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The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

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_Time_.--From 10 to 14 days to remain in the pickle; to be smoked 24
days.

_Average cost_, for a medium-sized uncured tongue, 2s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--If not wanted immediately, the tongue will keep 3 or 4 weeks
without being too salt; then it must not be rubbed, but only turned in
the pickle.

II.

675. INGREDIENTS.--9 lbs. of salt, 8 oz. of sugar, 9 oz. of powdered
saltpetre.

_Mode_.--Rub the above ingredients well into the tongues, and keep them
in this curing mixture for 2 months, turning them every day. Drain them
from the pickle, cover with brown paper, and have them smoked for about
3 weeks.

_Time_.--The tongues to remain in pickle 2 months; to be smoked 3 weeks.

_Sufficient_.--The above quantity of brine sufficient for 12 tongues, of
5 lbs. each.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: BEEF TONGUE.]

THE TONGUES OF ANIMALS.--The tongue, whether in the ox or in
man, is the seat of the sense of taste. This sense warns the
animal against swallowing deleterious substances. Dr. Carpenter
says, that, among the lower animals, the instinctive perceptions
connected with this sense, are much more remarkable than our
own; thus, an omnivorous monkey will seldom touch fruits of a
poisonous character, although their taste may be agreeable.
However this may be, man's instinct has decided that ox-tongue
is better than horse-tongue; nevertheless, the latter is
frequently substituted by dishonest dealers for the former. The
horse's tongue may be readily distinguished by a spoon-like
expansion at its end.

TO PICKLE AND DRESS A TONGUE TO EAT COLD.

676. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of salt, 2 oz. of bay-salt, 1 oz. of saltpetre,
3 oz. of coarse sugar; cloves, mace, and allspice to taste; butter,
common crust of flour and water.

_Mode_.--Lay the tongue for a fortnight in the above pickle, turn it
every day, and be particular that the spices are well pounded; put it
into a small pan just large enough to hold it, place some pieces of
butter on it, and cover with a common crust. Bake in a slow oven until
so tender that a straw would penetrate it; take off the skin, fasten it
down to a piece of board by running a fork through the root and another
through the tip, at the same time straightening it and putting it into
shape. When cold, glaze it, put a paper ruche round the root, which is
generally very unsightly, and garnish with tufts of parsley.

_Time_.--From 3 or 4 hours in a slow oven, according to size.

_Average cost_, for a medium-sized uncured tongue, 2s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

TO DRESS TRIPE.

677. INGREDIENTS.--Tripe, onion sauce, No. 484, milk and water.

_Mode_.--Ascertain that the tripe is quite fresh, and have it cleaned
and dressed. Cut away the coarsest fat, and boil it in equal proportions
of milk and water for 3/4 hour. Should the tripe be entirely undressed,
more than double that time should be allowed for it. Have ready some
onion sauce made by recipe No. 4S4, dish the tripe, smother it with the
sauce, and the remainder send to table in a tureen.

_Time_.--1 hour: for undressed tripe, from 2-1/2 to 3 hours.

_Average cost_, 7d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Tripe may be dressed in a variety of ways: it may be cut in
pieces and fried in batter, stewed in gravy with mushrooms, or cut into
collops, sprinkled with minced onion and savoury herbs, and fried a nice
brown in clarified butter.

BEEF CARVING.

AITCHBONE OF BEEF.

A boiled aitch-bone of beef is not a difficult joint to carve, as will
be seen on reference to the accompanying engraving. By following with
the knife the direction of the line from 1 to 2, nice slices will be
easily cut. It may be necessary, as in a round of beef, to cut a thick
slice off the outside before commencing to serve.

[Illustration]

BRISKET OF BEEF.

There is but little description necessary to add, to show the carving of
a boiled brisket of beef, beyond the engraving here inserted. The only
point to be observed is, that the joint should be cut evenly and firmly
quite across the bones, so that, on its reappearance at table, it should
not have a jagged and untidy look.

[Illustration]

RIBS OF BEEF.

This dish resembles the sirloin, except that it has no fillet or
undercut. As explained in the recipes, the end piece is often cut off,
salted and boiled. The mode of carving is similar to that of the
sirloin, viz., in the direction of the dotted line from 1 to 2. This
joint will be the more easily cut if the plan be pursued which is
suggested in carving the sirloin; namely, the inserting of the knife
immediately between the bone and the moat, before commencing to cut it
into slices. All joints of roast beef should be cut in even and thin
slices. Horseradish, finely scraped, may be served as a garnish; but
horseradish sauce is preferable for eating with the beef.

[Illustration]

SIRLOIN OF BEEF.

This dish is served differently at various tables, some preferring it to
come to table with the fillet, or, as it is usually called, the
undercut, uppermost. The reverse way, as shown in the cut, is that most
usually adopted. Still the undercut is best eaten when hot;
consequently, the carver himself may raise the joint, and cut some
slices from the under side, in the direction of from 1 to 2, as the
fillet is very much preferred by some eaters. The upper part of the
sirloin should be cut in the direction of the line from 5 to 6, and care
should be taken to carve it evenly and in thin slices. It will be found
a great assistance, in carving this joint well, if the knife be first
inserted just above the bone at the bottom, and run sharply along
between the bone and meat, and also to divide the meat from the bone in
the same way at the side of the joint. The slices will then come away
more readily.

[Illustration]

Some carvers cut the upper side of the sirloin across, as shown by the
line from 3 to 4; but this is a wasteful plan, and one not to be
recommended. With the sirloin, very finely-scraped horseradish is
usually served, and a little given, when liked, to each guest.
Horseradish sauce is preferable, however, for serving on the plate,
although the scraped horseradish may still be used as a garnish.

[Illustration]

A ROUND OF BEEF.

A round of beef is not so easily carved as many other joints of beef,
and to manage it properly, a thin-bladed and very sharp knife is
necessary. Off the outside of the joint, at its top, a thick slice
should first be cut, so as to leave the surface smooth; then thin and
even slices should be cleverly carved in the direction of the line 1 to
2; and with each slice of the lean a delicate morsel of the fat should
be served.

[Illustration]

BEEF TONGUE.

Passing the knife down in the direction of from 1 to 2, a not too thin
slice should be helped; and the carving of a tongue may be continued in
this way until the best portions of the upper side are served. The fat
which lies about the root of the tongue can be served by turning the
tongue, and cutting in the direction of from 3 to 4.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

CHAPTER XIV.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE SHEEP AND LAMB.

678. OF ALL WILD or DOMESTICATED ANIMALS, the sheep is, without
exception, the most useful to man as a food, and the most necessary to
his health and comfort; for it not only supplies him with the lightest
and most nutritious of meats, but, in the absence of the cow, its udder
yields him milk, cream, and a sound though inferior cheese; while from
its fat he obtains light, and from its fleece broadcloth, kerseymere,
blankets, gloves, and hose. Its bones when burnt make an animal
charcoal--ivory black--to polish his boots, and when powdered, a manure
for the cultivation of his wheat; the skin, either split or whole, is
made into a mat for his carriage, a housing for his horse, or a lining
for his hat, and many other useful purposes besides, being extensively
employed in the manufacture of parchment; and finally, when oppressed by
care and sorrow, the harmonious strains that carry such soothing
contentment to the heart, are elicited from the musical strings,
prepared almost exclusively from the intestines of the sheep.

679. THIS VALUABLE ANIMAL, of which England is estimated to maintain an
average stock of 32,000,000, belongs to the class already indicated
under the ox,--the _Mammalia_; to the order of _Rumenantia_, or
cud-chewing animal; to the tribe of _Capridae_, or horned quadrupeds;
and the genus _Ovis_, or the "sheep." The sheep may be either with or
without horns; when present, however, they have always this peculiarity,
that they spring from a triangular base, are spiral in form, and
lateral, at the side of the head, in situation. The fleece of the sheep
is of two sorts, either short and harsh, or soft and woolly; the wool
always preponderating in an exact ratio to the care, attention, and
amount of domestication bestowed on the animal. The generic
peculiarities of the sheep are the triangular and spiral form of the
horns, always larger in the male when present, but absent in the most
cultivated species; having sinuses at the base of all the toes of the
four feet, with two rudimentary hoofs on the fore legs, two inguinal
teats to the udder, with a short tail in the wild breed, but of varying
length in the domesticated; have no incisor teeth in the upper jaw, but
in their place a hard elastic cushion along the margin of the gum, on
which the animal nips and breaks the herbage on which it feeds; in the
lower jaw there are eight incisor teeth and six molars on each side of
both jaws, making in all 32 teeth. The fleece consists of two coats, one
to keep the animal warm, the other to carry off the water without
wetting the skin. The first is of wool, the weight and fineness of which
depend on the quality of the pasture and the care bestowed on the flock;
the other of hair, that pierces the wool and overlaps it, and is in
excess in exact proportion to the badness of the keep and inattention
with which the animal is treated.

680. THE GREAT OBJECT OF THE GRAZIER is to procure an animal that will
yield the greatest pecuniary return in the shortest time; or, in other
words, soonest convert grass and turnips into good mutton and fine
fleece. All sheep will not do this alike; some, like men, are so
restless and irritable, that no system of feeding, however good, will
develop their frames or make them fat. The system adopted by the breeder
to obtain a valuable animal for the butcher, is to enlarge the capacity
and functions of the digestive organs, and reduce those of the head and
chest, or the mental and respiratory organs. In the first place, the
mind should be tranquillized, and those spaces that can never produce
animal fibre curtailed, and greater room afforded, as in the abdomen,
for those that can. And as nothing militates against the fattening
process so much as restlessness, the chief wish of the grazier is to
find a dull, indolent sheep, one who, instead of frisking himself,
leaping his wattles, or even condescending to notice the butting gambols
of his silly companions, silently fills his paunch with pasture, and
then seeking a shady nook, indolently and luxuriously chows his cud with
closed eyes and blissful satisfaction, only rising when his delicious
repast is ended, to proceed silently and without emotion to repeat the
pleasing process of laying in more provender, and then returning to his
dreamy siesta to renew the delightful task of rumination. Such animals
are said to have a _lymphatic_ temperament, and are of so kindly a
nature, that on good pasturage they may be said to grow daily. The
Leicestershire breed is the best example of this lymphatic and contented
animal, and the active Orkney, who is half goat in his habits, of the
restless and unprofitable. The rich pasture of our midland counties
would take years in making the wiry Orkney fat and profitable, while one
day's fatigue in climbing rocks after a coarse and scanty herbage would
probably cause the actual death of the pampered and short-winded
Leicester.

