apply themselves early to it; and Plato finds in it
something divine. Horace exalts it as a preparative exercise for the
path of glory, and several of the heroes of Homer are its ardent
votaries. The Romans followed the hunting customs of the Greeks, and the
ancient Britons were hunters before Julius Caesar invaded their shores.

1011. ALTHOUGH THE ANCIENT BRITONS FOLLOWED HUNTING, however, they did
not confine themselves solely to its pursuit. They bred cattle and
tilled the ground, and, to some extent, indicated the rudimentary state
of a pastoral and agricultural life; but, in every social change, the
sports of the field maintained their place. After the expulsion of the
Danes, and during the brief restoration of the Saxon monarchy, these
were still followed: even Edward the Confessor, who would join in no
other secular amusements, took the greatest delight, says William of
Malmesbury, "to follow a pack of swift hounds in pursuit of game, and to
cheer them with his voice."

1012. NOR WAS EDWARD the only English sovereign who delighted in the
pleasures of the chase. William the Norman, and his two sons who
succeeded him, were passionately fond of the sport, and greatly
circumscribed the liberties of their subjects in reference to the
killing of game. The privilege of hunting in the royal forests was
confined to the king and his favourites; and in order that these
umbrageous retreats might be made more extensive, whole villages were
depopulated, places of worship levelled with the ground, and every means
adopted that might give a sufficient amplitude of space, in accordance
with the royal pleasure, for the beasts of the chase. King John was
likewise especially attached to the sports of the field; whilst Edward
III. was so enamoured of the exercise, that even during his absence at
the wars in France, he took with him sixty couples of stag-hounds and as
many hare-hounds, and every day amused himself either with hunting or
hawking. Great in wisdom as the Scotch Solomon, James I., conceited
himself to be, he was much addicted to the amusements of hunting,
hawking, and shooting. Yea, it is oven asserted that his precious time
was divided between hunting, the bottle, and his standish: to the first
he gave his fair weather, to the second his dull, and to the third his
cloudy. From his days down to the present, the sports of the field have
continued to hold their high reputation, not only for the promotion of
health, but for helping to form that manliness of character which enters
so largely into the composition of the sons of the British soil. That it
largely helps to do this there can be no doubt. The late duke of
Grafton, when hunting, was, on one occasion, thrown into a ditch. A
young curate, engaged in the same chase, cried out, "Lie still, my
lord!" leapt over him, and pursued his sport. Such an apparent want of
feeling might be expected to have been resented by the duke; but not so.
On his being helped up by his attendant, he said, "That man shall have
the first good living that falls to my disposal: had he stopped to have
given me his sympathy, I never would have given him anything." Such was
the manly sentiment of the duke, who delighted in the exemplification of
a spirit similarly ardent as his own in the sport, and above the
baseness of an assumed sorrow.

1013. THAT HUNTING HAS IN MANY INSTANCES BEEN CARRIED TO AN EXCESS is
well known, and the match given by the Prince Esterhazy, regent of
Hungary, on the signing of the treaty of peace with France, is not the
least extraordinary upon record. On that occasion, there were killed 160
deer, 100 wild boars, 300 hares, and 80 foxes: this was the achievement
of one day. Enormous, however, as this slaughter may appear, it is
greatly inferior to that made by the contemporary king of Naples on a
hunting expedition. That sovereign had a larger extent of ground at his
command, and a longer period for the exercise of his talents;
consequently, his sport, if it can so be called, was proportionably
greater. It was pursued during his journey to Vienna, in Austria,
Bohemia, and Moravia; when he killed 5 bears, 1,820 boars, 1,950 deer,
1,145 does, 1,625 roebucks, 11,121 rabbits, 13 wolves, 17 badgers,
16,354 hares, and 354 foxes. In birds, during the same expedition, he
killed 15,350 pheasants and 12,335 partridges. Such an amount of
destruction can hardly be called sport; it resembles more the
indiscriminate slaughter of a battle-field, where the scientific engines
of civilized warfare are brought to bear upon defenceless savages.

1014. DEER AND HARES may be esteemed as the only four-footed animals now
hunted in Britain for the table; and even those are not followed with
the same ardour as they were wont to be. Still, there is no country in
the world where the sport of hunting on horseback is carried to such an
extent as in Great Britain, and where the pleasures of the chase are so
well understood, and conducted on such purely scientific principles. The
Fox, of all "the beasts of the field," is now considered to afford the
best sport. For this, it is infinitely superior to the stag; for the
real sportsman can only enjoy that chase when the deer is sought for and
found like other game which are pursued with hounds. In the case of
finding an outlying fallow-deer, which is unharboured, in this manner,
great sport is frequently obtained; but this is now rarely to be met
with in Britain. In reference to hare-hunting, it is much followed in
many parts of this and the sister island; but, by the true foxhunter, it
is considered as a sport only fit to be pursued by women and old men.
Although it is less dangerous and exciting than the fox-chase, however,
it has great charms for those who do not care for the hard riding which
the other requires.

1015. THE ART OF TAKING OR KILLING BIRDS is called "fowling," and is
either practised as an amusement by persons of rank or property, or for
a livelihood by persons who use nets and other apparatus. When practised
as an amusement, it principally consists of killing them with a light
firearm called a "fowling-piece," and the sport is secured to those who
pursue it by the game laws. The other means by which birds are taken,
consist in imitating their voices, or leading them, by other artifices,
into situations where they become entrapped by nets, birdlime, or
otherwise. For taking large numbers of birds, the pipe or call is the
most common means employed; and this is done during the months of
September and October. We will here briefly give a description of the
_modus operandi_ pursued in this sport. A thin wood is usually the spot
chosen, and, under a tree at a little distance from the others, a cabin
is erected, and there are only such branches left on the tree as are
necessary for the placing of the birdlime, and which are covered with
it. Around the cabin are placed avenues with twisted perches, also
covered with birdlime. Having thus prepared all that is necessary, the
birdcatcher places himself in the cabin, and, at sunrise and sunset,
imitates the cry of a small bird calling the others to its assistance.
Supposing that the cry of the owl is imitated, immediately different
kinds of birds will flock together at the cry of their common enemy,
when, at every instant, they will be seen falling to the ground, their
wings being of no use to them, from their having come in contact with
the birdlime. The cries of those which are thus situated now attract
others, and thus are large numbers taken in a short space of time. If
owls were themselves desired to be taken, it is only during the night
that this can be done, by counterfeiting the squeak of the mouse. Larks,
other birds, and water-fowl, are sometimes taken by nets; but to
describe fully the manner in which this is done, would here occupy too
much space.

