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The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

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Have the steaks cut of an equal thickness, broil them over a very clear
fire, turning them often, that the gravy may not escape. In about 8
minutes they will be done, then put them on a very hot dish; smother
with the oyster sauce, and the remainder send to table in a tureen.
Serve quickly.

_Time_.--About 8 to 10 minutes, according to the thickness of the steak.

_Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

BEEF-STEAK PIE.

604. INGREDIENTS.--3 lbs. of rump-steak, seasoning to taste of salt,
cayenne, and black pepper, crust, water, the yolk of an egg.

_Mode_.--Have the steaks cut from a rump that has hung a few days, that
they may be tender, and be particular that every portion is perfectly
sweet. Cut the steaks into pieces about 3 inches long and 2 wide,
allowing a _small_ piece of fat to each piece of lean, and arrange the
meat in layers in a pie-dish. Between each layer sprinkle a seasoning of
salt, pepper, and, when liked, a few grains of cayenne. Fill the dish
sufficiently with meat to support the crust, and to give it a nice
raised appearance when baked, and not to look flat and hollow. Pour in
sufficient water to half fill the dish, and border it with paste (see
Pastry); brush it over with a little water, and put on the cover;
slightly press down the edges with the thumb, and trim off close to the
dish. Ornament the pie with leaves, or pieces of paste cut in any shape
that fancy may direct, brush it over with the beaten yolk of an egg;
make a hole in the top of the crust, and bake in a hot oven for about
1-1/2 hour.

_Time_.--In a hot oven, 1-1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, for this size, 3s 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

Note.--Beef-steak pies may be flavoured in various ways, with oysters
and their liquor, mushrooms, minced onions, &c. For family pies, suet
may be used instead of butter or lard for the crust, and clarified
beef-dripping answers very well where economy is an object. Pieces of
underdone roast or boiled meat may in pies be used very advantageously;
but always remove the bone from pie-meat, unless it be chicken or game.
We have directed that the meat shall be cut smaller than is usually the
case; for on trial we have found it much more tender, more easily
helped, and with more gravy, than when put into the dish in one or two
large steaks.

[Illustration: SHERRY PUDDING DISH.]

BEEF-STEAK AND KIDNEY PUDDING.

605. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of rump-steak, 2 kidneys, seasoning to taste
of salt and black pepper, suet crust made with milk (see Pastry), in the
proportion of 6 oz. of suet to each 1 lb. of flour.

_Mode_.--Procure some tender rump steak (that which has been hung a
little time), and divide it into pieces about an inch square, and cut
each kidney into 8 pieces. Line the dish (of which we have given an
engraving) with crust made with suet and flour in the above proportion,
leaving a small piece of crust to overlap the edge. Then cover the
bottom with a portion of the steak and a few pieces of kidney; season
with salt and pepper (some add a little flour to thicken the gravy, but
it is not necessary), and then add another layer of steak, kidney, and
seasoning. Proceed in this manner till the dish is full, when pour in
sufficient water to come within 2 inches of the top of the basin.
Moisten the edges of the crust, cover the pudding over, press the two
crusts together, that the gravy may not escape, and turn up the
overhanging paste. Wring out a cloth in hot water, flour it, and tie up
the pudding; put it into boiling water, and let it boil for at least 4
hours. If the water diminishes, always replenish with some, hot in a
jug, as the pudding should be kept covered all the time, and not allowed
to stop boiling. When the cloth is removed, cut out a round piece in the
top of the crust, to prevent the pudding bursting, and send it to table
in the basin, either in an ornamental dish, or with a napkin pinned
round it. Serve quickly.

_Time_.--For a pudding with 2 lbs. of steak and 2 kidneys allow 4 hours.

_Average cost_, 2s. 8d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable in winter.

Note.--Beef-steak pudding may be very much enriched by adding a few
oysters or mushrooms. The above recipe was contributed to this work by a
Sussex lady, in which county the inhabitants are noted for their savoury
puddings. It differs from the general way of making them, as the meat is
cut up into very small pieces and the basin is differently shaped: on
trial, this pudding will be found far nicer, and more full of gravy,
than when laid in large pieces in the dish.

BAD MEAT. In the flesh of animals slaughtered whilst suffering
acute inflammation or fever, the hollow fibres, or capillaries,
as they are called, which form the substance of the lyer, are
filled with congested and unassimilated animal fluid, which,
from its impurity, gives the lyer a dark colour, and produces a
tendency to rapid putrefaction. In a more advanced stage of such
disease, serous, and sometimes purulent matter, is formed in the
cellular tissues between the muscles of the flesh; and when such
is the case, nothing can be more poisonous than such abominable
carrion. In the flesh of animals killed whilst under the
influence of any disease of an emaciating effect, the lyer
adheres but slightly to the bones, with its fibres contracted
and dry; and the little fat that there may be is friable, and
shrunk within its integuments. The flesh of animals slaughtered
whilst under considerable depression of vital energy (as from
previous bleeding) has a diminished tendency to stiffen after
death, the feebleness of this tendency being in proportion to
the degree of depression. It presents, also, an unnatural blue
or pallid appearance, has a faint and slightly sour smell, and
soon becomes putrid. When an animal has died otherwise than by
slaughtering, its flesh is flaccid and clammy, emits a peculiar
faint and disagreeable smell, and, it need scarcely be added,
spontaneous decomposition proceeds very rapidly.

BEEF-STEAKS WITH FRIED POTATOES, or BIFTEK AUX POMMES-DE-TERRE (a la
mode Francaise).

606. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of steak, 8 potatoes, 1/4 lb. of butter, salt
and pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful of minced herbs.

_Mode_.--Put the butter into a frying or _saute_ pan, set it over the
fire, and let it get very hot; peel, and cut the potatoes into long thin
slices; put them into the hot butter, and fry them till of a nice brown
colour. Now broil the steaks over a bright clear fire, turning them
frequently, that every part may be equally done: as they should not be
thick, 5 minutes will broil them. Put the herbs and seasoning in the
butter the potatoes were fried in, pour it under the steak, and place
the fried potatoes round, as a garnish. To have this dish in perfection,
a portion of the fillet of the sirloin should be used, as the meat is
generally so much more tender than that of the rump, and the steaks
should be cut about 1/3 of an inch in thickness.

_Time_.--5 minutes to broil the steaks, and about the same time to fry
the potatoes. _Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year; but not so good in warm weather, as the meat
cannot hang to get tender.

[Illustration: AITCH-BONE OF BEEF.]

BOILED AITCH-BONE OF BEEF.

607. INGREDIENTS.--Beef, water.

_Mode_.--After this joint has been in salt 5 or 6 days, it will be ready
for use, and will not take so long boiling: as a round, for it is not so
solid. Wash the meat, and, if too salt, soak it for a few hours,
changing the water once or twice, till the required freshness is
obtained. Put into a saucepan, or boiling-pot, sufficient water to cover
the meat; set it over the fire, and when it boils, plunge in the joint
(see No. 557), and let it boil up quickly. Now draw the pot to the side
of the fire, and let the process be very gradual, as the water must only
simmer, or the meat will be hard and tough. Carefully remove the scum
from the surface of the water, and continue doing this for a few minutes
after it first boils. Carrots and turnips are served with this dish, and
sometimes suet dumplings, which may be boiled with the beef. Garnish
with a few of the carrots and turnips, and serve the remainder in a
vegetable-dish.

_Time_.--An aitch-bone of 10 lbs., 2-1/2 hours after the water boils;
one of 20 lbs., 4 hours. _Average cost_, 6d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--10 lbs. for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best from September to March.

_Note_.--The liquor in which the meat has been boiled may be easily
converted into a very excellent pea-soup. It will require very few
vegetables, as it will be impregnated with the flavour of those boiled
with the meat.

THE ACTION OF SALT ON MEAT.--The manner in which salt acts in
preserving meat is not difficult to understand. By its strong
affinity, it, in the first place, extracts the juices from the
substance of meat in sufficient quantity to form a saturated
solution with the water contained in the juice, and the meat
then absorbs the saturated brine in place of the juice extracted
by the salt. In this way, matter incapable of putrefaction takes
the places of that portion in the meat which is most perishable.
Such, however, is not the only office of salt as a means of
preserving meat; it acts also by its astringency in contracting
the fibres of the muscles, and so excludes the action of air on
the interior of the substance of the meat. The last-mentioned
operation of salt as an antiseptic is evinced by the diminution
of the volume of meat to which it is applied. The astringent
action of _saltpetre_ on meat is much greater than that of salt,
and thereby renders meat to which it is applied very hard; but,
in small quantities, it considerably assists the antiseptic
action of salt, and also prevents the destruction of the florid
colour of meat, which is caused by the application of salt.
Thus, it will be perceived, from the foregoing statement, that
the application of salt and saltpetre diminishes, in a
considerable degree, the nutritive, and, to some extent, the
wholesome qualities of meat; and, therefore, in their use, the
quantity applied should be as small as possible, consistent with
the perfect preservation of the meat.

BOILED ROUND OF BEEF.

608. INGREDIENTS.--Beef, water.

_Mode_.--As a whole round of beef, generally speaking, is too large for
small families, and very seldom required, we here give the recipe for
dressing a portion of the silver side of the round. Take from 12 to 16
lbs., after it has been in salt about 10 days; just wash off the salt,
skewer it up in a nice round-looking form, and bind it with tape to keep
the skewers in their places. Put it in a saucepan of boiling water, as
in the preceding recipe, set it upon a good fire, and when it begins to
boil, carefully remove all scum from the surface, as, if this is not
attended to, it sinks on to the meat, and when brought to table,
presents a very unsightly appearance. When it is well skimmed, draw the
pot to the corner of the fire, and let it simmer very gently until done.
Remove the tape and skewers, which should be replaced by a silver one;
pour over a little of the pot-liquor, and garnish with carrots. (_See_
coloured plate 2.) Carrots, turnips, parsnips, and sometimes suet
dumplings, accompany this dish; and these may all be boiled with the
beef. The pot-liquor should be saved, and converted into pea-soup; and
the outside slices, which are generally hard, and of an uninviting
appearance, may be out off before being sent to table, and potted. These
make an excellent relish for the breakfast or luncheon table.