681. THE MORE REMOVED FROM THE NATURE of the animal is the food on which
it lives, the more difficult is the process of assimilation, and the
more complex the chain of digestive organs; for it must be evident to
all, that the same apparatus that converts _flesh_ into _flesh_, is
hardly calculated to transmute _grass_ into flesh. As the process of
digestion in carnivorous animals is extremely simple, these organs are
found to be remarkably short, seldom exceeding the length of the
animal's body; while, where digestion is more difficult, from the
unassimilating nature of the aliment, as in the ruminant order, the
alimentary canal, as is the case with the sheep, is _twenty-seven times
the length of the body._ The digestive organ in all ruminant animals
consists of _four stomachs_, or, rather, a capacious pouch, divided by
doorways and valves into four compartments, called, in their order of
position, the Paunch, the Reticulum, the Omasum, and the Abomasum. When
the sheep nibbles the grass, and is ignorantly supposed to be eating, he
is, in fact, only preparing the raw material of his meal, in reality
only mowing the pasture, which, as he collects, is swallowed instantly,
passing into the first receptacle, the _paunch_, where it is surrounded
by a quantity of warm saliva, in which the herbage undergoes a process
of maceration or softening, till the animal having filled this
compartment, the contents pass through a valve into the second or
smaller bag,--the _reticulum_, where, having again filled the paunch
with a reserve, the sheep lies down and commences that singular process
of chewing the cud, or, in other words, masticating the food he has
collected. By the operation of a certain set of muscles, a small
quantity of this softened food from the _reticulum_, or second bag, is
passed into the mouth, which it now becomes the pleasure of the sheep to
grind under his molar teeth into a soft smooth pulp, the operation being
further assisted by a flow of saliva, answering the double purpose of
increasing the flavour of the aliment and promoting the solvency of the
mass. Having completely comminuted and blended this mouthful, it is
swallowed a second time; but instead of returning to the paunch or
reticulum, it passes through another valve into a side cavity,--the
_omasum_, where, after a maceration in more saliva for some hours, it
glides by the same contrivance into the fourth pouch,--the _abomasum_,
an apartment in all respects analogous to the ordinary stomach of
animals, and where the process of digestion, begun and carried on in the
previous three, is here consummated, and the nutrient principle, by
means of the bile, eliminated from the digested aliment. Such is the
process of digestion in sheep and oxen.

682. NO OTHER ANIMAL, even of the same order, possesses in so remarkable
a degree the power of converting pasture into flesh as the
Leicestershire sheep; the South Down and Cheviot, the two next breeds in
quality, are, in consequence of the greater vivacity of the animal's
nature, not equal to it in that respect, though in both the brain and
chest are kept subservient to the greater capacity of the organs of
digestion. Besides the advantage of increased bulk and finer fleeces,
the breeder seeks to obtain an augmented deposit of tissue in those
parts of the carcase most esteemed as food, or, what are called in the
trade "prime joints;" and so far has this been effected, that the
comparative weight of the hind quarters over the fore has become a test
of quality in the breed, the butchers in some markets charging twopence
a pound more for that portion of the sheep. Indeed, so superior are the
hind quarters of mutton now regarded, that very many of the West-end
butchers never deal in any other part of the sheep.

683. THE DIFFERENCE IN THE QUALITY OF THE FLESH in various breeds is a
well-established fact, not alone in flavour, but also in tenderness; and
that the nature of the pasture on which the sheep is fed influences the
flavour of the meat, is equally certain, and shown in the estimation in
which those flocks are held which have grazed on the thymy heath of
Bamstead in Sussex. It is also a well-established truth, that the
_larger_ the frame of the animal, the _coarser_ is the meat, and that
_small bones_ are both guarantees for the fineness of the breed and the
delicacy of the flesh. The sex too has much to do in determining the
quality of the meat; in the males, the lean is closer in fibre, deeper
in colour, harder in texture, less juicy, and freer from fat, than in
the female, and is consequently tougher and more difficult of digestion;
but probably age, and the character of the pasturage on which they are
reared, has, more than any other cause, an influence on the quality and
tenderness of the meat.

684. THE NUMEROUS VARIETIES of sheep inhabiting the different regions of
the earth have been reduced by Cuvier to three, or at most four,
species: the _Ovis Amman_, or the Argali, the presumed parent stock of
all the rest; the _Ovis Tragelaphus_, the bearded sheep of Africa; the
_Ovis Musmon_, the Musmon of Southern Europe; and the _Ovis Montana_,
the Mouflon of America; though it is believed by many naturalists that
this last is so nearly identical with the Indian Argali as to be
undeserving a separate place. It is still a controversy to which of
these three we are indebted for the many breeds of modern domestication;
the Argali, however, by general belief, has been considered as the most
_probable_ progenitor of the present varieties.

685. THE EFFECTS PRODUCED BY CHANGE OF CLIMATE, accident, and other
causes, must have been great to accomplish so complete a physical
alteration as the primitive Argali must have undergone before the
Musmon, or Mouflon of Corsica, the _immediate_ progenitor of all our
European breeds, assumed his present appearance. The Argali is about a
fifth larger in size than the ordinary English sheep, and being a native
of a tropical clime, his fleece is of hair instead of wool, and of a
warm reddish brown, approaching to yellow; a thick mane of darker hair,
about seven inches long, commences from two long tufts at the angle of
the jaws, and, running _under_ the throat and neck, descends down the
chest, dividing, at the fore fork, into two parts, one running down the
front of each leg, as low as the shank. The horns, unlike the character
of the order generally, have a quadrangular base, and, sweeping inwards,
terminate in a sharp point. The tail, about seven inches long, ends in a
tuft of stiff hairs. From this remarkable muffler-looking beard, the
French have given the species the name of _Mouflon a manchettes_. From
the primitive stock _eleven_ varieties have been reared in this country,
of the domesticated sheep, each supposed by their advocates to possess
some one or more special qualities. These eleven, embracing the Shetland
or Orkney; the Dun-woolled; Black-faced, or heath-bred; the Moorland, or
Devonshire; the Cheviot; the Horned, of Norfolk the Ryeland; South-Down;
the Merino; the Old Leicester, and the Teeswater, or New Leicester, have
of late years been epitomized; and, for all useful and practical
purposes, reduced to the following four orders:--

686. THE SOUTH-DOWN, the LEICESTER, the BLACK-FACED, and the CHEVIOT.

[Illustration: SOUTH-DOWN RAM.]

[Illustration: SOUTH-DOWN EWE.]

687. SOUTH-DOWNS.--It appears, as far as our investigation can trace the
fact, that from the very earliest epoch of agricultural history in
England, the breezy range of light chalky hills running through the
south-west and south of Sussex and Hampshire, and known as the
South-Downs, has been famous for a superior race of sheep; and we find
the Romans early established mills and a cloth-factory at Winchester,
where they may be said to terminate, which rose to such estimation, from
the fineness of the wool and texture of the cloth, that the produce was
kept as only worthy to clothe emperors. From this, it may be inferred
that sheep have always been indigenous to this hilly tract. Though
boasting so remote a reputation, it is comparatively within late years
that the improvement and present state of perfection of this breed has
been effected, the South-Down new ranking, for symmetry of shape,
constitution, and early maturity, with any stock in the kingdom. The
South-Down has no horns, is covered with a fine wool from two to three
inches long, has a small head, and legs and face of a grey colour. It
is, however, considered deficient in depth and breadth of chest. A
marked peculiarity of this breed is that its hind quarters stand higher
than the fore, the quarters weighing from fifteen to eighteen pounds.

[Illustration: LEICESTER RAM.]

[Illustration: LEICESTER EWE.]

688. THE LEICESTER.--It was not till the year 1755 that Mr. Robert
Bakewell directed his attention to the improvement of his stock of
sheep, and ultimately effected that change in the character of his flock
which has brought the breed to hold so prominent a place. The Leicester
is regarded as the largest example of the improved breeds, very
productive, and yielding a good fleece. He has a small head, covered
with short white hairs, a clean muzzle, an open countenance, full eye,
long thin ear, tapering neck, well-arched ribs, and straight back. The
meat is indifferent, its flavour not being so good as that of the
South-Down, and there is a very large proportion of fat. Average weight
of carcase from 90 to 100 lbs.

[Illustration: HEATH RAM.]

[Illustration: HEATH EWE.]

689. BLACK-FACED, on HEATH-BRED SHEEP.--This is the most hardy of all
our native breeds, and originally came from Ettrick Forest. The face and
legs are black, or sometimes mottled, the horns spiral, and on the top
of the forehead it has a small round tuft of lighter-coloured wool than
on the face; has the muzzle and lips of the same light hue, and what
shepherds call a mealy mouth; the eye is full of vivacity and fire, and
well open; the body long, round, and firm, and the limbs robust. The
wool is thin, coarse, and light. Weight of the quarter, from 10 to 16
lbs.

690. THE CHEVIOT.--From the earliest traditions, these hills in the
North, like the chalk-ridges in the South, have possessed a race of
large-carcased sheep, producing a valuable fleece. To these physical
advantages, they added a sound constitution, remarkable vigour, and
capability to endure great privation. Both sexes are destitute of horns,
face white, legs long and clean, carries the head erect, has the throat
and neck well covered, the cars long and open, and the face animated.
The Cheviot is a small-boned sheep, and well covered with wool to the
hough; the only defect in this breed, is in a want of depth in the
chest. Weight of the quarter, from 12 to 18 lbs.

[Illustration: ROMNEY-MARSH RAM.]

[Illustration: ROMNEY-MARSH EWE.]

691. THOUGH THE ROMNEY MARSHES, that wide tract of morass and lowland
moor extending from the Weald (or ancient forest) of Kent into Sussex,
has rather been regarded as a general feeding-ground for any kind of
sheep to be pastured on, it has yet, from the earliest date, been famous
for a breed of animals almost peculiar to the locality, and especially
for size, length, thickness, and quantity of wool, and what is called
thickness of stocking; and on this account for ages held pre-eminence
over every other breed in the kingdom. So satisfied were the Kentish men
with the superiority of their sheep, that they long resisted any
crossing in the breed. At length, however, this was effected, and from
the Old Romney and New Leicester a stock was produced that proved, in an
eminent degree, the advantage of the cross; and though the breed was
actually smaller than the original, it was found that the new stock did
not consume so much food, the stocking was increased, they were ready
for the market a _year_ sooner; that the fat formed more on the exterior
of the carcase, where it was of most advantage to the grazier, rather
than as formerly in the interior, where it went to the butcher as offal;
and though the wool was shorter and lighter, it was of a better colour,
finer, and possessed of superior felting properties.