1016. FEATHERED GAME HAVE FROM TIME IMMEMORIAL given gratification to
the palate of man. With the exception of birds of prey, and some other
species, Moses permitted his people to eat them; and the Egyptians made
offerings to their priests of their most delicate birds. The ancient
Greeks commenced their repasts with little roasted birds; and feathered
game, amongst the Romans, was served as the second course. Indeed,
several of the ancient _gourmands_ of the "imperial city" were so fond
of game, that they brought themselves to ruin by eating flamingoes and
pheasants. "Some modern nations, the French among others," says Monsieur
Soyer, "formerly ate the heron, crane, crow, stork, swan, cormorant, and
bittern. The first three especially were highly esteemed; and
Laillevant, cook of Charles VII., teaches us how to prepare these
meagre, tough birds. Belon says, that in spite of its revolting taste
when unaccustomed to it, the bittern is, however, among the delicious
treats of the French. This writer also asserts, that a falcon or a
vulture, either roasted or boiled, is excellent eating; and that if one
of these birds happened to kill itself in flying after game, the
falconer instantly cooked it. Lebaut calls the heron a royal viand."

1017. THE HERON WAS HUNTED BY THE HAWK, and the sport of hawking is
usually placed at the head of those amusements that can only be
practised in the country. This precedency it probably obtained from its
being a pastime to generally followed by the nobility, not in Great
Britain only, but likewise on the continent. In former times, persons of
high rank rarely appeared in public without their dogs and their hawks:
the latter they carried with them when they journeyed from one country
to another, and sometimes even took them to battle with them, and would
not part with them when taken prisoners, even to obtain their own
liberty. Such birds were esteemed as the ensigns of nobility, and no
action was reckoned more dishonourable in a man of rank than that of
giving up his hawk. We have already alluded to the hunting propensities
of our own Edward III., and we may also allude to his being equally
addicted to hawking. According to Froissart, when this sovereign invaded
France, he took with him thirty falconers on horseback, who had charge
of his hawks, and every day, as his royal fancy inclined him, he either
hunted, or went to the river for the purpose of hawking. In the great
and powerful, the pursuit of game as a sport is allowable, but in those
who have to earn their bread by the sweat of their brow, it is to be
condemned. In Burton's "Anatomy of Melancholy" we find a humorous story,
told by Poggius, the Florentine, who reprobates this folly in such
persons. It is this. A physician of Milan, that cured madmen, had a pit
of water in his house, in which he kept his patients, some up to the
knees, some to the girdle, some to the chin, _pro modo insaniae_, as
they were more or less affected. One of them by chance, that was well
recovered, stood in the door, and seeing a gallant pass by with a hawk
on his fist, well mounted, with his spaniels after him, would needs know
to what use all this preparation served. He made answer, To kill certain
fowl. The patient demanded again, what his fowl might be worth which he
killed in a year? He replied, Five or ten crowns; and when he urged him
further, what his dogs, horse, and hawks stood him in, he told him four
hundred crowns. With that the patient bade him begone, as he loved his
life and welfare; "for if our master come and find thee here, he will
put thee in the pit, amongst the madmen, up to the chin." Thus reproving
the madness of such men as will spend themselves in those vain sports,
to the neglect of their business and necessary affairs.

1018. AS THE INEVITABLE RESULT OF SOCIAL PROGRESS is, at least to limit,
if not entirely to suppress, such sports as we have here been treating
of, much of the romance of country life has passed away. This is more
especially the case with falconry, which had its origin about the middle
of the fourth century, although, lately, some attempts have been rather
successfully made to institute a revival of the "gentle art" of hawking.
Julius Firmicus, who lived about that time, is, so far as we can find,
the first Latin author who speaks of falconers, and the art of teaching
one species of birds to fly after and catch others. The occupation of
these functionaries has now, however, all but ceased. New and nobler
efforts characterize the aims of mankind in the development of their
civilization, and the sports of the field have, to a large extent, been
superseded by other exercises, it may be less healthful and
invigorating, but certainly more elegant, intellectual, and humanizing.

[Illustration]

RECIPES.

CHAPTER XXIII.

ROAST BLACK-COCK.

1019. INGREDIENTS.--Black-cock, butter, toast.

[Illustration: ROAST BLACK-COCK.]

_Mode_.--Let these birds hang for a few days, or they will be tough and
tasteless, if not well kept. Pluck and draw them, and wipe the insides
and outsides with a damp cloth, as washing spoils the flavour. Cut off
the heads, and truss them, the same as a roast fowl, cutting off the
toes, and scalding and peeling the feet. Trussing them with the head on,
as shown in the engraving, is still practised by many cooks, but the
former method is now considered the best. Put them down to a brisk fire,
well baste them with butter, and serve with a piece of toast under, and
a good gravy and bread sauce. After trussing, some cooks cover the
breast with vine-leaves and slices of bacon, and then roast them. They
should be served in the same manner and with the same accompaniments as
with the plainly-roasted birds.

_Time_.--45 to 50 minutes.

_Average cost_, from 5s. to 6s. the brace; but seldom bought.

_Sufficient_,--2 or 3 for a dish.

_Seasonable_ from the middle of August to the end of December.

[Illustration: THE BLACK-COCK.]

THE BLACK-COCK, HEATH-COCK, MOOR-FOWL, OR HEATH-POULT.--This
bird sometimes weighs as much as four pounds, and the hen about
two. It is at present confined to the more northern parts of
Britain, culture and extending population having united in
driving it into more desolate regions, except, perhaps, in a few
of the more wild and less-frequented portions of England. It may
still be found in the New Forest, in Hampshire, Dartmoor, and
Sedgmoor, in Devonshire, and among the hills of Somersetshire,
contiguous to the latter. It may also be found in Staffordshire,
in North Wales, and again in the north of England; but nowhere
so plentiful as in some parts of the Highlands of Scotland. The
males are hardly distinguishable from the females until they are
about half-grown, when the black feathers begin to appear, first
about the sides and breast. Their food consists of the tops of
birch and heath, except when the mountain berries are ripe, at
which period they eagerly and even voraciously pick the
bilberries and cranberries from the bushes. Large numbers of
these birds are found in Norway, almost rivalling the turkey in
point of size. Some of them have begun to be imported into
London, where they are vended in the shops; but the flavour of
their flesh is not equal to that of the Scotch bird.

HASHED WILD DUCK.

1020. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast wild duck, 1 pint of good
brown gravy, 2 tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs, 1 glass of claret, salt,
cayenne, and mixed spices to taste; 1 tablespoonful of lemon or Seville
orange-juice.

_Mode_.--Cut the remains of the duck into neat joints, put them into a
stewpan, with all the above ingredients; let them get gradually hot by
the side of the fire, and occasionally stir the contents; when on the
point of boiling, serve, and garnish the dish with sippets of toasted
bread.

_Time_.--About 1/4 hour.

_Seasonable_ from November to February.

RAGOUT OF WILD DUCK.