_Time_.--Part of a round of beef weighing 12 lbs., about 3 hours after
the water boils. _Average cost_, 8d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable for winter.

609. SOYER'S RECIPE FOR PRESERVING THE GRAVY IN SALT MEAT, WHEN IT IS TO
BE SERVED COLD.--Fill two tubs with cold water, into which throw a few
pounds of rough ice; and when the meat is done, put it into one of the
tubs of ice-water; let it remain 1 minute, when take out, and put it
into the other tub. Fill the first tub again with water, and continue
this process for about 20 minutes; then set it upon a dish, and let it
remain until quite cold. When cut, the fat will be as white as possible,
besides having saved the whole, of the gravy. If there is no ice, spring
water will answer the same purpose, but will require to be more
frequently changed.

_Note_.--The BRISKET and RUMP may be boiled by the above recipe; of
course allowing more or less time, according to the size of the joint.

BEEF CAKE.

610. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast beef; to each pound of cold
meat allow 1/4 lb. of bacon or ham; seasoning to taste of pepper and
salt, 1 small bunch of minced savoury herbs, 1 or 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Mince the beef very finely (if underdone it will be better),
add to it the bacon, which must also be chopped very small, and mix well
together. Season, stir in the herbs, and bind with an egg, or 2 should 1
not be sufficient. Make it into small square cakes, about 1/2 inch
thick, fry them in hot dripping, and serve in a dish with good gravy
poured round them.

_Time_.--10 minutes.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the cold meat, 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BROILED BEEF-STEAKS or RUMP-STEAKS.

611. INGREDIENTS.--Steaks, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, salt
to taste, 1 tablespoonful of good mushroom ketchup or Harvey's sauce.

_Mode_.--As the success of a good broil so much depends on the state of
the fire, see that it is bright and clear, and perfectly free from
smoke, and do not add any fresh fuel just before you require to use the
gridiron. Sprinkle a little salt over the fire, put on the gridiron for
a few minutes, to get thoroughly hot through; rub it with a piece of
fresh, suet, to prevent the meat from sticking, and lay on the steaks,
which should be cut of an equal thickness, about 3/4 of an inch, or
rather thinner, and level them by beating them as _little_ as possible
with a rolling-pin. Turn them frequently with steak-tongs (if these are
not at hand, stick a fork in the edge of the fat, that no gravy
escapes), and in from 8 to 10 minutes they will be done. Have ready a
very hot dish, into which put the ketchup, and, when liked, a little
minced shalot; dish up the steaks, rub them over with butter, and season
with pepper and salt. The exact time for broiling steaks must be
determined by taste, whether they are liked underdone or well done; more
than from 8 to 10 minutes for a steak 3/4 inch in thickness, we think,
would spoil and dry up the juices of the meat. Great expedition is
necessary in sending broiled steaks to table; and, to have them in
perfection, they should not be cooked till everything else prepared for
dinner has been dished up, as their excellence entirely depends on their
being served very hot. Garnish with scraped horseradish, or slices of
cucumber. Oyster, tomato, onion, and many other sauces, are frequent
accompaniments to rump-steak, but true lovers of this English dish
generally reject all additions but pepper and salt.

_Time_.--8 to 10 minutes.

_Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--Allow 1/2 lb. to each person; if the party consist
entirely of gentlemen, 3/4 lb. will not be too much.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but not good in the height of summer, as the
meat cannot hang long enough to be tender.

DIFFERENT SEASONS FOR BEEF.--We have already stated (see No.
593) that the Scots breed of oxen, like the South-down in
mutton, stands first in excellence. It should be borne in mind,
however, that each county has its particular season, and that
the London and other large markets are always supplied by those
counties whose meat, from local circumstances, is in the best
condition at the time. Thus, the season in Norfolk, from which
the Scots come (these being the principal oxen bred by the
Norfolk and Suffolk graziers), commences about Christmas and
terminates about June, when this breed begins to fall off, their
place being taken by grass-fed oxen. A large quantity of most
excellent meat is sent to the "dead markets" from Scotland, and
some of the best London butchers are supplied from this source.

BROILED BEEF AND MUSHROOM SAUCE.

(Cold Meat Cookery).

612. INGREDIENTS.--2 or 3 dozen small button mushrooms, 1 oz. of butter,
salt and cayenne to taste, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, mashed
potatoes, slices of cold roast beef.

_Mode_.--Wipe the mushrooms free from grit with a piece of flannel, and
salt; put them in a stewpan with the butter, seasoning, and ketchup;
stir over the fire until the mushrooms are quite done, when pour it in
the middle of mashed potatoes, browned. Then place round the potatoes
slices of cold roast beef, nicely broiled, over a clear fire. In making
the mushroom sauce, the ketchup may be dispensed with, if there is
sufficient gravy.

_Time_.--1/4 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 8d.

_Seasonable_ from August to October.

BROILED BEEF AND OYSTER SAUCE (Cold Meat Cookery).

613. INGREDIENTS.--2 dozen oysters, 3 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 2 oz. of
butter, 1/2 teaspoonful of flour, cayenne and salt to taste, mashed
potatoes, a few slices of cold roast beef.

_Mode_.--Put the oysters in a stewpan, with their liquor strained; add
the cloves, mace, butter, flour, and seasoning, and let them simmer
gently for 5 minutes. Have ready in the centre of a dish round walls of
mashed potatoes, browned; into the middle pour the oyster sauce, quite
hot, and round the potatoes place, in layers, slices of the beef, which
should be previously broiled over a nice clear fire.

_Time_.--5 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s, 6d., exclusive of the cold meat.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

BROILED BEEF-BONES.

614. INGREDIENTS.--The bones of ribs or sirloin; salt, pepper, and
cayenne.

_Mode_.--Separate the bones, taking care that the meat on them is not
too thick in any part; sprinkle them well with the above seasoning, and
broil over a very clear fire. When nicely browned they are done; but do
not allow them to blacken.

TO DRESS A BULLOCK'S HEART.

615. INGREDIENTS.--1 heart, stuffing of veal forcemeat, No. 417.

_Mode_.--Put the heart into warm water to soak for 2 hours; then wipe it
well with a cloth, and, after cutting off the lobes, stuff the inside
with a highly-seasoned forcemeat (No. 417). Fasten it in, by means of a
needle and coarse thread; tie the heart up in paper, and set it before a
good fire, being very particular to keep it well basted, or it will eat
dry, there being very little of its own fat. Two or three minutes before
serving, remove the paper, baste well, and serve with good gravy and
red-currant jelly or melted butter. If the heart is very large, it will
require 2 hours, and, covered with a caul, may be baked as well as
roasted.

_Time_.--Large heart, 2 hours. _Average cost_, 2s. 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Note_.--This is an excellent family dish, is very savoury, and, though
not seen at many good tables, may be recommended for its cheapness and
economy.

BUBBLE-AND-SQUEAK (Cold Meat Cookery).

616. INGREDIENTS.--A few thin slices of cold boiled beef; butter,
cabbage, 1 sliced onion, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Fry the slices of beef gently in a little butter, taking care
not to dry them up. Lay them on a flat dish, and cover with fried
greens. The greens may be prepared from cabbage sprouts or green savoys.
They should be boiled till tender, well drained, minced, and placed,
till quite hot, in a frying-pan, with butter, a sliced onion, and
seasoning of pepper and salt. When the onion is done, it is ready to
serve.

_Time_.--Altogether, 1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the cold beef, 3d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: COLLARED BEEF.]

COLLARED BEEF.

617. INGREDIENTS.--7 lbs. of the thin end of the flank of beef, 2 oz. of
coarse sugar, 6 oz. of salt, 1 oz, of saltpetre, 1 large handful of
parsley minced, 1 dessertspoonful of minced sage, a bunch of savoury
herbs, 1/2 teaspoonful of pounded allspice; salt and pepper to taste.

_Mode_.--Choose fine tender beef, but not too fat; lay it in a dish; rub
in the sugar, salt, and saltpetre, and let it remain in the pickle for a
week or ten days, turning and rubbing it every day. Then bone it, remove
all the gristle and the coarse skin of the inside part, and sprinkle it
thickly with parsley, herbs, spice, and seasoning in the above
proportion, taking care that the former are finely minced, and the
latter well pounded. Roll the meat up in a cloth as tightly as possible,
in the same shape as shown in the engraving; bind it firmly with broad
tape, and boil it gently for 6 hours. Immediately on taking it out of
the pot, put it under a good weight, without undoing it, and let it
remain until cold. This dish is a very nice addition to the
breakfast-table.

_Time_.--6 hours. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 4s.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--During the time the beef is in pickle, it should be kept cool,
and regularly rubbed and turned every day.

BEEF-COLLOPS.

618. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of rump-steak, 1/4 lb. of butter, 1 pint of
gravy (water may be substituted for this), salt and pepper to taste, 1
shalot finely minced, 1/2 pickled walnut, 1 teaspoonful of capers.

_Mode_.--Have the steak cut thin, and divide it in pieces about 3 inches
long; beat these with the blade of a knife, and dredge with flour. Put
them in a frying-pan with the butter, and let them fry for about 3
minutes; then lay them in a small stewpan, and pour over them the gravy.
Add a piece of butter, kneaded with a little flour, put in the seasoning
and all the other ingredients, and let the whole simmer, but not boil,
for 10 minutes. Serve in a hot covered dish.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

MINCED COLLOPS (an Entree).

619. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of rump-steak, salt and pepper to taste, 2 oz.
of butter, 1 onion minced, 1/4 pint of water, 1 tablespoonful of
Harvey's sauce, or lemon-juice, or mushroom ketchup; 1 small bunch of
savoury herbs.

_Mode_.--Mince the beef and onion very small, and fry the latter in
butter until of a pale brown. Put all the ingredients together in a
stewpan, and boil gently for about 10 minutes; garnish with sippets of
toasted bread, and serve very hot.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 2 or 3 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

CURRIED BEEF (Cold Meat Cookery).

620. INGREDIENTS.--A few slices of tolerably lean cold roast or boiled
beef, 3 oz. of butter, 2 onions, 1 wineglassful of beer, 1
dessertspoonful of curry powder.

