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The Book of Household Management by Mrs. Isabella Beeton

Part 10 out of 34

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quart of spring water, 3/4 pint of Indian soy, 1/2 oz. of bruised
ginger, 1/2 oz. of long pepper, 1 oz. of mustard-seed, 1 anchovy, 1/2
oz. of cayenne, 1/4 oz. of dried sweet bay-leaves.

_Mode_.--Bruise the shalots in a mortar, and put them in a stone jar
with the walnut-liquor; place it before the fire, and let it boil until
reduced to 2 pints. Then, into another jar, put all the ingredients
except the bay-leaves, taking care that they are well bruised, so that
the flavour may be thoroughly extracted; put this also before the fire,
and let it boil for 1 hour, or rather more. When the contents of both
jars are sufficiently cooked, mix them together, stirring them well as
you mix them, and submit them to a slow boiling for 1/2 hour; cover
closely, and let them stand 24 hours in a cool place; then open the jar
and add the bay-leaves; let it stand a week longer closed down, when
strain through a flannel bag, and it will be ready for use. The above
quantities will make 1/2 gallon.

_Time_.--Altogether, 3 hours.

_Seasonable_.--This sauce may be made at any time.

REMOULADE, or FRENCH SALAD-DRESSING.

503. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 1/2 tablespoonful of made mustard, salt and
cayenne to taste, 3 tablespoonfuls of olive-oil, 1 tablespoonful of
tarragon or plain vinegar.

_Mode_.--Boil 3 eggs quite hard for about 1/4 hour, put them into cold
water, and let them remain in it for a few minutes; strip off the
shells, put the yolks in a mortar, and pound them very smoothly; add to
them, very gradually, the mustard, seasoning, and vinegar, keeping all
well stirred and rubbed down with the back of a wooden spoon. Put in the
oil drop by drop, and when this is thoroughly mixed with the other
ingredients, add the yolk of a raw egg, and stir well, when it will be
ready for use. This sauce should not be curdled; and to prevent this,
the only way is to mix a little of everything at a time, and not to
cease stirring. The quantities of oil and vinegar may be increased or
diminished according to taste, as many persons would prefer a smaller
proportion of the former ingredient.

GREEN REMOULADE is made by using tarragon vinegar instead of plain, and
colouring with a little parsley-juice, No. 495. Harvey's sauce, or Chili
vinegar, may be added at pleasure.

_Time_.--1/4 hour to boil the eggs.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for a salad made for 4 or 6 persons.

[Illustration: TARRAGON.]

TARRAGON.--The leaves of this plant, known to naturalists as
_Artemisia dracunculus_, are much used in France as a flavouring
ingredient for salads. From it also is made the vinegar known as
tarragon vinegar, which is employed by the French in mixing
their mustard. It originally comes from Tartary, and does not
seed in France.

SAGE-AND-ONION STUFFING, for Geese, Ducks, and Pork.

504. INGREDIENTS.--4 large onions, 10 sage-leaves, 1/4 lb. of bread
crumbs, 1-1/2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste, 1 egg.

_Mode_.--Peel the onions, put them into boiling water, let them simmer
for 5 minutes or rather longer, and, just before they are taken out, put
in the sage-leaves for a minute or two to take off their rawness. Chop
both these very fine, add the bread, seasoning, and butter, and work the
whole together with the yolk of an egg, when the stuffing will be ready
for use. It should be rather highly seasoned, and the sage-leaves should
be very finely chopped. Many cooks do not parboil the onions in the
manner just stated, but merely use them raw. The stuffing then, however,
is not nearly so mild, and, to many tastes, its strong flavour would be
very objectionable. When made for goose, a portion of the liver of the
bird, simmered for a few minutes and very finely minced, is frequently
added to this stuffing; and where economy is studied, the egg may be
dispensed with.

_Time_.--Rather more than 5 minutes to simmer the onions.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 4d.

_Sufficient_ for 1 goose, or a pair of ducks.

505. SOYER'S RECIPE FOR GOOSE STUFFING.--Take 4 apples, peeled and
cored, 4 onions, 4 leaves of sage, and 4 leaves of lemon thyme not
broken, and boil them in a stewpan with sufficient water to cover them;
when done, pulp them through a sieve, removing the sage and thyme; then
add sufficient pulp of mealy potatoes to cause it to be sufficiently dry
without sticking to the hand; add pepper and salt, and stuff the bird.

SALAD DRESSING (Excellent).

I.

506. INGREDIENTS.--1 teaspoonful of mixed mustard, 1 teaspoonful of
pounded sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of salad oil, 4 tablespoonfuls of milk,
2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, cayenne and salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Put the mixed mustard into a salad-bowl with the sugar, and add
the oil drop by drop, carefully stirring and mixing all these
ingredients well together. Proceed in this manner with the milk and
vinegar, which must be added very _gradually_, or the sauce will curdle.
Put in the seasoning, when the mixture will be ready for use. If this
dressing is properly made, it will have a soft creamy appearance, and
will be found very delicious with crab, or cold fried fish (the latter
cut into dice), as well as with salads. In mixing salad dressings, the
ingredients cannot be added _too gradually_, or _stirred too much_.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 3d.

_Sufficient_ for a small salad.

This recipe can be confidently recommended by the editress, to whom it
was given by an intimate friend noted for her salads.

SCARCITY OF SALADS IN ENGLAND.--Three centuries ago, very few
vegetables were cultivated in England, and an author writing of
the period of Henry VIII.'s reign, tells us that neither salad,
nor carrots, nor cabbages, nor radishes, nor any other
comestibles of a like nature, were grown in any part of the
kingdom: they came from Holland and Flanders. We further learn,
that Queen Catharine herself, with all her royalty, could not
procure a salad of English growth for her dinner. The king was
obliged to mend this sad state of affairs, and send to Holland
for a gardener in order to cultivate those pot-herbs, in the
growth of which England is now, perhaps, not behind any other
country in Europe.

[Illustration: THE OLIVE.]

THE OLIVE AND OLIVE OIL.--This tree assumes a high degree of
interest from the historical circumstances with which it is
connected. A leaf of it was brought into the ark by the dove,
when that vessel was still floating on the waters of the great
deep, and gave the first token that the deluge was subsiding.
Among the Greeks, the prize of the victor in the Olympic games
was a wreath of wild olive; and the "Mount of Olives" is
rendered familiar to our ears by its being mentioned in the
Scriptures as near to Jerusalem. The tree is indigenous in the
north of Africa, Syria, and Greece; and the Romans introduced it
to Italy. In Spain and the south of France it is now cultivated;
and although it grows in England, its fruit does not ripen in
the open air. Both in Greece and Portugal the fruit is eaten in
its ripe state; but its taste is not agreeable to many palates.
To the Italian shepherd, bread and olives, with a little wine,
form a nourishing diet; but in England, olives are usually only
introduced by way of dessert, to destroy the taste of the viands
which have been previously eaten, that the flavour of the wine
may be the better enjoyed. There are three kinds of olives
imported to London,--the French, Spanish, and Italian: the first
are from Provence, and are generally accounted excellent; the
second are larger, but more bitter; and the last are from Lucca,
and are esteemed the best. The oil extracted from olives, called
olive oil, or salad oil, is, with the continentals, in continual
request, more dishes being prepared with than without it, we
should imagine. With us, it is principally used in mixing a
salad, and when thus employed, it tends to prevent fermentation,
and is an antidote against flatulency.

II.

507. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of mixed mustard, 1/4
teaspoonful of white pepper, half that quantity of cayenne, salt to
taste, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, vinegar.

_Mode_.--Boil the eggs until hard, which will be in about 1/4 hour or 20
minutes; put them into cold water, take off the shells, and pound the
yolks in a mortar to a smooth paste. Then add all the other ingredients,
except the vinegar, and stir them well until the whole are thoroughly
incorporated one with the other. Pour in sufficient vinegar to make it
of the consistency of cream, taking care to add but little at a time.
The mixture will then be ready for use.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 7d.

_Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized salad.

_Note_.--The whites of the eggs, cut into rings, will serve very well as
a garnishing to the salad.

III.

508. INGREDIENTS.--1 egg, 1 teaspoonful of salad oil, 1 teaspoonful of
mixed mustard, 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, 1/2 teaspoonful of pounded
sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 6 tablespoonfuls of cream.

_Mode_.--Prepare and mix the ingredients by the preceding recipe, and be
very particular that the whole is well stirred.

_Note_.--In making salads, the vegetables, &c., should never be added to
the sauce very long before they are wanted for table; the dressing,
however, may always be prepared some hours before required. Where salads
are much in request, it is a good plan to bottle off sufficient dressing
for a few days' consumption, as, thereby, much time and trouble are
saved. If kept in a cool place, it will remain good for 4 or 5 days.

POETIC RECIPE FOR SALAD.--The Rev. Sydney Smith, the witty canon
of St. Paul's, who thought that an enjoyment of the good things
of this earth was compatible with aspirations for things higher,
wrote the following excellent recipe for salad, which we should
advise our readers not to pass by without a trial, when the hot
weather invites to a dish of cold lamb. May they find the
flavour equal to the rhyme.--

"Two large potatoes, pass'd through kitchen sieve,
Smoothness and softness to the salad give:
Of mordent mustard add a single spoon,
Distrust the condiment that bites too soon;
But deem it not, thou man of herbs, a fault.
To add a double quantity of salt:
Four times the spoon with oil of Lucca crown,
And twice with vinegar procured from 'town;
True flavour needs it, and your poet begs,
The pounded yellow of two well-boil'd eggs.
Let onion's atoms lurk within the bowl,
And, scarce suspected, animate the whole;
And, lastly, in the flavour'd compound toss
A magic spoonful of anchovy sauce.
Oh! great and glorious, and herbaceous treat,
'Twould tempt the dying anchorite to eat.
Back to the world he'd turn his weary soul,
And plunge his fingers in the salad-bowl."