1021. INGREDIENTS.--2 wild ducks, 4 shalots, 1 pint of stock No. 105, 1
glass of port wine, 1 oz. of butter, a little flour, the juice of 1/2
lemon, cayenne and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Ducks that have been dressed and left from the preceding day
will answer for this dish. Cut them into joints, reserve the legs,
wings, and breasts until wanted; put the trimmings into a stewpan with
the shalots and stock, and let them simmer for about 1/2 hour, and
strain the gravy. Put the butter into a stewpan; when melted, dredge in
a little flour, and pour in the gravy made from the bones; give it one
boil, and strain it again; add the wine, lemon-juice, and cayenne; lay
in the pieces of duck, and let the whole gradually warm through, but do
not allow it to boil, or the duck will be hard. The gravy should not be
too thick, and should be very highly seasoned. The squeeze of a Seville
orange is a great improvement to this dish.

_Time_.--About 1/2 hour to make the gravy; 1/4 hour for the duck
gradually to warm through.

_Seasonable_ from November to February.

ROAST WILD DUCK.

1022. INGREDIENTS.--Wild duck, flour, butter.

[Illustration: ROAST WILD DUCK.]

_Mode_.--Carefully pluck and draw them; Cut off the heads close to the
necks, leaving sufficient skin to turn over, and do not cut off the
feet; some twist each leg at the knuckle, and rest the claws on each
side of the breast; others truss them as shown in our Illustration.
Roast the birds before a quick fire, and, when they are first put down,
let them remain for 5 minutes without basting (this will keep the gravy
in); afterwards baste plentifully with butter, and a few minutes before
serving dredge them lightly with flour; baste well, and send them to
table nicely frothed, and full of gravy. If overdone, the birds will
lose their flavour. Serve with a good gravy in the dish, or orange
gravy, No. 488; and send to table with them a cut lemon. To take off the
fishy taste which wild fowl sometimes have, baste them for a few minutes
with hot water to which have been added an onion and a little salt; then
take away the pan, and baste with butter.--See coloured plate, G1.

_Time_.--When liked underdressed, 20 to 25 minutes; well done, 25 to 35
minutes.

_Average cost_, 4s. to 5s. the couple.

_Sufficient_,--2 for a dish.

_Seasonable_ from November to February.

[Illustration: THE WILD DUCK.]

THE WILD DUCK.--The male of the wild dock is called a mallard;
and the young ones are called flappers. The time to try to find
a brood of these is about the month of July, among the rushes of
the deepest and most retired parts of some brook or stream,
where, if the old bird is sprung, it may be taken as a certainty
that its brood is not far off. When once found, flappers are
easily killed, as they attain their full growth before their
wings are fledged. Consequently, the sport is more like hunting
water-rats than shooting birds. When the flappers take wing,
they assume the name of wild ducks, and about the month of
August repair to the corn-fields, where they remain until they
are disturbed by the harvest-people. They then frequent the
rivers pretty early in the evening, and give excellent sport to
those who have patience to wait for them. In order to know a
wild duck, it is necessary only to look at the claws, which
should be black.

HASHED GAME (Cold Meat Cookery).

1023. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold game, 1 onion stuck with 3
cloves, a few whole peppers, a strip of lemon-peel, salt to taste,
thickening of butter and flour, 1 glass of port wine, 1 tablespoonful of
lemon-juice, 1 tablespoonful of ketchup, 1 pint of water or weak stock.

_Mode_.--Cut the remains of cold game into joints, reserve the best
pieces, and the inferior ones and trimmings put into a stewpan with the
onion, pepper, lemon-peel, salt, and water or weak stock; stew these for
about an hour, and strain the gravy; thicken it with butter and flour;
add the wine, lemon-juice, and ketchup; lay in the pieces of game, and
let them gradually warm through by the side of the fire; do not allow it
to boil, or the game will be hard. When on the point of simmering,
serve, and garnish the dish with sippets of toasted bread.

_Time_.--Altogether 1-1/4 hour.

_Seasonable_ from August to March.

_Note_.--Any kind of game may be hashed by the above recipe, and the
flavour may be varied by adding flavoured vinegars, curvy powder, &c.;
but we cannot recommend these latter ingredients, as a dish of game
should really have a gamy taste; and if too many sauces, essences, &c.,
are added to the gravy, they quite overpower and destroy the flavour the
dish should possess.

GROUSE PIE.

1024. INGREDIENTS.--Grouse; cayenne, salt, and pepper to taste; 1 lb. of
rump-steak, 1/2 pint of well-seasoned broth, puff paste.

_Mode_.--Line the bottom of a pie-dish with the rump-steak cut into neat
pieces, and, should the grouse be large, cut them into joints; but, if
small, they may be laid in the pie whole; season highly with salt,
cayenne, and black pepper; pour in the broth, and cover with a puff
paste; brush the crust over with the yolk of an egg, and bake from 3/4
to 1 hour. If the grouse is cut into joints, the backbones and trimmings
will make the gravy, by stewing them with an onion, a little sherry, a
bunch of herbs, and a blade of mace: this should be poured in after the
pie is baked.

_Time_.--3/4 to 1 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the grouse, which are seldom bought, 1s.
9d.

_Seasonable_ from the 12th of August to the beginning of December.

ROAST GROUSE.

[Illustration: ROAST GROUSE.]

1025. INGREDIENTS.--Grouse, butter, a thick slice of toasted bread.

_Mode_.--Let the birds hang as long as possible; pluck and draw them;
wipe, but do not wash them, inside and out, and truss them without the
head, the same as for a roast fowl. Many persons still continue to truss
them with the head under the wing, but the former is now considered the
most approved method. Put them down to a sharp clear fire; keep them
well basted the whole of the time they are cooking, and serve them on a
buttered toast, soaked in the dripping-pan, with a little melted butter
poured over them, or with bread-sauce and gravy.--See coloured plate,
L1.

_Time_.--1/2 hour; if liked very thoroughly done, 35 minutes.

_Average cost_, 2s. to 2s. 6d. the brace; but seldom bought.

_Sufficient_,--2 for a dish.

_Seasonable_ from the 12th of August to the beginning of December.

[Illustration: RED GROUSE.]