692. THE ROMNEY MARSH BREED is a large animal, deep, close, and compact,
with white face and legs, and yields a heavy fleece of a good staple
quality. The general structure is, however, considered defective, the
chest being narrow and the extremities coarse; nevertheless its tendency
to fatten, and its early maturity, are universally admitted. The Romney
Marsh, therefore, though not ranking as a first class in respect of
perfection and symmetry of breed, is a highly useful, profitable, and
generally advantageous variety of the English domestic sheep.

693. DIFFERENT NAMES HAVE BEEN GIVEN to sheep by their breeders,
according to their age and sex. The male is called a ram, or tup; after
weaning, he is said to be a hog, or hogget, or a lamb-hog, tup-hog, or
teg; later he is a wether, or wether-hog; after the first shearing, a
shearing, or dinmont; and after each succeeding shearing, a two, three,
or four-shear ram, tup, or wether, according to circumstances. The
female is called a ewe, or gimmer-lamb, till weaned, when she becomes,
according to the shepherd's nomenclature, a gimmer-ewe, hog, or teg;
after shearing, a gimmer or shearing-ewe, or theave; and in future a
two, three, or four-shear ewe, or theave.

694. THE MODE OF SLAUGHTERING SHEEP is perhaps as humane and expeditious
a process as could be adopted to attain the objects sought: the animal
being laid on its side in a sort of concave stool, the butcher, while
pressing the body with his knee, transfixes the throat near the angle of
the jaw, passing his knife between the windpipe and bones of the neck;
thus dividing the jugulars, carotids, and large vessels, the death being
very rapid from such a hemorrhage.

[Illustration: SIDE OF MUTTON, SHOWING THE SEVERAL JOINTS.]

695. ALMOST EVERY LARGE CITY has a particular manner of cutting up, or,
as it is called, dressing the carcase. In London this process is very
simple, and as our butchers have found that much skewering back,
doubling one part over another, or scoring the inner cuticle or fell,
tends to spoil the meat and shorten the time it would otherwise keep,
they avoid all such treatment entirely. The carcase when flayed (which
operation is performed while yet warm), the sheep when hung up and the
head removed, presents the profile shown in our cut; the small numerals
indicating the parts or joints into which one half of the animal is cut.
After separating the hind from the fore quarters, with eleven ribs to
the latter, the quarters are usually subdivided in the manner shown in
the sketch, in which the several joins are defined by the intervening
lines and figures. _Hind quarter_: No. 1, the leg; 2, the loin--the two,
when cut in one piece, being called the saddle. _Fore quarter_: No. 3,
the shoulder; 4 and 5 the neck; No. 5 being called, for distinction, the
scrag, which is generally afterwards separated from 4, the lower and
better joint; No. 6, the breast. The haunch of mutton, so often served
at public dinners and special entertainments, comprises all the leg and
so much of the loin, short of the ribs or lap, as is indicated on the
upper part of the carcase by a dotted line.

696. THE GENTLE AND TIMID DISPOSITION of the sheep, and its defenceless
condition, must very early have attached it to man for motives less
selfish than either its fleece or its flesh; for it has been proved
beyond a doubt that, obtuse as we generally regard it, it is susceptible
of a high degree of domesticity, obedience, and affection. In many parts
of Europe, where the flocks are guided by the shepherd's voice alone, it
is no unusual thing for a sheep to quit the herd when called by its
name, and follow the keeper like a dog. In the mountains of Scotland,
when a flock is invaded by a savage dog, the rams have been known to
form the herd into a circle, and placing themselves on the outside line,
keep the enemy at bay, or charging on him in a troop, have despatched
him with their horns.

697. THE VALUE OF THE SHEEP seems to have been early understood by Adam
in his fallen state; his skin not only affording him protection for his
body, but a covering for his tent; and accordingly, we find Abel
intrusted with this portion of his father's stock; for the Bible tells
us that "Abel was a keeper of sheep." What other animals were
domesticated at that time we can only conjecture, or at what exact
period the flesh of the sheep was first eaten for food by man, is
equally, if not uncertain, open to controversy. For though some
authorities maintain the contrary, it is but natural to suppose that
when Abel brought firstlings of his flock, "and the fat thereof," as a
sacrifice, the less dainty portions, not being oblations, were hardly
likely to have been flung away as refuse. Indeed, without supposing Adam
and his descendants to have eaten animal food, we cannot reconcile the
fact of Jubal Cain, Cain's son, and his family, living in tents, as they
are reported to have done, knowing that both their own garments and the
coverings of the tents, were made from the hides and skins of the
animals they bred; for the number of sheep and oxen slain for oblations
only, would not have supplied sufficient material for two such necessary
purposes. The opposite opinion is, that animal food was not eaten till
after the Flood, when the Lord renewed his covenant with Noah. From
Scriptural authority we learn many interesting facts as regards the
sheep: the first, that mutton fat was considered the most delicious
portion of any meat, and the tail and adjacent part the most exquisite
morsel in the whole body; consequently, such were regarded as especially
fit for the offer of sacrifice. From this fact we may reasonably infer
that the animal still so often met with in Palestine and Syria, and
known as the Fat-tailed sheep, was in use in the days of the patriarchs,
though probably not then of the size and weight it now attains to; a
supposition that gains greater strength, when it is remembered that the
ram Abraham found in the bush, when he went to offer up Isaac, was a
horned animal, being entangled in the brake by his curved horns; so far
proving that it belonged to the tribe of the Capridae, the fat-tailed
sheep appertaining to the same family.

LAMBS.

698. THOUGH THE LAMBING SEASON IN THIS COUNTRY usually commences in
March, under the artificial system, so much pursued now to please the
appetite of luxury, lambs can be procured at all seasons. When, however,
the sheep lambs in mid-winter, or the inclemency of the weather would
endanger the lives of mother and young, if exposed to its influence, it
is customary to rear the lambs within-doors, and under the shelter of
stables or barns, where, foddered on soft hay, and part fed on cow's
milk, the little creatures thrive rapidly: to such it is customary to
give the name of House Lamb, to distinguish it from that reared in the
open air, or grass-fed. The ewe goes five months with her young, about
152 days, or close on 22 weeks. The weaning season commences on poor
lands, about the end of the third month, but on rich pasture not till
the close of the fourth--sometimes longer.

699. FROM THE LARGE PROPORTION OF MOISTURE OR FLUIDS contained in the
tissues of all young animals, the flesh of lamb and veal is much more
prone, in close, damp weather, to become tainted and spoil than the
flesh of the more mature, drier, and closer-textured beef and mutton.
Among epicures, the most delicious sorts of lamb are those of the
South-Down breed, known by their black feet; and of these, those which
have been exclusively suckled on the milk of the parent ewe, are
considered the finest. Next to these in estimation are those fed on the
milk of several dams, and last of all, though the fattest, the grass-fed
lamb; this, however, implies an age much greater than either of the
others.

[Illustration: SIDE OF LAMB.]

700. LAMB, in the early part of the season, however reared, is in
London, and indeed generally, sold in quarters, divided with eleven ribs
to the forequarter; but, as the season advances, these are subdivided
into two, and the hind-quarter in the same manner; the first consisting
of the shoulder, and the neck and breast; the latter, of the leg and the
loin,--as shown in the cut illustrative of mutton. As lamb, from the
juicy nature of its flesh, is especially liable to spoil in unfavourable
weather, it should be frequently wiped, so as to remove any moisture
that may form on it.

701. IN THE PURCHASING OF LAMB FOR THE TABLE, there are certain signs by
which the experienced judgment is able to form an accurate opinion
whether the animal has been lately slaughtered, and whether the joints
possess that condition of fibre indicative of good and wholesome meat.
The first of these doubts may be solved satisfactorily by the bright and
dilated appearance of the eye; the quality of the fore-quarter can
always be guaranteed by the blue or healthy ruddiness of the jugular, or
vein of the neck; while the rigidity of the knuckle, and the firm,
compact feel of the kidney, will answer in an equally positive manner
for the integrity of the hind-quarter.

702. MODE OF CUTTING UP A SIDE OF LAMB IN LONDON.--1, 1. Ribs; 2.
Breast; 3. Shoulder; 4. Loin; 5. Leg; 1,2,3. Fore Quarter.

RECIPES.

CHAPTER XV.

BAKED MINCED MUTTON (Cold Meat Cookery).

703. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of any joint of cold roast mutton, 1 or 2
onions, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 2 blades of
pounded mace or nutmeg, 2 tablespoonfuls of gravy, mashed potatoes.

_Mode_.--Mince an onion rather fine, and fry it a light-brown colour;
add the herbs and mutton, both of which should be also finely minced and
well mixed; season with pepper and salt, and a little pounded mace or
nutmeg, and moisten with the above proportion of gravy. Put a layer of
mashed potatoes at the bottom of a dish, then the mutton, and then
another layer of potatoes, and bake for about 1/2 hour.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--If there should be a large quantity of meat, use 2 onions
instead of 1.

BOILED BREAST OF MUTTON AND CAPER SAUCE.

704. INGREDIENTS.--Breast of mutton, bread crumbs, 2 tablespoonfuls of
minced savoury herbs (put a large proportion of parsley), pepper and
salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut off the superfluous fat; bone it; sprinkle over a layer of
bread crumbs, minced herbs, and seasoning; roll, and bind it up firmly.
Boil _gently_ for 2 hours, remove the tape, and serve with caper sauce,
No. 382, a little of which should be poured over the meat.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

BOILED LEG OF MUTTON.

705. INGREDIENTS.--Mutton, water, salt.

_Mode_.--A. leg of mutton for boiling should not hang too long, as it
will not look a good colour when dressed. Cut off the shank-bone, trim
the knuckle, and wash and wipe it very clean; plunge it into sufficient
boiling water to cover it; let it boil up, then draw the saucepan to the
side of the fire, where it should remain till the finger can be borne in
the water. Then place it sufficiently near the fire, that the water may
gently simmer, and be very careful that it does not boil fast, or the
meat will be hard. Skim well, add a little salt, and in about 2-1/4
hours after the water begins to simmer, a moderate-sized leg of mutton
will be done. Serve with carrots and mashed turnips, which may be boiled
with the meat, and send caper sauce (No. 382) to table with it in a
tureen.

