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The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

Part 13 out of 34

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LAMB'S FRY.

748. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of lamb's fry, 3 pints of water, egg and bread
crumbs, 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, salt and pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--Boil the fry for 1/4 hour in the above proportion of water,
take it out and dry it in a cloth; grate some bread down finely, mix
with it a teaspoonful of chopped parsley and a high seasoning of pepper
and salt. Brush the fry lightly over with the yolk of an egg, sprinkle
over the bread crumbs, and fry for 5 minutes. Serve very hot on a napkin
in a dish, and garnish with plenty of crisped parsley.

_Time_.-1 hour to simmer the fry, 5 minutes to fry it.

_Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 2 or 3 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

HASHED LAMB AND BROILED BLADE-BONE.

749. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of a cold shoulder of lamb, pepper and
salt to taste, 2 oz. of butter, about 1/2 pint of stock or gravy, 1
tablespoonful of shalot vinegar, 3 or 4 pickled gherkins.

_Mode_.--Take the blade-bone from the shoulder, and cut the meat into
collops as neatly as possible. Season the bone with pepper and salt,
pour a little oiled butter over it, and place it in the oven to warm
through. Put the stock into a stewpan, add the ketchup and shalot
vinegar, and lay in the pieces of lamb. Let these heat gradually
through, but do not allow them to boil. Take the blade-bone out of the
oven, and place it on a gridiron over a sharp fire to brown. Slice the
gherkins, put them into the hash, and dish it with the blade-bone in the
centre. It may be garnished with croutons or sippets of toasted bread.

_Time_.--Altogether 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_,--house lamb, from Christmas to March; grass lamb, from
Easter to Michaelmas.

[Illustration: FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.]

ROAST FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.

750. INGREDIENTS.--Lamb, a little salt.

_Mode_.--To obtain the flavour of lamb in perfection, it should not be
long kept; time to cool is all that it requires; and though the meat may
be somewhat thready, the juices and flavour will be infinitely superior
to that of lamb that has been killed 2 or 3 days. Make up the fire in
good time, that it may be clear and brisk when the joint is put down.
Place it at a sufficient distance to prevent the fat from burning, and
baste it constantly till the moment of serving. Lamb should be very
_thoroughly_ done without being dried up, and not the slightest
appearance of red gravy should be visible, as in roast mutton: this rule
is applicable to all young white meats. Serve with a little gravy made
in the dripping-pan, the same as for other roasts, and send to table
with it a tureen of mint sauce, No. 469, and a fresh salad. A cut lemon,
a small piece of fresh butter, and a little cayenne, should also be
placed on the table, so that when the carver separates the shoulder from
the ribs, they may be ready for his use; if, however, he should not be
very expert, we would recommend that the cook should divide these joints
nicely before coming to table.

_Time_.--Fore-quarter of lamb weighing 10 lbs., 1-3/4 to 2 hours.

_Average cost_, 10d. to 1s. per lb. _Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_,--grass lamb, from Easter to Michaelmas.

BOILED LEG OF LAMB A LA BECHAMEL.

751. INGREDIENTS.--Leg of lamb, Bechamel sauce, No. 367.

_Mode_.--Do not choose a very large joint, but one weighing about 5 lbs.
Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, into which plunge the lamb, and
when it boils up again, draw it to the side of the fire, and let the
water cool a little. Then stew very gently for about 1-1/4 hour,
reckoning from the time that the water begins to simmer. Make some
Bechamel by recipe No. 367, dish the lamb, pour the sauce over it, and
garnish with tufts of boiled cauliflower or carrots. When liked, melted
butter may be substituted for the Bechamel: this is a more simple
method, but not nearly so nice. Send to table with it some of the sauce
in a tureen, and boiled cauliflowers or spinach, with whichever
vegetable the dish is garnished.

_Time_.--1-1/4 hour after the water simmers.

_Average cost_, 10d. to 1s. per lb. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

ROAST LEG OF LAMB.

752. INGREDIENTS.--Lamb, a little salt.

[Illustration: LEG OF LAMB.]

_Mode_.--Place the joint at a good distance from the fire at first, and
baste well the whole time it is cooking. When nearly done, draw it
nearer the fire to acquire a nice brown colour. Sprinkle a little fine
salt over the meat, empty the dripping-pan of its contents; pour in a
little boiling water, and strain this over the meat. Serve with mint
sauce and a fresh salad, and for vegetables send peas, spinach, or
cauliflowers to table with it.

_Time_.--A leg of lamb weighing 5 lbs., 1-1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 10d. to 1s. per lb. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

BRAISED LOIN OF LAMB.

[Illustration: LOIN OF LAMB.]

753. INGREDIENTS.--1 loin of lamb, a few slices of bacon, 1 bunch of
green onions, 5 or 6 young carrots, a bunch of savoury herbs, 2 blades
of pounded mace, 1 pint of stock, salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Bone a loin of lamb, and line the bottom of a stewpan just
capable of holding it, with a few thin slices of fat bacon; add the
remaining ingredients, cover the meat with a few more slices of bacon,
pour in the stock, and simmer very _gently_ for 2 hours; take it up, dry
it, strain and reduce the gravy to a glaze, with which glaze the meat,
and serve it either on stewed peas, spinach, or stewed cucumbers.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 11d. per lb.

_Sufficient for_ 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

[Illustration: SADDLE OF LAMB. RIBS OF LAMB.]

ROAST SADDLE OF LAMB.

754. INGREDIENTS.--Lamb; a little salt.

_Mode_.--This joint is now very much in vogue, and is generally
considered a nice one for a small party. Have ready a clear brisk fire;
put down the joint at a little distance, to prevent the fat from
scorching, and keep it well basted all the time it is cooking. Serve
with mint sauce and a fresh salad, and send to table with it, either
peas, cauliflowers, or spinach.

_Time_.--A small saddle, 1-1/2 hour; a large one, 2 hours.

_Average cost_, 10d. to 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

_Note_.--Loin and ribs of lamb are roasted in the same manner, and
served with the same sauces as the above. A loin will take about 1-1/4
hour; ribs, from 1 to 1-1/4 hour.

ROAST SHOULDER OF LAMB.

755. INGREDIENTS.--Lamb; a little salt.

_Mode_.--Have ready a clear brisk fire, and put down the joint at a
sufficient distance from it, that the fat may not burn. Keep constantly
basting until done, and serve with a little gravy made in the
dripping-pan, and send mint sauce to table with it. Peas, spinach, or
cauliflowers are the usual vegetables served with lamb, and also a fresh
salad.

_Time_.--A shoulder of lamb rather more than 1 hour.

_Average cost_, 10s. to 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

SHOULDER OF LAMB STUFFED.

756. INGREDIENTS.--Shoulder of lamb, forcemeat No. 417, trimmings of
veal or beef, 2 onions, 1/2 head of celery, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, a
few slices of fat bacon, 1 quart of stock No. 105.

_Mode_.--Take the blade-bone out of a shoulder of lamb, fill up its
place with forcemeat, and sew it up with coarse thread. Put it into a
stewpan with a few slices of bacon under and over the lamb, and add the
remaining ingredients. Stew very gently for rather more than 2 hours.
Reduce the gravy, with which glaze the meat, and serve with peas, stewed
cucumbers, or sorrel sauce.

_Time_.--Rather more than 2 hours. _Average cost_, 10d. to 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

LAMB'S SWEETBREADS, LARDED, AND ASPARAGUS (an Entree).

757. INGREDIENTS.--2 or 3 sweetbreads, 1/2 pint of veal stock, white
pepper and salt to taste, a small bunch of green onions, 1 blade of
pounded mace, thickening of butter and flour, 2 eggs, nearly 1/2 pint of
cream, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, a very little grated nutmeg.

_Mode_.--Soak the sweetbreads in lukewarm water, and put them into a
saucepan with sufficient boiling water to cover them, and let them
simmer for 10 minutes; then take them out and put them into cold water.
Now lard them, lay them in a stewpan, add the stock, seasoning, onions,
mace, and a thickening of butter and flour, and stew gently for 1/4 hour
or 20 minutes. Beat up the egg with the cream, to which add the minced
parsley and a very little grated nutmeg. Put this to the other
ingredients; stir it well till quite hot, but do not let it boil after
the cream is added, or it will curdle. Have ready some asparagus-tops,
boiled; add these to the sweetbreads, and serve.

_Time_.--Altogether 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. each.

_Sufficient_--3 sweetbreads for 1 entree.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

ANOTHER WAY TO DRESS SWEETBREADS (an Entree).

758. INGREDIENTS.--Sweetbreads, egg and bread crumbs, 1/2 pint of gravy,
No. 442, 1/2 glass of sherry.

_Mode_.--Soak the sweetbreads in water for an hour, and throw them into
boiling water to render them firm. Let them stew gently for about 1/4
hour, take them out and put them into a cloth to drain all the water
from them. Brush them over with egg, sprinkle them with bread crumbs,
and either brown them in the oven or before the fire. Have ready the
above quantity of gravy, to which add 1/2 glass of sherry; dish the
sweetbreads, pour the gravy under them, and garnish with water-cresses.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d.
each.

_Sufficient_--3 sweetbreads for 1 entree.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

MUTTON AND LAMB CARVING.

HAUNCH OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: HAUNCH OF MUTTON.]

759. A deep cut should, in the first place, be made quite down to the
bone, across the knuckle-end of the joint, along the line 1 to 2. This
will let the gravy escape; and then it should be carved, in not too of
the haunch, in the direction of the line from 4 to 3.

[Illustration: LEG OF MUTTON.]

LEG OF MUTTON.

760. This homely, but capital English joint, is almost invariably served
at table as shown in the engraving. The carving of it is not very
difficult: the knife should be carried sharply down in the direction of
the line from 1 to 2, and slices taken from either side, as the guests
may desire, some liking the knuckle-end, as well done, and others
preferring the more underdone part. The fat should be sought near the
line 3 to 4. Some connoisseurs are fond of having this joint dished with
the under-side uppermost, so as to get at the finely-grained meat lying
under that part of the meat, known as the Pope's eye; but this is an
extravagant fashion, and one that will hardly find favour in the eyes of
many economical British housewives and housekeepers.

LOIN OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: LOIN OF MUTTON.]

761. There is one point in connection with carving a loin of mutton
which includes every other; that is, that the joint should be thoroughly
well jointed by the butcher before it is cooked. This knack of jointing
requires practice and the proper tools; and no one but the butcher is
supposed to have these. If the bones be not well jointed, the carving of
a loin of mutton is not a gracious business; whereas, if that has been
attended to, it is an easy and untroublesome task. The knife should be
inserted at fig. 1, and after feeling your way between the bones, it
should be carried sharply in the direction of the line 1 to 2. As there
are some people who prefer the outside cut, while others do not like it,
the question as to their choice of this should be asked.

SADDLE OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: SADDLE OF MUTTON.]