SAUCE ALLEMANDE, or GERMAN SAUCE.

509. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of sauce tournee (No. 517), the yolks of 2
eggs.

_Mode_.--Put the sauce into a stewpan, heat it, and stir to it the
beaten yolks of 2 eggs, which have been previously strained. Let it just
simmer, but not boil, or the eggs will curdle; and after they are added
to the sauce, it must be stirred without ceasing. This sauce is a
general favourite, and is used for many made dishes.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer.

_Average cost_, 6d.

SAUCE ARISTOCRATIQUE (a Store Sauce).

510. INGREDIENTS.--Green walnuts. To every pint of juice, 1 lb. of
anchovies, 1 drachm of cloves, 1 drachm of mace, 1 drachm of Jamaica
ginger bruised, 8 shalots. To every pint of the boiled liquor, 1/2 pint
of vinegar, 1/4 pint of port wine, 2 tablespoonfuls of soy.

_Mode_.--Pound the walnuts in a mortar, squeeze out the juice through a
strainer, and let it stand to settle. Pour off the clear juice, and to
every pint of it, add anchovies, spices, and cloves in the above
proportion. Boil all these together till the anchovies are dissolved,
then strain the juice again, put in the shalots (8 to every pint), and
boil again. To every pint of the boiled liquor add vinegar, wine, and
soy, in the above quantities, and bottle off for use. Cork well, and
seal the corks.

_Seasonable_.--Make this sauce from the beginning to the middle of July,
when walnuts are in perfection for sauces and pickling.

_Average cost_, 3s. 6d. for a quart.

MANUFACTURE OF SAUCES.--In France, during the reign of Louis
XII., at the latter end of the 14th century, there was formed a
company of sauce-manufacturers, who obtained, in those days of
monopolies, the exclusive privilege of making sauces. The
statutes drawn up by this company inform us that the famous
sauce a la cameline, sold by them, was to be composed or "good
cinnamon, good ginger, good cloves, good grains of paradise,
good bread, and good vinegar." The sauce Tence, was to be made
of "good sound almonds, good ginger, good wine, and good
verjuice." May we respectfully express a hope--not that we
desire to doubt it in the least--that the English
sauce-manufacturers of the 19th century are equally considerate
and careful in choosing their ingredients for their various
well-known preparations.

SAUCE A L'AURORE, for Trout, Soles, &c.

511. INGREDIENTS.--The spawn of 1 lobster, 1 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of
Bechamel (No. 367), the juice of 1/2 lemon, a high seasoning of salt and
cayenne.

_Mode_.--Take the spawn and pound it in a mortar with the butter, until
quite smooth, and work it through a hair sieve. Put the Bechamel into a
stewpan, add the pounded spawn, the lemon-juice, which must be strained,
and a plentiful seasoning of cayenne and salt; let it just simmer, but
do not allow it to boil, or the beautiful red colour of the sauce will
be spoiled. A small spoonful of anchovy essence may be added at
pleasure.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for a pair of large soles.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

SAUCE A LA MATELOTE, for Fish.

512. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of Espagnole (No. 411), 3 onions, 2
tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, 1/2 glass of port wine, a bunch of
sweet herbs, 1/2 bay-leaf, salt and pepper to taste, 1 clove, 2 berries
of allspice, a little liquor in which the fish has been boiled,
lemon-juice, and anchovy sauce.

_Mode_.--Slice and fry the onions of a nice brown colour, and put them
into a stewpan with the Espagnole, ketchup, wine, and a little liquor in
which the fish has been boiled. Add the seasoning, herbs, and spices,
and simmer gently for 10 minutes, stirring well the whole time; strain
it through a fine hair sieve, put in the lemon-juice and anchovy sauce,
and pour it over the fish. This sauce may be very much enriched by
adding a few small quenelles, or forcemeat balls made of fish, and also
glazed onions or mushrooms. These, however, should not be added to the
matelote till it is dished.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s. 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--This sauce originally took its name as being similar to that
which the French sailor (_matelot_) employed as a relish to the fish he
caught and ate. In some cases, cider and perry were substituted for the
wine. The Norman _matelotes_ were very celebrated.

[Illustration: THE BAY.]

THE BAY.--We have already described (see No. 180) the difference
between the cherry-laurel (_Prunus Laurus cerasus_) and the
classic laurel (_Laurus nobilis_), the former only being used
for culinary purposes. The latter beautiful evergreen was
consecrated by the ancients to priests and heroes, and used in
their sacrifices. "A crown of bay" was the earnestly-desired
reward for great enterprises, and for the display of uncommon
genius in oratory or writing. It was more particularly sacred to
Apollo, because, according to the fable, the nymph Daphne was
changed into a laurel-tree. The ancients believed, too, that the
laurel had the power of communicating the gift of prophecy, as
well as poetic genius; and, when they wished to procure pleasant
dreams, would place a sprig under the pillow of their bed. It
was the symbol, too, of victory, and it was thought that the
laurel could never be struck by lightning. From this word comes
that of "laureate;" Alfred Tennyson being the present poet
laureate, crowned with laurel as the first of living bards.

SAUCE PIQUANTE, for Cutlets, Roast Meat, &c.

513. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 1 small carrot, 6 shalots, 1 small
bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, 1/2 a bay-leaf, 2 slices of
lean ham, 2 cloves, 6 peppercorns, 1 blade of mace, 3 whole allspice, 4
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 1/2 pint of stock (No. 104 or 105), 1 small
lump of sugar, 1/4 saltspoonful of cayenne, salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Put into a stewpan the butter, with the carrot and shalots,
both of which must be cut into small slices; add the herbs, bay-leaf,
spices, and ham (which must be minced rather finely), and let these
ingredients simmer over a slow fire, until the bottom of the stewpan is
covered with a brown glaze. Keep stirring with a wooden spoon, and put
in the remaining ingredients. Simmer very gently for 1/4 hour, skim off
every particle of fat, strain the sauce through a sieve, and serve very
hot. Care must be taken that this sauce be not made too acid, although
it should possess a sharpness indicated by its name. Of course the above
quantity of vinegar may be increased or diminished at pleasure,
according to taste.

_Time_.--Altogether 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 10d.

_Sufficient_ for a medium-sized dish of cutlets.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

A GOOD SAUCE FOR VARIOUS BOILED PUDDINGS.

514. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, 1/4 lb. of pounded sugar, a
wineglassful of brandy or rum.

_Mode_.--Beat the butter to a cream, until no lumps remain; add the
pounded sugar, and brandy or rum; stir once or twice until the whole is
thoroughly mixed, and serve. This sauce may either be poured round the
pudding or served in a tureen, according to the taste or fancy of the
cook or mistress.

_Average cost_, 8d. for this quantity.

_Sufficient_ for a pudding.

SAUCE ROBERT, for Steaks, &c.

515. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 3 onions, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 4
tablespoonfuls of gravy, or stock No. 105, salt and pepper to taste, 1
teaspoonful of made mustard, 1 teaspoonful of vinegar, the juice of 1/2
lemon.

_Mode_.--Put the butter into a stewpan, set it on the fire, and, when
browning, throw in the onions, which must be cut into small slices. Fry
them brown, but do not burn them; add the flour, shake the onions in it,
and give the whole another fry. Put in the gravy and seasoning, and boil
it gently for 10 minutes; skim off the fat, add the mustard, vinegar,
and lemon-juice; give it one boil, and pour round the steaks, or
whatever dish the sauce has been prepared for.

_Time_.---Altogether 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 6d.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Sufficient_ for about 2 lbs. of steak.

_Note_.--This sauce will be found an excellent accompaniment to roast
goose, pork, mutton cutlets, and various other dishes.

A GOOD SAUCE FOR STEAKS.

516. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of whole black pepper, 1/2 oz. of allspice, 1
oz. of salt, 1/2 oz. grated horseradish, 1/2 oz. of pickled shalots, 1
pint of mushroom ketchup or walnut pickle.

_Mode_.--Pound all the ingredients finely in a mortar, and put them into
the ketchup or walnut-liquor. Let them stand for a fortnight, when
strain off the liquor and bottle for use. Either pour a little of the
sauce over the steaks or mix it in the gravy.

_Seasonable_.--This can be made at any time.

_Note_.--In using a jar of pickled walnuts, there is frequently left a
large quantity of liquor; this should be converted into a sauce like the
above, and will be found a very useful relish.

THE GROWTH OF THE PEPPER-PLANT.--Our readers will see at Nos.
369 and 399, a description, with engravings, of the qualities of
black and long pepper, and an account of where these spices are
found. We will here say something of the manner of the growth of
the pepper-plant. Like the vine, it requires support, and it is
usual to plant a thorny tree by its side, to which it may cling.
In Malabar, the chief pepper district of India, the jacca-tree
(_Artocarpus integrifolia_) is made thus to yield its
assistance, the same soil being adapted to the growth of both
plants. The stem of the pepper-plant entwines round its support
to a considerable height; the flexile branches then droop
downwards, bearing at their extremities, as well as at other
parts, spikes of green flowers, which are followed by the
pungent berries. These hang in large bunches, resembling in
shape those of grapes; but the fruit grows distinct, each on a
little stalk, like currants. Each berry contains a single seed,
of a globular form and brownish colour, but which changes to a
nearly black when dried; and this is the pepper of commerce. The
leaves are not unlike those of the ivy, but are larger and of
rather lighter colour; they partake strongly of the peculiar
smell and pungent taste of the berry.

SAUCE TOURNEE.

517. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of white stock (No. 107), thickening of flour
and butter, or white roux (No. 526), a faggot of savoury herbs,
including parsley, 6 chopped mushrooms, 6 green onions.