_Mode_.--Cut up the beef into pieces about 1 inch square, put the butter
into a stewpan with the onions sliced, and fry them of a lightly-brown
colour. Add all the other ingredients, and stir gently over a brisk fire
for about 10 minutes. Should this be thought too dry, more beer, or a
spoonful or two of gravy or water, may be added; but a good curry should
not be very thin. Place it in a deep dish, with an edging of dry boiled
rice, in the same manner as for other curries.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_ in winter.

TO CLARIFY BEEF DRIPPING.

I.

621. Good and fresh dripping answers very well for basting everything
except game and poultry, and, when well clarified, serves for frying
nearly as well as lard; it should be kept in a cool place, and will
remain good some time. To clarify it, put the dripping into a basin,
pour over it boiling water, and keep stirring the whole to wash away the
impurities. Let it stand to cool, when the water and dirty sediment will
settle at the bottom of the basin. Remove the dripping, and put it away
in jars or basins for use.

ANOTHER WAY.

622. Put the dripping into a clean saucepan, and let it boil for a few
minutes over a slow fire, and be careful to skim it well. Let it stand
to cool a little, then strain it through a piece of muslin into jars for
use. Beef dripping is preferable to any other for cooking purposes, as,
with mutton dripping, there is liable to be a tallowy taste and smell.

ROAST FILLET OF BEEF (Larded).

623. INGREDIENTS.--About 4 lbs. of the inside fillet of the sirloin, 1
onion, a small bunch of parsley, salt and pepper to taste, sufficient
vinegar to cover the meat, glaze, Spanish sauce, No. 411.

_Mode_.--Lard the beef with bacon, and put it into a pan with sufficient
vinegar to cover it, with an onion sliced, parsley, and seasoning, and
let it remain in this pickle for 12 hours. Roast it before a nice clear
fire for about 1-1/4 hour, and, when done, glaze it. Pour some Spanish
sauce round the beef, and the remainder serve in a tureen. It may be
garnished with Spanish onions boiled and glazed.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. Average cost, exclusive of the sauce, 4s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

FRICANDEAU OF BEEF.

624. INGREDIENTS.--About 3 lbs. of the inside fillet of the sirloin (a
piece of the rump may be substituted for this), pepper and salt to
taste, 3 cloves, 2 blades of mace, 6 whole allspice, 1 pint of stock No.
105, or water, 1 glass of sherry, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, 2 shalots,
bacon.

_Mode_.--Cut some bacon into thin strips, and sprinkle over them a
seasoning of pepper and salt, mixed with cloves, mace, and allspice,
well pounded. Lard the beef with these, put it into a stewpan with the
stock or water, sherry, herbs, shalots, 2 cloves, and more pepper and
salt. Stew the meat gently until tender, when take it out, cover it
closely, skim off all the fat from the gravy, and strain it. Set it on
the fire, and boil, till it becomes a glaze. Glaze the larded side of
the beef with this, and serve on sorrel sauce, which is made as
follows:--Wash and pick some sorrel, and put it into a stewpan with only
the water that hangs about it. Keep stirring, to prevent its burning,
and when done, lay it in a sieve to drain. Chop it, and stew it with a
small piece of butter and 4 or 6 tablespoonfuls of good gravy, for an
hour, and rub it through a tammy. If too acid, add a little sugar; and a
little cabbage-lettuce boiled with the sorrel will be found an
improvement.

_Time_.--2 hours to gently stew the meat.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 4s.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

FRIED SALT BEEF (Cold Meat Cookery).

625. INGREDIENTS.--A few slices of cold salt beef, pepper to taste, 1/4
lb. of butter, mashed potatoes.

_Mode_.--Cut any part of cold salt beef into thin slices, fry them
gently in butter, and season with a little pepper. Have ready some very
hot mashed potatoes, lay the slices of beef on them, and garnish with 3
or 4 pickled gherkins. Cold salt beef, warmed in a little liquor from
mixed pickle, drained, and served as above, will be found good.

_Time_.--About 5 minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

FRIED RUMP-STEAK.

626. INGREDIENTS.--Steaks, butter or clarified dripping.

_Mode_. Although broiling is a far superior method of cooking steaks to
frying them, yet, when the cook is not very expert, the latter mode may
be adopted; and, when properly done, the dish may really look very
inviting, and the flavour be good. The steaks should be cut rather
thinner than for broiling, and with a small quantity of fat to each. Put
some butter or clarified dripping into a frying-pan; let it get quite
hot, then lay in the steaks. Turn them frequently until done, which will
be in about 8 minutes, or rather more, should the steaks be very thick.
Serve on a very hot dish, in which put a small piece of butter and a
tablespoonful of ketchup, and season with pepper and salt. They should
be sent to table quickly, as, when cold, the steaks are entirely
spoiled.

_Time_.--8 minutes for a medium-sized steak, rather longer for a very
thick one.

_Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Seasonable all the year, but not good in summer, as the meat cannot
hang to get tender.

_Note_.--Where much gravy is liked, make it in the following manner:--As
soon as the steaks are done, dish them, pour a little boiling water into
the frying-pan, add a seasoning of pepper and salt, a small piece of
butter, and a tablespoonful of Harvey's sauce or mushroom ketchup. Hold
the pan over the fire for a minute or two, just let the gravy simmer,
then pour on the steak, and serve.

A FRENCHMAN'S OPINION OF BEEF. The following is translated from
a celebrated modern French work, the production of one who in
Paris enjoys a great reputation as cook and chemist:--The flesh
of the ox, to be in the best condition, should be taken from an
animal of from four to six years old, and neither too fat nor
too lean. This meat, which possesses in the highest degree the
most nutritive qualities, is generally easily digested; stock is
made from it, and it is eaten boiled, broiled, roasted, stewed,
braised, and in a hundred other different ways. Beef is the
foundation of stock, gravies, braises, &c.; its nutritious and
succulent gravy gives body and flavour to numberless ragouts. It
is an exhaustless mine in the hands of a skilful artist, and is
truly the king of the kitchen. Without it, no soup, no gravy;
and its absence would produce almost a famine in the civilized
world!

BEEF FRITTERS (Cold Meat Cookery).

627. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast beef, pepper and salt to
taste, 3/4 lb. of flour, 1/2 pint of water, 2 oz. of butter, the whites
of 2 eggs.

_Mode_.--Mix very smoothly, and by degrees, the flour with the above
proportion of water; stir in 2 oz. of butter, which must be melted, but
not oiled, and, just before it is to be used, add the whites of two
well-whisked eggs. Should the batter be too thick, more water must be
added. Pare down the cold beef into thin shreds, season with pepper and
salt, and mix it with the batter. Drop a small quantity at a time into a
pan of boiling lard, and fry from 7 to 10 minutes, according to the
size. When done on one side, turn and brown them on the other. Let them
dry for a minute or two before the fire, and serve on a folded napkin. A
small quantity of finely-minced onions, mixed with the batter, is an
improvement.

_Time_.--From 7 to 10 minutes.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6d. _Seasonable_ at any time.

HASHED BEEF (Cold Meat Cookery).

I.

628. INGREDIENTS.--Gravy saved from the meat, 1 teaspoonful of tomato
sauce, 1 teaspoonful of Harvey's sauce, 1 teaspoonful of good mushroom
ketchup, 1/2 glass of port wine or strong ale, pepper and salt to taste,
a little flour to thicken, 1 onion finely minced, a few slices of cold
roast beef.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients but the beef into a stewpan with
whatever gravy may have been saved from the meat the day it was roasted;
let these simmer gently for 10 minutes, then take the stewpan off the
fire; let the gravy cool, and skim off the fat. Cut the beef into thin
slices, dredge them with flour, and lay them in the gravy; let the whole
simmer gently for 5 minutes, but not boil, or the meat will be tough and
hard. Serve very hot, and garnish with sippets of toasted bread.

_Time_.--20 minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

II.

629. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of ribs or sirloin of beef, 2 onions, 1
carrot, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 1/2 blade of
pounded mace, thickening of flour, rather more than 1 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Take off all the meat from the bones of ribs or sirloin of
beef; remove the outside brown and gristle; place the meat on one side,
and well stew the bones and pieces, with the above ingredients, for
about 2 hours, till it becomes a strong gravy, and is reduced to rather
more than 1/2 pint; strain this, thicken with a teaspoonful of flour,
and let the gravy cool; skim off all the fat; lay in the meat, let it
get hot through, but do not allow it to boil, and garnish with sippets
of toasted bread. The gravy may be flavoured as in the preceding recipe.

_Time_.--Rather more than 2 hours.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the cold meat, 2d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Either of the above recipes may be served in walls of mashed
potatoes browned; in which case the sippets should be omitted. Be
careful that hashed meat does not boil, or it will become tough.

TO PREPARE HUNG BEEF.

630. This is preserved by salting and drying, either with or without
smoke. Hang up the beef 3 or 4 days, till it becomes tender, but take
care it does not begin to spoil; then salt it in the usual way, either
by dry-salting or by brine, with bay-salt, brown sugar, saltpetre, and a
little pepper and allspice; afterwards roll it tight in a cloth, and
hang it up in a warm, but not hot place, for a fortnight or more, till
it is sufficiently hard. If required to have a little of the smoky
flavour, it may be hung for some time in a chimney-corner, or smoked in
any other way: it will keep a long time.

HUNTER'S BEEF.

631. INGREDIENTS.--For a round of beef weighing 25 lbs. allow 3 oz. of
saltpetre, 3 oz. of coarse sugar, 1 oz. of cloves, 1 grated nutmeg, 1/2
oz. of allspice, 1 lb. of salt, 1/2 lb. bay-salt.

_Mode_.--Let the beef hang for 2 or 3 days, and remove the bone. Pound
spices, salt, &c. in the above proportion, and let them be reduced to
the finest powder. Put the beef into a pan, rub all the ingredients well
into it, and turn and rub it every day for rather more than a fortnight.
When it has been sufficiently long in pickle, wash the meat, bind it up
securely with tape, and put it into a pan with 1/2 pint of water at the
bottom; mince some suet, cover the top of the meat with it, and over the
pan put a common crust of flour and water; bake for 6 hours, and, when
cold, remove the paste. Save the gravy that flows from it, as it adds
greatly to the flavour of hashes, stews, &c. The beef may be glazed and
garnished with meat jelly.