762. Although we have heard, at various intervals, growlings expressed
at the inevitable "saddle of mutton" at the dinner-parties of our middle
classes, yet we doubt whether any other joint is better liked, when it
has been well hung and artistically cooked. There is a diversity of
opinion respecting the mode of sending this joint to table; but it has
only reference to whether or no there shall be any portion of the tail,
or, if so, how many joints of the tail. We ourselves prefer the mode as
shown in our coloured illustration "O;" but others may, upon equally
good grounds, like the way shown in the engraving on this page. Some
trim the tail with a paper frill. The carving is not difficult: it is
usually cut in the direction of the line from 2 to 1, quite down to the
bones, in evenly-sliced pieces. A fashion, however, patronized by some,
is to carve it obliquely, in the direction of the line from 4 to 3; in
which case the joint would be turned round the other way, having the
tail end on the right of the carver.

SHOULDER OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: SHOULDER OF MUTTON.]

763. This is a joint not difficult to carve. The knife should be drawn
from the outer edge of the shoulder in the direction of the line from 1
to 2, until the bone of the shoulder is reached. As many slices as can
be carved in this manner should be taken, and afterwards the meat lying
on either side of the blade-bone should be served, by carving in the
direction of 3 to 4 and 3 to 4. The uppermost side of the shoulder being
now finished, the joint should be turned, and slices taken off along its
whole length. There are some who prefer this under-side of the shoulder
for its juicy flesh, although the grain of the meat is not so fine as
that on the other side.

FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.

[Illustration: FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.]

764. We always think that a good and practised carver delights in the
manipulation of this joint, for there is a little field for his judgment
and dexterity which does not always occur. The separation of the
shoulder from the breast is the first point to be attended to; this is
done by passing the knife lightly round the dotted line, as shown by the
figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, so as to cut through the skin, and then, by
raising with a little force the shoulder, into which the fork should be
firmly fixed, it will come away with just a little more exercise of the
knife. In dividing the shoulder and breast, the carver should take care
not to cut away too much of the meat from the latter, as that would
rather spoil its appearance when the shoulder is removed. The breast and
shoulder being separated, it is usual to lay a small piece of butter,
and sprinkle a little cayenne, lemon-juice, and salt between them; and
when this is melted and incorporated with the meat and gravy, the
shoulder may, as more convenient, be removed into another dish. The,
next operation is to separate the ribs from the brisket, by cutting
through the meat on the line 5 to 6. The joint is then ready to be
served to the guests; the ribs being carved in the direction of the
lines from 9 to 10, and the brisket from 7 to 8. The carver should ask
those at the table what parts they prefer-ribs, brisket, or a piece of
the shoulder.

LEG OF LAMB, LOIN OF LAMB, SADDLE OF LAMB, SHOULDER OF LAMB,

are carved in the same manner as the corresponding joints of mutton.
(_See_ Nos. 760, 761, 762, 763.)

[Illustration]

CHAPTER XVI.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE COMMON HOG.

765. THE HOG belongs to the order _Mammalia_, the genus _Sus scrofa_,
and the species _Pachydermata_, or thick-skinned; and its generic
characters are, a small head, with long flexible snout truncated; 42
teeth, divided into 4 upper incisors, converging, 6 lower incisors,
projecting, 2 upper and 2 lower canine, or tusks,--the former short, the
latter projecting, formidable, and sharp, and 14 molars in each jaw;
cloven feet furnished with 4 toes, and tail, small, short, and twisted;
while, in some varieties, this appendage is altogether wanting.

766. FROM THE NUMBER AND POSITION OF THE TEETH, physiologists are
enabled to define the nature and functions of the animal; and from those
of the _Sus_, or hog, it is evident that he is as much a _grinder_ as a
_biter_, or can live as well on vegetable as on animal food; though a
mixture of both is plainly indicated as the character of food most
conducive to the integrity and health of its physical system.

767. THUS THE PIG TRIBE, though not a ruminating mammal, as might be
inferred from the number of its molar teeth, is yet a link between the
_herbivorous_ and the _carnivorous_ tribes, and is consequently what is
known as an _omnivorous_ quadruped; or, in other words, capable of
converting any kind of aliment into nutriment.

768. THOUGH THE HOOF IN THE HOG is, as a general rule, cloven, there are
several remarkable exceptions, as in the species native to Norway,
Illyria, Sardinia, and _formerly_ to the Berkshire variety of the
British domesticated pig, in which the hoof is entire and _un_cleft.

769. WHATEVER DIFFERENCE IN ITS PHYSICAL NATURE, climate and soil may
produce in this animal, his functional characteristics are the same in
whatever part of the world he may be found; and whether in the trackless
forests of South America, the coral isles of Polynesia, the jungles of
India, or the spicy brakes of Sumatra, he is everywhere known for his
gluttony, laziness, and indifference to the character and quality of his
food. And though he occasionally shows an epicure's relish for a
succulent plant or a luscious carrot, which he will discuss with all his
salivary organs keenly excited, he will, the next moment, turn with
equal gusto to some carrion offal that might excite the forbearance of
the unscrupulous cormorant. It is this coarse and repulsive mode of
feeding that has, in every country and language, obtained for him the
opprobrium of being "an unclean animal."

770. IN THE MOSAICAL LAW, the pig is condemned as an unclean beast, and
consequently interdicted to the Israelites, as unfit for human food.
"And the swine, though he divideth the hoof and be cloven-footed, yet he
cheweth not the cud. He is unclean to you."--Lev. xi. 7. Strict,
however, as the law was respecting the cud-chewing and hoof-divided
animals, the Jews, with their usual perversity and violation of the
divine commands, seem afterwards to have ignored the prohibition; for,
unless they ate pork, it is difficult to conceive for what purpose they
kept troves of swine, as from the circumstance recorded in Matthew
xviii. 32, when Jesus was in Galilee, and the devils, cast out of the
two men, were permitted to enter the herd of swine that were feeding on
the hills in the neighbourhood of the Sea of Tiberias, it is very
evident they did. There is only one interpretation by which we can
account for a prohibition that debarred the Jews from so many foods
which we regard as nutritious luxuries, that, being fat and the texture
more hard of digestion than other meats, they were likely, in a hot dry
climate, where vigorous exercise could seldom be taken, to produce
disease, and especially cutaneous affections; indeed, in this light, as
a code of sanitary ethics, the book of Leviticus is the most admirable
system of moral government ever conceived for man's benefit.

771. SETTING HIS COARSE FEEDING AND SLOVENLY HABITS OUT OF THE QUESTION,
there is no domestic animal so profitable or so useful to man as the
much-maligned pig, or any that yields him a more varied or more
luxurious repast. The prolific powers of the pig are extraordinary, even
under the restraint of domestication; but when left to run wild in
favourable situations, as in the islands of the South Pacific, the
result, in a few years, from two animals put on shore and left
undisturbed, is truly surprising; for they breed so fast, and have such
numerous litters, that unless killed off in vast numbers both for the
use of the inhabitants and as fresh provisions for ships' crews, they
would degenerate into vermin. In this country the pig has usually two
litters, or farrows, in a year, the breeding seasons being April and
October; and the period the female goes with her young is about four
months,--16 weeks or 122 days. The number produced at each litter
depends upon the character of the breed; 12 being the average number in
the small variety, and 10 in the large; in the mixed breeds, however,
the average is between 10 and 15, and in some instances has reached as
many as 20. But however few, or however many, young pigs there may be to
the farrow, there is always one who is the dwarf of the family circle, a
poor, little, shrivelled, half-starved anatomy, with a small melancholy
voice, a staggering gait, a woe-begone countenance, and a thread of a
tail, whose existence the complacent mother ignores, his plethoric
brothers and sisters repudiate, and for whose emaciated jaws there is
never a spare or supplemental teat, till one of the favoured
gormandizers, overtaken by momentary oblivion, drops the lacteal
fountain, and gives the little squeaking straggler the chance of a
momentary mouthful. This miserable little object, which may be seen
bringing up the rear of every litter, is called the Tony pig, or the
_Anthony_; so named, it is presumed, from being the one always assigned
to the Church, when tithe was taken in kind; and as St. Anthony was the
patron of husbandry, his name was given in a sort of bitter derision to
the starveling that constituted his dues; for whether there are ten or
fifteen farrows to the litter, the Anthony is always the last of the
family to come into the world.

772. FROM THE GROSSNESS OF HIS FEEDING, the large amount of aliment he
consumes, his gluttonous way of eating it, from his slothful habits,
laziness, and indulgence in sleep, the pig is particularly liable to
disease, and especially indigestion, heartburn, and affections of the
skin.

773. TO COUNTERACT THE CONSEQUENCE OF A VIOLATION OF THE PHYSICAL LAWS,
a powerful monitor in the brain of the pig teaches him to seek for
relief and medicine. To open the pores of his skin, blocked up with mud,
and excite perspiration, he resorts to a tree, a stump, or his
trough--anything rough and angular, and using it as a curry-comb to his
body, obtains the luxury of a scratch and the benefit of cuticular
evaporation; he next proceeds with his long supple snout to grub up
antiscorbutic roots, cooling salads of mallow and dandelion, and,
greatest treat of all, he stumbles on a piece of chalk or a mouthful of
delicious cinder, which, he knows by instinct, is the most sovereign
remedy in the world for that hot, unpleasant sensation he has had all
the morning at his stomach.

774. IT IS A REMARKABLE FACT that, though every one who keeps a pig
knows how prone he is to disease, how that disease injures the quality
of the meat, and how eagerly he pounces on a bit of coal or cinder, or
any coarse dry substance that will adulterate the rich food on which he
lives, and by affording soda to his system, correct the vitiated fluids
of his body,--yet very few have the judgment to act on what they see,
and by supplying the pig with a few shovelfuls of cinders in his sty,
save the necessity of his rooting for what is so needful to his health.
Instead of this, however, and without supplying the animal with what its
instinct craves for, his nostril is bored with a red-hot iron, and a
ring clinched in his nose to prevent rooting for what he feels to be
absolutely necessary for his health; and ignoring the fact that, in a
domestic state at least, the pig lives on the richest of all
food,--scraps of cooked animal substances, boiled vegetables, bread, and
other items, given in that concentrated essence of aliment for a
quadruped called wash, and that he eats to repletion, takes no exercise,
and finally sleeps all the twenty-four hours he is not eating, and then,
when the animal at last seeks for those medicinal aids which would
obviate the evil of such a forcing diet, his keeper, instead of meeting
his animal instinct by human reason, and giving him what he seeks, has
the inhumanity to torture him by a ring, that, keeping up a perpetual
"raw" in the pig's snout, prevents his digging for those corrective
drugs which would remove the evils of his artificial existence.