GROUSE.--These birds are divided into wood grouse, black grouse,
red grouse, and white grouse. The wood grouse is further
distinguished as the cock of the wood, or capercalzie, and is as
large as the turkey, being about two feet nine inches in length,
and weighing from twelve to fifteen pounds. The female is
considerably less than the male, and, in the colour of her
feathers, differs widely from the other. This beautiful species
is found principally in lofty, mountainous regions, and is very
rare in Great Britain; but in the pine forests of Russia,
Sweden, and other northern countries, it is very common. In
these it has its habitat, feeding on the cones of the trees, and
the fruits of various kinds of plants, especially the berry of
the jumper. Black grouse is also distinguished as black-game, or
the black-cock. It is not larger than the common hen, and weighs
only about four pounds. The female is about one-third less than
the male, and also differs considerably from him in point of
colour. Like the former, they are found chiefly in high
situations, and are common in Russia, Siberia, and other
northern countries. They are also found in the northern parts of
Great Britain, feeding in winter on the various berries and
fruits belonging to mountainous countries, and, in summer,
frequently descending to the lower lands, to feed upon corn. The
red grouse, gorcock, or moor-cock, weighs about nineteen ounces,
and the female somewhat less. In the wild heathy tracts of the
northern counties of England it is plentiful, also in Wales and
the Highlands of Scotland. Mr. Pennant considered it peculiar to
Britain, those found in the mountainous parts of Spain, France,
and Italy, being only varieties of the same bird. White grouse,
white game, or ptarmigan, is nearly the same size as the red
grouse, and is found in lofty situations, where it supports
itself in the severest weather. It is to be met with in most of
the northern countries of Europe, and appears even in Greenland.
In the Hebrides, Orkneys, and the Highlands of Scotland, it is
also found; and sometimes, though rarely, among the fells of
Northumberland and Cumberland. In winter they fly in flocks, and
are so little familiar with the sight of man, that they are
easily shot, and even snared. They feed on the wild produce of
the hills, which sometimes imparts to their flesh a bitter but
not unpalatable taste. According to Buffon, it is dark-coloured,
and somewhat flavoured like the hare.

GROUSE SALAD.

(_Soyer's Recipe_.)

1026. INGREDIENTS.--8 eggs, butter, fresh salad, 1 or 2 grouse; for the
sauce, 1 teaspoonful of minced shalot, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar,
the yolk of 1 egg, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, 1/4 oz. of salt, 4
tablespoonfuls of oil, 2 tablespoonfuls of Chili vinegar, 1 gill of
cream.

_Mode_.--Boil the eggs hard, shell them, throw them into cold water cut
a thin slice off the bottom to facilitate the proper placing of them in
the dish, cut each one into four lengthwise, and make a very thin flat
border of butter, about one inch from the edge of the dish the salad is
to be served on; fix the pieces of egg upright close to each other, the
yolk outside, or the yolk and white alternately; lay in the centre a
fresh salad of whatever is in season, and, having previously roasted the
grouse rather underdone, cut it into eight or ten pieces, and prepare
the sauce as follows:--Put the shalots into a basin, with the sugar, the
yolk of an egg, the parsley, and salt, and mix in by degrees the oil and
vinegar; when these ingredients are well mixed, put the sauce on ice or
in a cool place. When ready to serve, whip the cream rather thick, which
lightly mix with it; then lay the inferior parts of the grouse on the
salad, sauce over so as to cover each piece, then lay over the salad and
the remainder of the grouse, pour the rest of the sauce over, and serve.
The eggs may be ornamented with a little dot of radishes or beetroot on
the point. Anchovy and gherkin, cut into small diamonds, may be placed
between, or cut gherkins in slices, and a border of them laid round.
Tarragon or chervil-leaves are also a pretty addition. The remains of
cold black-game, pheasant, or partridge may be used in the above manner,
and will make a very delicate dish.

_Average cost_, 2s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ from the 12th of August to the beginning of December.

[Illustration: THE CAPERCALZIE.]

THE CAPERCALZIE.--This bird was to be met with formerly both in
Ireland and Scotland, but is now extinct. The male lives
separate from the females, except in the breeding season. Its
manners and habits are very like those of black grouse, except
that it seems to be wholly confined to forests of pine, on the
tender shoots of which it feeds. It is by no means uncommon in
the woods of Norway, whence we received it. It is also found
abundant in Russia, Siberia, Italy, and in some portions of the
Alps. It was, in 1760, last seen in Scotland, in the woods of
Strathglass. Recent attempts have been made to re-introduce it
into that country, but without success; principally owing, as we
should imagine, to the want of sufficient food suitable for its
sustenance.

GROUSE.--Under this general term are included several species of
game birds, called black, red, woodland, and white grouse. The
black is larger than the red (see No. 1025), and is not so
common, and therefore held in higher estimation. The red,
however, is a bird of exquisite flavour, and is a native of the
mountainous districts of Scotland and the north of England. It
feeds on the tops of the heath and the berries that grow amongst
them: its colour is a rich chestnut, striped with black. The
woodland, or cock of the wood, is the largest among the bird
tribes which pass under the denomination of game. It is smaller
than the turkey, and was originally common in our mountains; but
it is now to be found only in the mountains of Scotland, though
it still abounds in the north of Europe, Germany, and in the
Alps. It is esteemed as delicious eating, and its plumage is
extremely beautiful. The white grouse, or ptarmigan, is not a
plentiful bird in Britain; but it is still found in the islands,
and weighs about half a pound. The London market is supplied by
Norway and Scotland; those from the former country being
esteemed the best. When young, it is held in high estimation,
being considered as little different from common grouse.

ROAST HARE.

1027. INGREDIENTS.--Hare, forcemeat No. 417, a little milk, butter.

_Choosing and Trussing_.--Choose a young hare; which may be known by its
smooth and sharp claws, and by the cleft in the lip not being much
spread. To be eaten in perfection, it must hang for some time; and, if
properly taken care of, it may be kept for several days. It is better to
hang without being paunched; but should it be previously emptied, wipe
the inside every day, and sprinkle over it a little pepper and ginger,
to prevent the musty taste which long keeping in the damp occasions, and
which also affects the stuffing. After it is skinned, wash it well, and
soak for an hour in warm water to draw out the blood; if old, let it lie
in vinegar for a short time, but wash it well afterwards in several
waters. Make a forcemeat by recipe No. 417, wipe the hare dry, fill the
belly with it, and sew it up. Bring the hind and fore legs close to the
body towards the head, run a skewer through each, fix the head between
the shoulders by means of another skewer, and be careful to leave the
ears on. Pat a string round the body from skewer to skewer, and tie it
above the back.

[Illustration: ROAST HARE.]

_Mode_.--The hare should be kept at a distance from the fire when it is
first laid down, or the outside will become dry and hard before the
inside is done. Baste it well with milk for a short time, and afterwards
with butter; and particular attention must be paid to the basting, so as
to preserve the meat on the back juicy and nutritive. When it is almost
roasted enough, flour the hare, and baste well with butter. When nicely
frothed, dish it, remove the skewers, and send it to table with a little
gravy in the dish, and a tureen of the same. Red-currant jelly must also
not be forgotten, as this is an indispensable accompaniment to roast
hare. For economy, good beef dripping may be substituted for the milk
and butter to baste with; but the basting, as we have before stated,
must be continued without intermission. If the liver is good, it maybe
parboiled, minced, and mixed with the stuffing; but it should not be
used unless quite fresh.--See coloured plate, E1.

_Time_.--A middling-sized hare, 1-1/4 hour; a large hare, 1-1/2 to 2
hours.

_Average cost_, from 4s. to 6s.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ from September to the end of February.