_Time_.--6 hours.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Note_.--In salting or pickling beef or pork for family consumption, it
not being generally required to be kept for a great length of time, a
less quantity of salt and a larger quantity of other matters more
adapted to retain mellowness in meat, may be employed, which could not
be adopted by the curer of the immense quantities of meat required to be
preserved for victualling the shipping of this maritime country. Sugar,
which is well known to possess the preserving principle in a very great
degree, without the pungency and astringency of salt, may be, and is,
very generally used in the preserving of meat for family consumption.
Although it acts without corrugating or contracting the fibres of meat,
as is the case in the action of salt, and, therefore, does not impair
its mellowness, yet its use in sufficient quantities for preservative
effect, without the addition of other antiseptics, would impart a
flavour not agreeable to the taste of many persons. It may be used,
however, together with salt, with the greatest advantage in imparting
mildness and mellowness to cured meat, in a proportion of about one part
by weight to four of the mixture; and, perhaps, now that sugar is so
much lower in price than it was in former years, one of the obstructions
to its more frequent use is removed.

TO DRESS BEEF KIDNEY.

I.

632. INGREDIENTS.--1 kidney, clarified butter, pepper and salt to taste,
a small quantity of highly-seasoned gravy, 1 tablespoonful of
lemon-juice, 1/4 teaspoonful of powdered sugar.

_Mode_.--Cut the kidneys into neat slices, put them into warm water to
soak for 2 hours, and change the water 2 or 3 times; then put them on a
clean cloth to dry the water from them, and lay them in a frying-pan
with some clarified butter, and fry them of a nice brown; season each
side with pepper and salt, put them round the dish, and the gravy in the
middle. Before pouring the gravy in the dish, add the lemon-juice and
sugar.

_Time_.--From 5 to 10 minutes. _Average cost_, 9d. each.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

II.

633. INGREDIENTS.--1 kidney, 1 dessertspoonful of minced parsley, 1
teaspoonful of minced shalot, salt and pepper to taste, 1/4 pint of
gravy, No. 438, 3 tablespoonfuls of sherry.

_Mode_.--Take off a little of the kidney fat, mince it very fine, and
put it in a frying-pan; slice the kidney, sprinkle over it parsley and
shalots in the above proportion, add a seasoning of pepper and salt, and
fry it of a nice brown. When it is done enough, dredge over a little
flour, and pour in the gravy and sherry. Let it just simmer, but not
boil any more, or the kidney would harden; serve very hot, and garnish
with croutons. Where the flavour of the shalot is disliked, it may be
omitted, and a small quantity of savoury herbs substituted for it.
_Time_.--From 5 to 10 minutes, according to the thickness of the slices.

_Average cost_, 9d. each. _Sufficient_ for 3 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

III.

_A more Simple Method_.

634. Cut the kidney into thin slices, flour them, and fry of a nice
brown. When done, make a gravy in the pan by pouring away the fat,
putting in a small piece of butter, 1/4 pint of boiling water, pepper
and salt, and a tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup. Let the gravy just
boil up, pour over the kidney, and serve.

BOILED MARROW-BONES.

635. INGREDIENTS.--Bones, a small piece of common paste, a floured
cloth.

_Mode_.--Have the bones neatly sawed into convenient sizes, and cover
the ends with a small piece of common crust, made with flour and water.
Over this tie a floured cloth, and place them upright in a saucepan of
boiling water, taking care there is sufficient to cover the bones. Boil
them for 2 hours, remove the cloth and paste, and serve them upright on
a napkin with dry toast. Many persons clear the marrow from the bones
after they are cooked, spread it over a slice of toast and add a
seasoning of pepper; when served in this manner, it must be very
expeditiously sent to table, as it so soon gets cold.

_Time_.--2 hours.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Marrow-bones may be baked after preparing them as in the
preceding recipe; they should be laid in a deep dish, and baked for 2
hours.

[Illustration: MARROW-BONES.]

MARROW-BONES.--Bones are formed of a dense cellular tissue of
membranous matter, made stiff and rigid by insoluble earthy
salts; of which, phosphate of lime is the most abundant. In a
large bone, the insoluble matter is generally deposited in such
a manner as to leave a cavity, into which a fatty substance,
distinguished by the name of marrow, is thrown. Hollow
cylindrical bones possess the qualities of strength and
lightness in a remarkable degree. If bones were entirely solid,
they would be unnecessarily heavy; and if their materials were
brought into smaller compass, they would be weaker, because the
strength of a bone is in proportion to the distance at which its
fibres are from the centre. Some animals, it must, however, be
observed, have no cavities in the centre of their bones; such as
the whale tribe, skate, and turtles.

MINCED BEEF (Cold Meat Cookery).

636. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of butter, 1 small onion, 2 tablespoonfuls of
gravy left from the meat, 1 tablespoonful of strong ale, 1/2 a
teaspoonful of flour, salt and pepper to taste, a few slices of lean
roast beef.

_Mode_.--Put into a stewpan the butter with an onion chopped fine; add
the gravy, ale, and 1/2 a teaspoonful of flour to thicken; season with
pepper and salt, and stir these ingredients over the fire until the
onion is a rich brown. Cut, but do not chop the meat _very fine_, add it
to the gravy, stir till quite hot, and serve. Garnish with sippets of
toasted bread. Be careful in not allowing the gravy to boil after the
meat is added, as it would render it hard and tough.

_Time_.--About 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 3d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

MIROTON OF BEEF.

637. INGREDIENTS.--A few slices of cold roast beef, 3 oz. of butter,
salt and pepper to taste, 3 onions, 1/2 pint of gravy.

_Mode_.--Slice the onions and put them into a frying-pan with the cold
beef and butter; place it over the fire, and keep turning and stirring
the ingredients to prevent them burning. When of a pale brown, add the
gravy and seasoning; let it simmer for a few minutes, and serve very
hot. This dish is excellent and economical.

_Time_.--5 minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

STEWED OX-CHEEK.

638. INGREDIENTS.--1 cheek, salt and water, 4 or 5 onions, butter and
flour, 6 cloves, 3 turnips, 2 carrots, 1 bay-leaf, 1 head of celery, 1
bunch of savoury herbs, cayenne, black pepper and salt to taste, 1 oz.
of butter, 2 dessertspoonfuls of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of Chili
vinegar, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, 2 tablespoonfuls of port
wine, 2 tablespoonfuls of Harvey's sauce.

_Mode_.--Have the cheek boned, and prepare it the day before it is to be
eaten, by cleaning and putting it to soak all night in salt and water.
The next day, wipe it dry and clean, and put it into a stewpan. Just
cover it with water, skim well when it boils, and let it gently simmer
till the meat is quite tender. Slice and fry 3 onions in a little butter
and flour, and put them into the gravy; add 2 whole onions, each stuck
with 3 cloves, 3 turnips quartered, 2 carrots sliced, a bay-leaf, 1 head
of celery, a bunch of herbs, and seasoning to taste of cayenne, black
pepper, and salt. Let these stew till perfectly tender; then take out
the cheek, divide into pieces fit to help at table, skim and strain the
gravy, and thicken 1-1/2 pint of it with butter and flour in the above
proportions. Add the vinegar, ketchup, and port wine; put in the pieces
of cheek; let the whole boil up, and serve quite hot. Send it to table
in a ragout-dish. If the colour of the gravy should not be very good,
add a tablespoonful of the browning, No. 108.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 3d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

FRIED OX-FEET, or COW-HEEL.

639. INGREDIENTS.--Ox-feet, the yolk of 1 egg, bread crumbs, parsley,
salt and cayenne to taste, boiling butter.

_Mode_.--Wash, scald, and thoroughly clean the feet, and cut them into
pieces about 2 inches long; have ready some fine bread crumbs mixed with
a little minced parsley, cayenne, and salt; dip the pieces of heel into
the yolk of egg, sprinkle them with the bread crumbs, and fry them until
of a nice brown in boiling butter.

_Time_.-1 hour. _Average cost_, 6d. each.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

Note.--Ox-feet may be dressed in various ways, stowed in gravy or
plainly boiled and served with melted butter. When plainly boiled, the
liquor will answer for making sweet or relishing jellies, and also to
give richness to soups or gravies.

STEWED OX-TAILS.

640. INGREDIENTS.--2 ox-tails, 1 onion, 3 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 1
teaspoonful of whole black pepper, 1 teaspoonful of allspice, 1/2 a
teaspoonful of salt, a small bunch of savoury herbs, thickening of
butter and flour, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 tablespoonful of
mushroom ketchup.

_Mode_.--Divide the tails at the joints, wash, and put them into a
stewpan with sufficient water to cover them, and set them on the fire;
when the water boils, remove the scum, and add the onion cut into rings,
the spice, seasoning, and herbs. Cover the stewpan closely, and let the
tails simmer very gently until tender, which will be in about 2-1/2
hours. Take them out, make a thickening of butter and flour, add it to
the gravy, and let it boil for 1/4 hour. Strain it through a sieve into
a saucepan, put back the tails, add the lemon-juice and ketchup; let the
whole just boil up, and serve. Garnish with croutons or sippets of
toasted bread.

_Time_.--2-1/2 hours to stew the tails.

_Average cost_, 9d. to 1s. 6d., according to the season.

_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

THE TAILS OF ANIMALS.--In the class Mammalia, the vertebral
column or backbone presents only slight modifications, and
everywhere shows the same characteristics as in man, who stands
at the head of this division of the animal kingdom. The length
of this column, however, varies much, and the number of
vertebrae of which it is composed is far from being uniform.
These numerical differences principally depend on the unequal
development of the caudal portion, or tail-end, of the column.
Thus, the tail-forming vertebrae sometimes do not exist at
all,--amongst certain bats for example; in other instances we
reckon forty, fifty, and even upwards of sixty of these bones.
Among the greater number of mammals, the tail is of little use
for locomotion, except that it acts in many cases as does the
rudder of a ship, steadying the animal in his rapid movements,
and enabling him to turn more easily and quickly. Among some
animals, it becomes a very powerful instrument of progression.
Thus, in the kangaroos and jerboas, the tail forms, with the
hind feet, a kind of tripod from which the animal makes its
spring. With most of the American monkeys it is prehensile, and
serves the animal as a fifth hand to suspend itself from the
branches of trees; and, lastly, among the whales, it grows to an
enormous size, and becomes the principal instrument for
swimming.