_Mode_.--Put the stock into a stewpan with the herbs, onions, and
mushrooms, and let it simmer very gently for about 1/2 hour; stir in
sufficient thickening to make it of a proper consistency; let it boil
for a few minutes, then skim off all the fat, strain and serve. This
sauce, with the addition of a little cream, is now frequently called
veloute.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 6d.

_Note_.--If poultry trimmings are at hand, the stock should be made of
these; and the above sauce should not be made too thick, as it does not
then admit of the fat being nicely removed.

SWEET SAUCE, for Venison.

518. INGREDIENTS.--A small jar of red-currant jelly, 1 glass of port
wine.

_Mode_.--Put the above ingredients into a stewpan, set them over the
fire, and, when melted, pour in a tureen and serve. It should not be
allowed to boil.

_Time_.--5 minutes to melt the jelly.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s.

SAUCE FOR WILDFOWL.

519. INGREDIENTS.--1 glass of port wine, 1 tablespoonful of Leamington
sauce (No. 459), 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, 1 tablespoonful of
lemon-juice, 1 slice of lemon-peel, 1 large shalot cut in slices, 1
blade of mace, cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, set it over the fire,
and let it simmer for about 5 minutes; then strain and serve the sauce
in a tureen.

_Time_.--5 minutes. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 8d.

SAUSAGE-MEAT STUFFING, for Turkey.

520. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of lean pork, 6 oz. of fat pork, both weighed
after being chopped (beef suet may be substituted for the latter), 2 oz.
of bread crumbs, 1 small tablespoonful of minced sage, 1 blade of
pounded mace, salt and pepper to taste, 1 egg.

_Mode_.--Chop the meat and fat very finely, mix with them the other
ingredients, taking care that the whole is thoroughly incorporated.
Moisten with the egg, and the stuffing will be ready for use. Equal
quantities of this stuffing and forcemeat, No. 417, will be found to
answer very well, as the herbs, lemon-peel, &c. in the latter, impart a
very delicious flavour to the sausage-meat. As preparations, however,
like stuffings and forcemeats, are matters to be decided by individual
tastes, they must be left, to a great extent, to the discrimination of
the cook, who should study her employer's taste in this, as in every
other respect.

_Average cost_, 9d.

_Sufficient_ for a small turkey.

SAVOURY JELLY FOR MEAT PIES.

521. INGREDIENTS.--3 lbs. of shin of beef, 1 calf's-foot, 3 lbs. of
knuckle of veal, poultry trimmings (if for game pies, any game
trimmings), 2 onions stuck with cloves, 2 carrots, 4 shalots, a bunch of
savoury herbs, 2 bay-leaves; when liked, 2 blades of mace and a little
spice; 2 slices of lean ham, rather more than 2 quarts of water.

_Mode_.--Cut up the meat and put it into a stewpan with all the
ingredients except the water; set it over a slow fire to draw down, and,
when the gravy ceases to flow from the meat, pour in the water. Let it
boil up, then carefully take away all scum from the top. Cover the
stewpan closely, and let the stock simmer very gently for 4 hours: if
rapidly boiled, the jelly will not be clear. When done, strain it
through a fine sieve or flannel bag; and when cold, the jelly should be
quite transparent. If this is not the case, clarify it with the whites
of eggs, as described in recipe No. 109.

_Time_.--4 hours. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 5s.

SHRIMP SAUCE, for Various Kinds of Fish.

522. INGREDIENTS.--1/3 pint of melted butter (No. 376), 1/4 pint of
picked shrimps, cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Make the melted butter very smoothly by recipe No. 376, shell
the shrimps (sufficient to make 1/4 pint when picked), and put them into
the butter; season with cayenne, and let the sauce just simmer, but do
not allow it to boil. When liked, a teaspoonful of anchovy sauce may be
added.

_Time_.--1 minute to simmer. _Average cost_, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons.

SPINACH GREEN FOR COLOURING VARIOUS DISHES.

523. INGREDIENTS.--2 handfuls of spinach.

_Mode_.--Pick and wash the spinach free from dirt, and pound the leaves
in a mortar to extract the juice; then press it through a hair sieve,
and put the juice into a small stewpan or jar. Place this in a bain
marie, or saucepan of boiling water, and let it set. Watch it closely,
as it should not boil; and, as soon as it is done, lay it in a sieve, so
that all the water may drain from it, and the green will then be ready
for colouring. If made according to this recipe, the spinach-green will
be found far superior to that boiled in the ordinary way.

HOT SPICE, a Delicious Adjunct to Chops, Steaks, Gravies, &c.

524. INGREDIENTS.--3 drachms each of ginger, black pepper, and cinnamon,
7 cloves, 1/2 oz. mace, 1/4 oz. of cayenne, 1 oz. grated nutmeg, 1-1/2
oz. white pepper.

_Mode_.--Pound the ingredients, and mix them thoroughly together, taking
care that everything is well blended. Put the spice in a very dry glass
bottle for use. The quantity of cayenne may be increased, should the
above not be enough to suit the palate.

[Illustration: CINNAMON.]

CINNAMON.--The cinnamon-tree (_Laurus Cinnamomum_) is a valuable
and beautiful species of the laurel family, and grows to the
height of 20 or 30 feet. The trunk is short and straight, with
wide-spreading branches, and it has a smooth ash-like bark. The
leaves are upon short stalks, and are of an oval shape, and 3 to
5 inches long. The flowers are in panicles, with six small
petals, and the fruit is about the size of an olive, soft,
insipid, and of a deep blue. This incloses a nut, the kernel of
which germinates soon after it falls. The wood of the tree is
white and not very solid, and its root is thick and branching,
exuding a great quantity of camphor. The inner bark of the tree
forms the cinnamon of commerce. Ceylon was thought to be its
native island; but it has been found in Malabar, Cochin-China,
Sumatra, and the Eastern Islands; also in the Brazils, the
Mauritius, Jamaica, and other tropical localities.

BROWN ROUX, a French Thickening for Gravies and Sauces.

525. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of butter, 9 oz. of flour.

_Mode_.--Melt the butter in a stewpan over a slow fire, and dredge in,
very gradually, the flour; stir it till of a light-brown colour--to
obtain this do it very slowly, otherwise the flour will burn and impart
a bitter taste to the sauce it is mixed with. Pour it in a jar, and keep
it for use: it will remain good some time.

_Time_.--About 1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 7d.

WHITE ROUX, for thickening White Sauces.

526. Allow the same proportions of butter and flour as in the preceding
recipe, and proceed in the same manner as for brown roux, but do not
keep it on the fire too long, and take care not to let it colour. This
is used for thickening white sauce. Pour it into a jar to use when
wanted.

_Time_.--1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 7d.

_Sufficient_,--A dessertspoonful will thicken a pint of gravy.

_Note_.--Besides the above, sauces may be thickened with potato flour,
ground rice, baked flour, arrowroot, &c.: the latter will be found far
preferable to the ordinary flour for white sauces. A slice of bread,
toasted and added to gravies, answers the two purposes of thickening and
colouring them.

SPANISH ONIONS--PICKLED.

527. INGREDIENTS.--Onions, vinegar; salt and cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the onions in thin slices; put a layer of them in the
bottom of a jar; sprinkle with salt and cayenne; then add another layer
of onions, and season as before. Proceeding in this manner till the jar
is full, pour in sufficient vinegar to cover the whole, and the pickle
will be fit for use in a month.

_Seasonable_.--May be had in England from September to February.

STORE SAUCE, or CHEROKEE.

528. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 oz. of cayenne pepper, 5 cloves of garlic, 2
tablespoonfuls of soy, 1 tablespoonful of walnut ketchup, 1 pint of
vinegar.

_Mode_.--Boil all the ingredients _gently_ for about 1/2 hour; strain
the liquor, and bottle off for use.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

_Seasonable_.--This sauce can be made at any time.

TOMATO SAUCE--HOT, to serve with Cutlets, Roast Meats, &c.

529. INGREDIENTS.--6 tomatoes, 2 shalots, 1 clove, 1 blade of mace, salt
and cayenne to taste, 1/4 pint of gravy, No. 436, or stock No. 104.

_Mode_.--Cut the tomatoes in two, and squeeze the juice and seeds out;
put them in a stewpan with all the ingredients, and let them simmer
_gently_ until the tomatoes are tender enough to pulp; rub the whole
through a sieve, boil it for a few minutes, and serve. The shalots and
spices may be omitted when their flavour is objected to.

_Time_.--1 hour, or rather more, to simmer the tomatoes.

_Average cost_, for this quantity, 1s.

_In full season_ in September and October.

[Illustration: THE TOMATO.]

TOMATO, OR LOVE-APPLE.--The plant which bears this fruit is a
native of South America, and takes its name from a Portuguese
word. The tomato fruit is about the size of a small potato, and
is chiefly used in soups, sauces, and gravies. It is sometimes
served to table roasted or boiled, and when green, makes a good
ketchup or pickle. In its unripe state, it is esteemed as
excellent sauce for roast goose or pork, and when quite ripe, a
good store sauce may be prepared from it.

TOMATO SAUCE FOR KEEPING (Excellent).

I.

530. INGREDIENTS.--To every quart of tomato-pulp allow 1 pint of cayenne
vinegar (No. 386), 3/4 oz. of shalots, 3/4 oz. of garlic, peeled and cut
in slices; salt to taste. To every six quarts of liquor, 1 pint of soy,
1 pint of anchovy sauce.

_Mode_.--Gather the tomatoes quite ripe; bake them in a slow oven till
tender; rub them through a sieve, and to every quart of pulp add cayenne
vinegar, shalots, garlic, and salt, in the above proportion; boil the
whole together till the garlic and shalots are quite soft; then rub it
through a sieve, put it again into a saucepan, and, to every six quarts
of the liquor, add 1 pint of soy and the same quantity of anchovy sauce,
and boil altogether for about 20 minutes; bottle off for use, and
carefully seal or rosin the corks. This will keep good for 2 or 3 years,
but will be fit for use in a week. A useful and less expensive sauce may
be made by omitting the anchovy and soy.