775. THOUGH SUBJECT TO SO MANY DISEASES, no domestic animal is more
easily kept in health, cleanliness, and comfort, and this without the
necessity of "ringing," or any excessive desire of the hog to roam,
break through his sty, or plough up his _pound_. Whatever the kind of
food may be on which the pig is being fed or fattened, a teaspoonful or
more of salt should always be given in his mess of food, and a little
heap of well-burnt cinders, with occasional bits of chalk, should always
be kept by the side of his trough, as well as a vessel of clean water:
his pound, or the front part of his sty, should be totally free from
straw, the brick flooring being every day swept out and sprinkled with a
layer of sand. His lair, or sleeping apartment, should be well sheltered
by roof and sides from cold, wet, and all changes of weather, and the
bed made up of a good supply of clean straw, sufficiently deep to enable
the pig to burrow his unprotected body beneath it. All the refuse of the
garden, in the shape of roots, leaves, and stalks, should be placed in a
corner of his pound or feeding-chamber, for the delectation of his
leisure moments; and once a week, on the family washing-day, a pail of
warm soap-suds should be taken into his sty, and, by means of a
scrubbing-brush and soap, his back, shoulders, and flanks should be well
cleaned, a pail of clean warm water being thrown over his body at the
conclusion, before he is allowed to retreat to his clean straw to dry
himself. By this means, the excessive nutrition of his aliment will be
corrected, a more perfect digestion insured, and, by opening the pores
of the skin, a more vigorous state of health acquired than could have
been obtained under any other system.

776. WE HAVE ALREADY SAID that no other animal yields man so _many_
kinds and varieties of luxurious food as is supplied to him by the flesh
of the hog differently prepared; for almost every part of the animal,
either fresh, salted, or dried, is used for food; and even those viscera
not so employed are of the utmost utility in a domestic point of view.

777. THOUGH DESTITUTE OF THE HIDE, HORNS, AND HOOFS, constituting the
offal of most domestic animals, the pig is not behind the other mammalia
in its usefulness to man. Its skin, especially that of the boar, from
its extreme closeness of texture, when tanned, is employed for the seats
of saddles, to cover powder, shot, and drinking-flasks; and the hair,
according to its colour, flexibility, and stubbornness, is manufactured
into tooth, nail, and hairbrushes,--others into hat, clothes, and
shoe-brushes; while the longer and finer qualities are made into long
and short brooms and painters' brushes; and a still more rigid
description, under the name of "bristles," are used by the shoemaker as
needles for the passage of his wax-end. Besides so many benefits and
useful services conferred on man by this valuable animal, his fat, in a
commercial sense, is quite as important as his flesh, and brings a price
equal to the best joints in the carcase. This fat is rendered, or melted
out of the caul, or membrane in which it is contained, by boiling water,
and, while liquid, run into prepared bladders, when, under the name of
_lard_, it becomes an article of extensive trade and value.

778. OF THE NUMEROUS VARIETIES OF THE DOMESTICATED HOG, the following
list of breeds may be accepted as the best, presenting severally all
those qualities aimed at in the rearing of domestic stock, as affecting
both the breeder and the consumer. _Native_--Berkshire, Essex, York, and
Cumberland; _Foreign_--the Chinese. Before, however, proceeding with the
consideration of the different orders, in the series we have placed
them, it will be necessary to make a few remarks relative to the pig
generally. In the first place, the _Black Pig_ is regarded by breeders
as the best and most eligible animal, not only from the fineness and
delicacy of the skin, but because it is less affected by the heat in
summer, and far less subject to cuticular disease than either the white
or brindled hog, but more particularly from its kindlier nature and
greater aptitude to fatten.

779. THE GREAT QUALITY FIRST SOUGHT FOR IN A HOG is a capacious stomach,
and next, a healthy power of digestion; for the greater the quantity he
can eat, and the more rapidly he can digest what he has eaten, the more
quickly will he fatten; and the faster he can be made to increase in
flesh, without a material increase of bone, the better is the breed
considered, and the more valuable the animal. In the usual order of
nature, the development of flesh and enlargement of bone proceed
together; but here the object is to outstrip the growth of the bones by
the quicker development of their fleshy covering.

780. THE CHIEF POINTS SOUGHT FOR IN THE CHOICE OF A HOG are breadth of
chest, depth of carcase, width of loin, chine, and ribs, compactness of
form, docility, cheerfulness, and general beauty of appearance. The head
in a well-bred hog must not be too long, the forehead narrow and convex,
cheeks full, snout fine, mouth small, eyes small and quick, ears short,
thin, and sharp, pendulous, and pointing forwards; neck full and broad,
particularly on the top, where it should join very broad shoulders; the
ribs, loin, and haunch should be in a uniform line, and the tail well
set, neither too high nor too low; at the same time the back is to be
straight or slightly curved, the chest deep, broad, and prominent, the
legs short and thick; the belly, when well fattened, should nearly touch
the ground, the hair be long, thin, fine, and having few bristles, and
whatever the colour, uniform, either white, black, or blue; but not
spotted, speckled, brindled, or sandy. Such are the features and
requisites that, among breeders and judges, constitute the _beau ideal_
of a perfect pig.

[Illustration: BERKSHIRE SOW.]

781. THE BERKSHIRE PIG IS THE BEST KNOWN AND MOST ESTEEMED of all our
English domestic breeds, and so highly is it regarded, that even the
varieties of the stock are in as great estimation as the parent breed
itself. The characteristics of the Berkshire hog are that it has a tawny
colour, spotted with black, large ears hanging over the eyes, a thick,
close, and well-made body, legs short and small in the bone; feeds up to
a great weight, fattens quickly, and is good either for pork or bacon.
The New or Improved Berkshire possesses all the above qualities, but is
infinitely more prone to fatten, while the objectionable colour has been
entirely done away with, being now either all white or completely black.

[Illustration: ESSEX SOW.]

782. NEXT TO THE FORMER, THE ESSEX takes place in public estimation,
always competing, and often successfully, with the Berkshire. The
peculiar characters of the Essex breed are that it is tip-eared, has a
long sharp head, is roach-backed, with a long flat body, standing high
on the legs; is rather bare of hair, is a quick feeder, has an enormous
capacity of stomach and belly, and an appetite to match its receiving
capability. Its colour is white, or else black and white, and it has a
restless habit and an unquiet disposition. The present valuable stock
has sprung from a cross between the common native animal and either the
White Chinese or Black Neapolitan breeds.

[Illustration: YORKSHIRE SOW.]

783. THE YORKSHIRE, CALLED ALSO THE OLD LINCOLNSHIRE, was at one time
the largest stock of the pig family in England, and perhaps, at that
time, the worst. It was long-legged, weak in the loins, with coarse
white curly hair, and flabby flesh. Now, however, it has undergone as
great a change as any breed in the kingdom, and by judicious crossing
has become the most valuable we possess, being a very well-formed pig
throughout, with a good head, a pleasant docile countenance, with
moderate-sized drooping ears, a broad back, slightly curved, large chine
and loins, with deep sides, full chest, and well covered with long
thickly-set white hairs. Besides these qualities of form, he is a quick
grower, feeds fast, and will easily make from 20 to 25 stone before
completing his first year. The quality of the meat is also uncommonly
good, the fat and lean being laid on in almost equal proportions. So
capable is this species of development, both in flesh and stature, that
examples of the Yorkshire breed have been exhibited weighing as much as
a Scotch ox.

[Illustration: CUMBERLAND SOW.]

784. THOUGH ALMOST EVERY COUNTRY IN ENGLAND can boast some local variety
or other of this useful animal, obtained from the native stock by
crossing with some of the foreign kinds, Cumberland and the north-west
parts of the kingdom have been celebrated for a small breed of white
pigs, with a thick, compact, and well-made body, short in the legs, the
head and back well formed, ears slouching and a little downwards, and on
the whole, a hardy, profitable animal, and one well disposed to fatten.

785. THERE IS NO VARIETY OF THIS USEFUL ANIMAL that presents such
peculiar features as the species known to us as the Chinese pig; and as
it is the general belief that to this animal and the Neapolitan hog we
are indebted for that remarkable improvement which has taken place in
the breeds of the English pig, it is necessary to be minute in the
description of this, in all respects, singular animal. The Chinese, in
the first place, consists of many varieties, and presents as many forms
of body as differences of colour; the best kind, however, has a
beautiful white skin of singular thinness and delicacy; the hair too is
perfectly white, and thinly set over the body, with here and there a few
bristles. He has a broad snout, short head, eyes bright and fiery, very
small fine pink ears, wide cheeks, high chine, with a neck of such
immense thickness, that when the animal is fat it looks like an
elongated carcase,--a mass of fat, without shape or form, like a feather
pillow. The belly is dependent, and almost trailing on the ground, the
legs very short, and the tail so small as to be little more than a
rudiment. It has a ravenous appetite, and will eat anything that the
wonderful assimilating powers of its stomach can digest; and to that
capability, there seems no limit in the whole range of animal or
vegetable nature. The consequence of this perfect and singularly rapid
digestion is an unprecedented proneness to obesity, a process of
fattening that, once commenced, goes on with such rapid development,
that, in a short time, it loses all form, depositing such an amount of
fat, that it in fact ceases to have any refuse part or offal, and,
beyond the hair on its back and the callous extremity of the snout, _the
whole carcase is eatable_.

[Illustration: CHINESE SOW.]

786. WHEN JUDICIOUSLY FED ON VEGETABLE DIET, and this obese tendency
checked, the flesh of the Chinese pig is extremely delicate and
delicious; but when left to gorge almost exclusively on animal food, it
becomes oily, coarse, and unpleasant. Perhaps there is no other instance
in nature where the effect of rapid and perfect digestion is so well
shown as in this animal, which thrives on _everything_, and turns to the
benefit of its physical economy, food of the most _opposite nature_, and
of the most unwholesome and _offensive_ character. When fully fattened,
the thin cuticle, that is one of its characteristics, cracks, from the
adipose distension beneath, exposing the fatty mass, which discharges a
liquid oil from the adjacent tissues. The great fault in this breed is
the remarkably small quantity of lean laid down, to the immense
proportion of fat. Some idea of the growth of this species may be
inferred from the fact of their attaining to 18 stone before two years,
and when further advanced, as much as 40 stone. In its pure state,
except for roasters, the Chinese pig is too disproportionate for the
English market; but when crossed with some of our lean stock, the breed
becomes almost invaluable.

[Illustration: WESTPHALIAN BOAR.]

787. THE WILD BOAR is a much more cleanly and sagacious animal than the
domesticated hog; he is longer in the snout, has his ears shorter and
his tusks considerably longer, very frequently measuring as much as 10
inches. They are extremely sharp, and are bent in an upward circle.
Unlike his domestic brother, who roots up here and there, or wherever
his fancy takes, the wild boar ploughs the ground in continuous lines or
furrows. The boar, when selected as the parent of a stock, should have a
small head, be deep and broad in the chest; the chine should be arched,
the ribs and barrel well rounded, with the haunches falling full down
nearly to the hock; and he should always be more compact and smaller
than the female. The colour of the wild boar is always of a uniform hue,
and generally of an iron grey; shading off into a black. The hair of the
boar is of considerable length, especially about the head and mane; he
stands, in general, from 20 to 30 inches in height at the shoulders,
though instances have occurred where he has reached 42 inches. The young
are of a pale yellowish tint, irregularly brindled with light brown. The
boar of Germany is a large and formidable animal, and the hunting of
him, with a small species of mastiff, is still a national sport. From
living almost exclusively on acorns and nuts, his flesh is held in great
esteem, and in Westphalia his legs are made into hams by a process
which, it is said, enhances the flavour and quality of the meat in a
remarkable degree.