_Time_.--A moderate-sized leg of mutton of 9 lbs., 2-1/4 hours after the
water boils; one of 12 lbs., 3 hours.

_Average cost_, 8-1/2d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--A moderate-sized leg of mutton for 6 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ nearly all the year, but not so good in June, July, and
August.

_Note_.--When meat is liked very _thoroughly_ cooked, allow more time
than stated above. The liquor this joint was boiled in should be
converted into soup.

THE GOOD SHEPHERD.--The sheep's complete dependence upon the
shepherd for protection from its numerous enemies is frequently
referred to in the Bible; thus the Psalmist likens himself to a
lost sheep, and prays the Almighty to seek his servant; and our
Saviour, when despatching his twelve chosen disciples to preach
the Gospel amongst their unbelieving brethren, compares them to
lambs going amongst wolves. The shepherd of the East, by kind
treatment, calls forth from his sheep unmistakable signs of
affection. The sheep obey his voice and recognize the names by
which he calls them, and they follow him in and out of the fold.
The beautiful figure of the "good shepherd," which so often
occurs in the New Testament, expresses the tenderness of the
Saviour for mankind. "The good shepherd giveth his life for the
sheep."--_John_, x. 11. "I am the good shepherd, and know my
sheep, and am known by mine."--_John_, x. 14. "And other sheep I
have which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and
they shall hear my voice: and there shall be one fold and one
shepherd."--_John_, x. 16.

BONED LEG OF MUTTON STUFFED.

706. INGREDIENTS.--A small leg of mutton, weighing 6 or 7 lbs.,
forcemeat, No. 417, 2 shalots finely minced.

_Mode_.--Make a forcemeat by recipe No. 417, to which add 2
finely-minced shalots. Bone the leg of mutton, without spoiling the
skin, and cut off a great deal of the fat. Fill the hole up whence the
bone was taken, with the forcemeat, and sew it up underneath, to prevent
its falling out. Bind and tie it up compactly, and roast it before a
nice clear fire for about 2-1/2 hours or rather longer; remove the tape
and send it to table with a good gravy. It may be glazed or not, as
preferred.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours, or rather longer. _Average cost_, 4s. 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BRAISED FILLET OF MUTTON, with French Beans.

707. INGREDIENTS.--The chump end of a loin of mutton, buttered paper,
French beans, a little glaze, 1 pint of gravy.

_Mode_.--Roll up the mutton in a piece of buttered paper, roast it for 2
hours, and do not allow it to acquire the least colour. Have ready some
French beans, boiled, and drained on a sieve; remove the paper from the
mutton, glaze it; just heat up the beans in the gravy, and lay them on
the dish with the meat over them. The remainder of the gravy may be
strained, and sent to table in a tureen.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 8-1/2d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

VARIOUS QUALITIES OF MUTTON--Mutton is, undoubtedly, the meat
most generally used in families; and, both by connoisseurs and
medical men, it stands first in favour, whether its the favour,
digestible qualifications, or general wholesomeness, be
considered. Of all mutton, that furnished by South-Down sheep is
the most highly esteemed; it is also the dearest, on account of
its scarcity, and the great demand of it. Therefore, if the
housekeeper is told by the butcher that he has not any in his
shop, it should not occasion disappointment to the purchaser.
The London and other markets are chiefly supplied with sheep
called half-breeds, which are a cross between the Down and
Lincoln or Leicester. These half-breeds make a greater weight of
mutton than the true South-Downs, and, for this very desirable
qualification, they are preferred by the great sheep-masters.
The legs of this mutton range from 7 to 11 lbs. in weight; the
shoulders, necks, or loins, about 6 to 9 lbs.; and if care is
taken not to purchase it; the shoulders, necks, or loins, about
8 to 9 lbs.; and it cure is taken not to purchase it too fat, it
will be found the most satisfactory and economical mutton that
can be bought.

BRAISED LEG OF MUTTON.

708. INGREDIENTS.--1 small leg of mutton, 4 carrots, 3 onions, 1 faggot
of savoury herbs, a bunch of parsley, seasoning to taste of pepper and
salt, a few slices of bacon, a few veal trimmings, 1/2 pint of gravy or
water.

_Mode_.--Line the bottom of a braising-pan with a few slices of bacon,
put in the carrots, onions, herbs, parsley, and seasoning, and over
these place the mutton. Cover the whole with a few more slices of bacon
and the veal trimmings, pour in the gravy or water, and stew very gently
for 4 hours. Strain the gravy, reduce it to a glaze over a sharp fire,
glaze the mutton with it, and send it to table, placed on a dish of
white haricot beans boiled tender, or garnished with glazed onions.

_Time_.--4 hours. Average cost, 5s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

THE ORDER OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE.--This order of knighthood was
founded by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, in 1429, on the
day of his marriage with the Princess Isabella of Portugal. The
number of the members was originally fixed at thirty-one,
including the sovereign, as the head and chief of the
institution. In 1516, Pope Leo X. consented to increase the
number to fifty-two, including the head. In 1700 the German
emperor Charles VI. and King Philip of Spain both laid claim to
the order. The former, however, on leaving Spain, which he could
not maintain by force of arms, took with him, to Vienna, the
archives of the order, the inauguration of which he solemnized
there in 1713, with great magnificence; but Philip V. of Spain
declared himself Grand Master, and formally protested, at the
congress of Cambrai (1721), against the pretensions of the
emperor. The dispute, though subsequently settled by the
intercession of France, England, and Holland, was frequently
renewed, until the order was tacitly introduced into both
countries, and it now passes by the respective names of the
Spanish or Austrian "Order of the Golden Fleece," according to
the country where it is issued.

AN EXCELLENT WAY TO COOK A BREAST OF MUTTON.

709. INGREDIENTS.--Breast of mutton, 2 onions, salt and pepper to taste,
flour, a bunch of savoury herbs, green peas.

_Mode_.--Cut the mutton into pieces about 2 inches square, and let it be
tolerably lean; put it into a stewpan, with a little fat or butter, and
fry it of a nice brown; then dredge in a little flour, slice the onions,
and put it with the herbs in the stewpan; pour in sufficient water
_just_ to cover the meat, and simmer the whole gently until the mutton
is tender. Take out the meat, strain, and skim off all the fat from the
gravy, and put both the meat and gravy back into the stewpan; add about
a quart of young green peas, and let them boil gently until done. 2 or 3
slices of bacon added and stewed with the mutton give additional
flavour; and, to insure the peas being a beautiful green colour, they
may be boiled in water separately, and added to the stew at the moment
of serving.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours.

_Average cost_, 6d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from June to August.

NAMES OF ANIMALS SAXON, AND OF THEIR FLESH NORMAN.--The names of
all our domestic animals are of Saxon origin; but it is curious
to observe that Norman names have been given to the different
sorts of flesh which these animals yield. How beautifully this
illustrates the relative position of Saxon and Norman after the
Conquest. The Saxon hind had the charge of tending and feeding
the domestic animals, but only that they might appear on the
table of his Norman lord. Thus 'ox,' 'steer,' 'cow,' are Saxon,
but 'beef' is Norman; 'calf' is Saxon, but 'veal' Norman;
'sheep' is Saxon, but 'mutton' Norman; so it is severally with
'deer' and 'venison,' 'swine' and 'pork,' 'fowl' and 'pullet.'
'Bacon,' the only flesh which, perhaps, ever came within his
reach, is the single exception.

BROILED MUTTON AND TOMATO SAUCE (Cold Meat Cookery).

710. INGREDIENTS.--A few slices of cold mutton, tomato sauce, No. 529.

_Mode_.--Cut some nice slices from a cold leg or shoulder of mutton;
season them with pepper and salt, and broil over a clear fire. Make some
tomato sauce by recipe No. 529, pour it over the mutton, and serve. This
makes an excellent dish, and must be served very hot.

_Time_.--About 5 minutes to broil the mutton.

_Seasonable_ in September and October, when tomatoes are plentiful and
seasonable.

SHEPHERDS AND THEIR FLOCKS.--The shepherd's crook is older than
either the husbandman's plough or the warrior's sword. We are
told that Abel was a keeper of sheep. Many passages in holy writ
enable us to appreciate the pastoral riches of the first eastern
nations; and we can form an idea of the number of their flocks,
when we read that Jacob gave the children of Hamor a hundred
sheep for the price of a field, and that the king of Israel
received a hundred thousand every year from the king of Moab,
his tributary, and a like number of rams covered with their
fleece. The tendency which most sheep have to ramble, renders it
necessary for them to be attended by a shepherd. To keep a flock
within bounds, is no easy task; but the watchful shepherd
manages to accomplish it without harassing the sheep. In the
Highlands of Scotland, where the herbage is scanty, the
sheep-farm requires to be very large, and to be watched over by
many shepherds. The farms of some of the great Scottish
landowners are of enormous extent. "How many sheep have you on
your estate?" asked Prince Esterhazy of the duke of Argyll. "I
have not the most remote idea," replied the duke; "but I know
the shepherds number several thousands."

BROILED MUTTON CHOPS.

711. INGREDIENTS.--Loin of mutton, pepper and salt, a small piece of
butter.

_Mode_.--Cut the chops from a well-hung tender loin of mutton, remove a
portion of the fat, and trim them into a nice shape; slightly beat and
level them; place the gridiron over a bright clear fire, rub the bars
with a little fat, and lay on the chops. Whilst broiling, frequently
turn them, and in about 8 minutes they will be done. Season with pepper
and salt, dish them on a very hot dish, rub a small piece of butter on
each chop, and serve very hot and expeditiously.

_Time_.--About 8 minutes. _Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1 chop to each person.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

CHINA CHILO.

712. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lb. of leg, loin, or neck of mutton, 2 onions,
2 lettuces, 1 pint of green peas, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful
of pepper, 1/4 pint of water, 1/4 lb. of clarified butter; when liked, a
little cayenne.

_Mode_.--Mince the above quantity of undressed leg, loin, or neck of
mutton, adding a little of the fat, also minced; put it into a stewpan
with the remaining ingredients, previously shredding the lettuce and
onion rather fine; closely cover the stewpan, after the ingredients have
been well stirred, and simmer gently for rather more than 2 hours. Serve
in a dish, with a border of rice round, the same as for curry.