_Time_.--Altogether 1 hour.

_Seasonable_.--Make this from the middle of September to the end of
October.

II.

531. INGREDIENTS.--1 dozen tomatoes, 2 teaspoonfuls of the best powdered
ginger, 1 dessertspoonful of salt, 1 head of garlic chopped fine, 2
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 1 dessertspoonful of Chili vinegar (a small
quantity of cayenne may be substituted for this).

_Mode_.--Choose ripe tomatoes, put them into a stone jar, and stand them
in a cool oven until quite tender; when cold, take the skins and stalks
from them, mix the pulp with the liquor which is in the jar, but do not
strain it; add all the other ingredients, mix well together, and put it
into well-sealed bottles. Stored away in a cool dry place, it will keep
good for years. It is ready for use as soon as made, but the flavour is
better after a week or two. Should it not appear to keep, turn it out,
and boil it up with a little additional ginger and cayenne. For
immediate use, the skins should be put into a wide-mouthed bottle with a
little of the different ingredients, and they will be found very nice
for hashes or stews.

_Time_.--4 or 5 hours in a cool oven.

_Seasonable_ from the middle of September to the end of October.

III.

532. INGREDIENTS.--3 dozen tomatoes; to every pound of tomato-pulp allow
1 pint of Chili vinegar, 1 oz. of garlic, 1 oz. of shalot, 2 oz. of
salt, 1 large green capsicum, 1/2 teaspoonful of cayenne, 2 pickled
gherkins, 6 pickled onions, 1 pint of common vinegar, and the juice of 6
lemons.

_Mode_.--Choose the tomatoes when quite ripe and red; put them in a jar
with a cover to it, and bake them till tender. The better way is to put
them in the oven overnight, when it will not be too hot, and examine
them in the morning to see if they are tender. Do not allow them to
remain in the oven long enough to break them; but they should be
sufficiently soft to skin nicely and rub through the sieve. Measure the
pulp, and to each pound of pulp, add the above proportion of vinegar and
other ingredients, taking care to chop very fine the garlic, shalot,
capsicum, onion, and gherkins. Boil the whole together till everything
is tender; then again rub it through a sieve, and add the lemon-juice.
Now boil the whole again till it becomes as thick as cream, and keep
continually stirring; bottle it when quite cold, cork well, and seal the
corks. If the flavour of garlic and shalot is very much disliked,
diminish the quantities.

_Time_.--Bake the tomatoes in a cool oven all night.

_Seasonable_ from the middle of September to the end of October.

_Note_.--A quantity of liquor will flow from the tomatoes, which must be
put through the sieve with the rest. Keep it well stirred while on the
fire, and use a wooden spoon.

UNIVERSAL PICKLE.

533. INGREDIENTS.--To 6 quarts of vinegar allow 1 lb. of salt, 1/4 lb.
of ginger, 1 oz. of mace, 1/2 lb. of shalots, 1 tablespoonful of
cayenne, 2 oz. of mustard-seed, 1-1/2 oz. of turmeric.

_Mode_.--Boil all the ingredients together for about 20 minutes; when
cold, put them into a jar with whatever vegetables you choose, such as
radish-pods, French beans, cauliflowers, gherkins, &c. &c., as these
come into season; put them in fresh as you gather them, having
previously wiped them perfectly free from moisture and grit. This pickle
will be fit for use in about 8 or 9 months.

_Time_.--20 minutes.

_Seasonable_.--Make the pickle in May or June, to be ready for the
various vegetables.

_Note_.--As this pickle takes 2 or 3 months to make,--that is to say,
nearly that time will elapse before all the different vegetables are
added,--care must be taken to keep the jar which contains the pickle
well covered, either with a closely-fitting lid, or a piece of bladder
securely tied over, so as perfectly to exclude the air.

PICKLED WALNUTS (Very Good).

534. INGREDIENTS.--100 walnuts, salt and water. To each quart of vinegar
allow 2 oz. of whole black pepper, 1 oz. of allspice, 1 oz. of bruised
ginger.

_Mode_.--Procure the walnuts while young; be careful they are not woody,
and prick them well with a fork; prepare a strong brine of salt and
water (4 lbs. of salt to each gallon of water), into which put the
walnuts, letting them remain 9 days, and changing the brine every third
day; drain them off, put them on a dish, place it in the sun until they
become perfectly black, which will be in 2 or 3 days; have ready dry
jars, into which place the walnuts, and do not quite fill the jars. Boil
sufficient vinegar to cover them, for 10 minutes, with spices in the
above proportion, and pour it hot over the walnuts, which must be quite
covered with the pickle; tie down with bladder, and keep in a dry place.
They will be fit for use in a month, and will keep good 2 or 3 years.

_Time_.--10 minutes.

_Seasonable_.--Make this from the beginning to the middle of July,
before the walnuts harden.

_Note_.--When liked, a few shalots may be added to the vinegar, and
boiled with it.

WALNUT KETCHUP.

I.

535. INGREDIENTS.--100 walnuts, 1 handful of salt, 1 quart of vinegar,
1/4 oz. of mace, 1/4 oz. of nutmeg, 1/4 oz. of cloves, 1/4 oz. of
ginger, 1/4 oz. of whole black pepper, a small piece of horseradish, 20
shalots, 1/4 lb. of anchovies, 1 pint of port wine.

_Mode_.--Procure the walnuts at the time you can run a pin through them,
slightly bruise, and put them into a jar with the salt and vinegar, let
them stand 8 days, stirring every day; then drain the liquor from them,
and boil it, with the above ingredients, for about 1/2 hour. It may be
strained or not, as preferred, and, if required, a little more vinegar
or wine can be added, according to taste. When bottled well, seal the
corks.

_Time_.--1/2 hour.

_Seasonable_.--Make this from the beginning to the middle of July, when
walnuts are in perfection for pickling purposes.

II.

536. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 sieve of walnut-shells, 2 quarts of water, salt,
1/2 lb. of shalots, 1 oz. of cloves, 1 oz. of mace, 1 oz. of whole
pepper, 1 oz. of garlic.

_Mode_.--Put the walnut-shells into a pan, with the water, and a large
quantity of salt; let them stand for 10 days, then break the shells up
in the water, and let it drain through a sieve, putting a heavy weight
on the top to express the juice; place it on the fire, and remove all
scum that may arise. Now boil the liquor with the shalots, cloves, mace,
pepper, and garlic, and let all simmer till the shalots sink; then put
the liquor into a pan, and, when cold, bottle, and cork closely. It
should stand 6 months before using: should it ferment during that time,
it must be again boiled and skimmed.

_Time_.--About 3/4 hour.

_Seasonable_ in September, when the walnut-shells are obtainable.

[Illustration: THE WALNUT.]

THE WALNUT.--This nut is a native of Persia, and was introduced
into England from France. As a pickle, it is much used in the
green state; and grated walnuts in Spain are much employed, both
in tarts and other dishes. On the continent it is occasionally
employed as a substitute for olive oil in cooking; but it is
apt, under such circumstances, to become rancid. The matter
which remains after the oil is extracted is considered highly
nutritious for poultry. It is called _mare_, and in Switzerland
is eaten under the name of _pain amer_ by the poor. The oil is
frequently manufactured into a kind of soap, and the leaves and
green husks yield an extract, which, as a brown dye, is used to
stain hair, wool, and wood.

WHITE SAUCE (Good).

537. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of white stock (No. 107), 1/2 pint of cream,
1 dessertspoonful of flour, salt to taste.

_Mode_.--Have ready a delicately-clean saucepan, into which put the
stock, which should be well flavoured with vegetables, and rather
savoury; mix the flour smoothly with the cream, add it to the stock,
season with a little salt, and boil all these ingredients very gently
for about 10 minutes, keeping them well stirred the whole time, as this
sauce is very liable to burn.

_Time_.--10 minutes. _Average cost_, 1s.

_Sufficient_ for a pair of fowls.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

WHITE SAUCE, made without Meat.

538. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 2 small onions, 1 carrot, 1/2 a
small teacupful of flour, 1 pint of new milk, salt and cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut up the onions and carrot very small, and put them into a
stewpan with the butter; simmer them till the butter is nearly dried up;
then stir in the flour, and add the milk; boil the whole gently until it
thickens, strain it, season with salt and cayenne, and it will be ready
to serve.

_Time_.--1/4 hour. _Average cost_, 5d.

_Sufficient_ for a pair of fowls.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

WHITE SAUCE (a very Simple and Inexpensive Method).

539. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 pint of milk, 1-1/2 oz. of rice, 1 strip of
lemon-peel, 1 small blade of pounded mace, salt and cayenne to taste.

_Mode_.--Boil the milk with the lemon-peel and rice until the latter is
perfectly tender, then take out the lemon-peel and pound the milk and
rice together; put it back into the stewpan to warm, add the mace and
seasoning, give it one boil, and serve. This sauce should be of the
consistency of thick cream.

_Time_.--About 1-1/2 hour to boil the rice.

_Average cost_, 4d.

_Sufficient_ for a pair of fowls.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: THE LEAMINGTON STOVE, OR KITCHENER.]

VARIOUS MODES OF COOKING MEAT.

CHAPTER XI.

GENERAL REMARKS.