788. THERE ARE TWO POINTS to be taken into consideration by all breeders
of pigs--to what ultimate use is the flesh to be put; for, if meant to
be eaten fresh, or simply salted, the _small_ breed of pigs is host
suited for the purpose; if for hams or bacon, the large variety of the
animal is necessary. Pigs are usually weaned between six and eight weeks
after birth, after which they are fed on soft food, such as mashed
potatoes in skimmed or butter-milk. The general period at which the
small hogs are killed for the market is from 12 to 16 weeks; from 4 to 5
mouths, they are called store pigs, and are turned out to graze till the
animal has acquired its full stature. As soon as this point has been
reached, the pig should be forced to maturity as quickly as possible; he
should therefore be taken from the fields and farm-yard, and shut up on
boiled potatoes, buttermilk, and peas-meal, after a time to be followed
by grains, oil-cake, wash, barley, and Indian meal; supplying his sty at
the same time with plenty of water, cinders, and a quantity of salt in
every mess of food presented to him.

789. THE ESTIMATED NUMBER OF PIGS IN GREAT BRITAIN is supposed to exceed
20 millions; and, considering the third of the number as worth L2
apiece, and the remaining two-thirds as of the relative value of _10s_.
each, would give a marketable estimate of over L20,000,000 for this
animal alone.

790. THE BEST AND MOST HUMANE MODE OF KILLING ALL LARGE HOGS is to
strike them down like a bullock, with the pointed end of a poleaxe, on
the forehead, which has the effect of killing the animal at once; all
the butcher has then to do, is to open the aorta and great arteries, and
laying the animal's neck over a trough, let out the blood as quickly as
possible. The carcase is then to be scalded, either on a board or by
immersion in a tub of very hot water, and all the hair and dirt rapidly
scraped off, till the skin is made perfectly white, when it is hung up,
opened, and dressed, as it is called, in the usual way. It is then
allowed to cool, a sheet being thrown around the carcase, to prevent the
air from discolouring the newly-cleaned skin. When meant for bacon, the
hair is singed instead of being scalded off.

791. IN THE COUNTRY, where for ordinary consumption the pork killed for
sale is usually both larger and fatter than that supplied to the London
consumer, it is customary to remove the skin and fat down to the lean,
and, salting that, roast what remains of the joint. Pork goes further,
and is consequently a more economical food than other meats, simply
because the texture is closer, and there is less waste in the cooking,
either in roasting or boiling.

792. IN FRESH PORK, the leg is the most economical family joint, and the
loin the richest.

793. COMPARATIVELY SPEAKING, very little difference exists between the
weight of the live and dead pig, and this, simply because there is
neither the head nor the hide to be removed. It has been proved that
pork loses in cooking 13-1/2, per cent. of its weight. A salted hand
weighing 4 lbs. 5 oz. lost in the cooking 11 oz.; after cooking, the
meat weighing only 3 lbs. 1 oz., and the bone 9 oz. The original cost
was 7-1/2d. a pound; but by this deduction, the cost rose to 9d. per
pound with the bone, and 10-1/4d. without it.

794. PORK, TO BE PRESERVED, is cured in several ways,--either by
covering it with salt, or immersing it in ready-made brine, where it is
kept till required; or it is only partially salted, and then hung up to
dry, when the meat is called white bacon; or, after salting, it is hung
in wood smoke till the flesh is impregnated with the aroma from the
wood. The Wiltshire bacon, which is regarded as the finest in the
kingdom, is prepared by laying the sides of a hog in large wooden
troughs, and then rubbing into the flesh quantities of powdered
bay-salt, made hot in a frying-pan. This process is repeated for four
days; they are then left for three weeks, merely turning the flitches
every other day. After that time they are hung up to dry. The hogs
usually killed for purposes of bacon in England average from 18 to 20
stone; on the other hand, the hogs killed in the country for farm-house
purposes, seldom weigh less than 26 stone. The legs of boars, hogs, and,
in Germany, those of bears, are prepared differently, and called hams.

795. THE PRACTICE IN VOGUE FORMERLY in this country was to cut out the
hams and cure them separately; then to remove the ribs, which were
roasted as "spare-ribs," and, curing the remainder of the side, call it
a "gammon of bacon."

Small pork to cut for table in joints, is cut up, in most places
throughout the kingdom, as represented in the engraving. The sale is
divided with nine ribs to the fore quarter; and the following is an
enumeration of the joints in the two respective quarters:--

1. The leg.
HIND QUARTER 2. The loin.
3. The spring, or belly.

4. The hand.
FORE QUARTER 5. The fore-loin.
6. The cheek.

[Illustration: SIDE OF A PIG, SHOWING THE SEVERAL JOINTS.]

The weight of the several joints of a good pork pig of four stone may be
as follows; viz.:--

The leg 8 lbs.
The loin and spring 7 lbs.
The hand 6 lbs.
The chine 7 lbs.
The cheek from 2 to 3 lbs.

Of a bacon pig, the legs are reserved for curing, and when cured are
called hams: when the meat is separated from the shoulder-blade and
bones and cured, it is called bacon. The bones, with part of the meat
left on them, are divided into spare-ribs, griskins, and chines.

CHAPTER XVII.

PORK CUTLETS (Cold Meat Cookery).

796. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast loin of pork, 1 oz. of
butter, 2 onions, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1/2 pint of gravy, pepper
and salt to taste, 1 teaspoonful of vinegar and mustard.

_Mode_.--Cut the pork into nice-sized cutlets, trim off most of the fat,
and chop the onions. Put the butter into a stewpan, lay in the cutlets
and chopped onions, and fry a light brown; then add the remaining
ingredients, simmer gently for 5 or 7 minutes, and serve.

_Time_.--5 to 7 minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_ from October to March.

AUSTRIAN METHOD OF HERDING PIGS.--In the Austrian empire there
are great numbers of wild swine, while, among the wandering
tribes peopling the interior of Hungary, and spreading over the
vast steppes of that country, droves of swine form a great
portion of the wealth of the people, who chiefly live on a
coarse bread and wind-dried bacon.

In German Switzerland, the Tyrol, and other mountainous
districts of continental Europe, though the inhabitants, almost
everywhere, as in England, keep one or more pigs, they are at
little or no trouble in feeding them, one or more men being
employed by one or several villages as swine-herds; who, at a
certain hour, every morning, call for the pig or pigs, and
driving them to their feeding-grounds on the mountain-side and
in the wood, take custody of the herd till, on the approach of
night, they are collected into a compact body and driven home
for a night's repose in their several sties.

The amount of intelligence and docility displayed by the pigs in
these mountain regions, is much more considerable than that
usually allowed to this animal, and the manner in which these
immense herds of swine are collected, and again distributed,
without an accident or mistake, is a sight both curious and
interesting; for it is all done without the assistance of a dog,
or the aid even of the human voice, and solely by the crack of
the long-lashed and heavily-loaded whip, which the swine-herd
carries, and cracks much after the fashion of the French
postilion; and which, though he frequently cracks, waking a
hundred sharp echoes from the woods and rocks, he seldom has to
use correctionally; the animal soon acquiring a thorough
knowledge of the meaning of each crack; and once having felt its
leaded thong, a lasting remembrance of its power. At early dawn,
the swine-herd takes his stand at the outskirts of the first
village, and begins flourishing through the misty air his
immensely long lash, keeping a sort of rude time with the crack,
crack, crack, crack, crack, crack of his whip. The nearest pigs,
hearing the well-remembered sound, rouse from their straw, and
rush from their sties into the road, followed by all their
litters. As soon as a sufficient number are collected, the drove
is set in motion, receiving, right and left, as they advance,
fresh numbers; whole communities, or solitary individuals,
streaming in from all quarters, and taking their place, without
distinction, in the general herd; and, as if conscious where
their breakfast lay, without wasting a moment on idle
investigation, all eagerly push on to the mountains. In this
manner village after village is collected, till the drove not
unfrequently consists of several thousands. The feeding-ground
has, of course, often to be changed, and the drove have
sometimes to be driven many miles, and to a considerable height
up the mountain, before the whip gives the signal for the
dispersion of the body and the order to feed, when the herdsman
proceeds to form himself a shelter, and look after his own
comfort for the rest of the day. As soon as twilight sets in,
the whip is again heard echoing the signal for muster; and in
the same order in which they were collected, the swine are
driven back, each group tailing off to its respective sty, as
the herd approaches the villages, till the last grunter, having
found his home, the drover seeks his cottage and repose.

PORK CUTLETS OR CHOPS.

I.

797. INGREDIENTS.--Loin of pork, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the cutlets from a delicate loin of pork, bone and trim
them neatly, and cut away the greater portion of the fat. Season them
with pepper; place the gridiron on the fire; when quite hot, lay on the
chops and broil them for about 1/4 hour, turning them 3 or 4 times; and
be particular that they are _thoroughly_ done, but not dry. Dish them,
sprinkle over a little fine salt, and serve plain, or with tomato sauce,
sauce piquante, or pickled gherkins, a few of which should be laid round
the dish as a garnish.

_Time_.--About 1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 10d. per lb. for chops.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 6 for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ from October to March.

II.

(_Another Way_.)

798. INGREDIENTS.--Loin or fore-loin, of pork, egg and bread crumbs,
salt and pepper to taste; to every tablespoonful of bread crumbs allow
1/2 teaspoonful of minced sage; clarified butter.

_Mode_.--Cut the cutlets from a loin, or fore-loin, of pork; trim them
the same as mutton cutlets, and scrape the top part of the bone. Brush
them over with egg, sprinkle with bread crumbs, with which have been
mixed minced sage and a seasoning of pepper and salt; drop a little
clarified butter on them, and press the crumbs well down. Put the
frying-pan on the fire, put in some lard; when this is hot, lay in the
cutlets, and fry them a light brown on both sides. Take them out, put
them before the fire to dry the greasy moisture from them, and dish them
on mashed potatoes. Serve with them any sauce that may be preferred;
such as tomato sauce, sauce piquante, sauce Robert, or pickled gherkins.

_Time_.--From 15 to 20 minutes. _Average cost_, 10d. per lb. for chops.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 6 cutlets for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ from October to March.

_Note_.--The remains of roast loin of pork may be dressed in the same
manner.

PORK CHEESE (an Excellent Breakfast Dish).

799. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of cold roast pork, pepper and salt to taste,
1 dessertspoonful of minced parsley, 4 leaves of sage, a very small
bunch of savoury herbs, 2 blades of pounded mace, a little nutmeg, 1/2
teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel; good strong gravy, sufficient to fill
the mould.

_Mode_.--Cut, but do not chop, the pork into fine pieces, and allow 1/4
lb. of fat to each pound of lean. Season with pepper and salt; pound
well the spices, and chop finely the parsley, sage, herbs, and
lemon-peel, and mix the whole nicely together. Put it into a mould, fill
up with good strong well-flavoured gravy, and bake rather more than one
hour. When cold, turn it out of the mould.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1 hour.

_Seasonable_ from October to March.

ROAST LEG OF PORK.

[Illustration: ROAST LEG OF PORK.]