_Time_.--Rather more than 2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ from June to August.

CURRIED MUTTON (Cold Meat Cookery).

713. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of any joint of cold mutton, 2 onions,
1/4 lb. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of curry powder, 1 dessertspoonful
of flour, salt to taste, 1/4 pint of stock or water.

_Mode_.--Slice the onions in thin rings, and put them into a stewpan
with the butter, and fry of a light brown; stir in the curry powder,
flour, and salt, and mix all well together. Cut the meat into nice thin
slices (if there is not sufficient to do this, it may be minced), and
add it to the other ingredients; when well browned, add the stock or
gravy, and stew gently for about 1/2 hour. Serve in a dish with a border
of boiled rice, the same as for other curries.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6d.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

CUTLETS OF COLD MUTTON (Cold Meat Cookery).

714. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold loin or neck of mutton, 1 egg,
bread crumbs, brown gravy (No. 436), or tomato sauce (No. 529).

_Mode_.--Cut the remains of cold loin or neck of mutton into cutlets,
trim them, and take away a portion of the fat, should there be too much;
dip them in beaten egg, and sprinkle with bread crumbs, and fry them a
nice brown in hot dripping. Arrange them on a dish, and pour round them
either a good gravy or hot tomato sauce.

_Time_.--About 7 minutes.

_Seasonable_.--Tomatoes to be had most reasonably in September and
October.

DORMERS.

715. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of cold mutton, 2 oz. of beef suet, pepper
and salt to taste, 3 oz. of boiled rice, 1 egg, bread crumbs, made
gravy.

_Mode_.--Chop the meat, suet, and rice finely; mix well together, and
add a high seasoning of pepper and salt, and roll into sausages; cover
them with egg and bread crumbs, and fry in hot dripping of a nice brown.
Serve in a dish with made gravy poured round them, and a little in a
tureen.

_Time_.--1/2 hour to fry the sausages.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

THE GOLDEN FLEECE.--The ancient fable of the Golden Fleece may
be thus briefly told:--Phryxus, a son of Athamus, king of
Thebes, to escape the persecutions of his stepmother Ino, paid a
visit to his friend Aeetes, king of Colchis. A ram, whose fleece
was of pure gold, carried the youth through the air in a most
obliging manner to the court of his friend. When safe At
Colchis, Phryxus offered the ram on the altars of Mars, and
pocketed the fleece. The king received him with great kindness,
and gave him his daughter Chalciope in marriage; but, some time
after, he murdered him in order to obtain possession of the
precious fleece. The murder of Phryxus was amply revenged by the
Greeks. It gave rise to the famous Argonautic expedition,
undertaken by Jason and fifty of the most celebrated heroes of
Greece. The Argonauts recovered the fleece by the help of the
celebrated sorceress Medea, daughter of Aeetes, who fell
desperately in love with the gallant but faithless Jason. In the
story of the voyage of the Argo, a substratum of truth probably
exists, though overlaid by a mass of fiction. The ram which
carried Phryxus to Colchis is by some supposed to have been the
name of the ship in which he embarked. The fleece of gold is
thought to represent the immense treasures he bore away from
Thebes. The alchemists of the fifteenth century were firmly
convinced that the Golden Fleece was a treatise on the
transmutation of metals, written on sheepskin.

HARICOT MUTTON.

I.

716. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of the middle or best end of the neck of
mutton, 3 carrots, 3 turnips, 3 onions, popper and salt to taste, 1
tablespoonful of ketchup or Harvey's sauce.

_Mode_.--Trim off some of the fat, cut the mutton into rather thin
chops, and put them into a frying-pan with the fat trimmings. Fry of a
pale brown, but do not cook them enough for eating. Cut the carrots and
turnips into dice, and the onions into slices, and slightly fry them in
the same fat that the mutton was browned in, but do not allow them to
take any colour. Now lay the mutton at the bottom of a stewpan, then the
vegetables, and pour over them just sufficient boiling water to cover
the whole. Give one boil, skim well, and then set the pan on the side of
the fire to simmer gently until the meat is tender. Skim off every
particle of fat, add a seasoning of pepper and salt, and a little
ketchup, and serve. This dish is very much better if made the day before
it is wanted for table, as the fat can be so much more easily removed
when the gravy is cold. This should be particularly attended to, as it
is apt to be rather rich and greasy if eaten the same day it is made. It
should be served in rather a deep dish.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours to simmer gently.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 3s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

II.

717. INGREDIENTS.--Breast or scrag of mutton, flour, pepper and salt to
taste, 1 large onion, 3 cloves, a bunch of savoury herbs, 1 blade of
mace, carrots and turnips, sugar.

_Mode_.--Cut the mutton into square pieces, and fry them a nice colour;
then dredge over them a little flour and a seasoning of pepper and salt.
Put all into a stewpan, and moisten with boiling water, adding the
onion, stuck with 3 cloves, the mace, and herbs. Simmer gently till the
meat is nearly done, skim off all the fat, and then add the carrots and
turnips, which should previously be cut in dice and fried in a little
sugar to colour them. Let the whole simmer again for 10 minutes; take
out the onion and bunch of herbs, and serve.

_Time_.--About 3 hours to simmer.

_Average cost_, 6d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

HARICOT MUTTON (Cold Meat Cookery).

718. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold neck or loin of mutton, 2 oz. of
butter, 3 onions, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1/2 pint of good gravy,
pepper and salt to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of port wine, 1 tablespoonful
of mushroom ketchup, 2 carrots, 2 turnips, 1 head of celery.

_Mode_.--Cut the cold mutton into moderate-sized chops, and take off the
fat; slice the onions, and fry them with the chops, in a little butter,
of a nice brown colour; stir in the flour, add the gravy, and let it
stew gently nearly an hour. In the mean time boil the vegetables until
_nearly_ tender, slice them, and add them to the mutton about 1/4 hour
before it is to be served. Season with pepper and salt, add the ketchup
and port wine, give one boil, and serve.

_Time_.--1 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the cold meat, 9d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

HASHED MUTTON.

719. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast shoulder or leg of mutton,
6 whole peppers, 6 whole allspice, a faggot of savoury herbs, 1/2 head
of celery, 1 onion, 2 oz. of butter, flour.

_Mode_.--Cut the meat in nice even slices from the bones, trimming off
all superfluous fat and gristle; chop the bones and fragments of the
joint, put them into a stewpan with the pepper, spice, herbs, and
celery; cover with water, and simmer for 1 hour. Slice and fry the onion
of a nice pale-brown colour, dredge in a little flour to make it thick,
and add this to the bones, &c. Stew for 1/4 hour, strain the gravy, and
let it cool; then skim off every particle of fat, and put it, with the
meat, into a stewpan. Flavour with ketchup, Harvey's sauce; tomato
sauce, or any flavouring that may be preferred, and let the meat
gradually warm through, but not boil, or it will harden. To hash meat
properly, it should be laid in cold gravy, and only left on the fire
just long enough to warm through.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour to simmer the gravy.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

HASHED MUTTON.--Many persons express a decided aversion to
hashed mutton; and, doubtless, this dislike has arisen from the
fact that they have unfortunately never been properly served
with this dish. If properly done, however, the meat tender (it
ought to be as tender as when first roasted), the gravy abundant
and well flavoured, and the sippets nicely toasted, and the
whole served neatly; then, hashed mutton is by no means to be
despised, and is infinitely more wholesome and appetizing than
the cold leg or shoulder, of which fathers and husbands, and
their bachelor friends, stand in such natural awe.

HODGE-PODGE (Cold Meat Cookery).

720. INGREDIENTS.--About 1 lb. of underdone cold mutton, 2 lettuces, 1
pint of green peas, 5 or 6 green onions, 2 oz. of butter, pepper and
salt to taste, 1/2 teacupful of water.

_Mode_.--Mince the mutton, and cut up the lettuces and onions in slices.
Put these in a stewpan, with all the ingredients except the peas, and
let these simmer very gently for 3/4 hour, keeping them well stirred.
Boil the peas separately, mix these with the mutton, and serve very hot.

_Time_.--3/4 hour.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ from the end of May to August.

IRISH STEW.

I.

721. INGREDIENTS.--3 lbs. of the loin or neck of mutton, 5 lbs. of
potatoes, 5 large onions, pepper and salt to taste, rather more than 1
pint of water.

_Mode_.--Trim off some of the fat of the above quantity of loin or neck
of mutton, and cut it into chops of a moderate thickness. Pare and halve
the potatoes, and cut the onions into thick slices. Put a layer of
potatoes at the bottom of a stewpan, then a layer of mutton and onions,
and season with pepper and salt; proceed in this manner until the
stewpan is full, taking care to have plenty of vegetables at the top.
Pour in the water, and let it stew very gently for 2-1/2 hours, keeping
the lid of the stewpan closely shut the _whole_ time, and occasionally
shaking it to prevent its burning.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 2s. 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_.--More suitable for a winter dish.

II.

722. INGREDIENTS.--2 or 3 lbs. of the breast of mutton, 1-1/2 pint of
water, salt and pepper to taste, 4 lbs. of potatoes, 4 large onions.

_Mode_.--Put the mutton into a stewpan with the water and a little salt,
and let it stew gently for an hour; cut the meat into small pieces, skim
the fat from the gravy, and pare and slice the potatoes and onions. Put
all the ingredients into the stewpan in layers, first a layer of
vegetables, then one of meat, and sprinkle seasoning of pepper and salt
between each layer; cover closely, and let the whole stew very gently
for 1 hour of rather more, shaking it frequently to prevent its burning.

_Time_.--Rather more than 2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_.--Suitable for a winter dish.

_Note_.--Irish stew may be prepared in the same manner as above, but
baked in a jar instead of boiled. About 2 hours or rather more in a
moderate oven will be sufficient time to bake it.

ITALIAN MUTTON CUTLETS.

723. INGREDIENTS.--About 3 lbs. of the neck of mutton, clarified butter,
the yolk of 1 egg, 4 tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs, 1 tablespoonful of
minced savoury herbs, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 1 teaspoonful
of minced shalot, 1 saltspoonful of finely-chopped lemon-peel; pepper,
salt, and pounded mace to taste; flour, 1/2 pint of hot broth or water,
2 teaspoonfuls of Harvey's sauce, 1 teaspoonful of soy, 2 teaspoonfuls
of tarragon vinegar, 1 tablespoonful of port wine.