A PICKLE FOR TONGUES OR BEEF (Newmarket Recipe).

641. INGREDIENTS.--1 gallon of soft water, 3 lbs. of coarse salt, 6 oz.
of coarse brown sugar, 1/2 oz. of saltpetre.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a saucepan, and let them boil for
1/2 hour, clear off the scum as it rises, and when done pour the pickle
into a pickling-pan. Let it get cold, then put in the meat, and allow it
to remain in the pickle from 8 to 14 days, according to the size. It
will keep good for 6 months if well boiled once a fortnight. Tongues
will take 1 month or 6 weeks to be properly cured; and, in salting meat,
beef and tongues should always be put in separate vessels.

_Time_.--A moderate-sized tongue should remain in the pickle about a
month, and be turned every day.

[Illustration: POTTING-JAR.]

POTTED BEEF.

I.

642. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of lean beef, 1 tablespoonful of water, 1/4
lb. of butter, a seasoning to taste of salt, cayenne, pounded mace, and
black pepper.

_Mode_.--Procure a nice piece of lean beef, as free as possible from
gristle, skin, &c., and put it into a jar (if at hand, one with a lid)
with 1 tablespoonful of water. Cover it _closely_, and put the jar into
a saucepan of boiling water, letting the water come within 2 inches of
the top of the jar. Boil gently for 3-1/2 hours, then take the beef,
chop it very small with a chopping-knife, and pound it thoroughly in a
mortar. Mix with it by degrees all, or a portion, of the gravy that will
have run from it, and a little clarified butter; add the seasoning, put
it in small pots for use, and cover with a little butter just warmed and
poured over. If much gravy is added to it, it will keep but a short
time; on the contrary, if a large proportion of butter is used, it may
be preserved for some time.

_Time_.--3-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s. 8d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

POTTED BEEF (Cold Meat Cookery).

II.

643. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast or boiled beef, 1/4 lb. of
butter, cayenne to taste, 2 blades of pounded mace.

_Mode_.--As we have stated in recipe No. 608, the outside slices of
boiled beef may, with a little trouble, be converted into a very nice
addition to the breakfast-table. Cut up the meat into small pieces and
pound it well, with a little butter, in a mortar; add a seasoning of
cayenne and mace, and be very particular that the latter ingredient is
reduced to the finest powder. When all the ingredients are thoroughly
mixed, put it into glass or earthen potting-pots, and pour on the top a
coating of clarified butter.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--If cold roast beef is used, remove all pieces of gristle and
dry outside pieces, as these do not pound well.

PRESERVED MEATS.--When an organic substance, like the flesh of
animals, is heated to the boiling-point, it loses the property
of passing into a state of fermentation and decay. Fresh animal
milk, as is well known, coagulates, after having been kept for
two or three days, into a gelatinous mass; but it may be
preserved for an indefinite period, as a perfectly sweet liquid,
if it be heated daily to the boiling-point. The knowledge of
this effect of an elevated temperature has given rise to a most
important branch of industry,--namely, the preparation of
preserved meats for the use of the navy and merchant service. At
Leith, in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, at Aberdeen, at
Bordeaux, at Marseilles, and in many parts of Germany,
establishments of enormous magnitude exist, in which soup,
vegetables, and viands of every description are prepared, in
such a manner that they retain their freshness for years. The
prepared aliments are inclosed in canisters of tinned iron
plate, the covers are soldered air-tight, and the canisters
exposed to the temperature of boiling water for three or four
hours. The aliments thus acquire a stability, which one may
almost say is eternal; and when a canister is opened, after the
lapse of several years, its contents are found to be unaltered
in taste, colour, and smell. We are indebted to the French
philosopher Gay-Lussac for this beautiful practical application
of the discovery that boiling checks fermentation. An exclusive
salt-meat diet is extremely injurious to the health; and, in
former times, thousands of mariners lost their lives for the
want of fresh aliments during long voyages. We are sorry to say
that the preserved meats are sometimes carelessly prepared, and,
though the statement seems incredible, sometimes adulterated.
Dr. Lankester, who has done so much to expose the frauds of
trade, that he ought to be regarded as a public benefactor, says
that he has seen things which were utterly unfit for food,
shipped as preserved meats. Surely, as he observes, there ought
to be some superintendent to examine the so-called articles of
food that are taken on board ship, so that the poor men who have
been fighting our battles abroad may run no risk of being
starved or poisoned on their way home.

RIB OF BEEF BONES.

(_A Pretty Dish_.)

644. INGREDIENTS.--Rib of beef bones, 1 onion chopped fine, a few slices
of carrot and turnip, 1/4 pint of gravy.

_Mode_.--The bones for this dish should have left on them a slight
covering of meat; saw them into pieces 3 inches long; season them with
pepper and salt, and put them into a stewpan with the remaining
ingredients. Stew gently, until the vegetables are tender, and serve on
a flat dish within walls of mashed potatoes.

_Time_.--3/4 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the bones, 2d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BEEF RISSOLES (Cold Meat Cookery).

645. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast beef; to each pound of meat
allow 3/4 lb. of bread crumbs, salt and pepper to taste, a few chopped
savoury herbs, 1/2 a teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 1 or 2 eggs,
according to the quantity of meat.

_Mode_.--Mince the beef very fine, which should be rather lean, and mix
with this bread crumbs, herbs, seasoning, and lemon-peel, in the above
proportion, to each pound of meat. Make all into a thick paste with 1 or
2 eggs; divide into balls or cones, and fry a rich brown. Garnish the
dish with fried parsley, and send with them to table some good brown
gravy in a tureen. Instead of garnishing with fried parsley, gravy may
be poured in the dish, round the rissoles: in this case, it will not be
necessary to send any in a tureen.

_Time_.--From 5 to 10 minutes, according to size.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 5d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

ROLLED BEEF, to eat like Hare.

646. INGREDIENTS.--About 5 lbs. of the inside of the sirloin, 2 glasses
of port wine, 2 glasses of vinegar, a small quantity of forcemeat (No.
417), 1 teaspoonful of pounded allspice.

_Mode_.--Take the inside of a large sirloin, soak it in 1 glass of port
wine and 1 glass of vinegar, mixed, and let it remain for 2 days. Make a
forcemeat by recipe No. 417, lay it on the meat, and bind it up
securely. Roast it before a nice clear fire, and baste it with 1 glass
each of port wine and vinegar, with which mix a teaspoonful of pounded
allspice. Serve, with a good gravy in the dish, and send red-currant
jelly to table with it.

_Time_.--A piece of 5 lbs. about 1-1/2 hour before a brisk fire.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 5s. 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BEEF ROLLS (Cold Meat Cookery).

647. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of cold roast or boiled beef, seasoning
to taste of salt, pepper, and minced herbs; puff paste.

_Mode_.--Mince the beef tolerably fine with a small amount of its own
fat; add a seasoning of pepper, salt, and chopped herbs; put the whole
into a roll of puff paste, and bake for 1/2 hour, or rather longer,
should the roll be very large. Beef patties may be made of cold meat, by
mincing and seasoning beef as directed above, and baking in a rich puff
paste in patty-tins.

_Time_,--1/2 hour.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

MINIATURE ROUND OF BEEF. (_An Excellent Dish for a Small Family_.)

648. INGREDIENTS.--From 5 to 10 lbs. of rib of beef, sufficient brine to
cover the meat.

_Mode_.--Choose a fine rib, have the bone removed, rub some salt over
the inside, and skewer the meat up into a nice round form, and bind it
with tape. Put it into sufficient brine to cover it (the brine should be
made by recipe No. 654), and let it remain for 6 days, turning the meat
every day. When required to be dressed, drain from the pickle, and put
the meat into very hot water; let it boil rapidly for a few minutes,
when draw the pot to the side of the fire, and let it simmer very gently
until done. Remove the skewer, and replace it by a plated or silver one.
Carrots and turnips should be served with this dish, and may be boiled
with the meat.

_Time_.--A small round of 8 lbs., about 2 hours after the water boils;
one of 12 lbs., about 3 hours.

_Average cost_, 9d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Should the joint be very small, 4 or 5 days will be sufficient
time to salt it.

BRISKET OF BEEF, a la Flamande.

649. INGREDIENTS.--About 6 or 8 lbs. of the brisket of beef, 4 or 5
slices of bacon, 2 carrots, 1 onion, a bunch of savoury herbs, salt and
pepper to taste, 4 cloves, 4 whole allspice, 2 blades of mace.

_Mode_.--Choose that portion of the brisket which contains the gristle,
trim it, and put it into a stewpan with the slices of bacon, which
should be put under and over the meat. Add the vegetables, herbs,
spices, and seasoning, and cover with a little weak stock or water;
close the stewpan as hermetically as possible, and simmer very gently
for 4 hours. Strain the liquor, reserve a portion of it for sauce, and
the remainder boil quickly over a sharp fire until reduced to a glaze,
with which glaze the meat. Garnish the dish with scooped carrots and
turnips, and when liked, a little cabbage; all of which must be cooked
separately. Thicken and flavour the liquor that was saved for sauce,
pour it round the meat, and serve. The beef may also be garnished with
glazed onions, artichoke-bottoms, &c.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 7d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 6 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

FRENCH BEEF.--It has been all but universally admitted, that the
beef of France is greatly inferior in quality to that of
England, owing to inferiority of pasturage. M. Curmer, however,
one of the latest writers on the culinary art, tells us that
this is a vulgar error, and that French beef is far superior to
that of England. This is mere vaunting on the part of our
neighbours, who seem to want _la gloire_ in everything; and we
should not deign to notice it, if it had occurred in a work of
small pretensions; but M. Curmer's book professes to be a
complete exposition of the scientific principles of cookery, and
holds a high rank in the didactic literature of France. We half
suspect that M. Curmer obtained his knowledge of English beef in
the same way as did the poor Frenchman, whom the late Mr.
Mathews, the comedian, so humorously described. Mr. Lewis, in
his "Physiology of Common Life," has thus revived the story of
the beef-eating son of France:--"A Frenchman was one day blandly
remonstrating against the supercilious scorn expressed by
Englishmen for the beef of France, which he, for his part, did
not find so inferior to that of England. 'I have been two times
in England,' he remarked, but I nevere find the bif so superieur
to ours. I find it vary conveenient that they bring it you on
leetle pieces of stick, for one penny: but I do not find the bif
superieur.' On hearing this, the Englishman, red with
astonishment, exclaimed, 'Good heavens, sir! you have been
eating cat's meat.'" No, M. Curmer, we are ready to acknowledge
the superiority of your cookery, but we have long since made up
our minds as to the inferiority of your raw material.