800. INGREDIENTS.--Leg of pork, a little oil for stuffing. (See Recipe
No. 504.)

_Mode_.--Choose a small leg of pork, and score the skin across in narrow
strips, about 1/4 inch apart. Cut a slit in the knuckle, loosen the
skin, and fill it with a sage-and-onion stuffing, made by Recipe No.
504. Brush the joint over with a little salad-oil (this makes the
crackling crisper, and a better colour), and put it down to a bright,
clear fire, not too near, as that would cause the skin to blister. Baste
it well, and serve with a little gravy made in the dripping-pan, and do
not omit to send to table with it a tureen of well-made apple-sauce.
(Sec No. 363.)

_Time_.--A leg of pork weighing 8 lbs., about 3 hours.

_Average cost_, 9d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

ENGLISH MODE OF HUNTING, AND INDIAN PIG-STICKING.--The hunting
of the wild boar has been in all times, and in all countries, a
pastime of the highest interest and excitement, and from the age
of Nimrod, has only been considered second to the more dangerous
sport of lion-hunting. The buried treasures of Nineveh, restored
to us by Mr. Layard, show us, on their sculptured annals, the
kings of Assyria in their royal pastime of boar-hunting. That
the Greeks were passionately attached to this sport, we know
both from history and the romantic fables of the poets. Marc
Antony, at one of his breakfasts with Cleopatra, had _eight wild
boars_ roasted whole; and though the Romans do not appear to
have been addicted to hunting, wild-boar fights formed part of
their gladiatorial shows in the amphitheatre. In France,
Germany, and Britain, from the earliest time, the boar-hunt
formed one of the most exciting of sports; but it was only in
this country that the sport was conducted without dogs,--a real
hand-to-hand contest of man and beast; the hunter, armed only
with a boar-spear, a weapon about four feet long, the ash staff,
guarded by plates of steel, and terminating in a long, narrow,
and very sharp blade: this, with a hunting-knife, or hanger,
completed his offensive arms. Thus equipped, the hunter would
either encounter his enemy face to face, confront his desperate
charge, as with erect tail, depressed head, and flaming eyes, he
rushed with his foamy tusks full against him, who either sought
to pierce his vitals through his counter, or driving his spear
through his chine, transfix his heart; or failing those more
difficult aims, plunge it into his flank, and, without
withdrawing the weapon, strike his ready hanger into his throat.
But expert as the hunter might be, it was not often the
formidable brute was so quickly dispatched; for he would
sometimes seize the spear in his powerful teeth, and nip it off
like a reed, or, coming full tilt on his enemy, by his momentum
and weight bear him to the earth, ripping up, with a horrid
gash, his leg or side, and before the writhing hunter could draw
his knife, the infuriated beast would plunge his snout in the
wound, and rip, with savage teeth, the bowels of his victim. At
other times, he would suddenly swerve from his charge, and
doubling on his opponent, attack the hunter in the rear. From
his speed, great weight, and savage disposition, the wild boar
is always a dangerous antagonist, and requires great courage,
coolness, and agility on the part of the hunter. The continental
sportsman rides to the chase in a cavalcade, with music and
dogs,--a kind of small hound or mastiff, and leaving all the
honorary part of the contest to them, when the boar is becoming
weary, and while beset by the dogs, rides up, and drives his
lance home in the beast's back or side. Boar-hunting has been
for some centuries obsolete in England, the animal no longer
existing in a wild state among us; but in our Indian empire, and
especially in Bengal, the pastime is pursued by our countrymen
with all the daring of the national character; and as the animal
which inhabits the cane-brakes and jungles is a formidable foe,
the sport is attended with great excitement. The hunters,
mounted on small, active horses, and armed only with long
lances, ride, at early daylight, to the skirts of the jungle,
and having sent in their attendants to beat the cover, wait till
the tusked monster comes crashing from among the canes, when
chase is immediately given, till he is come up with, and
transfixed by the first weapon. Instead of flight, however, he
often turns to bay, and by more than one dead horse and wounded
hunter, shows how formidable he is, and what those polished
tusks, sharp as pitch-forks, can effect, when the enraged animal
defends his life.

TO GLAZE HAM.--(See Recipe No. 430.)

HASHED PORK.

801. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast pork, 2 onions, 1
teaspoonful of flour, 2 blades of pounded mace, 2 cloves, 1
tablespoonful of vinegar, 1/2 pint of gravy, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Chop the onions and fry them of a nice brown, cut the pork into
thin slices, season them with pepper and salt, and add these to the
remaining ingredients. Stew gently for about 1/2 hour, and serve
garnished with sippets of toasted bread.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 3d.

_Seasonable_ from October to March.

FRIED RASHERS OF BACON AND POACHED EGGS.

802. INGREDIENTS.--Bacon; eggs.

_Mode_.--Cut the bacon into thin slices, trim away the rusty parts, and
cut off the rind. Put it into a cold frying-pan, that is to say, do not
place the pan on the fire before the bacon is in it. Turn it 2 or 3
times, and dish it on a very hot dish. Poach the eggs and slip them on
to the bacon, without breaking the yolks, and serve quickly.

_Time_.--3 or 4 minutes. _Average cost_, 10d. to 1s. per lb. for the
primest parts.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 6 eggs for 3 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Fried rashers of bacon, curled, serve as a pretty garnish to
many dishes; and, for small families, answer very well as a substitute
for boiled bacon, to serve with a small dish of poultry, &c.

BROILED RASHERS OF BACON (a Breakfast Dish).

803. Before purchasing bacon, ascertain that it is perfectly free from
rust, which may easily be detected by its yellow colour; and for
broiling, the streaked part of the thick flank, is generally the most
esteemed. Cut it into _thin_ slices, take off the rind, and broil over a
nice clear fire; turn it 2 or 3 times, and serve very hot. Should there
be any cold bacon left from the previous day, it answers very well for
breakfast, cut into slices, and broiled or fried.

_Time_.--3 or 4 minutes.

_Average cost_, 10d. to 1s. per lb. for the primest parts.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--When the bacon is cut very thin, the slices may be curled round
and fastened by means of small skewers, and fried or toasted before the
fire.

BOILED BACON.

804. INGREDIENTS.--Bacon; water.

[Illustration: BOILED BACON.]

_Mode_.--As bacon is frequently excessively salt, let it be soaked in
warm water for an hour or two previous to dressing it; then pare off the
rusty parts, and scrape the under-side and rind as clean as possible.
Put it into a saucepan of _cold_ water, let it come gradually to a boil,
and as fast as the scum rises to the surface of the water, remove it.
Let it simmer very gently until it is _thoroughly_ done; then take it
up, strip off the skin, and sprinkle over the bacon a few bread
raspings, and garnish with tufts of cauliflower or Brussels sprouts.
When served alone, young and tender broad beans or green peas are the
usual accompaniments.

_Time_.--1 lb. of bacon, 1/4 hour; 2 lbs., 1-1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 10d. to 1s. per lb. for the primest parts.

_Sufficient_.--2 lbs., when served with poultry or veal, sufficient for
10 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

TO CURE BACON IN THE WILTSHIRE WAY.

805. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lb. of coarse sugar, 1-1/2 lb. of bay-salt, 6
oz. of saltpetre, 1 lb. of common salt.

_Mode_.--Sprinkle each flitch with salt, and let the blood drain off for
24 hours; then pound and mix the above ingredients well together and rub
it well into the meat, which should be turned every day for a month;
then hang it to dry, and afterwards smoke it for 10 days.

_Time_.--To remain in the pickle 1 month, to be smoked 10 days.

_Sufficient_.--The above quantity of salt for 1 pig.

HOW PIGS WERE FORMERLY PASTURED AND FED.--Though unquestionably
far greater numbers of swine are now kept in England than
formerly, every peasant having one or more of that useful
animal, in feudal times immense droves of pigs were kept by the
franklings and barons; in those days the swine-herds being a
regular part of the domestic service of every feudal household,
their duty consisted in daily driving the herd of swine from the
castle-yard, or outlying farm, to the nearest woods, chase, or
forest, where the frankling or vavasour had, either by right or
grant, what was called _free warren_, or the liberty to feed his
hogs off the acorns, beech, and chestnuts that lay in such
abundance on the earth, and far exceeded the power of the royal
or privileged game to consume. Indeed, it was the license
granted the nobles of free warren, especially for their swine,
that kept up the iniquitous forest laws to so late a date, and
covered so large a portion of the land with such immense tracts
of wood and brake, to the injury of agriculture and the misery
of the people. Some idea of the extent to which swine were
grazed in the feudal times, may be formed by observing the
number of pigs still fed in Epping Forest, the Forest of Dean,
and the New Forest, in Hampshire, where, for several months of
the year, the beech-nuts and acorns yield them so plentiful a
diet. In Germany, where the chestnut is so largely cultivated,
the amount of food shed every autumn is enormous; and
consequently the pig, both wild and domestic, has, for a
considerable portion of the year, an unfailing supply of
admirable nourishment. Impressed with the value of this fruit
for the food of pigs, the Prince Consort has, with great
judgment, of late encouraged the collection of chestnuts in
Windsor Park, and by giving a small reward to old people and
children for every bushel collected, has not only found an
occupation for many of the unemployed poor, but, by providing a
gratuitous food for their pig, encouraged a feeling of
providence and economy.

FOR CURING BACON, AND KEEPING IT FREE FROM RUST (Cobbett's Recipe).

806. THE TWO SIDES THAT REMAIN, and which are called flitches, are to be
cured for bacon. They are first rubbed with salt on their insides, or
flesh sides, then placed one on the other, the flesh sides uppermost, in
a salting-trough which has a gutter round its edges to drain away the
brine; for, to have sweet and fine bacon, the flitches must not be
sopping in brine, which gives it the sort of vile taste that barrel and
sea pork have. Every one knows how different is the taste of fresh dry
salt from that of salt in a dissolved state; therefore change the salt
often,--once in 4 or 5 days; let it melt and sink in, but not lie too
long; twice change the flitches, put that at bottom which was first on
the top: this mode will cost you a great deal more in salt than the
sopping mode, but without it your bacon will not be so sweet and fine,
nor keep so well. As for the time required in making your flitches
sufficiently salt, it depends on circumstances. It takes a longer time
for a thick than a thin flitch, and longer in dry than in damp weather,
or in a dry than in a damp place; but for the flitches of a hog of five
score, in weather not very dry or damp, about 6 weeks may do; and as
yours is to be fat, which receives little injury from over-salting, give
time enough, for you are to have bacon until Christmas comes again.

807. THE PLACE FOR SALTING SHOULD, like a dairy, always be cool, but
well ventilated; confined air, though cool, will taint meat sooner than
the midday day sun accompanied by a breeze. With regard to smoking the
bacon, two precautions are necessary: first, to hang the flitches where
no rain comes down upon them; and next, that the smoke must proceed from
wood, not peat, turf, or coal. As to the time required to smoke a
flitch, it depends a good deal upon whether there be a constant fire
beneath; and whether the fire be large or small: a month will do, if the
fire be pretty constant and rich, as a farmhouse fire usually is; but
over-smoking, or rather too long hanging in the air, makes the bacon
rust; great attention should therefore be paid to this matter. The
flitch ought not to be dried up to the hardness of a board, and yet it
ought to be perfectly dry. Before you hang it up, lay it on the floor,
scatter the flesh side pretty thickly over with bran, or with some fine
sawdust, not of deal or fir; rub it on the flesh, or pat it well down
upon it: this keeps the smoke from getting into the little openings, and
makes a sort of crust to be dried on.