540. In Our "INTRODUCTION TO COOKERY" (_see_ No. 76) we have described
the gradual progress of mankind in the art of cookery, the probability
being, that the human race, for a long period, lived wholly on fruits.
Man's means of attacking animals, even if he had the desire of
slaughtering them, were very limited, until he acquired the use of arms.
He, however, made weapons for himself, and, impelled by a carnivorous
instinct, made prey of the animals that surrounded him. It is natural
that man should seek to feed on flesh; he has too small a stomach to be
supported alone by fruit, which has not sufficient nourishment to
renovate him. It is possible he might subsist on vegetables; but their
preparation needs the knowledge of art, only to be obtained after the
lapse of many centuries. Man's first weapons were the branches of trees,
which were succeeded by bows and arrows, and it is worthy of remark,
that these latter weapons have been found with the natives of all
climates and latitudes. It is singular how this idea presented itself to
individuals so differently placed.

541. BRILLAT SAVARIN says, that raw flesh has but one
inconvenience,--from its viscousness it attaches itself to the teeth. He
goes on to say, that it is not, however, disagreeable; but, when
seasoned with salt, that it is easily digested. He tells a story of a
Croat captain, whom he invited to dinner in 1815, during the occupation
of Paris by the allied troops. This officer was amazed at his host's
preparations, and said, "When we are campaigning, and get hungry, we
knock over the first animal we find, cut off a steak, powder it with
salt, which we always have in the sabretasche, put it under the saddle,
gallop over it for half a mile, and then dine like princes." Again, of
the huntsmen of Dauphiny it is said, that when they are out shooting in
September, they take with them both pepper and salt. If they kill a very
fat bird, they pluck and season it, and, after carrying it some time in
their caps, eat it. This, they declare, is the best way of serving it
up.

542. SUBSEQUENTLY TO THE CROAT MODE, which, doubtless, was in fashion in
the earlier ages of the world, fire was discovered. This was an
accident; for fire is not, although we are accustomed to call it so, an
element, or spontaneous. Many savage nations have been found utterly
ignorant of it, and many races had no other way of dressing their food
than by exposing it to the rays of the sun.

543. THE INHABITANTS OF THE MARIAN ISLANDS, which were discovered in
1521, had no idea of fire. Never was astonishment greater than theirs
when they first saw it, on the descent of Magellan, the navigator, on
one of their isles. At first they thought it a kind of animal, that
fixed itself to and fed upon wood. Some of them, who approached too
near, being burnt, the rest were terrified, and durst only look upon it
at a distance. They were afraid, they said, of being bit, or lest that
dreadful animal should wound with his violent respiration and dreadful
breath; for these were the first notions they formed of the heat and
flame. Such, too, probably, were the notions the Greeks originally
formed of them.

544. FIRE HAVING BEEN DISCOVERED, mankind endeavoured to make use of it
for drying, and afterwards for cooking their meat; but they were a
considerable time before they hit upon proper and commodious methods of
employing it in the preparation of their food.

545. MEAT, THEN, PLACED ON BURNING FUEL was found better than when raw:
it had more firmness, was eaten with less difficulty, and the ozmazome
being condensed by the carbonization, gave it a pleasing perfume and
flavour. Still, however, the meat cooked on the coal would become
somewhat befouled, certain portions of the fuel adhering to it. This
disadvantage was remedied by passing spits through it, and placing it at
a suitable height above the burning fuel. Thus grilling was invented;
and it is well known that, simple as is this mode of cookery, yet all
meat cooked in this way is richly and pleasantly flavoured. In Homer's
time, the, art of cookery had not advanced much beyond this; for we read
in the "Iliad," how the great Achilles and his friend Patroclus regaled
the three Grecian leaders on bread, wine, and broiled meat. It is
noticeable, too, that Homer does not speak of boiled meat anywhere in
his poems. Later, however, the Jews, coming out of their captivity in
Egypt, had made much greater progress. They undoubtedly possessed
kettles; and in one of these, Esau's mess of pottage, for which he sold
his birthright, must have been prepared.

546. HAVING THUS BRIEFLY TRACED A HISTORY OF GASTRONOMICAL PROGRESSES,
we will now proceed to describe the various methods of cooking meat, and
make a few observations on the chemical changes which occur in each of
the operations.

547. IN THIS COUNTRY, plain boiling, roasting, and baking are the usual
methods of cooking animal food. To explain the philosophy of these
simple culinary operations, we must advert to the effects that are
produced by heat on the principal constituents of flesh. When
finely-chopped mutton or beef is steeped for some time in a small
quantity of clean water, and then subjected to slight pressure, the
juice of the meat is extracted, and there is left a white tasteless
residue, consisting chiefly of muscular fibres. When this residue is
heated to between 158 deg. and 177 deg. Fahrenheit, the fibres shrink together,
and become hard and horny. The influence of an elevated temperature on
the soluble extract of flesh is not less remarkable. When the watery
infusion, which contains all the savoury constituents of the meat, is
gradually heated, it soon becomes turbid; and, when the temperature
reaches 133 deg., flakes of whitish matter separate. These flakes are
_albumen_, a substance precisely similar, in all its properties, to the
white of egg (see No. 101). When the temperature of the watery extract
is raised to 158 deg., the colouring matter of the blood coagulates, and the
liquid, which was originally tinged red by this substance, is left
perfectly clear, and almost colourless. When evaporated, even at a
gentle heat, this residual liquid gradually becomes brown, and acquires
the flavour of roast meat.

548. THESE INTERESTING FACTS, discovered in the laboratory, throw a
flood of light upon the mysteries of the kitchen. The fibres of meat are
surrounded by a liquid which contains albumen in its soluble state, just
as it exists in the unboiled egg. During the operation of boiling or
roasting, this substance coagulates, and thereby prevents the
contraction and hardening of the fibres. The tenderness of well-cooked
meat is consequently proportioned to the amount of albumen deposited in
its substance. Meat is underdone when it has been heated throughout only
to the temperature of coagulating albumen: it is thoroughly done when it
has been heated through its whole mass to the temperature at which the
colouring matter of the blood coagulates: it is overdone when the heat
has been continued long enough to harden the fibres.

549. THE JUICE OF FLESH IS WATER, holding in solution many substances
besides albumen, which are of the highest possible value as articles of
food. In preparing meat for the table, great care should be taken to
prevent the escape of this precious juice, as the succulence and
sapidity of the meat depend on its retention. The meat to be cooked
should be exposed at first to a quick heat, which immediately coagulates
the albumen on and near the surface. A kind of shell is thus formed,
which effectually retains the whole of the juice within the meat.

550. DURING THE OPERATIONS OF BOILING, BOASTING, AND BAKING, fresh beef
and mutton, when moderately fat, lose, according to Johnston, on an
average about--

In boiling. In baking. In roasting.

4 lbs. of beef lose 1 lb. 1 lb. 3 oz. 1 lb. 5 oz.

4 lbs. of mutton lose 14 oz. 1 lb. 4 oz. 1 lb. 6 oz.

BAKING.

[Illustration: BAKING DISH.]

551. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ROASTING MEAT AND BAKING IT, may be
generally described as consisting in the fact, that, in baking it, the
fumes caused by the operation are not carried off in the same way as
occurs in roasting. Much, however, of this disadvantage is obviated by
the improved construction of modern ovens, and of especially those in
connection with the Leamington kitchener, of which we give an engraving
here, and a full description of which will be seen at paragraph No. 65,
with the prices at which they can be purchased of Messrs. R. and J.
Slack, of the Strand. With meat baked in the generality of ovens,
however, which do not possess ventilators on the principle of this
kitchener, there is undoubtedly a peculiar taste, which does not at all
equal the flavour developed by roasting meat. The chemistry of baking
may be said to be the same as that described in roasting.

552. SHOULD THE OVEN BE VERY BRISK, it will be found necessary to cover
the joint with a piece of white paper, to prevent the meat from being
scorched and blackened outside, before the heat can penetrate into the
inside. This paper should be removed half an hour before the time of
serving dinner, so that the joint may take a good colour.

553. BY MEANS OF A JAR, many dishes, which will be enumerated under
their special heads, may be economically prepared in the oven. The
principal of these are soup, gravies, jugged hare, beef tea; and this
mode of cooking may be advantageously adopted with a ham, which has
previously been covered with a common crust of flour and water.

554. ALL DISHES PREPARED FOR BAKING should be more highly seasoned than
when intended to be roasted. There are some dishes which, it may be
said, are at least equally well cooked in the oven as by the roaster;
thus, a shoulder of mutton and baked potatoes, a fillet or breast of
veal, a sucking pig, a hare, well basted, will be received by
connoisseurs as well, when baked, as if they had been roasted. Indeed,
the baker's oven, or the family oven, may often, as has been said, be
substituted for the cook and the spit with greater economy and
convenience.

555. A BAKING-DISH, of which we give an engraving, should not be less
than 6 or 7 inches deep; so that the meat, which of course cannot be
basted, can stew in its own juices. In the recipe for each dish, full
explanations concerning any special points in relation to it will be
given.

BOILING.

556. BOILING, or the preparation of meat by hot water, though one of the
easiest processes in cookery, requires skilful management. Boiled meat
should be tender, savoury, and full of its own juice, or natural gravy;
but, through the carelessness and ignorance of cooks, it is too often
sent to table hard, tasteless, and innutritious. To insure a successful
result in boiling flesh, the heat of the fire must be judiciously
regulated, the proper quantity of water must be kept up in the pot, and
the scum which rises to the surface must be carefully removed.