BEEF OLIVES.

I.

650. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of rump-steak, 1 egg, 1 tablespoonful of
minced savoury herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 1 pint of stock, No.
105, 2 or 3 slices of bacon, 2 tablespoonfuls of any store sauce, a
slight thickening of butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Have the steaks cut rather thin, slightly beat them to make
them level, cut them into 6 or 7 pieces, brush over with egg, and
sprinkle with herbs, which should be very finely minced; season with
pepper and salt, and roll up the pieces tightly, and fasten with a small
skewer. Put the stock in a stewpan that will exactly hold them, for by
being pressed together, they will keep their shape better; lay in the
rolls of meat, cover them with the bacon, cut in thin slices, and over
that put a piece of paper. Stew them very _gently_ for full 2 hours; for
the slower they are done the better. Take them out, remove the skewers,
thicken the gravy with butter and flour, and flavour with any store
sauce that may be preferred. Give one boil, pour over the meat, and
serve.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, 1s. per pound.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

II.

(_Economical_.)

651. INGREDIENTS.--The remains of underdone cold roast beef, bread
crumbs, 1 shalot finely minced, pepper and salt to taste, gravy made
from the beef bones, thickening of butter and flour, 1 tablespoonful of
mushroom ketchup.

_Mode_.--Cut some slices of underdone roast beef about half an inch
thick; sprinkle over them some bread crumbs, minced shalot, and a little
of the fat and seasoning; roll them, and fasten with a small skewer.
Have ready some gravy made from the beef bones; put in the pieces of
meat, and stew them till tender, which will be in about 1-1/4 hour, or
rather longer. Arrange the meat in a dish, thicken and flavour the
gravy, and pour it over the meat, when it is ready to serve.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the beef, 2d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BROILED OX-TAIL (an Entree).

652. INGREDIENTS.--2 tails, 1-1/2 pint of stock, No. 105, salt and
cayenne to taste, bread crumbs, 1 egg.

_Mode_.--Joint and cut up the tails into convenient-sized pieces, and
put them into a stewpan, with the stock, cayenne, and salt, and, if
liked very savoury, a bunch of sweet herbs. Let them simmer gently for
about 2-1/2 hours; then take them out, drain them, and let them cool.
Beat an egg upon a plate; dip in each piece of tail, and, afterwards,
throw them into a dish of bread crumbs; broil them over a clear fire,
until of a brownish colour on both sides, and serve with a good gravy,
or any sauce that may be preferred.

_Time_.--About 2-1/2 hours. _Average cost_, from 9d. to 1s. 6d.,
according to the season.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--These may be more easily prepared by putting the tails in a
brisk oven, after they have been dipped in egg and bread-crumb; and,
when brown, they are done. They must be boiled the same time as for
broiling.

STRANGE TAILS.--Naturalists cannot explain the uses of some of
the strange tails borne by animals. In the Egyptian and Syrian
sheep, for instance, the tail grows so large, that it is not
infrequently supported upon a sort of little cart, in order to
prevent inconvenience to the animal. Thin monstrous appendage
sometimes attains a weight of seventy, eighty, or even a hundred
pounds.

TO DRESS BEEF PALATES (an Entree).

653. INGREDIENTS.--4 palates, sufficient gravy to cover them (No. 438),
cayenne to taste, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, 1 tablespoonful
of pickled-onion liquor, thickening of butter and flour.

_Mode_.--Wash the palates, and put them into a stewpan, with sufficient
water to cover them, and let them boil until perfectly tender, or until
the upper skin may be easily peeled off. Have ready sufficient gravy
(No. 438) to cover them; add a good seasoning of cayenne, and thicken
with roux, No. 625, or a little butter kneaded with flour; let it boil
up, and skim. Cut the palates into square pieces, put them in the gravy,
and let them simmer gently for 1/2 hour; add ketchup and onion-liquor,
give one boil, and serve.

_Time_.--From 3 to 5 hours to boil the palates.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--Palates may be dressed in various ways with sauce tournee, good
onion sauce, tomato sauce, and also served in a vol-au-vent; but the
above will be found a more simple method of dressing them.

BEEF PICKLE, which may also be used for any kind of Meat, Tongues, or
Hams.

654. INGREDIENTS.--6 lbs. of salt, 2 lbs. of fine sugar, 3 oz. of
powdered saltpetre, 3 gallons of spring water.

_Mode_.--Boil all the ingredients gently together, so long as any scum
or impurity arises, which carefully remove; when quite cold, pour it
over the meat, every part of which must be covered with the brine. This
may be used for pickling any kind of meat, and may be kept for some
time, if boiled up occasionally with an addition of the ingredients.

_Time_.--A ham should be kept in the pickle for a fortnight; a piece of
beef weighing 14 lbs., 12 or 15 days; a tongue, 10 days or a fortnight.

_Note_.--For salting and pickling meat, it is a good plan to rub in only
half the quantity of salt directed, and to let it remain for a day or
two to disgorge and effectually to get rid of the blood and slime; then
rub in the remainder of the salt and other ingredients, and proceed as
above. This rule may be applied to all the recipes we have given for
salting and pickling meat.

TO PICKLE PART OF A ROUND OF BEEF FOR HANGING.

655. INGREDIENTS.--For 14 lbs. of a round of beef allow 1-1/2 lb. of
salt, 1/2 oz. of powdered saltpetre; or, 1 lb. of salt, 1/2 lb. of
sugar, 4 oz. of powdered saltpetre.

_Mode_.--Rub in, and sprinkle either of the above mixtures on 14 lbs. of
meat. Keep it in an earthenware pan, or a deep wooden tray, and turn
twice a week during 3 weeks; then bind up the beef tightly with coarse
linen tape, and hang it in a kitchen in which a fire is constantly kept,
for 3 weeks. Pork, hams, and bacon may be cured in a similar way, but
will require double the quantity of the salting mixture; and, if not
smoke-dried, they should be taken down from hanging after 3 or 4 weeks,
and afterwards kept in boxes or tubs, amongst dry oat-husks.

_Time_.--2 or 3 weeks to remain in the brine; to be hung 3 weeks.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The meat may be boiled fresh from this pickle, instead of
smoking it.

BEEP RAGOUT (Cold Meat Cookery).

656. INGREDIENTS.--About 2 lbs. of cold roast beef, 6 onions, pepper,
salt, and mixed spices to taste; 1/2 pint of boiling water, 3
tablespoonfuls of gravy.

_Mode_.--Cut the beef into rather large pieces, and put them into a
stewpan with the onions, which must be sliced. Season well with pepper,
salt, and mixed spices, and pour over about 1/2 pint of boiling water,
and gravy in the above proportion (gravy saved from the meat answers the
purpose); let the whole stew very gently for about 2 hours, and serve
with pickled walnuts, gherkins, or capers, just warmed in the gravy.

_Time_.--2 hours. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

ROAST RIBS OF BEEF.

657. INGREDIENTS.--Beef, a little salt.

_Mode_.---The fore-rib is considered the primest roasting piece, but the
middle-rib is considered the most economical. Let the meat be well hung
(should the weather permit), and cut off the thin ends of the bones,
which should be salted for a few days, and then boiled. Put the meat
down to a nice clear fire, put some clean dripping into the pan, dredge
the joint with a little flour, and keep continually basting the whole
time. Sprinkle some fine salt over it (this must never be done until the
joint is dished, as it draws the juices from the meat); pour the
dripping from the pan, put in a little boiling: water slightly salted,
and _strain_ the gravy over the meat. Garnish with tufts of scraped
horseradish, and send horseradish sauce to table with it (_see_ No.
447). A Yorkshire pudding (_see_ Puddings) sometimes accompanies this
dish, and, if lightly made and well cooked, will be found a very
agreeable addition.

_Time_.--10 lbs. of beef, 2-1/2 hours; 14 to 16 lbs., from 3-1/2 to 4
hours.

_Average cost_, 8-1/2d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--A joint of 10 lbs. sufficient for 8 or 9 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

MEMORANDA IN ROASTING.--The management of the fire is a point of
primary importance in roasting. A radiant fire throughout the
operation is absolutely necessary to insure a good result. When
the article to be dressed is thin and delicate, the fire may be
small; but when the joint is large, the fire must fill the
grate. Meat must never be put down before a hollow or exhausted
fire, which may soon want recruiting; on the other hand, if the
heat of the fire becomes too fierce, the meat must be removed to
a considerable distance till it is somewhat abated. Some cooks
always fail in their roasts, though they succeed in nearly
everything else. A French writer on the culinary art says that
anybody can learn how to cook, but one must be born a roaster.
According to Liebig, beef or mutton cannot be said to be
sufficiently roasted until it has acquired, throughout the whole
mass, a temperature of 158 deg.; but poultry may be well cooked when
the inner parts hare attained a temperature of from 130 deg. to
140 deg.. This depends on the greater amount of blood which beef and
mutton contain, the colouring matter of blood not being
coagulable under 158 deg..

ROAST RIBS OF BEEF, Boned and Rolled (a very Convenient Joint for a
Small Family).