808. To KEEP THE BACON SWEET AND GOOD, and free from hoppers, sift fine
some clean and dry wood ashes. Put some at the bottom of a box or chest
long enough to hold a flitch of bacon; lay in one flitch, and then put
in more ashes, then another flitch, and cover this with six or eight
inches of the ashes. The place where the box or chest is kept ought to
be dry, and should the ashes become damp, they should be put in the
fireplace to dry, and when cold, put back again. With these precautions,
the bacon will be as good at the end of the year as on the first day.

809. FOR SIMPLE GENERAL RULES; these may be safely taken as a guide; and
those who implicitly follow the directions given, will possess at the
expiration of from 6 weeks to 2 months well-flavoured and well-cured
bacon.

HOG NOT BACON. ANECDOTE OF LORD BACON.--As Lord Bacon, on one
occasion, was about to pass sentence of death upon a man of the
name of Hogg, who had just been tried for a long career of
crime, the prisoner suddenly claimed to be heard in arrest of
judgment, saying, with an expression of arch confidence as he
addressed the bench, "I claim indulgence, my lord, on the plea
of relationship; for I am convinced your lordship will never be
unnatural enough to hang one of your own family."

"Indeed, replied the judge, with some amazement," I was not
aware that I had the honour of your alliance; perhaps you will
be good enough to name the degree of our mutual affinity."

"I am sorry, my lord," returned the impudent thief, "I cannot
trace the links of consanguinity; but the moral evidence is
sufficiently pertinent. My name, my lord, is Hogg, your
lordship's is Bacon; and all the world will allow that bacon and
hog are very closely allied."

"I am sorry," replied his lordship, "I cannot admit the truth of
your instance: hog cannot be bacon till it is hanged; and so,
before I can admit your plea, or acknowledge the family compact,
Hogg must be hanged to-morrow morning."

TO BAKE A HAM.

810. INGREDIENTS.--Ham; a common crust.

Mode.--As a ham for baking should be well soaked, let it remain in water
for at least 12 hours. Wipe it dry, trim away any rusty places
underneath, and cover it with a common crust, taking care that this is
of sufficient thickness all over to keep the gravy in. Place it in a
moderately-heated oven, and bake for nearly 4 hours. Take off the crust,
and skin, and cover with raspings, the same as for boiled ham, and
garnish the knuckle with a paper frill. This method of cooking a ham is,
by many persons, considered far superior to boiling it, as it cuts
fuller of gravy and has a finer flavour, besides keeping a much longer
time good.

_Time_.--A medium-sized ham, 4 hours.

_Average cost_, from 8d. to 10d. per lb. by the whole ham.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

TO BOIL A HAM.

[Illustration: BOILED HAM.]

811. INGREDIENTS.--Ham, water, glaze or raspings.

_Mode_.--In choosing a ham, ascertain that it is perfectly sweet, by
running a sharp knife into it, close to the bone; and if, when the knife
is withdrawn, it has an agreeable smell, the ham is good; if, on the
contrary, the blade has a greasy appearance and offensive smell, the ham
is bad. If it has been long hung, and is very dry and salt, let it
remain in soak for 24 hours, changing the water frequently. This length
of time is only necessary in the case of its being very hard; from 8 to
12 hours would be sufficient for a Yorkshire or Westmoreland ham. Wash
it thoroughly clean, and trim away from the under-side, all the rusty
and smoked parts, which would spoil the appearance. Put it into a
boiling-pot, with sufficient cold water to cover it; bring it gradually
to boil, and as the scum rises, carefully remove it. Keep it simmering
very gently until tender, and be careful that it does not stop boiling,
nor boil too quickly. When done, take it out of the pot, strip off the
skin, and sprinkle over it a few fine bread-raspings, put a frill of cut
paper round the knuckle, and serve. If to be eaten cold, let the ham
remain in the water until nearly cold: by this method the juices are
kept in, and it will be found infinitely superior to one taken out of
the water hot; it should, however, be borne in mind that the ham must
_not_ remain in the saucepan _all_ night. When the skin is removed,
sprinkle over bread-raspings, or, if wanted particularly nice, glaze it.
Place a paper frill round the knuckle, and garnish with parsley or cut
vegetable flowers. (_See_ Coloured Plate P.)

_Time_.--A ham weighing 10 lbs., 4 hours to _simmer gently_; 15 lbs., 5
hours; a very large one, about 5 hours.

_Average cost_, from 8d. to 10d. per lb. by the whole ham.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

HOW TO BOIL A HAM TO GIVE IT AN EXCELLENT FLAVOUR.

812. INGREDIENTS.--Vinegar and water, 2 heads of celery, 2 turnips, 3
onions, a large bunch of savoury herbs.

_Mode_.--Prepare the ham as in the preceding recipe, and let it soak for
a few hours in vinegar and water. Put it on in cold water, and when it
boils, add the vegetables and herbs. Simmer very gently until tender,
take it out, strip off the skin, cover with bread-raspings, and put a
paper ruche or frill round the knuckle.

_Time_.--A ham weighing 10 lbs., 4 hours.

_Average cost_, 8d. to 10d. per lb. by the whole ham.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

HOW TO SILENCE A PIG. ANECDOTE OF CHARLES V.--When the emperor
Charles V. was one day walking in the neighbourhood of Vienna,
full of pious considerations, engendered by the thoughts of the
Dominican cloister he was about to visit, he was much annoyed by
the noise of a pig, which a country youth was carrying a little
way before him. At length, irritated by the unmitigated noise,
"Have you not learned how to quiet a pig" demanded the imperial
traveller, tartly. "Noa," replied the ingenuous peasant,
ignorant of the quality of his interrogator;--"noa; and I should
very much like to know how to do it," changing the position of
his burthen, and giving his load a surreptitious pinch of the
ear, which immediately altered the tone and volume of his
complaining.

"Why, take the pig by the tail," said the emperor, "and you will
see how quiet he will become."

Struck by the novelty of the suggestion, the countryman at once
dangled his noisy companion by the tail, and soon discovered
that, under the partial congestion caused by its inverted
position, the pig had indeed become silent; when, looking with
admiration on his august adviser, he exclaimed,--

"Ah, you must have learned the trade much longer than I, for you
understand it a great deal better."

FRIED HAM AND EGGS (a Breakfast Dish).

813. INGREDIENTS.--Ham; eggs.

_Mode_.--Cut the ham into slices, and take care that they are of the
same thickness in every part. Cut off the rind, and if the ham should be
particularly hard and salt, it will be found an improvement to soak it
for about 10 minutes in hot water, and then dry it in a cloth. Put it
into a cold frying-pan, set it over the fire, and turn the slices 3 or 4
times whilst they are cooking. When done, place them on a dish, which
should be kept hot in front of the fire during the time the eggs are
being poached. Poach the eggs, slip them on to the slices of ham, and
serve quickly.

_Time_.--7 or 8 minutes to broil the ham.

_Average cost_, from 8d. to 10d. per lb. by the whole ham.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Ham may also be toasted or broiled; but, with the latter
method, to insure its being well cooked, the fire must be beautifully
clear, or it will have a smoky flavour far from agreeable.

POTTED HAM, that will keep Good for some time.

I.

814. INGREDIENTS.--To 4 lbs. of lean ham allow 1 lb. of fat, 2
teaspoonfuls of pounded mace, 1/2 nutmeg grated, rather more than 1/2
teaspoonful of cayenne, clarified lard.

_Mode_.--Mince the ham, fat and lean together in the above proportion,
and pound it well in a mortar, seasoning it with cayenne pepper, pounded
mace, and nutmeg; put the mixture into a deep baking-dish, and bake for
1/2 hour; then press it well into a stone jar, fill up the jar with
clarified lard, cover it closely, and paste over it a piece of thick
paper. If well seasoned, it will keep a long time in winter, and will be
found very convenient for sandwiches, &c.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

II.

(_A nice addition to the Breakfast or Luncheon table_.)

815. INGREDIENTS.--To 2 lbs. of lean ham allow 1/2 lb. of fat, 1
teaspoonful of pounded mace, 1/2 teaspoonful of pounded allspice, 1/2
nutmeg, pepper to taste, clarified butter.

_Mode_.--Cut some slices from the remains of a cold ham, mince them
small, and to every 2 lbs. of lean, allow the above proportion of fat.
Pound the ham in a mortar to a fine paste, with the fat, gradually add
the seasoning and spices, and be very particular that all the
ingredients are well mixed and the spices well pounded. Press the
mixture into potting-pots, pour over clarified butter, and keep it in a
cool place.

_Average cost_ for this quantity, 2s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

IMPORTANCE OF THE BOAR'S HEAD, SCOTTISH FEUDS, &c.--The boar's
head, in ancient times, formed the most important dish on the
table, and was invariably the first placed on the board upon
Christmas-day, being preceded by a body of servitors, a flourish
of trumpets, and other marks of distinction and reverence, and
carried into the hall by the individual of next rank to the lord
of the feast. At some of our colleges and inns of court, the
serving of the boar's head on a silver platter on Christmas-day
is a custom still followed; and till very lately, a bore's head
was competed for at Christmas time by the young men of a rural
parish in Essex. Indeed, so highly was the grizzly boar's head
regarded in former times, that it passed into a cognizance of
some of the noblest families in the realm: thus it was not only
the crest of the Nevills and Warwicks, with their collateral
houses, but it was the cognizance of Richard III., that--

"Wretched, bloody, and usurping boar,
That spoil'd your summer fields and fruitful vines,
Swills your warm blood like wash, and makes his trough
In your embowell'd bosoms,"--

and whose nature it was supposed to typify; and was universally
used as a _sign_ to taverns. The Boar's Head in Eastcheap,
which, till within the last twenty-five years still stood in all
its primitive quaintness, though removed to make way for the
London-bridge approaches, will live vividly in the mind of every
reader of Shakspeare, as the resort of the prince of Wales,
Poins, and his companions, and the residence of Falstaff and his
coney-catching knaves, Bardolph, Pistol, and Nym; and whose sign
was a boar's head, carved in stone over the door, and a smaller
one in wood on each side of the doorway.

The traditions and deeds of savage vengeance recorded in
connection with this grim trophy of the chase are numerous in
all parts of Europe. But the most remarkable connected with the
subject in this country, were two events that occurred in
Scotland, about the 11th and 15th centuries.

A border family having been dispossessed of their castle and
lands by a more powerful chief, were reduced for many years to
great indigence, the expelled owner only living in the hope of
wreaking a terrible vengeance, which, agreeably to the motto of
his house, he was content to "bide his time" for. The usurper
having invited a large number of his kindred to a grand hunt in
his new domains, and a feast after in the great hall, returned
from the chase, and discovering the feast not spread, vented his
wrath in no measured terms on the heads of the tardy servitors.
At length a menial approached, followed by a line of servants,
and placing the boar's head on the table, the guests rushed
forward to begin the meal; when, to their horror, they
discovered, not a boar's but a bull's head,--a sign of death.
The doors were immediately closed, and the false servants, who
were the adherents of the dispossessed chief, threw off their
disguise, and falling on the usurper and his friends, butchered
them and every soul in the castle belonging to the rival
faction.