THE HARE.--This little animal is found generally distributed over
Europe, and, indeed, in most parts of the northern world. Its extreme
timidity is the endowment which Providence has bestowed upon it as a
means of defence; it is therefore attentive to every sound, and is
supplied with ears both long and tubular, with which it can hear with
great acuteness. Its eyes, also, are so constructed, and placed so
prominent in its head, that it can see both before and behind it. It
lives entirely upon vegetables, but its flesh is considered dry,
notwithstanding that it is deemed, in many respects, superior to that of
the rabbit, being more savoury, and of a much higher flavour. Its
general time of feeding is the evening; but during the day, if not
disturbed, it adheres closely to its _form_.

[Illustration: THE HARE.]

POTTED HARE (a Luncheon or Breakfast Dish).

1028. INGREDIENTS.--1 hare, a few slices of bacon, a large bunch of
savoury herbs, 4 cloves, 1/2 teaspoonful of whole allspice, 2 carrots, 2
onions, salt and pepper to taste, 1 pint of water, 2 glasses of sherry.

_Mode_.--Skin, empty, and wash the hare; cut it down the middle, and put
it into a stewpan, with a few slices of bacon under and over it; add the
remaining ingredients, and stew very gently until the hare is tender,
and the flesh will separate easily from the bones. When done enough,
take it up, remove the bones, and pound the meat, _with the bacon_, in a
mortar, until reduced to a perfectly smooth paste. Should it not be
sufficiently seasoned, add a little cayenne, salt, and pounded mace, but
be careful that these are well mixed with the other ingredients. Press
the meat into potting-pots, pour over clarified butter, and keep in a
dry place. The liquor that the hare was stewed in, should be saved for
hashes, soups, &c. &c.

_Time_.--About 21/2 hours to stew the hare.

_Seasonable_ from September to the end of February.

BROILED HARE (a Supper or Luncheon Dish).

1029. INGREDIENTS.--The leg and shoulders of a roast hare, cayenne and
salt to taste, a little butter.

_Mode_.--Cut the legs and shoulders of a roast hare, season them highly
with salt and cayenne, and broil them over a very clear fire for 5
minutes. Dish them on a hot dish, rub over them a little cold butter,
and send to table very quickly.

_Time_.--5 minutes.

_Seasonable_ from September to the end of February.

HASHED HARE.

1030. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast hare, 1 blade of pounded
mace, 2 or 3 allspice, pepper and salt to taste, 1 onion, a bunch of
savoury herbs, 3 tablespoonfuls of port wine, thickening of butter and
flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup.

_Mode_.--Cut the cold hare into neat slices, and put the head, bones,
and trimmings into a stewpan, with 3/4 pint of water; add the mace,
allspice, seasoning, onion, and herbs, and stew for nearly an hour, and
strain the gravy; thicken it with butter and flour, add the wine and
ketchup, and lay in the pieces of hare, with any stuffing that may be
left. Let the whole gradually heat by the side of the fire, and, when it
has simmered for about 5 minutes, serve, and garnish the dish with
sippets of toasted bread. Send red-currant jelly to table with it.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the cold hare, 6d.

_Seasonable_ from September to the end of February.

JUGGED HARE.

(_Very Good_.)

1031. INGREDIENTS.--1 hare, 1-1/2 lb. of gravy beef, 1/2 lb. of butter,
1 onion, 1 lemon, 6 cloves; pepper, cayenne, and salt to taste; 1/2 pint
of port wine.

_Mode_.--Skin, paunch, and wash the hare, cut it into pieces, dredge
them with flour, and fry in boiling butter. Have ready 1-1/2 pint of
gravy, made from the above proportion of beef, and thickened with a
little flour. Put this into a jar; add the pieces of fried hare, an
onion stuck with six cloves, a lemon peeled and cut in half, and a good
seasoning of pepper, cayenne, and salt; cover the jar down tightly, put
it up to the neck into a stewpan of boiling water, and let it stew until
the hare is quite tender, taking care to keep the water boiling. When
nearly done, pour in the wine, and add a few forcemeat balls, made by
recipe No. 417: these must be fried or baked in the oven for a few
minutes before they are put to the gravy. Serve with red-currant jelly.

_Time_,--3-1/2 to 4 hours. If the hare is very old, allow 4-1/2 hours.

_Average cost_, 7s.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ from September to the end of February.

II.

(_A Quicker and more Economical Way_.)

1032. INGREDIENTS.--1 hare, a bunch of sweet herbs, 2 onions, each stuck
with 3 cloves, 6 whole allspice, 1/2 teaspoonful of black pepper, a
strip of lemon-peel, thickening of butter and flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of
mushroom ketchup, 1/4 pint of port wine.

_Mode._--Wash the hare nicely, cut it up into joints (not too large),
and flour and brown them as in the preceding recipe; then put them into
a stewpan with the herbs, onions, cloves, allspice, pepper, and
lemon-peel; cover with hot water, and when it boils, carefully remove
all the scum, and let it simmer gently till tender, which will be in
about 1-3/4 hour, or longer, should the hare be very old. Take out the
pieces of hare, thicken the gravy with flour and butter, add the ketchup
and port wine, let it boil for about 10 minutes, strain it through a
sieve over the hare, and serve. A few fried forcemeat balls should be
added at the moment of serving, or instead of frying them, they may be
stewed in the gravy, about 10 minutes before the hare is wanted for
table. Do not omit to serve red-currant jelly with it.

_Time_.--Altogether 2 hours. _Average cost_, 5s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ from September to the end of February.

_Note_.--Should there be any left, rewarm it the next day by putting the
hare, &c. into a covered jar, and placing this jar in a saucepan of
boiling water: this method prevents a great deal of waste.

ROAST LANDRAIL, OR CORN-CRAKE.

1033. INGREDIENTS.--3 or 4 birds, butter, fried bread crumbs.

[Illustration: LANDRAILS.]

_Mode_.--Pluck and draw the birds, wipe them inside and out with damp
cloths, and truss them in the following manner:--Bring the head round
under the wing, and the thighs close to the sides; pass a skewer through
them and the body, and keep the legs straight. Roast them before a clear
fire, keep them well basted, and serve on fried bread crumbs, with a
tureen of brown gravy. When liked, bread-sauce may also be sent to table
with them.

_Time_.--12 to 20 minutes. _Average cost_,--Seldom bought.

_Sufficient_.--Allow--1 for a dish.

_Seasonable_ from August 12th to the middle of September.

[Illustration: THE LANDRAIL.]