557. MANY WRITERS ON COOKERY assert that the meat to be boiled should be
put into cold water, and that the pot should be heated gradually; but
Liebig, the highest authority on all matters connected with the
chemistry of food, has shown that meat so treated loses some of its most
nutritious constituents. "If the flesh," says the great chemist, "be
introduced into the boiler when the water is in a state of brisk
ebullition, and if the boiling be kept up for a few minutes, and the pot
then placed in a warm place, so that the temperature of the water is
kept at 158 deg. to 165 deg., we have the united conditions for giving to the
flesh the qualities which best fit it for being eaten." When a piece of
meat is plunged into boiling water, the albumen which is near the
surface immediately coagulates, forming an envelope, which prevents the
escape of the internal juice, and most effectually excludes the water,
which, by mixing with this juice, would render the meat insipid. Meat
treated thus is juicy and well-flavoured, when cooked, as it retains
most of its savoury constituents. On the other hand, if the piece of
meat be set on the fire with cold water, and this slowly heated to
boiling, the flesh undergoes a loss of soluble and nutritious
substances, while, as a matter of course, the soup becomes richer in
these matters. The albumen is gradually dissolved from the surface to
the centre; the fibre loses, more or less, its quality of shortness or
tenderness, and becomes hard and tough: the thinner the piece of meat
is, the greater is its loss of savoury constituents. In order to obtain
well-flavoured and eatable meat, we must relinquish the idea of making
good soup from it, as that mode of boiling which yields the best soup
gives the driest, toughest, and most vapid meat. Slow boiling whitens
the meat; and, we suspect, that it is on this account that it is in such
favour with the cooks. The wholesomeness of food is, however, a matter
of much greater moment than the appearance it presents on the table. It
should be borne in mind, that the whiteness of meat that has been boiled
slowly, is produced by the loss of some important alimentary properties.

558. THE OBJECTIONS WE HAVE RAISED to the practice of putting meat on
the fire in cold water, apply with equal force to the practice of
soaking meat before cooking it, which is so strongly recommended by some
cooks. Fresh meat ought never to be soaked, as all its most nutritive
constituents are soluble in water. Soaking, however, is an operation
that cannot be entirely dispensed with in the preparation of animal
food. Salted and dried meats require to be soaked for some time in water
before they are cooked.

559. FOR BOILING MEAT, the softer the water is, the better. When spring
water is boiled, the chalk which gives to it the quality of hardness, is
precipitated. This chalk stains the meat, and communicates to it an
unpleasant earthy taste. When nothing but hard water can be procured, it
should be softened by boiling it for an hour or two before it is used
for culinary purposes.

560. THE FIRE MUST BE WATCHED with great attention during the operation
of boiling, so that its heat may be properly regulated. As a rule, the
pot should be kept in a simmering state; a result which cannot be
attained without vigilance.

561. THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH WATER BOILS, under usual circumstances, is
212 deg. Fahr. Water does not become hotter after it has begun to boil,
however long or with whatever violence the boiling is continued. This
fact is of great importance in cookery, and attention to it will save
much fuel. Water made to boil in a gentle way by the application of a
moderate heat is just as hot as when it is made to boil on a strong fire
with the greatest possible violence. When once water has been brought to
the boiling point, the fire may be considerably reduced, as a very
gentle heat will suffice to keep the water at its highest temperature.

562. THE SCUM WHICH RISES to the surface of the pot during the operation
of boiling must be carefully removed, otherwise it will attach itself to
the meat, and thereby spoil its appearance. The cook must not neglect to
skim during the whole process, though by far the greater part of the
scum rises at first. The practice of wrapping meat in a cloth may be
dispensed with if the skimming be skillfully managed. If the scum be
removed as fast as it rises, the meat will be cooked clean and pure, and
come out of the vessel in which it was boiled, much more delicate and
firm than when cooked in a cloth.

563. WHEN TAKEN FROM THE POT, the meat must be wiped with a clean cloth,
or, what will be found more convenient, a sponge previously dipped in
water and wrung dry. The meat should not be allowed to stand a moment
longer than necessary, as boiled meat, as well as roasted, cannot be
eaten too hot.

564. THE TIME ALLOWED FOR THE OPERATION OF BOILING must be regulated
according to the size and quality of the meat. As a general rule, twenty
minutes, reckoning from the moment when the boiling commences, may be
allowed for every pound of meat. All the best authorities, however,
agree in this, that the longer the boiling the more perfect the
operation.

565. A FEW OBSERVATIONS ON THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF SALTED MEAT may be
properly introduced in this place. Every housewife knows that dry salt
in contact with fresh meat gradually becomes fluid brine. The
application of salt causes the fibres of the meat to contract, and the
juice to flow out from its pores: as much as one-third of the juice of
the meat is often forced out in this manner. Now, as this juice is pure
extract of meat, containing albumen, osmazome, and other valuable
principles, it follows that meat which has been preserved by the action
of salt can never have the nutritive properties of fresh meat.

566. THE VESSELS USED FOR BOILING should be made of cast-iron, well
tinned within, and provided with closely-fitting lids. They must be kept
scrupulously clean, otherwise they will render the meat cooked in them
unsightly and unwholesome. Copper pans, if used at all, should be
reserved for operations that are performed with rapidity; as, by long
contact with copper, food may become dangerously contaminated. The
kettle in which a joint is dressed should be large enough to allow room
for a good supply of water; if the meat be cramped and be surrounded
with but little water, it will be stewed, not boiled.

567. IN STEWING, IT IS NOT REQUISITE to have so great a heat as in
boiling. A gentle simmering in a small quantity of water, so that the
meat is stewed almost in its own juices, is all that is necessary. It is
a method much used on the continent, and is wholesome and economical.

[Illustration: BOILING-POT.]

[Illustration: STEWPAN.]

Two useful culinary vessels are represented above. One is a
boiling-pot, in which large joints may be boiled; the other is a
stewpan, with a closely-fitting lid, to which is attached a long
handle; so that the cover can be removed without scalding the
fingers.

[Illustration: HOT-PLATE.]

568. THE HOT-PLATE is a modern improvement on the old kitchen ranges,
being used for boiling and stewing. It is a plate of cast iron, having a
closed fire burning beneath it, by which it is thoroughly well heated.
On this plate are set the various saucepans, stewpans, &c.; and, by this
convenient and economical method, a number of dishes may be prepared at
one time. The culinary processes of braising and stewing are, in this
manner, rendered more gradual, and consequently the substance acted on
becomes more tender, and the gravy is not so much reduced.

BROILING.

[Illustration: REVOLVING GRIDIRON.]

569. GENERALLY SPEAKING, small dishes only are prepared by this mode of
cooking; amongst these, the beef-steak and mutton chop of the solitary
English diner may be mentioned as celebrated all the world over. Our
beef-steak, indeed, has long crossed the Channel; and, with a view of
pleasing the Britons, there is in every _carte_ at every French
restaurant, by the side of _a la Marengo_, and _a la Mayonnaise,--bifteck
d'Angleterre_. In order to succeed in a broil, the cook must have a
bright, clear fire; so that the surface of the meat may be quickly heated.
The result of this is the same as that obtained in roasting; namely, that
a crust, so to speak, is formed outside, and thus the juices of the meat
are retained. The appetite of an invalid, so difficult to minister to, is
often pleased with a broiled dish, as the flavour and sapidity of the meat
are so well preserved.

570. THE UTENSILS USED FOR BROILING need but little description. The
common gridiron, for which see engraving at No. 68, is the same as it
has been for ages past, although some little variety has been introduced
into its manufacture, by the addition of grooves to the bars, by means
of which the liquid fat is carried into a small trough. One point it is
well to bear in mind, viz., that the gridiron should be kept in a
direction slanting towards the cook, so that as little fat as possible
may fall into the fire. It has been observed, that broiling is the most
difficult manual office the general cook has to perform, and one that
requires the most unremitting attention; for she may turn her back upon
the stewpan or the spit, but the gridiron can never be left with
impunity. The revolving gridiron, shown in the engraving, possesses some
advantages of convenience, which will be at once apparent.

FRYING.

[Illustration: SAUTE PAN.]

571. THIS VERY FAVOURITE MODE OF COOKING may be accurately described as
boiling in fat or oil. Substances dressed in this way are generally well
received, for they introduce an agreeable variety, possessing, as they
do, a peculiar flavour. By means of frying, cooks can soon satisfy many
requisitions made on them, it being a very expeditious mode of preparing
dishes for the table, and one which can be employed when the fire is not
sufficiently large for the purposes of roasting and boiling. The great
point to be borne in mind in frying, is that the liquid must be hot
enough to act instantaneously, as all the merit of this culinary
operation lies in the invasion of the boiling liquid, which carbonizes
or burns, at the very instant of the immersion of the body placed in it.
It may be ascertained if the fat is heated to the proper degree, by
cutting a piece of bread and dipping it in the frying-pan for five or
six seconds; and if it be firm and of a dark brown when taken out, put
in immediately what you wish to prepare; if it be not, let the fat be
heated until of the right temperature. This having been effected,
moderate the fire, so that the action may not be too hurried, and that
by a continuous heat the juices of the substance may be preserved, and
its flavour enhanced.

572. THE PHILOSOPHY OF FRYING consists in this, that liquids subjected
to the action of fire do not all receive the same quantity of heat.
Being differently constituted in their nature, they possess different
"capacities for caloric." Thus, you may, with impunity, dip your finger
in boiling spirits of wine; you would take it very quickly from boiling
brandy, yet more rapidly from water; whilst the effects of the most
rapid immersion in boiling oil need not be told. As a consequence of
this, heated fluids act differently on the sapid bodies presented to
them. Those put in water, dissolve, and are reduced to a soft mass; the
result being _bouillon_, stock, &c. (_see_ No. 103). Those substances,
on the contrary, treated with oil, harden, assume a more or less deep
colour, and are finally carbonized. The reason of these different
results is, that, in the first instance, water dissolves and extracts
the interior juices of the alimentary substances placed in it; whilst,
in the second, the juices are preserved; for they are insoluble in oil.

573. IT IS TO BE ESPECIALLY REMEMBERED, in connection with frying, that
all dishes fried in fat should be placed before the fire on a piece of
blotting-paper, or sieve reversed, and there left for a few minutes, so
that any superfluous greasy moisture may be removed.