A tribe of caterans, or mountain robbers, in the Western
Highlands, having been greatly persecuted by a powerful chief of
the district, waylaid him and his retinue, put them all to the
sword, and cutting off the chief's head, repaired to his castle,
where they ordered the terrified wife to supply them with food
and drink. To appease their savage humour, the lady gave order
for their entertainment, and on returning to the hall to see her
orders were complied with, discovered, in place of the boar's
head that should have graced the board, her husband's bleeding
head; the savage caterans, in rude derision, as a substitute for
the apple or lemon usually placed between the jaws, having
thrust a slice of bread in the dead man's mouth.

FOR CURING HAMS (Mons. Ude's Recipe).

816. INGREDIENTS.--For 2 hams weighing about 16 or 18 lbs. each, allow 1
lb. of moist sugar, 1 lb. of common salt, 2 oz. of saltpetre, 1 quart of
good vinegar.

_Mode_.--As soon as the pig is cold enough to be cut up, take the 2 hams
and rub them well with common salt, and leave them in a large pan for 3
days. When the salt has drawn out all the blood, drain the hams, and
throw the brine away. Mix sugar, salt, and saltpetre together in the
above proportion, rub the hams well with these, and put them into a
vessel large enough to hold them, always keeping the salt over them. Let
them remain for 3 days, then pour over them a quart of good vinegar.
Turn them in the brine every day for a month, then drain them well, and
rub them with bran. Have them smoked over a wood fire, and be particular
that the hams are hung as high up as possible from the fire; otherwise
the fat will melt, and they will become dry and hard.

_Time_.--To be pickled 1 month; to be smoked 1 month.

_Sufficient_ for 2 hams of 18 lbs. each.

_Seasonable_ from October to March.

THE PRICE OF A SOW IN AFRICA.--In one of the native states of
Africa, a pig one day stole a piece of food from a child as it
was in the act of conveying the morsel to its mouth; upon which
the robbed child cried so loud that the mother rushed out of her
hovel to ascertain the cause; and seeing the purloining pig make
off munching his booty, the woman in her heat struck the grunter
so smart a blow, that the surly rascal took it into his head to
go home very much indisposed, and after a certain time resolved
to die,--a resolution that he accordingly put into practice;
upon which the owner instituted judicial proceedings before the
Star Chamber court of his tribe, against the husband and family
of the woman whose rash act had led to such results; and as the
pig happened to be a _sow_, in the very flower of her age, the
prospective loss to the owner in unnumbered teems of pigs, with
the expenses attending so high a tribunal, swelled the damages
and costs to such a sum, that it was found impossible to pay
them. And as, in the barbarous justice existing among these rude
people, every member of a family is equally liable as the
individual who committed the wrong, the father, mother,
children, relatives,--an entire community, to the number of
_thirty-two souls_, were sold as slaves, and a fearful sum of
human misery perpetrated, to pay the value of a thieving old
sow.

TO SALT TWO HAMS, about 12 or 15 lbs. each.

817. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of treacle, 1/2 lb. of saltpetre, 1 lb. of
bay-salt, 2 pounds of common salt.

_Mode_.--Two days before they are put into pickle, rub the hams well
with salt, to draw away all slime and blood. Throw what comes from them
away, and then rub them with treacle, saltpetre, and salt. Lay them in a
deep pan, and let them remain one day; boil the above proportion of
treacle, saltpetre, bay-salt, and common salt for 1/4 hour, and pour
this pickle boiling hot over the hams: there should be sufficient of it
to cover them. For a day or two rub them well with it; afterwards they
will only require turning. They ought to remain in this pickle for 3
weeks or a month, and then be sent to be smoked, which will take nearly
or quite a month to do. An ox-tongue pickled in this way is most
excellent, to be eaten either green or smoked.

_Time_.--To remain in the pickle 3 weeks or a month; to be smoked about
a month.

_Seasonable_ from October to March.

TO CURE SWEET HAMS IN THE WESTMORELAND WAY.

818. INGREDIENTS.--3 lbs. of common salt, 3 lbs. of coarse sugar, 1 lb.
of bay-salt, 3 quarts of strong beer.

_Mode_.--Before the hams are put into pickle, rub them the preceding day
well with salt, and drain the brine well from them. Put the above
ingredients into a saucepan, and boil for 1/4 hour; pour over the hams,
and let them remain a month in the pickle. Rub and turn them every day,
but do not take them out of the pickling-pan; and have them smoked for a
month.

_Time_.--To be pickled 1 month; to be smoked 1 month.

_Seasonable_ from October to March.

TO PICKLE HAMS (Suffolk Recipe).

819. INGREDIENTS.--To a ham from 10 to 12 lbs., allow 1 lb. of coarse
sugar, 3/4 lb. of salt, 1 oz. of saltpetre, 1/2 a teacupful of vinegar.

_Mode_.--Rub the hams well with common salt, and leave them for a day or
two to drain; then rub well in, the above proportion of sugar, salt,
saltpetre, and vinegar, and turn them every other day. Keep them in the
pickle 1 month, drain them, and send them to be smoked over a wood fire
for 3 weeks or a month.

_Time_.--To remain in the pickle 1 month. To be smoked 3 weeks or 1
month.

_Sufficient_.--The above proportion of pickle sufficient for 1 ham.

_Seasonable_.--Hams should be pickled from October to March.

NOVEL WAY OF RECOVERING A STOLEN PIG.--It is a well-known fact,
that in Ireland the pig is, in every respect, a domesticated
animal, sharing often both the bed and board of the family, and
making an outer ring to the domestic circle, as, seated round
the pot of potatoes, they partake of the midday meal called
dinner. An Irishman upon one occasion having lost an interesting
member of his household, in the form of a promising young
porker, consulted his priest on the occasion, and having hinted
at the person he suspected of purloining the "illegant slip of a
pig" he was advised to take no further notice of the matter, but
leave the issue to his spiritual adviser. Next Sunday his
reverence, after mass, came to the front of the altar-rails, and
looking very hard at the supposed culprit, exclaimed, "Who stole
Pat Doolan's pig?" To this inquiry there was of course no
answer;--the priest did not expect there would be any. The
following Sunday the same query was propounded a little
stronger--"Who of you was it, I say, who stole poor Pat Doolan's
pig?" It now became evident that the culprit was a hardened
sinner; so on the third Sunday, instead of repeating the
unsatisfactory inquiry, the priest, after, as usual, eyeing the
obdurate offender, said, in a tone of pious sorrow, "Mike Regan,
Mike Regan, you treat me with contempt!" That night, when the
family was all asleep, the latch of the door was noiselessly
lifted, and the "illegant slip of a pig" cautiously slipped into
the cabin.

TO SMOKE HAMS AND FISH AT HOME.

820. Take an old hogshead, stop up all the crevices, and fix a place to
put a cross-stick near the bottom, to hang the articles to be smoked on.
Next, in the side, cut a hole near the top, to introduce an iron pan
filled with sawdust and small pieces of green wood. Having turned the
tub upside down, hang the articles upon the cross-stick, introduce the
iron pan in the opening, and place a piece of red-hot iron in the pan,
cover it with sawdust, and all will be complete. Let a large ham remain
40 hours, and keep up a good smoke.

TO CURE BACON OR HAMS IN THE DEVONSHIRE WAY.

821. INGREDIENTS.--To every 14 lbs. of meat, allow 2 oz. of saltpetre, 2
oz. of salt prunella, 1 lb. of common salt. For the pickle, 3 gallons of
water, 5 lbs. of common salt, 7 lbs. of coarse sugar, 3 lbs. of
bay-salt.

_Mode_.--Weigh the sides, hams, and cheeks, and to every 14 lbs. allow
the above proportion of saltpetre, salt prunella, and common salt. Pound
and mix these together, and rub well into the meat; lay it in a stone
trough or tub, rubbing it thoroughly, and turning it daily for 2
successive days. At the end of the second day, pour on it a pickle made
as follows:--Put the above ingredients into a saucepan, set it on the
fire, and stir frequently; remove all the scum, allow it to boil for 1/4
hour, and pour it hot over the meat. Let the hams, &c., be well rubbed
and turned daily; if the meat is small, a fortnight will be sufficient
for the sides and shoulders to remain in the pickle, and the hams 3
weeks; if from 30 lbs. and upwards, 3 weeks will be required for the
sides, &c., and from 4 to 5 weeks for the hams. On taking the pieces
out, let them drain for an hour, cover with dry sawdust, and smoke from
a fortnight to 3 weeks. Boil and carefully skim the pickle after using,
and it will keep good, closely corked, for 2 years. When boiling it for
use, add about 2 lbs. of common salt, and the same of treacle, to allow
for waste. Tongues are excellent put into this pickle cold, having been
first rubbed well with saltpetre and salt, and allowed to remain 24
hours, not forgetting to make a deep incision under the thick part of
the tongue, so as to allow the pickle to penetrate more readily. A
fortnight or 3 weeks, according to the size of the tongue, will be
sufficient.

_Time_--Small meat to remain in the pickle a fortnight, hams 3 weeks; to
be smoked from a fortnight to 3 weeks.

The following is from Morton's "Cyclopaedia of Agriculture," and will be
found fully worthy of the high character of that publication.

CURING OF HAMS AND BACON.