658. INGREDIENTS.--1 or 2 ribs of beef.

_Mode_.--Choose a fine rib of beef, and have it cut according to the
weight you require, either wide or narrow. Bone and roll the meat round,
secure it with wooden skewers, and, if necessary, bind it round with a
piece of tape. Spit the beef firmly, or, if a bottle-jack is used, put
the joint on the hook, and place it _near_ a nice clear fire. Let it
remain so till the outside of the meat is set, when draw it to a
distance, and keep continually basting until the meat is done, which can
be ascertained by the steam from it drawing towards the fire. As this
joint is solid, rather more than 1/4 hour must be allowed for each lb.
Remove the skewers, put in a plated or silver one, and send the joint to
table with gravy in the dish, and garnish with tufts of horseradish.
Horseradish sauce, No. 447, is a great improvement to roast beef.

_Time_.--For 10 lbs. of the rolled ribs, 3 hours (as the joint is very
solid, we have allowed an extra 1/2 hour); for 6 lbs., 1-1/2 hour.

Average cost, 8-1/2d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--A joint of 10 lbs. for 6 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year.

_Note_.--When the weight exceeds 10 lbs., we would not advise the above
method of boning and rolling; only in the case of 1 or 2 ribs, when the
joint cannot stand upright in the dish, and would look awkward. The
bones should be put in with a few vegetables and herbs, and made into
stock.

ROAST BEEF has long been a national dish in England. In most of
our patriotic songs it is contrasted with the fricasseed frogs,
popularly supposed to be the exclusive diet of Frenchmen.

"O the roast beef of old England,
And O the old English roast beef."

This national chorus is appealed to whenever a song-writer
wishes to account for the valour displayed by Englishmen at sea
or on land.

ROAST SIRLOIN OF BEEF.

659. INGREDIENTS.--Beef, a little salt.

_Mode_.--As a joint cannot be well roasted without a good fire, see that
it is well made up about 3/4 hour before it is required, so that when
the joint is put down, it is clear and bright. Choose a nice sirloin,
the weight of which should not exceed 16 lbs., as the outside would be
too much done, whilst the inside would not be done enough. Spit it or
hook it on to the jack firmly, dredge it slightly with flour, and place
it near the fire at first, as directed in the preceding recipe. Then
draw it to a distance, and keep continually basting until the meat is
done. Sprinkle a small quantity of salt over it, empty the dripping-pan
of all the dripping, pour in some boiling water slightly salted, stir it
about, and _strain_ over the meat. Garnish with tufts of horseradish,
and send horseradish sauce and Yorkshire pudding to table with it. For
carving, _see_ p. 317.

_Time_.--A sirloin of 10 lbs., 2-1/2 hours; 14 to 16 lbs., about 4 or
4-1/2 hours.

_Average cost, 8-1/2d. per lb.

_Sufficient_.--A joint of 10 lbs. for 8 or 9 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

The rump, round, and other pieces of beef are roasted in the same
manner, allowing for solid joints; 1/4 hour to every lb.

_Note_.---The above is the usual method of roasting moat; but to have it
in perfection and the juices kept in, the meat should at first be laid
close to the fire, and when the outside is set and firm, drawn away to a
good distance, and then left to roast very slowly; where economy is
studied, this plan would not answer, as the meat requires to be at the
fire double the time of the ordinary way of cooking; consequently,
double the quantity of fuel would be consumed.

ORIGIN OF THE WORD "SIRLOIN."--The loin of beef is said to have
been knighted by King Charles II., at Friday Hall, Chingford.
The "Merry Monarch" returned to this hospitable mansion for
Epping Forest literally "as hungry as a hunter," and beheld,
with delight, a huge loin of beef steaming upon the table. "A
noble joint!" exclaimed the king. "By St. George, it shall have
a title!" Then drawing his sword, he raised it above the meat,
and cried, with mock dignity, "Loin, we dub thee knight;
henceforward be Sir Loin!" This anecdote is doubtless
apocryphal, although the oak table upon which the joint was
supposed to hare received its knighthood, might have been seen
by any one who visited Friday-Hill House, a few years ago. It
is, perhaps, a pity to spoil so noble a story; but the interests
of truth demand that we declare that _sirloin_ is probably a
corruption of _surloin_, which signifies the upper part of a
loin, the prefix _sur_ being equivalent to _over_ or _above_. In
French we find this joint called _surlonge_, which so closely
resembles our _sirloin_, that we may safely refer the two words
to a common origin.

TO SALT BEEF.

660. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 round of beef, 4 oz. of sugar, 1 oz. of powdered
saltpetre, 2 oz. of black pepper, 1/4 lb. of bay-salt, 1/2 lb. of common
salt. _Mode_.--Rub the meat well with salt, and let it remain for a day,
to disgorge and clear it from slime. The next day, rub it well with the
above ingredients on every side, and let it remain in the pickle for
about a fortnight, turning it every day. It may be boiled fresh from the
pickle, or smoked.

_Time_.--1/2 round of beef to remain in pickle about a fortnight.
_Average cost_, 7d. per lb. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The aitch-bone, flank, or brisket may be salted and pickled by
any of the recipes we have given for salting beef, allowing less time
for small joints to remain in the pickle; for instance, a joint of 8 or
9 lbs. will be sufficiently salt in about a week.

THE DUTCH WAY TO SALT BEEF.

661. INGREDIENTS.--10 lbs. of lean beef, 1 lb. of treacle, 1 oz. of
saltpetre, 1 lb. of common salt.

_Mode_.--Rub the beef well with the treacle, and let it remain for 3
days, turning and rubbing it often; then wipe it, pound the salt and
saltpetre very fine, rub these well in, and turn it every day for 10
days. Roll it up tightly in a coarse cloth, and press it under a large
weight; have it smoked, and turn it upside down every day. Boil it, and,
on taking it out of the pot, put a heavy weight on it to press it.

_Time_.--17 days.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BEEF SAUSAGES.

662. INGREDIENTS.--To every lb. of suet allow 2 lbs. of lean beef;
seasoning to taste of salt, pepper, and mixed spices.

_Mode_.--Clear the suet from skin, and chop that and the beef as finely
as possible; season with pepper, salt, and spices, and mix the whole
well together. Make it into flat cakes, and fry of a nice brown. Many
persons pound the meat in a mortar after it is chopped ( but this is not
necessary when the meat is minced finely.)

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BEEF-STEAK, Rolled, Roasted, and Stuffed.

663. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of rump-steak, forcemeat No. 417, pepper and
salt to taste, clarified butter.

_Mode_.--Have the steaks cut rather thick from a well-hung rump of beef,
and sprinkle over them a seasoning of pepper and salt. Make a forcemeat
by recipe No. 417; spread it over _half_ of the steak; roll it up, bind
and skewer it firmly, that the forcemeat may not escape, and roast it
before a nice clear fire for about 1-1/2 hour, or rather longer, should
the roll be very large and thick. Keep it constantly basted with butter,
and serve with brown gravy, some of which must be poured round the
steak, and the remainder sent to table in a tureen.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but best in winter.

SLICED AND BROILED BEEF--a Pretty Dish (Cold Meat Cookery).

664. INGREDIENTS.--A few slices of cold roast beef, 4 or 5 potatoes, a
thin batter, pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Pare the potatoes as you would peel an apple; fry the parings
in a thin batter seasoned with salt and pepper, until they are of a
light brown colour, and place them on a dish over some slices of beef,
which should be nicely seasoned and broiled.

_Time_.--5 minutes to broil the meat.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

SPICED BEEF (to Serve Cold).

665. INGREDIENTS.--14 lbs. of the thick flank or rump of beef, 1/2 lb.
of coarse sugar, 1 oz. of saltpetre, 1/4 lb. of pounded allspice, 1 lb.
of common salt.

_Mode_.--Rub the sugar well into the beef, and let it lay for 12 hours;
then rub the saltpetre and allspice, both of which should be pounded,
over the meat, and let it remain for another 12 hours; then rub in the
salt. Turn daily in the liquor for a fortnight, soak it for a few hours
in water, dry with a cloth, cover with a coarse paste, put a little
water at the bottom of the pan, and bake in a moderate oven for 4 hours.
If it is not covered with a paste, be careful to put the beef into a
deep vessel, and cover with a plate, or it will be too crisp. During the
time the meat is in the oven it should be turned once or twice.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, 7d. per lb.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BAKING MEAT.--Baking exerts some unexplained influence on meat,
rendering it less savoury and less agreeable than meat which has
been roasted. "Those who have travelled in Germany and France,"
writes Mr. Lewis, one of our most popular scientific authors,
"must have repeatedly marvelled at the singular uniformity in
the flavour, or want of flavour, of the various 'roasts' served
up at the _table-d'hote_." The general explanation is, that the
German and French meat is greatly inferior in quality to that of
England and Holland, owing to the inferiority of pasturage; and
doubtless this is one cause, but it is not the chief cause. The
meat is inferior, but the cooking is mainly at fault. The meat
is scarcely ever _roasted_, because there is no coal, and
firewood is expensive. The meat is therefore _baked;_ and the
consequence of this baking is, that no meat is eatable or eaten,
with its own gravy, but is always accompanied by some sauce more
or less piquant. The Germans generally believe that in England
we eat our beef and mutton almost raw; they shudder at our
gravy, as if it were so much blood.

STEWED BEEF or RUMP STEAK (an Entree).

666. INGREDIENTS.--About 2 lbs. of beef or rump steak, 3 onions, 2
turnips, 3 carrots, 2 or 3 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of water, 1
teaspoonful of salt, 1/2 do. of pepper, 1 tablespoonful of ketchup, 1
tablespoonful of flour.

_Mode_.--Have the steaks cut tolerably thick and rather lean; divide
them into convenient-sized pieces, and fry them in the butter a nice
brown on both sides. Cleanse and pare the vegetables, cut the onions and
carrots into thin slices, and the turnips into dice, and fry these in
the same fat that the steaks were done in. Put all into a saucepan, add
1/2 pint of water, or rather more should it be necessary, and simmer
very gently for 2-1/2 or 3 hours; when nearly done, skim well, add salt,
pepper, and ketchup in the above proportions, and thicken with a
tablespoonful of flour mixed with 2 of cold water. Let it boil up for a
minute or two after the thickening is added, and serve. When a
vegetable-scoop is at hand, use it to cut the vegetables in fanciful
shapes, and tomato, Harvey's sauce, or walnut-liquor may be used to
flavour the gravy. It is less rich if stewed the previous day, so that
the fat may be taken off when cold; when wanted for table, it will
merely require warming through.