574. THE UTENSILS USED FOR THE PURPOSES OF FRYING are confined to
frying-pans, although these are of various sizes; and, for small and
delicate dishes, such as collops, fritters, pancakes, &c., the _saute_
pan, of which we give an engraving, is used.

COOKING BY GAS.

[Illustration: GAS STOVE.]

575. GAS-COOKING can scarcely now be considered a novelty,--many
establishments, both small and large, have been fitted with apparatus
for cooking by this mode, which undoubtedly exhibits some advantages.
Thus the heat may be more regularly supplied to the substance cooking,
and the operation is essentially a clean one, because there can be no
cinders or other dirt to be provided for. Some labour and attention
necessary, too, with a coal fire or close stove, may be saved; and,
besides this, it may, perhaps, be said that culinary operations are
reduced, by this means, to something like a certainty.

576. THERE ARE, HOWEVER, WE THINK, MANY OBJECTIONS to this mode of
cooking, more especially when applied to small domestic establishments.
For instance, the ingenious machinery necessary for carrying it out,
requires cooks perfectly conversant with its use; and if the gas, when
the cooking operations are finished, be not turned off, there will be a
large increase in the cost of cooking, instead of the economy which it
has been supposed to bring. For large establishments, such as some of
the immense London warehouses, where a large number of young men have to
be catered for daily, it may be well adapted, as it is just possible
that a slight increase in the supply of gas necessary for a couple of
joints, may serve equally to cook a dozen dishes.

ROASTING.

577. OF THE VARIOUS METHODS OF PREPARING MEAT, ROASTING is that which
most effectually preserves its nutritive qualities. Meat is roasted by
being exposed to the direct influence of the fire. This is done by
placing the meat before an open grate, and keeping it in motion to
prevent the scorching on any particular part. When meat is properly
roasted, the outer layer of its albumen is coagulated, and thus presents
a barrier to the exit of the juice. In roasting meat, the heat must be
strongest at first, and it should then be much reduced. To have a good
juicy roast, therefore, the fire must be red and vigorous at the very
commencement of the operation. In the most careful roasting, some of the
juice is squeezed out of the meat: this evaporates on the surface of the
meat, and gives it a dark brown colour, a rich lustre, and a strong
aromatic taste. Besides these effects on the albumen and the expelled
juice, roasting converts the cellular tissue of the meat into gelatine,
and melts the fat out of the fat-cells.

578. IF A SPIT is used to support the meat before the fire, it should be
kept quite bright. Sand and water ought to be used to scour it with, for
brickdust and oil may give a disagreeable taste to the meat. When well
scoured, it must be wiped quite dry with a clean cloth; and, in spitting
the meat, the prime parts should be left untouched, so as to avoid any
great escape of its juices.

579. KITCHENS IN LARGE ESTABLISHMENTS are usually fitted with what are
termed "smoke-jacks." By means of these, several spits, if required, may
be turned at the same time. This not being, of course, necessary in
smaller establishments, a roasting apparatus, more economical in its
consumption of coal, is more frequently in use.

[Illustration: BOTTLE-JACK, WITH WHEEL AND HOOK.]

580. THE BOTTLE-JACK, of which we here give an illustration, with the
wheel and hook, and showing the precise manner of using it, is now
commonly used in many kitchens. This consists of a spring inclosed in a
brass cylinder, and requires winding up before it is used, and
sometimes, also, during the operation of roasting. The joint is fixed to
an iron hook, which is suspended by a chain connected with a wheel, and
which, in its turn, is connected with the bottle-jack. Beneath it stands
the dripping-pan, which we have also engraved, together with the
basting-ladle, the use of which latter should not be spared; as there
can be no good roast without good basting. "Spare the rod, and spoil the
child," might easily be paraphrased into "Spare the basting, and spoil
the meat." If the joint is small and light, and so turns unsteadily,
this may be remedied by fixing to the wheel one of the kitchen weights.
Sometimes this jack is fixed inside a screen; but there is this
objection to this apparatus,--that the meat cooked in it resembles the
flavour of baked meat. This is derived from its being so completely
surrounded with the tin, that no sufficient current of air gets to it.
It will be found preferable to make use of a common meat-screen, such as
is shown in the woodcut. This contains shelves for warming plates and
dishes; and with this, the reflection not being so powerful, and more
air being admitted to the joint, the roast may be very excellently
cooked.

[Illustration: DRIPPING-PAN AND BASTING-LADLE.]

581. IN STIRRING THE FIRE, or putting fresh coals on it, the
dripping-pan should always be drawn back, so that there may be no danger
of the coal, cinders, or ashes falling down into it.

582. UNDER EACH PARTICULAR RECIPE there is stated the time required for
roasting each joint; but, as a general rule, it may be here given, that
for every pound of meat, in ordinary-sized joints, a quarter of an hour
may be allotted.

[Illustration: HEAT-SCREEN.]

583. WHITE MEATS, AND THE MEAT OF YOUNG ANIMALS, require to be very well
roasted, both to be pleasant to the palate and easy of digestion. Thus
veal, pork, and lamb, should be thoroughly done to the centre.

584. MUTTON AND BEEF, on the other hand, do not, generally speaking,
require to be so thoroughly done, and they should be dressed to the
point, that, in carving them, the gravy should just run, but not too
freely. Of course in this, as in most other dishes, the tastes of
individuals vary; and there are many who cannot partake, with
satisfaction, of any joint unless it is what others would call
overdressed.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

QUADRUPEDS.

CHAPTER XII.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON QUADRUPEDS.

585. BY THE GENERAL ASSENT OF MANKIND, THE EMPIRE OF NATURE has been
divided into three kingdoms; the first consisting of minerals, the
second of vegetables, and the third of animals. The Mineral Kingdom
comprises all substances which are without those organs necessary to
locomotion, and the due performance of the functions of life. They are
composed of the accidental aggregation of particles, which, under
certain circumstances, take a constant and regular figure, but which are
more frequently found without any definite conformation. They also
occupy the interior parts of the earth, as well as compose those huge
masses by which we see the land in some parts guarded against the
encroachments of the sea. The Vegetable Kingdom covers and beautifies
the earth with an endless variety of form and colour. It consists of
organized bodies, but destitute of the power of locomotion. They are
nourished by means of roots; they breathe by means of leaves; and
propagate by means of seed, dispersed within certain limits. The Animal
Kingdom consists of sentient beings, that enliven the external parts of
the earth. They possess the powers of voluntary motion, respire air, and
are forced into action by the cravings of hunger or the parching of
thirst, by the instincts of animal passion, or by pain. Like the
vegetable kingdom, they are limited within the boundaries of certain
countries by the conditions of climate and soil; and some of the species
prey upon each other. Linnaeus has divided them into six
classes;--Mammalia, Birds, Fishes, Amphibious Animals, Insects, and
Worms. The three latter do not come within the limits of our domain; of
fishes we have already treated, of birds we shall treat, and of mammalia
we will now treat.

586. THIS CLASS OF ANIMALS embraces all those that nourish their young
by means of lacteal glands, or teats, and are so constituted as to have
a warm or red blood. In it the whale is placed,--an order which, from
external habits, has usually been classed with the fishes; but, although
this animal exclusively inhabits the water, and is supplied with fins,
it nevertheless exhibits a striking alliance to quadrupeds. It has warm
blood, and produces its young alive; it nourishes them with milk, and,
for that purpose, is furnished with teats. It is also supplied with
lungs, and two auricles and two ventricles to the heart; all of which
bring it still closer into an alliance with the quadrupedal species of
the animal kingdom.

587. THE GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MAMMALIA have been frequently
noticed. The bodies of nearly the whole species are covered with hair, a
kind of clothing which is both soft and warm, little liable to injury,
and bestowed in proportion to the necessities of the animal and the
nature of the climate it inhabits. In all the higher orders of animals,
the head is the principal seat of the organs of sense. It is there that
the eyes, the ears, the nose, and the mouth are placed. Through the last
they receive their nourishment. In it are the _teeth_, which, in most of
the mammalia, are used not only for the mastication of food, but as
weapons of offence. They are inserted into two movable bones called
jaws, and the front teeth are so placed that their sharp edges may
easily be brought in contact with their food, in order that its fibres
may readily be separated. Next to these, on each side, are situated the
canine teeth, or tusks, which are longer than the other teeth, and,
being pointed, are used to tear the food. In the back jaws are placed
another form of teeth, called grinders. These are for masticating the
food; and in those animals that live on vegetables, they are flattened
at the top; but, in carnivora, their upper surfaces are furnished with
sharp-pointed protuberances. From the numbers, form, and disposition of
the teeth, the various genera of quadrupeds have been arranged. The
_nose_ is a cartilaginous body, pierced with two holes, which are called
nostrils. Through these the animal is affected by the sense of smell;
and in some it is prominent, whilst in others it is flat, compressed,
turned upwards, or bent downwards. In beasts of prey, it is frequently
longer than the lips; and in some other animals it is elongated into a
movable trunk or proboscis, whilst, in the rhinoceros tribe, it is armed
with a horn. The _eyes_ of quadrupeds are generally defended by movable
lids, on the outer margins of which are fringes of hair, called
eyelashes. The opening of the pupil is in general circular; but to some
species, as in those of the Cat and Hare, it is contracted into a
perpendicular line, whilst in the Horse, the Ox, and a few others, it
forms a transverse bar. The _ears_ are openings, generally accompanied
with a cartilage which defends and covers them, called the external
ears. In water-animals the latter are wanting; sound, in them, being
transmitted merely through orifices in the head, which have the name of
auditory-holes. The most defenceless animals are extremely delicate in
the sense of hearing, as are likewise most beasts of prey. Most of the
mammiferous animals _walk_ on four feet, which, at the extremities, are
usually divided into toes or fingers. In some, however, the feet end in
a single corneous substance called a hoof. The toes of a few end in
broad, flat nails, and of most others, in pointed claws. Some, again,
have the toes connected by a membrane, which is adapted to those that
are destined to pass a considerable portion of their lives in water.
Others, again, as in the Bat, have the digitations of the anterior feet
greatly elongated, the intervening space being filled by a membrane,
which extends round the hinder legs and tail, and by means of which they
are enabled to rise into the air. In Man, the hand alone comprises
fingers, separate, free, and flexible; but Apes, and some other kinds of
animals, have fingers both to the hands and feet. These, therefore, are
the only animals that can hold movable objects in a single hand. Others,
such as Rats and Squirrels, have the fingers sufficiently small and
flexible to enable them to pick up objects; but they are compelled to
hold them in both hands. Others, again, have the toes shorter, and must
rest on the fore-feet, as is the case with dogs and cats when they wish
to hold a substance firmly on the ground with their paws. There are
still others that have their toes united and drawn under the skin, or
enveloped in corneous hoofs, and are thereby enabled to exercise no
prehensile power whatever.