822. The carcass of the hog, after hanging over-night to cool, is laid
on a strong bench or stool, and the head is separated from the body at
the neck, close behind the ears; the feet and also the internal fat are
removed. The carcass is next divided into two sides in the following
manner:--The ribs are divided about an inch from the spine on each side,
and the spine, with the ends of the ribs attached, together with the
internal flesh between it and the kidneys, and also the flesh above it,
throughout the whole length of the sides, are removed. The portion of
the carcass thus cut out is in the form of a wedge--the breadth of the
interior consisting of the breadth of the spine, and about an inch of
the ribs on each side, being diminished to about half an inch at the
exterior or skin along the back. The breast-bone, and also the first
anterior rib, are also dissected from the side. Sometimes the whole of
the ribs are removed; but this, for reasons afterwards to be noticed, is
a very bad practice. When the hams are cured separately from the sides,
which is generally the case, they are cut out so as to include the
hock-bone, in a similar manner to the London mode of cutting a haunch of
mutton. The carcass of the hog thus cut up is ready for being salted,
which process, in large caring establishments, is generally as follows.
The skin side of the pork is rubbed over with a mixture of fifty parts
by weight of salt, and one part of saltpetre in powder, and the incised
parts of the ham or flitch, and the inside of the flitch covered with
the same. The salted bacon, in pairs of flitches with the insides to
each other, is piled one pair of flitches above another on benches
slightly inclined, and furnished with spouts or troughs to convey the
brine to receivers in the floor of the salting-house, to be afterwards
used for pickling pork for navy purposes. In this state the bacon
remains a fortnight, which is sufficient for flitches cut from nogs of a
carcass weight less than 15 stone (14 lbs. to the stone). Flitches of a
larger size, at the expiration of that time, are wiped dry and reversed
in their place in the pile, having, at the same time, about half the
first quantity of fresh, dry, common salt sprinkled over the inside and
incised parts; after which they remain on the benches for another week.
Hams being thicker than flitches, will require, when less than 20 lbs.
weight, 3 weeks; and when above that weight, 4 weeks to remain under the
above-described process. The next and last process in the preparation of
bacon and hams, previous to being sent to market, is drying. This is
effected by hanging the flitches and hams for 2 or 3 weeks in a room
heated by stoves, or in a smoke-house, in which they are exposed for the
same length of time to the smoke arising from the slow combustion of the
sawdust of oak or other hard wood. The latter mode of completing the
curing process has some advantages over the other, as by it the meat is
subject to the action of _creosote_, a volatile oil produced by the
combustion of the sawdust, which is powerfully antiseptic. The process
also furnishing a thin covering of a resinous varnish, excludes the air
not only from the muscle but also from the fat; thus effectually
preventing the meat from becoming rusted; and the principal reasons for
condemning the practice of removing the ribs from the flitches of pork
are, that by so doing the meat becomes unpleasantly hard and pungent in
the process of salting, and by being more opposed to the action of the
air, becomes sooner and more extensively rusted. Notwithstanding its
superior efficacy in completing the process of curing, the flavour which
smoke-drying imparts to meat is disliked by many persons, and it is
therefore by no means the most general mode of drying adopted by
mercantile curers. A very impure variety of _pyroligneous_ acid, or
vinegar made from the destructive distillation of wood, is sometimes
used, on account of the highly preservative power of the creosote which
it contains, and also to impart the smoke-flavour; in which latter
object, however, the coarse flavour of tar is given, rather than that
derived from the smoke from combustion of wood. A considerable portion
of the bacon and hams salted in Ireland is exported from that country
packed amongst salt, in bales, immediately from the salting process,
without having been in any degree dried. In the process of salting above
described, pork loses from eight to ten per cent. of its weight,
according to the size and quality of the meat; and a further diminution
of weight, to the extent of five to six per cent., takes place in drying
during the first fortnight after being taken out of salt; so that the
total loss in weight occasioned by the preparation of bacon and hams in
a proper state for market, is not less on an average than fifteen per
cent. on the weight of the fresh pork.

COLLARED PIG'S FACE (a Breakfast or Luncheon Dish).

823. INGREDIENTS.--1 pig's face; salt. For brine, 1 gallon of spring
water, 1 lb. of common salt, 1/2 handful of chopped juniper-berries, 6
bruised cloves, 2 bay-leaves, a few sprigs of thyme, basil, sage, 1/4
oz. of saltpetre. For forcemeat, 1/2 lb. of ham, 1/2 lb. bacon, 1
teaspoonful of mixed spices, pepper to taste, 1/4 lb. of lard, 1
tablespoonful of minced parsley, 6 young onions.

[Illustration: PIG'S FACE.]

_Mode_.--Singe the head carefully, bone it without breaking the skin,
and rub it well with salt. Make the brine by boiling the above
ingredients for 1/4 hour, and letting it stand to cool. When cold, pour
it over the head, and let it steep in this for 10 days, turning and
rubbing it often. Then wipe, drain, and dry it. For the forcemeat, pound
the ham and bacon very finely, and mix with these the remaining
ingredients, taking care that the whole is thoroughly incorporated.
Spread this equally over the head, roll it tightly in a cloth, and bind
it securely with broad tape. Put it into a saucepan with a few meat
trimmings, and cover it with stock; let it simmer gently for 4 hours,
and be particular that it does not stop boiling the whole time. When
quite tender, take it up, put it between 2 dishes with a heavy weight on
the top, and when cold, remove the cloth and tape. It should be sent to
table on a napkin, or garnished with a piece of deep white paper with a
ruche at the top.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, from 2s. to 2s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ from October to March.

THE WILD AND DOMESTIC HOG.--The domestic hog is the descendant
of a race long since banished from this island; and it is
remarkable, that while the tamed animal has been and is kept
under surveillance, the wild type whence this race sprung, has
maintained itself in its ancient freedom, the fierce denizen of
the forest, and one of the renowned beasts of the chase.
Whatever doubt may exist as to the true origin of the dog, the
horse, the ox, and others, or as to whether their original race
is yet extant or not, these doubts do not apply to the domestic
hog. Its wild source still exists, and is universally
recognized: like the wolf, however, it has been expelled from
our island; but, like that animal, it still roams through the
vast wooded tracts of Europe and Asia.

TO DRESS PIG'S FRY (a Savoury Dish).

824. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lb. of pig's fry, 2 onions, a few sage-leaves,
3 lbs. of potatoes, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Put the lean fry at the bottom of a pie-dish, sprinkle over it
some minced sage and onion, and a seasoning of pepper and salt; slice
the potatoes; put a layer of these on the seasoning, then the fat fry,
then more seasoning, and a layer of potatoes at the top. Fill the dish
with boiling water, and bake for 2 hours, or rather longer.

_Time_.--Rather more than 2 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ from October to March.

TO MELT LARD.

825. Melt the inner fat of the pig, by putting it in a stone jar, and
placing this in a saucepan of boiling water, previously stripping off
the skin. Let it simmer gently over a bright fire, and as it melts, pour
it carefully from the sediment. Put it into small jars or bladders for
use, and keep it in a cool place. The flead or inside fat of the pig,
before it is melted, makes exceedingly light crust, and is particularly
wholesome. It may be preserved a length of time by salting it well, and
occasionally changing the brine. When wanted for use, wash and wipe it,
and it will answer for making into paste as well as fresh lard.

_Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

BOILED LEG OF PORK.

826. INGREDIENTS.--Leg of pork; salt.

_Mode_.--For boiling, choose a small, compact, well-filled leg, and rub
it well with salt; let it remain in pickle for a week or ten days,
turning and rubbing it every day. An hour before dressing it, put it
into cold water for an hour, which improves the colour. If the pork is
purchased ready salted, ascertain how long the meat has been in pickle,
and soak it accordingly. Put it into a boiling-pot, with sufficient cold
water to cover it; let it gradually come to a boil, and remove the scum
as it rises. Simmer it very gently until tender, and do not allow it to
boil fast, or the knuckle will fall to pieces before the middle of the
leg is done. Carrots, turnips, or parsnips may be boiled with the pork,
some of which should be laid round the dish as a garnish, and a
well-made pease-pudding is an indispensable accompaniment.

_Time_.--A leg of pork weighing 8 lbs., 3 hours after the water boils,
and to be simmered very gently.

_Average cost_, 9d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

_Note_.--The liquor in which a leg of pork has been boiled, makes
excellent pea-soup.

ANTIQUITY OF THE HOG.--The hog has survived changes which have
swept multitudes of pachydermatous animals from the surface of
our earth. It still presents the same characteristics, both
physical and moral, which the earliest writers, whether sacred
or profane, have faithfully delineated. Although the domestic
has been more or less modified by long culture, yet the wild
species remains unaltered, insomuch that the fossil relics may
be identified with the bones of their existing descendants.

ROAST GRISKIN OF PORK.

827. INGREDIENTS.--Pork; a little powdered sage.

[Illustration: SPARE-RIB OF PORK.]

[Illustration: GRISKIN OF PORK.]

_Mode_.--As this joint frequently comes to table hard and dry,
particular care should be taken that it is well basted. Put it down to a
bright fire, and flour it. About 10 minutes before taking it up,
sprinkle over some powdered sage; make a little gravy in the
dripping-pan, strain it over the meat, and serve with a tureen of apple
sauce. This joint will be done in far less time than when the skin is
left on, consequently, should have the greatest attention that it be not
dried up.

_Time_.--Griskin of pork weighing 6 lbs., 1-1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 7d. per lb. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

_Note_.--A spare-rib of pork is roasted in the same manner as above, and
would take 1-1/2 hour for one weighing about 6 lbs.

[Illustration: BACON FOR LARDING, AND LARDING-NEEDLE.]

LARDING.

828. INGREDIENTS.--Bacon and larding-needle.

_Mode_.--Bacon for larding should be firm and fat, and ought to be cured
without any saltpetre, as this reddens white meats. Lay it on a table,
the rinds downwards; trim off any rusty part, and cut it into slices of
an equal thickness. Place the slices one on the top of another, and cut
them evenly into narrow strips, so arranging it that every piece of
bacon is of the same size. Bacon for fricandeau, poultry, and game,
should be about 2 inches in length, and rather more than one-eighth of
an inch in width. If for larding fillets of beef or loin of veal, the
pieces of bacon must be thicker. The following recipe of Soyer is, we
think, very explicit; and any cook, by following the directions here
given, may be able to lard, if not well, sufficiently for general use.

"Have the fricandeau trimmed, lay it, lengthwise, upon a clean napkin
across your hand, forming a kind of bridge with your thumb at the part
you are about to commence at; then with the point of the larding-needle
make three distinct lines across, 1/2 inch apart; run the needle into
the third line, at the further side of the fricandeau, and bring it out
at the first, placing one of the lardoons in it; draw the needle
through, leaving out 1/4 inch of the bacon at each line; proceed thus to
the end of the row; then make another line, 1/2 inch distant, stick in
another row of lardoons, bringing them out at the second line, leaving
the ends of the bacon out all the same length; make the next row again
at the same distance, bringing the ends out between the lardoons of the
first row, proceeding in this manner until the whole surface is larded
in chequered rows. Everything else is larded in a similar way; and, in
the case of poultry, hold the breast over a charcoal fire for one
minute, or dip it into boiling water, in order to make the flesh firm."

ROAST LOIN OF PORK.

829. INGREDIENTS.--Pork; a little salt.

[Illustration: FORE LOIN OF PORK.]

[Illustration: HIND LOIN OF PORK.]

_Mode_.--Score the skin in strips rather more than 1/4 inch apart, and
place the joint at a good distance from the fire, on account of the
crackling, which would harden before the meat would be heated through,
were it placed too near. If very lean, it should be rubbed over with a
little salad oil, and kept well basted all the time it is at the fire.
Pork should be very thoroughly cooked, but not dry; and be careful never
to send it to table the least underdone, as nothing is more unwholesome
and disagreeable than underdressed white meats. Serve with apple sauce,
No. 363, and a little gravy made in the dripping-pan. A stuffing of sage
and onion may be made separately, and baked in a flat dish: this method
is better than putting it in the meat, as many persons have so great an
objection to the flavour.

_Time_.--A loin of pork weighing 5 lbs., about 2 hours: allow more time
should it be very fat.

_Average cost_, 9d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ from September to March.

FOSSIL REMAINS OF THE HOG.--In British strata, the oldest fossil
remains of the hog which Professor Owen states that he has
examined, were from fissures in the red crag (probably miocene)
of Newbourne, near Woodbridge, Suffolk. "They were associated
with teeth of an extinct _felis_ about the size of a leopard,

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