THE LANDRAIL, OR CORN-CRAKE.--This bird is migratory in its
habits, yet from its formation, it seems ill adapted for long
aerial passages, its wings being short, and placed so forward
out of the centre of gravity, that it flies in an extremely
heavy and embarrassed manner, and with its legs hanging down.
When it alights, it can hardly be sprung a second time, as it
runs very fast, and seems to depend for its safety more on the
swiftness of its feet than the celerity of its wings. It makes
its appearance in England about the same time as the quail, that
is, in the months of April and May, and frequents the same
places. Its singular cry is first heard when the grass becomes
long enough to shelter it, and it continues to be heard until
the grass is cut. The bird, however, is seldom seen, for it
constantly skulks among the thickest portions of the herbage,
and runs so nimbly through it, doubling and winding in every
direction, that it is difficult to get near it. It leaves this
island before the winter, and repairs to other countries in
search of its food, which principally consists of slugs, large
numbers of which it destroys. It is very common in Ireland, and,
whilst migrating to this country, is seen in great numbers in
the island of Anglesea. On its first arrival in England, it is
so lean as scarcely to weigh above five or six ounces; before
its departure, however, it has been known to exceed eight
ounces, and is then most delicious eating.

TO DRESS A LEVERET.

1034. INGREDIENTS.--2 leverets, butter, flour.

_Mode_.--Leverets should be trussed in the same manner as a hare, but
they do not require stuffing. Roast them before a clear fire, and keep
them well basted all the time they are cooking. A few minutes before
serving, dredge them lightly with flour, and froth them nicely. Serve
with plain gravy in the dish, and send to table red-currant jelly with
them.

_Time_.--1/2 to 3/4 hour. _Average cost_, in full season, 4s. each.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ from May to August, but cheapest in July and August.

BROILED PARTRIDGE (a Luncheon, Breakfast, or Supper Dish).

1035. INGREDIENTS.--3 partridges, salt and cayenne to taste, a small
piece of butter, brown gravy or mushroom sauce.

_Mode_.--Pluck, draw, and cut the partridges in half, and wipe the
inside thoroughly with a damp cloth. Season them with salt and cayenne,
broil them over a very clear fire, and dish them on a hot dish; rub a
small piece of butter over each half, and send them to table with brown
gravy or mushroom sauce.

_Time_.--About 1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d. to 2s. a brace.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ from the 1st of September to the beginning of February.

PARTRIDGE PIE.

1036. INGREDIENTS.--3 partridges, pepper and salt to taste, 1
teaspoonful of minced parsley (when obtainable, a few mushrooms), 3/4
lb. of veal cutlet, a slice of ham, 1/2 pint of stock, puff paste.

_Mode_.--Line a pie-dish with a veal cutlet; over that place a slice of
ham and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Pluck, draw, and wipe the
partridges; cut off the legs at the first joint, and season them inside
with pepper, salt, minced parsley, and a small piece of butter; place
them in the dish, and pour over the stock; line the edges of the dish
with puff paste, cover with the same, brush it over with the yolk of an
egg, and bake for 3/4 to 1 hour.

_Time_.--3/4 to 1 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d. to 2s. a brace.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from the 1st of September to the beginning of February.

Note.--Should the partridges be very large, split them in half; they
will then lie in the dish more compactly. When at hand, a few mushrooms
should always be added.

POTTED PARTRIDGE.

1037. INGREDIENTS.--Partridges; seasoning to taste of mace, allspice
white pepper, and salt; butter, coarse paste.

_Mode_.--Pluck and draw the birds, and wipe them inside with a damp
cloth. Pound well some mace, allspice, white pepper, and salt; mix
together, and rub every part of the partridges with this. Pack the birds
as closely as possible in a baking-pan, with plenty of butter over them,
and cover with a coarse flour and water crust. Tie a paper over this,
and bake for rather more than 1-1/2 hour; let the birds get cold, then
cut them into pieces for keeping, pack them closely into a large
potting-pot, and cover with clarified butter. This should be kept in a
cool dry place. The butter used for potted things will answer for
basting, or for paste for meat pies.--See coloured plate, D1.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour.

_Seasonable_ from the 1st of September to the beginning of February.

SALMI DE PERDRIX, or HASHED PARTRIDGES.

1038. INGREDIENTS.--3 young partridges, 3 shalots, a slice of lean ham,
1 carrot, 3 or 4 mushrooms, a bunch of savoury herbs, 2 cloves, 6 whole
peppers, 3/4 pint of stock, 1 glass of sherry or Madeira, a small lump
of sugar.

_Mode_.--After the partridges are plucked and drawn, roast them rather
underdone, and cover them with paper, as they should not be browned; cut
them into joints, take off the skin from the wings, legs, and breasts;
put these into a stewpan, cover them up, and set by until the gravy is
ready. Cut a slice of ham into small pieces, and put them, with the
carrots sliced, the shalots, mushrooms, herbs, cloves, and pepper, into
a stewpan; fry them lightly in a little butter, pour in the stock, add
the bones and trimming from the partridges, and simmer for 1/4 hour.
Strain the gravy, let it cool, and skim off every particle of fat; put
it to the legs, wings, and breasts, add a glass of sherry or Madeira and
a small lump of sugar, let all gradually warm through by the side of the
fire, and when on the point of boiling, serve, and garnish the dish with
croutons. The remains of roast partridge answer very well dressed in
this way, although not so good as when the birds are in the first
instance only half-roasted. This recipe is equally suitable for
pheasants, moor-game, &c.; but care must be taken always to skin the
joints.

_Time_.--Altogether 1 hour.

_Sufficient_.--2 or 3 partridges for an entree.

_Seasonable_ from the 1st of September to the beginning of February.

ROAST PARTRIDGE.

1039. INGREDIENTS.--Partridge; butter.

_Choosing and Trussing_.--Choose young birds, with dark-coloured bills
and yellowish legs, and let them hang a few days, or there will be no
flavour to the flesh, nor will it be tender. The time they should be
kept, entirely depends on the taste of those for whom they are intended,
as what some persons would consider delicious, would be to others
disgusting and offensive. They may be trussed with or without the head,
the latter mode being now considered the most fashionable. Pluck, draw,
and wipe the partridge carefully inside and out; cut off the head,
leaving sufficient skin on the neck to skewer back; bring the legs close
to the breast, between it and the side-bones, and pass a skewer through
the pinions and the thick part of the thighs. When the head is left on,
it should be brought round and fixed on to the point of the skewer.

[Illustration: ROAST PARTRIDGE.]

_Mode_.--When the bird is firmly and plumply trussed, roast it before a
nice bright fire; keep it well basted, and a few minutes before serving,
flour and froth it well. Dish it, and serve with gravy and bread sauce,
and send to table hot and quickly. A little of the gravy should be
poured over the bird.--See coloured plate, D1.

_Time_.--25 to 35 minutes. _Average cost_, is 1s. 6d. to 2s. a brace.

_Sufficient_,--2 for a dish.

_Seasonable_ from the 1st of September to the beginning of February.

[Illustration: PARTRIDGES.]