_Mode_.--Cut the mutton into nicely-shaped cutlets, flatten them, and
trim off some of the fat, dip them in clarified butter, and then, into
the beaten yolk of an egg. Mix well together bread crumbs, herbs,
parsley, shalot, lemon-peel, and seasoning in the above proportion, and
cover the cutlets with these ingredients. Melt some butter in a
frying-pan, lay in the cutlets, and fry them a nice brown; take them,
out, and keep them hot before the fire. Dredge some flour into the pan,
and if there is not sufficient butter, add a little more; stir till it
looks brown, then pour in the hot broth or water, and the remaining
ingredients; give one boil, and pour round the cutlets. If the gravy
should not be thick enough, add a little more flour. Mushrooms, when
obtainable, are a great improvement to this dish, and when not in
season, mushroom-powder may be substituted for them.

_Time_.--10 minutes;--rather longer, should the cutlets be very thick.

_Average cost_, 2s. 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

THE DOWNS.--The well-known substance chalk, which the chemist
regards as a nearly pure carbonate of lime, and the microscopist
as an aggregation of inconceivably minute shells and corals,
forms the sub-soil of the hilly districts of the south-east of
England. The chalk-hills known as the South Downs start from the
bold promontory of Beachy Head, traverse the county of Sussex
from east to west, and pass through Hampshire into Surrey. The
North Downs extend from Godalming, by Godstone, into Kent, and
terminate in the line of cliffs which stretches from Dover to
Ramsgate. The Downs are clothed with short verdant turf; but the
layer of soil which rests upon the chalk is too thin to support
trees and shrubs. The hills have rounded summits, and their
smooth, undulated outlines are unbroken save by the sepulchral
monuments of the early inhabitants of the country. The coombes
and furrows, which ramify and extend into deep valleys, appear
like dried-up channels of streams and rivulets. From time
immemorial, immense flocks of sheep have been reared on these
downs. The herbage of these hills is remarkably nutritious; and
whilst the natural healthiness of the climate, consequent on the
dryness of the air and the moderate elevation of the land, is
eminently favourable to rearing a superior race of sheep, the
arable land in the immediate neighbourhood of the Downs affords
the means of a supply of other food, when the natural produce of
the hills fails. The mutton of the South-Down breed of sheep is
highly valued for its delicate flavour, and the wool for its
fineness; but the best specimens of this breed, when imported
from England into the West Indies, become miserably lean in the
course of a year or two, and their woolly fleece gives place to
a covering of short, crisp, brownish hair.

BROILED KIDNEYS (a Breakfast or Supper Dish).

724. INGREDIENTS.--Sheep kidneys, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Ascertain that the kidneys are fresh, and cut them open very
evenly, lengthwise, down to the root, for should one half be thicker
than the other, one would be underdone whilst the other would be dried,
but do not separate them; skin them, and pass a skewer under the white
part of each half to keep them flat, and broil over a nice clear fire,
placing the inside downwards; turn them when done enough on one side,
and cook them on the other. Remove the skewers, place the kidneys on a
very hot dish, season with pepper and salt, and put a tiny piece of
butter in the middle of each; serve very hot and quickly, and send very
hot plates to table.

_Time_.--6 to 8 minutes.

_Average cost_, 1-1/2d. each.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1 for each person.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--A prettier dish than the above may be made by serving the
kidneys each on a piece of buttered toast out in any fanciful shape. In
this case a little lemon-juice will be found an improvement.

[Illustration: KIDNEYS.]

FRIED KIDNEYS.

725. INGREDIENTS.--Kidneys, butter, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the kidneys open without quite dividing them, remove the
skin, and put a small piece of butter in the frying-pan. When the butter
is melted, lay in the kidneys the flat side downwards, and fry them for
7 or 8 minutes, turning them when they are half-done. Serve on a piece
of dry toast, season with pepper and salt, and put a small piece of
butter in each kidney; pour the gravy from the pan over them, and serve
very hot.

_Time_.--7 or 8 minutes.

_Average cost_, 1-1/2d. each.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1 kidney to each person.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

ROAST HAUNCH OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: HAUNCH OF MUTTON.]

726. INGREDIENTS.--Haunch of mutton, a little salt, flour.

_Mode_.--Let this joint hang as long as possible without becoming
tainted, and while hanging dust flour over it, which keeps off the
flies, and prevents the air from getting to it. If not well hung, the
joint, when it comes to table, will neither do credit to the butcher or
the cook, as it will not be tender. Wash the outside well, lest it
should have a bad flavour from keeping; then flour it and put it down to
a nice brisk fire, at some distance, so that it may gradually warm
through. Keep continually basting, and about 1/2 hour before it is
served, draw it nearer to the fire to get nicely brown. Sprinkle a
little fine salt over the meat, pour off the dripping, add a little
boiling water slightly salted, and strain this over the joint. Place a
paper ruche on the bone, and send red-currant jelly and gravy in a
tureen to table with it.

_Time_.--About 4 hours.

_Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 8 to 10 persons.

_Seasonable_.--In best season from September to March.

HOW TO BUY MEAT ECONOMICALLY.--If the housekeeper is not very
particular as to the precise joints to cook for dinner, there is
oftentimes an opportunity for her to save as much money in her
purchases of meat as will pay for the bread to eat with it. It
often occurs, for instance, that the butcher may have a
superfluity of certain joints, and these he would be glad to get
rid of at a reduction of sometimes as much as 1d. or 1-1/2d. per
lb., and thus, in a joint of 8 or 9 lbs., will be saved enough
to buy 2 quartern loaves. It frequently happens with many
butchers, that, in consequence of a demand for legs and loins of
mutton, they have only shoulders left, and these they will be
glad to sell at a reduction.

ROAST LEG OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: LEG OF MUTTON.]

727. INGREDIENTS.--Leg of mutton, a little salt.

_Mode_.--As mutton, when freshly killed, is never tender, hang it almost
as long as it will keep; flour it, and put it in a cool airy place for a
few days, if the weather will permit. Wash off the flour, wipe it very
dry, and cut off the shank-bone; put it down to a brisk clear fire,
dredge with flour, and keep continually basting the whole time it is
cooking. About 20 minutes before serving, draw it near the fire to get
nicely brown; sprinkle over it a little salt, dish the meat, pour off
the dripping, add some boiling water slightly salted, strain it over the
joint, and serve.

_Time_.--A leg of mutton weighing 10 lbs., about 2-1/4 or 2-1/2 hours;
one of 7 lbs., about 2 hours, or rather less.

_Average cost_, 8-1/2d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--A moderate-sized leg of mutton sufficient for 6 or 8
persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time, but not so good in June, July, and August.

ROAST LOIN OF MUTTON.

728. INGREDIENTS.--Loin of mutton, a little salt.

_Mode_.--Cut and trim off the superfluous fat, and see that the butcher
joints the meat properly, as thereby much annoyance is saved to the
carver, when it comes to table. Have ready a nice clear fire (it need
not be a very wide large one), put down the meat, dredge with flour, and
baste well until it is done. Make the gravy as for roast leg of mutton,
and serve very hot.

[Illustration: LOIN OF MUTTON.]

_Time_.--A loin of mutton weighing 6 lbs., 1-1/2 hour, or rather longer.

_Average cost_, 8-1/2d. per lb. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

ROLLED LOIN OF MUTTON (Very Excellent).

729. INGREDIENTS.--About 6 lbs. of a loin of mutton, 1/2 teaspoonful of
pepper, 1/4 teaspoonful of pounded allspice, 1/4 teaspoonful of mace,
1/4 teaspoonful of nutmeg, 6 cloves, forcemeat No. 417, 1 glass of port
wine, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup.

_Mode_.--Hang the mutton till tender, bone it, and sprinkle over it
pepper, mace, cloves, allspice, and nutmeg in the above proportion, all
of which must be pounded very fine. Let it remain for a day, then make a
forcemeat by recipe No. 417, cover the meat with it, and roll and bind
it up firmly. Half bake it in a slow oven, let it grow cold, take off
the fat, and put the gravy into a stewpan; flour the meat, put it in the
gravy, and stew it till perfectly tender. Now take out the meat, unbind
it, add to the gravy wine and ketchup as above, give one boil, and pour
over the meat. Serve with red-currant jelly; and, if obtainable, a few
mushrooms stewed for a few minutes in the gravy, will be found a great
improvement.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour to bake the meat, 1-1/2 hour to stew gently.

_Average cost_, 4s. 9d. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--This joint will be found very nice if rolled and stuffed, as
here directed, and plainly roasted. It should be well basted, and served
with a good gravy and currant jelly.

BOILED NECK OF MUTTON.

730. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of the middle, or best end of the neck of
mutton; a little salt.

_Mode_.--Trim off a portion of the fat, should there be too much, and if
it is to look particularly nice, the chine-bone should be sawn down, the
ribs stripped halfway down, and the ends of the bones chopped off; this
is, however, not necessary. Put the meat into sufficient _boiling_ water
to cover it; when it boils, add a little salt and remove all the scum.
Draw the saucepan to the side of the fire, and let the water get so cool
that the finger may be borne in it; then simmer very _slowly_ and gently
until the meat is done, which will be in about 1-1/2 hour, or rather
more, reckoning from the time that it begins to simmer.

Serve with turnips and caper sauce, No. 382, and pour a little of it
over the meat. The turnips should be boiled with the mutton; and, when
at hand, a few carrots will also be found an improvement. These,
however, if very large and thick, must be cut into long thinnish pieces,
or they will not be sufficiently done by the time the mutton is ready.
Garnish the dish with carrots and turnips placed alternately round the
mutton.

_Time_.--4 lbs. of the neck of mutton, about 1-1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 8-1/2 d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

THE POETS ON SHEEP.--The keeping of flocks seems to have been
the first employment of mankind; and the most ancient sort of
poetry was probably pastoral. The poem known as the Pastoral
gives a picture of the life of the simple shepherds of the
golden age, who are supposed to have beguiled their time in
singing. In all pastorals, repeated allusions are made to the
"fleecy flocks," the "milk-white lambs," and "the tender ewes;"
indeed, the sheep occupy a position in these poems inferior only
to that of the shepherds who tend them. The "nibbling sheep" has
ever been a favourite of the poets, and has supplied them with
figures and similes without end. Shakspere frequently compares
men to sheep. When Gloster rudely drives the lieutenant from the
side of Henry VI., the poor king thus touchingly speaks of his
helplessness;--

"So flies the reckless shepherd from the wolf:
So first the harmless sheep doth yield his fleece,
And next his throat, unto the butcher's knife."