_Time_.--3 hours. Average cost, 1s. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

STEWED BEEF AND CELERY SAUCE (Cold Meat Cookery).

667. INGREDIENTS.--3 roots of celery, 1 pint of gravy, No. 436, 2 onions
sliced, 2 lbs. of cold roast or boiled beef.

_Mode_.--Cut the celery into 2-inch pieces, put them in a stew-pan, with
the gravy and onions, simmer gently until the celery is tender, when add
the beef cut into rather thick pieces; stew gently for 10 minutes, and
serve with fried potatoes.

_Time_.--From 20 to 25 minutes to stew the celery.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6d.

_Seasonable_ from September to January.

STEWED BEEF WITH OYSTERS (Cold Meat Cookery).

668. INGREDIENTS.--A few thick steaks of cold ribs or sirloin of beef, 2
oz. of butter, 1 onion sliced, pepper and salt to taste, 1/2 glass of
port wine, a little flour to thicken, 1 or 2 dozen oysters, rather more
than 1/2 pint of water.

_Mode_.--Cut the steaks rather thick, from cold sirloin or ribs of beef;
brown them lightly in a stewpan, with the butter and a little water; add
1/2 pint of water, the onion, pepper, and salt, and cover the stewpan
closely, and let it simmer very gently for 1/2 hour; then mix about a
teaspoonful of flour smoothly with a little of the liquor; add the port
wine and oysters, their liquor having been previously strained and put
into the stewpan; stir till the oysters plump, and serve. It should not
boil after the oysters are added, or they will harden.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 1s. 4d.

_Seasonable_ from September to April.

STEWED BRISKET OF BEEF.

669. INGREDIENTS.--7 lbs. of a brisket of beef, vinegar and salt, 6
carrots, 6 turnips, 6 small onions, 1 blade of pounded mace, 2 whole
allspice pounded, thickening of butter and flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of
ketchup; stock, or water.

_Mode_.--About an hour before dressing it, rub the meat over with
vinegar and salt; put it into a stewpan, with sufficient stock to cover
it (when this is not at hand, water may be substituted for it), and be
particular that the stewpan is not much larger than the meat. Skim well,
and when it has simmered very gently for 1 hour, put in the vegetables,
and continue simmering till the meat is perfectly tender. Draw out the
bones, dish the meat, and garnish either with tufts of cauliflower or
braised cabbage cut in quarters. Thicken as much gravy as required, with
a little butter and flour; add spices and ketchup in the above
proportion, give one boil, pour some of it over the meat, and the
remainder send in a tureen.

_Time_.--rather more than 3 hours. _Average cost_, 7d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The remainder of the liquor in which the beef was boiled may be
served as a soup, or it may be sent to table with the meat in a tureen.

STEWED RUMP OF BEEF.

670. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 rump of beef, sufficient stock to cover it (No.
105), 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 2 tablespoonfuls of ketchup, 1 large
bunch of savoury herbs, 2 onions, 12 cloves, pepper and salt to taste,
thickening of butter and flour, 1 glass of port wine.

_Mode_.--Cut out the bone, sprinkle the meat with a little cayenne (this
must be sparingly used), and bind and tie it firmly up with tape; put it
into a stewpan with sufficient stock to cover it, and add vinegar,
ketchup, herbs, onions, cloves, and seasoning in the above proportion,
and simmer very gently for 4 or 5 hours, or until the meat is perfectly
tender, which may be ascertained by piercing it with a thin skewer. When
done, remove the tape, lay it into a deep dish, which keep hot; strain
and skim the gravy, thicken it with butter and flour, add a glass of
port wine and any flavouring to make the gravy rich and palatable; let
it boil up, pour over the meat, and serve. This dish may be very much
enriched by garnishing with forcemeat balls, or filling up the space
whence the bone is taken with a good forcemeat; sliced carrots, turnips,
and onions boiled with the meat, are also a great improvement, and,
where expense is not objected to, it may be glazed. This, however, is
not necessary where a good gravy is poured round and over the meat.

_Time_.--1/2 rump stewed gently from 4 to 5 hours.

_Average cost_, 10d. per lb. _Sufficient_ for 8 or 10 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--A stock or gravy in which to boil the meat, may be made of the
bone and trimmings, by boiling them with water, and adding carrots,
onions, turnips, and a bunch of sweet herbs. To make this dish richer
and more savoury, half-roast the rump, and afterwards stew it in strong
stock and a little Madeira. This is an expensive method, and is not,
after all, much better than a plainer-dressed joint.

THE BARON OF BEEF.--This noble joint, which consisted of two
sirloins not cut asunder, was a favourite dish of our ancestors.
It is rarely seen nowadays; indeed, it seems out of place on a
modern table, as it requires the grim boar's head and Christmas
pie as supporters. Sir Walter Scott has described a feast at
which the baron of beef would have appeared to great advantage.
We will quote a few lines to remind us of those days when
"England was merry England," and when hospitality was thought to
be the highest virtue.

"The fire, with well-dried logs supplied,
Went roaring up the chimney wide;
The huge hall-table's oaken face,
Scrubb'd till it shone, the day to grace,
Bore then, upon its massive board,
No mark to part the squire and lord.
Then was brought in the lusty brawn,
By old blue-coated serving-man;
Then the grim boar's head frown'd on high,
Crested with bays and rosemary.
Well can the green-garb'd ranger tell
How, when, and where the monster fell;
What dogs before his death he tore,
And all the baiting of the boar;
While round the merry wassel bowl,
Garnish'd with ribbons, blithe did trowl.
There the huge sirloin reek'd; hard by
Plum-porridge stood, and Christmas pie;
Nor fail'd old Scotland to produce,
At such high tide, her savoury goose."

When a lord's son came of age, in the olden time, the baron of
beef was too small a joint, by many degrees, to satisfy the
retainers who would flock to the hall; a whole ox was therefore
generally roasted over a fire built up of huge logs. We may here
mention, that an ox was roasted entire on the frozen Thames, in
the early part of the present century.

STEWED SHIN OF BEEF.

671. INGREDIENTS.--A shin of beef, 1 head of celery, 1 onion, a faggot
of savoury herbs, 1/2 teaspoonful of allspice, 1/2 teaspoonful of whole
black pepper, 4 carrots, 12 button onions, 2 turnips, thickening of
butter and flour, 3 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, 2 tablespoonfuls
of port wine; pepper and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Have the bone sawn into 4 or 5 pieces, cover with hot water,
bring it to a boil, and remove any scum that may rise to the surface.
Put in the celery, onion, herbs, spice, and seasoning, and simmer very
gently until the meat is tender. Peel the vegetables, cut them into any
shape fancy may dictate, and boil them with the onions until tender;
lift out the beef, put it on a dish, which keep hot, and thicken with
butter and flour as much of the liquor as will be wanted for gravy; keep
stirring till it boils, then strain and skim. Put the gravy back in the
stewpan, add the seasoning, port wine, and ketchup, give one boil, and
pour it over the beef; garnish with the boiled carrots, turnips, and
onions.

_Time_.--The meat to be stewed about 4 hours. _Average cost_, 4d. per
lb. with bone.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

TOAD-IN-THE-HOLE (a Homely but Savoury Dish).

672. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lb. of rump-steak, 1 sheep's kidney, pepper and
salt to taste. For the batter, 3 eggs, 1 pint of milk, 4 tablespoonfuls
of flour, 1/2 saltspoonful of salt.

_Mode_.--Cut up the steak and kidney into convenient-sized pieces, and
put them into a pie-dish, with a good seasoning of salt and pepper; mix
the flour with a small quantity of milk at first, to prevent its being
lumpy; add the remainder, and the 3 eggs, which should be well beaten;
put in the salt, stir the batter for about 5 minutes, and pour it over
the steak. Place it in a tolerably brisk oven immediately, and bake for
1-1/2 hour.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 1s. 9d.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--The remains of cold beef, rather underdone, may be substituted
for the steak, and, when liked, the smallest possible quantity of minced
onion or shalot may be added.

BOILED TONGUE.

673. INGREDIENTS.--1 tongue, a bunch of savoury herbs, water.

_Mode_.--In choosing a tongue, ascertain how long it has been dried or
pickled, and select one with a smooth skin, which denotes its being
young and tender. If a dried one, and rather hard, soak it at least for
12 hours previous to cooking it; if, however, it is fresh from the
pickle, 2 or 3 hours will be sufficient for it to remain in sock. Put
the tongue in a stewpan with plenty of cold water and a bunch of savoury
herbs; let it gradually come to a boil, skim well and simmer very gently
until tender. Peel off the skin, garnish with tufts of cauliflowers or
Brussels sprouts, and serve. Boiled tongue is frequently sent to table
with boiled poultry, instead of ham, and is, by many persons, preferred.
If to serve cold, peel it, fasten it down to a piece of board by
sticking a fork through the root, and another through the top, to
straighten it. When cold, glaze it, and put a paper ruche round the
root, and garnish with tufts of parsley.

_Time_.--A large smoked tongue, 4 to 4-1/2 hours; a small one, 2-1/2 to
3 hours. A large unsmoked tongue, 3 to 3-1/2 hours; a small one, 2 to
2-1/2 hours.

_Average cost_, for a moderate sized tongue, 3s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

TO CURE TONGUES.

I.

674. INGREDIENTS.--For a tongue of 7 lbs., 1 oz. of saltpetre, 1/2 oz.
of black pepper, 4 oz. of sugar, 3 oz. of juniper berries, 6 oz. of
salt.

_Mode_.--Rub the above ingredients well into the tongue, and let it
remain in the pickle for 10 days or a fortnight; then drain it, tie it
up in brown paper, and have it smoked for about 20 days over a wood
fire; or it may be boiled out of this pickle.

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