THE PARTRIDGE.--This bird is to be found in nearly all the
temperate countries of Europe, but is most abundant in the
Ukraine, although it is unable to bear the extremes of climate,
whether hot or cold. It was formerly very common in France, and
is considered a table luxury in England. The instinct of this
bird is frequently exemplified in a remarkable manner, for the
preservation of its young. "I have seen it often," says a very
celebrated writer, and an accurate observer of nature, "and once
in particular, I saw an extraordinary instance of an old bird's
solicitude to save its brood. As I was hunting with a young
pointer, the dog ran on a brood of very small partridges; the
old bird cried, fluttered, and ran tumbling along just before
the dog's nose, till she had drawn him to a considerable
distance, when she took wing, and flew still further off, but
not out of the field; on this the dog returned to me, near the
place where the young ones lay concealed in the grass, which the
old bird no sooner perceived than she flew back to us, settled
just before the dog's nose again, and by rolling and tumbling
about, drew off his attention from her young, and thus preserved
her brood a second time. I have also seen, when a kite has been
hovering over a covey of young partridges, the old birds fly up
at the bird of prey, screaming and fighting with all their might
to preserve their brood." Partridges should be chosen young; if
old, they are valueless. The young ones are generally known by
their yellow legs and dark-coloured bills.

PHEASANT CUTLETS.

1040. INGREDIENTS.--2 or 3 pheasants, egg and bread crumbs, cayenne and
salt to taste, brown gravy.

_Mode_.--Procure 3 young pheasants that have been hung a few days;
pluck, draw, and wipe them inside; cut them into joints; remove the
bones from the best of these; and the backbones, trimmings, &c., put
into a stewpan, with a little stock, herbs, vegetables, seasoning, &c.,
to make the gravy. Flatten and trim the cutlets of a good shape, egg and
bread crumb them, broil them over a clear fire, pile them high in the
dish, and pour under them the gravy made from the bones, which should be
strained, flavoured, and thickened. One of the small bones should be
stuck on the point of each cutlet.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, 2s. 6d. to 3s. each.

_Sufficient_ for 2 entrees.

_Seasonable_ from the 1st of October to the beginning of February.

ROAST PHEASANT.

1041. INGREDIENTS.--Pheasant, flour, butter.

_Choosing and Trussing_.--Old pheasants may be known by the length and
sharpness of their spurs; in young ones they are short and blunt. The
cock bird is generally reckoned the best, except when the hen is with
egg. They should hang some time before they are dressed, as, if they are
cooked fresh, the flesh will be exceedingly dry and tasteless. After the
bird is plucked and drawn, wipe the inside with a damp cloth, and truss
it in the same manner as partridge, No. 1039. If the head is left on, as
shown in the engraving, bring it round under the wing, and fix it on to
the point of the skewer.

[Illustration: ROAST PHEASANT.]

_Mode_.--Roast it before a brisk fire, keep it well basted, and flour
and froth it nicely. Serve with brown gravy, a little of which should be
poured round the bird, and a tureen of bread sauce. 2 or 3 of the
pheasant's best tail-feathers are sometimes stuck in the tail as an
ornament; but the fashion is not much to be commended.--See coloured
plate, F1.

_Time_.--1/2 to 1 hour, according to the size.

_Average cost_, 2s. 6d. to 3s. each. _Sufficient_,--1 for a dish.

_Seasonable_ from the 1st of October to the beginning of February.

[Illustration: THE PHEASANT.]

THE PHEASANT.--This beautiful bird is said to have been
discovered by the Argonauts on the banks of the Phasis, near
Mount Ararat, in their expedition to Colchis. It is common,
however, in almost all the southern parts of the European
continent, and has been long naturalized in the warmest and most
woody counties of England. It is very common in France; indeed,
so common as to be esteemed a nuisance by the farmers. Although
it has been domesticated, this is not easily accomplished, nor
is its flesh so palatable then as it is in the wild state. Mr.
Ude says--"It is not often that pheasants are met with
possessing that exquisite taste which is acquired only by long
keeping, as the damp of this climate prevents their being kept
as long as they are in other countries. The hens, in general,
are the most delicate. The cocks show their age by their spurs.
They are only fit to be eaten when the blood begins to run from
the bill, which is commonly six days or a week after they have
been killed. The flesh is white, tender, and has a good flavour,
if you keep it long enough; if not, it is not much different
from that of a common fowl or hen."

BRILLAT SAVARIN'S RECIPE FOR ROAST PHEASANT, a la Sainte Alliance.

1042. When the pheasant is in good condition to be cooked (_see_ No.
1041), it should be plucked, and not before. The bird should then be
stuffed in the following manner:--Take two snipes, and draw them,
putting the bodies on one plate, and the livers, &c., on another. Take
off the flesh, and mince it finely with a little beef, lard, a few
truffles, pepper and salt to taste, and stuff the pheasant carefully
with this. Cut a slice of bread, larger considerably than the bird, and
cover it with the liver, &c., and a few truffles: an anchovy and a
little fresh butter added to these will do no harm. Put the bread, &c.,
into the dripping-pan, and, when the bird is roasted, place it on the
preparation, and surround it with Florida oranges.

Do not be uneasy, Savarin adds, about your dinner; for a pheasant served
in this way is fit for beings better than men. The pheasant itself is a
very good bird; and, imbibing the dressing and the flavour of the
truffle and snipe, it becomes thrice better.

BROILED PHEASANT (a Breakfast or Luncheon Dish).

1043. INGREDIENTS.--1 pheasant, a little lard, egg and bread crumbs,
salt and cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the legs off at the first joint, and the remainder of the
bird into neat pieces; put them into a fryingpan with a little lard, and
when browned on both sides, and about half done, take them out and drain
them; brush the pieces over with egg, and sprinkle with bread crumbs
with which has been mixed a good seasoning of cayenne and salt. Broil
them over a moderate fire for about 10 minutes, or rather longer, and
serve with mushroom-sauce, sauce piquante, or brown gravy, in which a
few game-bones and trimmings have been stewed.

_Time_.--Altogether 1/2 hour. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from the 1st of October to the beginning of February.

THE HEIGHT OF EXCELLENCE IN A PHEASANT.--Things edible have
their degrees of excellence under various circumstances: thus,
asparagus, capers, peas, and partridges are best when young.
Perfection in others is only reached when they attain maturity:
let us say, for example, melons and nearly all fruits (we must
except, perhaps, the medlar), with the majority of those animals
whose flesh we eat. But others, again, are not good until
decomposition is about to set in; and here we may mention
particularly the snipe and the pheasant. If the latter bird be
eaten so soon as three days after it has been killed, it then
has no peculiarity of flavour; a pullet would be more relished,
and a quail would surpass it in aroma. Kept, however, a proper
length of time,--and this can be ascertained by a slight smell
and change of colour,--then it becomes a highly, flavoured dish,
occupying, so to speak, the middle distance between chicken and
venison. It is difficult to define any exact time to "hang" a
pheasant; but any one possessed of the instincts of
gastronomical science, can at once detect the right moment when
a pheasant should be taken down, in the same way as a good cook
knows whether a bird should be removed from the spit, or have a
turn or two more.