In the "Two Gentlemen of Verona," we meet with the following
humorous comparison:--

"_Proteus_. The sheep for fodder follow the shepherd, the
shepherd for food follows not the sheep: thou for wages
followest thy master, thy master for wages follows not thee;
therefore, thou art a sheep.

"_Speed_. Such another proof will make me cry _baa_."

The descriptive poets give us some charming pictures of sheep.
Every one is familiar with the sheep-shearing scene in Thomson's
"Seasons:"--

"Heavy and dripping, to the breezy brow
Slow move the harmless race; where, as they spread
Their dwelling treasures to the sunny ray,
Inly disturb'd, and wond'ring what this wild
Outrageous tumult means, their loud complaints
The country fill; and, toss'd from rock to rock,
Incessant bleatings run around the hills."

What an exquisite idea of stillness is conveyed in the
oft-quoted line from Gray's "Elegy:"--

"And drowsy tinklings lull the distant fold."

From Dyer's quaint poem of "The Fleece" we could cull a hundred
passages relating to sheep; but we have already exceeded our
space. We cannot, however, close this brief notice of the
allusions that have been made to sheep by our poets, without
quoting a couple of verses from Robert Burns's "Elegy on Poor
Mailie," his only "pet _yowe_:"--

"Thro' a' the town she troll'd by him;
A lang half-mile she could descry him;
Wi' kindly bleat, when she did spy him.
She ran wi' speed;
A friend mair faithfu' ne'er cam' nigh him
Than Mailie dead.

"I wat she was a sheep o' sense.
An' could behave hersel' wi' mense;
I'll say't, she never brak a fence,
Thro' thievish greed.
Our bardie, lanely, keeps the spence,
Sin' Mailie's dead."

MUTTON COLLOPS (Cold Meat Cookery).

731. INGREDIENTS.--A few slices of a cold leg or loin of mutton, salt
and pepper to taste, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 small bunch of savoury
herbs minced very fine, 2 or 3 shalots, 2 or 3 oz. of butter, 1
dessertspoonful of flour, 1/2 pint of gravy, 1 tablespoonful of
lemon-juice.

_Mode_.--Cut some very thin slices from a leg or the chump end of a loin
of mutton; sprinkle them with pepper, salt, pounded mace, minced savoury
herbs, and minced shalot; fry them in butter, stir in a dessertspoonful
of flour, add the gravy and lemon-juice, simmer very gently about 5 or 7
minutes, and serve immediately.

_Time_.--5 to 7 minutes.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: MUTTON CUTLETS.]

MUTTON CUTLETS WITH MASHED POTATOES.

732. INGREDIENTS.--About 3 lbs. of the best end of the neck of mutton,
salt and pepper to taste, mashed potatoes.

_Mode_.--Procure a well-hung neck of mutton, saw off about 3 inches of
the top of the bones, and cut the cutlets of a moderate thickness. Shape
them by chopping off the thick part of the chine-bone; beat them flat
with a cutlet-chopper, and scrape quite clean, a portion of the top of
the bone. Broil them over a nice clear fire for about 7 or 8 minutes,
and turn them frequently. Have ready some smoothly-mashed white
potatoes; place these in the middle of the dish; when the cutlets are
done, season with pepper and salt; arrange them round the potatoes, with
the thick end of the cutlets downwards, and serve very hot and quickly.
(See Coloured Plate.)

_Time_.--7 or 8 minutes. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 2s. 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Cutlets may be served in various ways; with peas, tomatoes,
onions, sauce piquante, &c.

MUTTON PIE (Cold Meat Cookery).

733. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of a cold leg, loin, or neck of mutton,
pepper and salt to taste, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1 dessertspoonful of
chopped parsley, 1 teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs; when liked, a
little minced onion or shalot; 3 or 4 potatoes, 1 teacupful of gravy;
crust.

_Mode_.--Cold mutton may be made into very good pies if well seasoned
and mixed with a few herbs; if the leg is used, cut it into very thin
slices; if the loin or neck, into thin cutlets. Place some at the bottom
of the dish; season well with pepper, salt, mace, parsley, and herbs;
then put a layer of potatoes sliced, then more mutton, and so on till
the dish is full; add the gravy, cover with a crust, and bake for 1
hour.

_Time_.--1 hour.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The remains of an underdone leg of mutton may be converted into
a very good family pudding, by cutting the meat into slices, and putting
them into a basin lined with a suet crust. It should be seasoned well
with pepper, salt, and minced shalot, covered with a crust, and boiled
for about 3 hours.

MUTTON PIE.

734. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of the neck or loin of mutton, weighed after
being boned; 2 kidneys, pepper and salt to taste, 2 teacupfuls of gravy
or water, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley; when liked, a little
minced onion or shalot; puff crust.

_Mode_.--Bone the mutton, and cut the meat into steaks all of the same
thickness, and leave but very little fat. Cut up the kidneys, and
arrange these with the meat neatly in a pie-dish; sprinkle over them the
minced parsley and a seasoning of pepper and salt; pour in the gravy,
and cover with a tolerably good puff crust. Bake for 1-1/2 hour, or
rather longer, should the pie be very large, and let the oven be rather
brisk. A well-made suet crust may be used instead of puff crust, and
will be found exceedingly good.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour, or rather longer. _Average cost_, 2s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

MUTTON PUDDING.

735. INGREDIENTS.--About 2 lbs. of the chump end of the loin of mutton,
weighed after being boned; pepper and salt to taste, suet crust made
with milk (see Pastry), in the proportion of 6 oz. of suet to each pound
of flour; a very small quantity of minced onion (this may be omitted
when the flavour is not liked).

_Mode_.--Cut the meat into rather thin slices, and season them with
pepper and salt; line the pudding-dish with crust; lay in the meat, and
nearly, but do not quite, fill it up with water; when the flavour is
liked, add a small quantity of minced onion; cover with crust, and
proceed in the same manner as directed in recipe No. 605, using the same
kind of pudding-dish as there mentioned.

_Time_.--About 3 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable in winter.

RAGOUT OF COLD NECK OF MUTTON (Cold Meat Cookery).

736. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of a cold neck or loin of mutton, 2 oz.
of butter, a little flour, 2 onions sliced, 1/4 pint of water, 2 small
carrots, 2 turnips, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the mutton into small chops, and trim off the greater
portion of the fat; put the butter into a stewpan, dredge in a little
flour, add the sliced onions, and keep stirring till brown; then put in
the meat. When this is quite brown, add the water, and the carrots and
turnips, which should be cut into very thin slices; season with pepper
and salt, and stew till quite tender, which will be in about 3/4 hour.
When in season, green peas may be substituted for the carrots and
turnips: they should be piled in the centre of the dish, and the chops
laid round.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_, with peas, from June to August.

ROAST NECK OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: NECK OF MUTTON 1-2. _Best end_. 2-3. _Scrag_.]

737. INGREDIENTS.--Neck of mutton; a little salt.

_Mode_.--For roasting, choose the middle, or the best end, of the neck
of mutton, and if there is a very large proportion of fat, trim off some
of it, and save it for making into suet puddings, which will be found
exceedingly good. Let the bones be cut short and see that it is properly
jointed before it is laid down to the fire, as they will be more easily
separated when they come to table. Place the joint at a nice brisk
fire, dredge it with flour, and keep continually basting until done. A
few minutes before serving, draw it nearer the the fire to acquire a
nice colour, sprinkle over it a little salt, pour off the dripping, add
a little boiling water slightly salted, strain this over the meat and
serve. Red-currant jelly may be sent to table with it.

_Time_.--4 lbs. of the neck of mutton, rather more than 1 hour.

_Average cost_, 8-1/2d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

WOOLLEN MANUFACTURES.--The distinction between hair and wool is
rather arbitrary than natural, consisting in the greater or less
degrees of fineness, softness and pliability of the fibres.
When the fibres possess these properties so far as to admit of
their being spun and woven into a texture sufficiently pliable
to be used as an article of dress, they are called wool. The
sheep, llama, Angora goat, and the goat of Thibet, are the
animals from which most of the wool used in manufactures is
obtained. The finest of all wools is that from the goat of
Thibet, of which the Cashmere shawls are made. Of European
wools, the finest is that yielded by the Merino sheep, the
Spanish and Saxon breeds taking the precedence. The Merino
sheep, as now naturalized in Australia, furnishes an excellent
fleece; but all varieties of sheep-wool, reared either in Europe
or Australia are inferior in softness of feel to that grown in
India, and to that of the llama of the Andes. The best of our
British wools are inferior in fineness to any of the
above-mentioned, being nearly twelve times the thickness of the
finest Spanish merino; but for the ordinary purposes of the
manufacturer, they are unrivalled.

ROAST SADDLE OF MUTTON.

[Illustration: SADDLE OF MUTTON.]

738. INGREDIENTS.--Saddle of mutton; a little salt.

_Mode_.--To insure this joint being tender, let it hang for ten days or
a fortnight, if the weather permits. Cut off the tail and flaps and trim
away every part that has not indisputable pretensions to be eaten, and
have the skin taken off and skewered on again. Put it down to a bright,
clear fire, and, when the joint has been cooking for an hour, remove the
skin and dredge it with flour. It should not be placed too near the
fire, as the fat should not be in the slightest degree burnt. Keep
constantly basting, both before and after the skin is removed; sprinkle
some salt over the joint. Make a little gravy in the dripping-pan; pour
it over the meat, which send to table with a tureen of made gravy and
red-currant jelly.

_Time_.--A saddle of mutton weighing 10 lbs., 2-1/2 hours; 14 lbs.,
3-1/4 hours. When liked underdone, allow rather less time.

_Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--A moderate-sized saddle of 10 lbs. for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year; not so good when lamb is in full season.

ROAST SHOULDER OF MUTTON.

739. INGREDIENTS.--Shoulder of mutton; a little salt.

_Mode_.--Put the joint down to a bright, clear fire; flour it well, and
keep continually basting. About 1/4 hour before serving, draw it near
the fire, that the outside may acquire a nice brown colour, but not
sufficiently near to blacken the fat. Sprinkle a little fine salt over
the meat, empty the dripping-pan of its contents, pour in a little
boiling water slightly salted, and strain this over the joint. Onion
sauce, or stewed Spanish onions, are usually sent to table with this
dish, and sometimes baked potatoes.