TO DRESS PLOVERS.

1044. INGREDIENTS.--3 plovers, butter, flour, toasted bread.

_Choosing and Trussing_.--Choose those that feel hard at the vent, as
that shows their fatness. There are three sorts,--the grey, green, and
bastard plover, or lapwing. They will keep good for some time, but if
very stale, the feet will be very dry. Plovers are scarcely fit for
anything but roasting; they are, however, sometimes stewed, or made into
a ragout, but this mode of cooking is not to be recommended.

_Mode_.--Pluck off the feathers, wipe the outside of the birds with a
damp cloth, and do not draw them; truss with the head under the wing,
put them down to a clear fire, and lay slices of moistened toast in the
dripping-pan, to catch the trail. Keep them _well basted_, dredge them
lightly with flour a few minutes before they are done, and let them be
nicely frothed. Dish them on the toasts, over which the _trail_ should
be equally spread. Pour round the toast a little good gravy, and send
some to table in a tureen.

_Time_.--10 minutes to 1/4 hour.

_Average cost_, 1s. 6d. the brace, if plentiful.

_Sufficient_ for 2 persons.

_Seasonable_.--In perfection from the beginning of September to the end
of January.

THE PLOVER.--There are two species of this bird, the grey and
the green, the former being larger than the other, and somewhat
less than the woodcock. It has generally been classed with those
birds which chiefly live in the water; but it would seem only to
seek its food there, for many of the species breed upon the
loftiest mountains. Immense flights of these birds are to be
seen in the Hebrides, and other parts of Scotland; and, in the
winter, large numbers are sent to the London market, which is
sometimes so much glutted with them that they are sold very
cheap. Previous to dressing, they are kept till they have a game
flavour; and although their flesh is a favourite with many, it
is not universally relished. The green is preferred to the grey,
but both are inferior to the woodcock. Their eggs are esteemed
as a great delicacy. Birds of this kind are migratory. They
arrive in England in April, live with us all the spring and
summer, and at the beginning of autumn prepare to take leave by
getting together in flocks. It is supposed that they then retire
to Spain, and frequent the sheep-walks with which that country
abounds.

[Illustration: THE PLOVER.]

TO DRESS THE PTARMIGAN.

1045. INGREDIENTS.--2 or 3 birds; butter, flour, fried bread crumbs.

_Mode_.--The ptarmigan, or white grouse, when young and tender, are
exceedingly fine eating, and should be kept as long as possible, to be
good. Pluck, draw, and truss them in the same manner as grouse, No.
1025, and roast them before a brisk fire. Flour and froth them nicely,
and serve on buttered toast, with a tureen of brown gravy. Bread sauce,
when liked, may be sent to table with them, and fried bread crumbs
substituted for the toasted bread.

_Time_.--About 1/2 hour. _Sufficient_,--2 for a dish.

_Seasonable_ from the beginning of February to the end of April.

THE PTARMIGAN, OR WHITE GROUSE.--This bird is nearly the same
size as red grouse, and is fond of lofty situations, where it
braves the severest weather, and is found in most parts of
Europe, as well as in Greenland. At Hudson's Bay they appear in
such multitudes that so many as sixty or seventy are frequently
taken at once in a net. As they are as tame as chickens, this is
done without difficulty. Buffon says that the Ptarmigan avoids
the solar heat, and prefers the frosts of the summits of the
mountains; for, as the snow melts on the sides of the mountains,
it ascends till it gains the top, where it makes a hole, and
burrows in the snow. In winter, it flies in flocks, and feeds on
the wild vegetation of the hills, which imparts to its flesh a
bitter, but not altogether an unpalatable taste. It is
dark-coloured, and has something of the flavour of the hare, and
is greatly relished, and much sought after by some sportsmen.

[Illustration: THE PTARMIGAN.]

TO DRESS QUAILS.

1046. INGREDIENTS.--Quails, butter, toast.

_Mode_.--These birds keep good several days, and should be roasted
without drawing. Truss them in the same manner as woodcocks, No. 1062;
roast them before a clear fire, keep them well basted, and serve on
toast.

_Time_.--About 20 minutes. _Average cost_.--Seldom bought.

_Sufficient_ 2 for a dish.

_Seasonable_ from October to December.

[Illustration: THE QUAIL.]

THE QUAIL.--Quails are almost universally diffused over Europe,
Asia, and Africa. Being birds of passage, they are seen in
immense flocks, traversing the Mediterranean Sea from Europe to
Africa, in the autumn, and returning again in the spring,
frequently alighting in their passage on many of the islands of
the Archipelago, which, with their vast numbers, they almost
completely cover. On the western coasts of the kingdom of
Naples, they have appeared in such prodigious numbers, that,
within the compass of four or five miles, as many as a hundred
thousand have been taken in a day. "From these circumstances,"
says a writer on natural history, "it appears highly probable
that the quails which supplied the Israelites with food during
their journey through the wilderness, were sent thither, on
their passage to the north, by a wind from the south-west,
sweeping over Egypt and Ethiopia towards the shores of the Red
Sea." In England they are not very numerous, although they breed
in it; and many of them are said to remain throughout the year,
changing their quarters from the interior parts of the country
for the seacoast.

TO DRESS SNIPES.

1047. INGREDIENTS.--Snipes, butter, flour, toast.

_Mode_.--These, like woodcocks, should be dressed without being drawn.
Pluck, and wipe them outside, and truss them with the head under the
wing, having previously skinned that and the neck. Twist the legs at the
first joint, press the feet upon the thighs, and pass a skewer through
these and the body. Place four on a skewer, tie them on to the jack or
spit, and roast before a clear fire for about 1/4 hour. Put some pieces
of buttered toast into the dripping-pan to catch the trails; flour and
froth the birds nicely, dish the pieces of toast with the snipes on
them, and pour round, but not over them, a little good brown gravy. They
should be sent to table very hot and expeditiously, or they will not be
worth eating.--See coloured plate M1.

[Illustration: ROAST SNIPE.]

_Time_.--About 1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d. to 2s. the brace.

_Sufficient_,--4 for a dish.

_Seasonable_ from November to February.

_Note_.--Ortolans are trussed and dressed in the same manner.

[Illustration: THE SNIPE.]

THE SNIPE.--This is a migratory bird, and is generally
distributed over Europe. It is found in most parts of England,
in the high as well as the low lands, depending much on the
weather. In very wet seasons it resorts to the hills, but at
other times frequents marshes, where it can penetrate the earth
with its bill, hunting for worms, which form its principal food.
In the Hebrides and the Orkneys snipes are plentiful, and they
are fattest in frosty weather. In the breeding season the snipe
changes its note entirely from that which it has in the winter.

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