_Time_.--A shoulder of mutton weighing 6 or 7 lbs., 1-1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, 8d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Shoulder of mutton may be dressed in a variety of ways; boiled,
and served with onion sauce; boned, and stuffed with a good veal
forcemeat; or baked, with sliced potatoes in the dripping-pan.

THE ETTRICK SHEPHERD.--James Hogg was perhaps the most
remarkable man that ever wore the _maud_ of a shepherd. Under
the garb, aspect, and bearing of a rude peasant (and rude enough
he was in most of these things, even after no inconsiderable
experience of society), the world soon discovered a true poet.
He taught himself to write, by copying the letters of a printed
book as he lay watching his flock on the hillside, and believed
that he had reached the utmost pitch of his ambition when he
first found that his artless rhymes could touch the heart of the
ewe-milker who partook the shelter of his mantle during the
passing storm. If "the shepherd" of Professor Wilson's "Noctes
Ambrosianae" may be taken as a true portrait of James Hogg, we
must admit that, for quaintness of humour, the poet of Ettrick
Forest had few rivals. Sir Walter Scott said that Hogg's
thousand little touches of absurdity afforded him more
entertainment than the best comedy that ever set the pit in a
roar. Among the written productions of the shepherd-poet, is an
account of his own experiences in sheep-tending, called "The
Shepherd's Calender." This work contains a vast amount of useful
information upon sheep, their diseases, habits, and management.
The Ettrick Shepherd died in 1835.

SHEEP'S BRAINS, EN MATELOTE (an Entree).

740. INGREDIENTS.--6 sheep's brains, vinegar, salt, a few slices of
bacon, 1 small onion, 2 cloves, a small bunch of parsley, sufficient
stock or weak broth to cover the brains, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice,
matelote sauce, No. 512.

_Mode_.--Detach the brains from the heads without breaking them, and put
them into a pan of warm water; remove the skin, and let them remain for
two hours. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, add a little vinegar
and salt, and put in the brains. When they are quite firm, take them out
and put them into very cold water. Place 2 or 3 slices of bacon in a
stewpan, put in the brains, the onion stuck with 2 cloves, the parsley,
and a good seasoning of pepper and salt; cover with stock, or weak
broth, and boil them gently for about 25 minutes. Have ready some
croutons; arrange these in the dish alternately with the brains, and
cover with a matelote sauce, No. 512, to which has been added the above
proportion of lemon-juice.

_Time_.--25 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

SHEEP'S FEET or TROTTERS (Soyer's Recipe).

741. INGREDIENTS.--12 feet, 1/4 lb. of beef or mutton suet, 2 onions, 1
carrot, 2 bay-leaves, 2 sprigs of thyme, 1 oz. of salt, 1/4 oz. of
pepper, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 2-1/2 quarts of water, 1/4 lb. of
fresh butter, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 3/4
teaspoonful of pepper, a little grated nutmeg, the juice of 1 lemon, 1
gill of milk, the yolks of 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Have the feet cleaned, and the long bone extracted from them.
Put the suet into a stewpan, with the onions and carrot sliced, the
bay-leaves, thyme, salt, and pepper, and let these simmer for 5 minutes.
Add 2 tablespoonfuls of flour and the water, and keep stirring till it
boils; then put in the feet. Let these simmer for 3 hours, or until
perfectly tender, and take them and lay them on a sieve. Mix together,
on a plate, with the back of a spoon, butter, salt, flour (1
teaspoonful), pepper, nutmeg, and lemon-juice as above, and put the
feet, with a gill of milk, into a stewpan. When very hot, add the
butter, &c., and stir continually till melted. Now mix the yolks of 2
eggs with 5 tablespoonfuls of milk; stir this to the other ingredients,
keep moving the pan over the fire continually for a minute or two, but
do not allow it to boil after the eggs are added. Serve in a very hot
dish, and garnish with croutons, or sippets of toasted bread.

_Time_.--3 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

TO DRESS A SHEEP'S HEAD.

742. INGREDIENTS.--1 sheep's head, sufficient water to cover it, 3
carrots, 3 turnips, 2 or 3 parsnips, 3 onions, a small bunch of parsley,
1 teaspoonful of pepper, 3 teaspoonfuls of salt, 1/4 lb. of Scotch
oatmeal.

_Mode_.--Clean the head well, and let it soak in warm water for 2 hours,
to get rid of the blood; put it into a saucepan, with sufficient cold
water to cover it, and when it boils, add the vegetables, peeled and
sliced, and the remaining ingredients; before adding the oatmeal, mix it
to a smooth batter with a little of the liquor. Keep stirring till it
boils up; then shut the saucepan closely, and let it stew gently for
1-1/2 or 2 hours. It may be thickened with rice or barley, but oatmeal
is preferable.

_Time_.--1-1/2 or 2 hours. _Average cost_, 8d. each.

_Sufficient_ for 3 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

SINGED SHEEP'S HEAD.--The village of Dudingston, which stands
"within a mile of Edinburgh town," was formerly celebrated for
this ancient and homely Scottish dish. In the summer months,
many opulent citizens used to resort to this place to solace
themselves over singed sheep's heads, boiled or baked. The sheep
fed upon the neighbouring hills were slaughtered at this
village, and the carcases were sent to town; but the heads were
left to be consumed in the place. We are not aware whether the
custom of eating sheep's heads at Dudingston is still kept up by
the good folks of Edinburgh.

TOAD-IN-THE-HOLE (Cold Meat Cookery).

743. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of flour, 1 pint of milk, 3 eggs, butter, a few
slices of cold mutton, pepper and salt to taste, 2 kidneys.

_Mode_.--Make a smooth batter of flour, milk, and eggs in the above
proportion; butter a baking-dish, and pour in the batter. Into this
place a few slices of cold mutton, previously well seasoned, and the
kidneys, which should be cut into rather small pieces; bake about 1
hour, or rather longer, and send it to table in the dish it was baked
in. Oysters or mushrooms may be substituted for the kidneys, and will be
found exceedingly good.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the cold meat, 8d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BREAST OF LAMB AND GREEN PEAS.

744. INGREDIENTS.--1 breast of lamb, a few slices of bacon, 1/4 pint of
stock No. 105, 1 lemon, 1 onion, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, green peas.

_Mode_.--Remove the skin from a breast of lamb, put it into a saucepan
of boiling water, and let it simmer for 5 minutes. Take it out and lay
it in cold water. Line the bottom of a stewpan with a few thin slices of
bacon; lay the lamb on these; peel the lemon, cut it into slices, and
put these on the meat, to keep it white and make it tender; cover with 1
or 2 more slices of bacon; add the stock, onion, and herbs, and set it
on a slow fire to simmer very gently until tender. Have ready some green
peas, put these on a dish, and place the lamb on the top of these. The
appearance of this dish may be much improved by glazing the lamb, and
spinach may be substituted for the peas when variety is desired.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 3 persons.

_Seasonable_,--grass lamb, from Easter to Michaelmas.

THE LAMB AS A SACRIFICE.--The number of lambs consumed in
sacrifices by the Hebrews must have been very considerable. Two
lambs "of the first year" were appointed to be sacrificed daily
for the morning and evening sacrifice; and a lamb served as a
substitute for the first-born of unclean animals, such as the
ass, which could not be accepted as an offering to the Lord.
Every year, also, on the anniversary of the deliverance of the
children of Israel from the bondage of Egypt, every family was
ordered to sacrifice a lamb or kid, and to sprinkle some of its
blood upon the door-posts, in commemoration of the judgment of
God upon the Egyptians. It was to be eaten roasted, with
unleavened bread and bitter herbs, in haste, with the loins
girded, the shoes on the feet, and the staff in the hand; and
whatever remained until the morning was to be burnt. The sheep
was also used in the numerous special, individual, and national
sacrifices ordered by the Jewish law. On extraordinary
occasions, vast quantities of sheep were sacrificed at once;
thus Solomon, on the completion of the temple, offered "sheep
and oxen that could not be told nor numbered for multitude."

STEWED BREAST OF LAMB.

745. INGREDIENTS.--1 breast of lamb, pepper and salt to taste,
sufficient stock, No. 105, to cover it, 1 glass of sherry, thickening of
butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Skin the lamb, cut it into pieces, and season them with pepper
and salt; lay these in a stewpan, pour in sufficient stock or gravy to
cover them, and stew very gently until tender, which will be in about
1-1/2 hour. Just before serving, thicken the sauce with a little butter
and flour; add the sherry, give one boil, and pour it over the meat.
Green peas, or stewed mushrooms, may be strewed over the meat, and will
be found a very great improvement.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 3 persons.

_Seasonable_,--grass lamb, from Easter to Michaelmas.

LAMB CHOPS.

746. INGREDIENTS.--Loin of lamb, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Trim off the flap from a fine loin of lamb, aid cut it into
chops about 3/4 inch in thickness. Have ready a bright clear fire; lay
the chops on a gridiron, and broil them of a nice pale brown, turning
them when required. Season them with pepper and salt; serve very hot and
quickly, and garnish with crisped parsley, or place them on mashed
potatoes. Asparagus, spinach, or peas are the favourite accompaniments
to lamb chops.

_Time_.--About 8 or 10 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 2 chops to each person.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

LAMB CUTLETS AND SPINACH (an Entree).

747. INGREDIENTS.--8 cutlets, egg and bread crumbs, salt and pepper to
taste, a little clarified butter.

_Mode_.--Cut the cutlets from a neck of lamb, and shape them by cutting
off the thick part of the chine-bone. Trim off most of the fat and all
the skin, and scrape the top part of the bones quite clean. Brush the
cutlets over with egg, sprinkle them with bread crumbs, and season with
pepper and salt. Now dip them into clarified butter, sprinkle over a few
more bread crumbs, and fry them over a sharp fire, turning them when
required. Lay them before the fire to drain, and arrange them on a dish
with spinach in the centre, which should be previously well boiled,
drained, chopped, and seasoned.

_Time_.--About 7 or 8 minutes. _Average cost_, 10d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

_Note_.--Peas, asparagus, or French beans, may be substituted for the
spinach; or lamb cutlets may be served with stewed cucumbers, Soubise
sauce, &c. &c.

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