588. ACCORDING TO THE DESIGN AND END OF NATURE, mammiferous animals are
calculated, when arrived at maturity, to subsist on various kinds of
food,--some to live wholly upon flesh, others upon grain, herbs, or
fruits; but in their infant state, milk is the appropriate food of the
whole. That this food may never fail them, it is universally ordained,
that the young should no sooner come into the world, than the milk
should flow in abundance into the members with which the mother is
supplied for the secretion of that nutritious fluid. By a wonderful
instinct of Nature, too, the young animal, almost as soon as it has come
into life, searches for the teat, and knows perfectly, at the first,
how, by the process of suction, it will be able to extract the fluid
necessary to its existence.

589. IN THE GENERAL ECONOMY OF NATURE, this class of animals seems
destined to preserve a constant equilibrium in the number of animated
beings that hold their existence on the surface of the earth. To man
they are immediately useful in various ways. Some of their bodies afford
him food, their skin shoes, and their fleece clothes. Some of them unite
with him in participating the dangers of combat with an enemy, and
others assist him in the chase, in exterminating wilder sorts, or
banishing them from the haunts of civilization. Many, indeed, are
injurious to him; but most of them, in some shape or other, he turns to
his service. Of these there is none he has made more subservient to his
purposes than the common ox, of which there is scarcely a part that he
has not been able to convert into some useful purpose. Of the horns he
makes drinking-vessels, knife-handles, combs, and boxes; and when they
are softened by means of boiling water, he fashions them into
transparent plates for lanterns. This invention is ascribed to King
Alfred, who is said to have been the first to use them to preserve his
candle time-measures from the wind. Glue is made of the cartilages,
gristles, and the finer pieces of the parings and cuttings of the hides.
Their bone is a cheap substitute for ivory. The thinnest of the
calf-skins are manufactured into vellum. Their blood is made the basis
of Prussian blue, and saddlers use a fine sort of thread prepared from
their sinews. The hair is used in various valuable manufactures; the
suet, fat, and tallow, are moulded into candles; and the milk and cream
of the cow yield butter and cheese. Thus is every part of this animal
valuable to man, who has spared no pains to bring it to the highest
state of perfection.

[Illustration: SHORT-HORN COW.]

[Illustration: SHORT-HORN BULL.]

590. AMONG THE VARIOUS BREEDS OF THE OX, upon which man has bestowed his
highest powers of culture, there is now none takes a higher place than
that known by the name of Short-Horns. From the earliest ages, Great
Britain has been distinguished for the excellence of her native breeds
of cattle, and there are none in England that have obtained greater
celebrity than those which have this name, and which originated, about
seventy years ago, on the banks of the Tees. Thence they have spread
into the valleys of the Tweed; thence to the Lothians, in Scotland; and
southward, into the fine pastures of England. They are now esteemed the
most profitable breed of cattle, as there is no animal which attains
sooner to maturity, and none that supplies meat of a superior quality.
The value of some of the improved breeds is something enormous. At the
sale of Mr. Charles Colling, a breeder in Yorkshire, in 1810, his bull
"Comet" sold for 1,000 guineas. At the sale of Earl Spencer's herd in
1846, 104 cows, heifers, and calves, with nineteen bulls, fetched
L8,468. 5s.; being an average of L68. 17s. apiece. The value of such
animals is scarcely to be estimated by those who are unacquainted with
the care with which they are tended, and with the anxious attention
which is paid to the purity of their breed. A modern writer, well
acquainted with this subject, says, "There are now, at least, five
hundred herds, large and small, in this kingdom, and from six to seven
thousand head registered every alternate year in the herd-book." The
necessity for thus recording the breeds is greater than might, at first
sight, be imagined, as it tends directly to preserve the character of
the cattle, while it sometimes adds to the value and reputation of the
animal thus entered. Besides, many of the Americans, and large
purchasers for the foreign market, will not look at an animal without
the breeder has taken care to qualify him for such reference. Of
short-horned stock, there is annually sold from L40,000 to L50,000 worth
by public auction, independent of the vast numbers disposed of by
private contract. The brood is highly prized in Belgium, Prussia,
France, Italy, and Russia; it is imported into most of the British
colonies, and is greatly esteemed both for its meat and its dairy
produce, wherever it is known. The quickness with which it takes on
flesh, and the weight which it frequently makes, are well known; but we
may mention that it is not uncommon to tee steers of from four to five
years old realize a weight of from 800 to 1,000 lbs. Such animals
command from the butcher from L30 to L40 per head, according to the
quality; whilst others, of two or three years old, and, of course, of
less Weight, bring as much as L20 apiece.

[Illustration: LONG-HORN BULL.]

[Illustration: LONG-HORN COW.]

591. LONG-HORNS.--This is the prevailing breed in our midland counties
and in Ireland; but they are greatly inferior to the short-horns, and
are fast being supplanted by them. Even where they have been cultivated
with the nicest care and brought to the greatest perfection, they are
inferior to the others, and must ultimately be driven from the farm.

[Illustration: ALDERNEY COW.]

[Illustration: ALDERNEY BULL.]

592. THE ALDERNEY.--Among the dairy breeds of England, the Alderney
takes a prominent place, not on account of the quantity of milk which it
yields, but on account of the excellent quality of the cream and butter
which are produced from it. Its docility is marvellous, and in
appearance it greatly resembles the Ayrshire breed of Scotland, the
excellence of which is supposed to be, in some degree, derived from a
mixture of the Alderney blood with that breed. The distinction between
them, however, lies both in the quantity and quality of the milk which
they severally produce; that of the Alderney being rich in quality, and
that of the Ayrshire abundant in quantity. The merit of the former,
however, ends with its milk, for as a grazer it is worthless.

[Illustration: GALLOWAY BULL.]

[Illustration: GALLOWAY COW.]

593. SCOTTISH BREEDS.--Of these the Kyloe, which belongs to the
Highlands of Scotland; the Galloway, which has been called the Kyloe
without horns; and the Ayrshire, are the breeds most celebrated. The
first has kept his place, and on account of the compactness of his form,
and the excellent quality of his flesh, he is a great favourite with
butchers who have a select family trade. It is alike unsuitable for the
dairy and the arable farm; but in its native Highlands it attains to
great perfection, thriving upon the scanty and coarse herbage which it
gathers on the sides of the mountains. The Galloway has a larger frame,
and when fattened makes excellent beef. But it has given place to the
short-horns in its native district, where turnip-husbandry is pursued
with advantage. The Ayrshire is peculiarly adapted for the dairy, and
for the abundance of its milk cannot be surpassed in its native
district. In this it stands unrivalled, and there is no other breed
capable of converting the produce of a poor soil into such fine butter
and cheese. It is difficult to fatten, however, and its beef is of a
coarse quality. We have chosen these as among the principal
representative breeds of the ox species; but there are other breeds
which, at all events, have a local if not a general celebrity.

[Illustration: SIDE OF BEEF, SHOWING THE SEVERAL JOINTS.]

594. The general Mode of Slaughtering Oxen in this country is by
striking them a smart blow with a hammer or poleaxe on the head, a
little above the eyes. By this means, when the blow is skilfully given,
the beast is brought down at one blow, and, to prevent recovery, a cane
is generally inserted, by which the spinal cord is perforated, which
instantly deprives the ox of all sensation of pain. In Spain, and some
other countries on the continent, it is also usual to deprive oxen of
life by the operation of pithing or dividing the spinal cord in the
neck, close to the back part of the head. This is, in effect, the same
mode as is practised in the celebrated Spanish bull-fights by the
matador, and it is instantaneous in depriving the animal of sensation,
if the operator be skilful. We hope and believe that those men whose
disagreeable duty it is to slaughter the "beasts of the field" to
provide meat for mankind, inflict as little punishment and cause as
little suffering as possible.

595. THE MANNER IN WHICH A SIDE OF BEEF is cut up in London, is shown in
the engraving on this page. In the metropolis, on account of the large
number of its population possessing the means to indulge in the "best of
everything," the demand for the most delicate joints of meat is great,
the price, at the same time, being much higher for these than for the
other parts. The consequence is, that in London the carcass is there
divided so as to obtain the greatest quantity of meat on the most
esteemed joints. In many places, however, where, from a greater equality
in the social condition and habits of the inhabitants, the demand and
prices for the different parts of the carcasses are more equalized,
there is not the same reason for the butcher to cut the best joints so
large.

596. THE MEAT ON THOSE PARTS OF THE ANIMAL in which the muscles are
least called into action, is most tender and succulent; as, for
instance, along the back, from the rump to the hinder part of the
shoulder; whilst the limbs, shoulder, and neck, are the toughest,
driest, and least-esteemed.

597. THE NAMES OF THE SEVERAL JOINTS in the hind and fore quarters of a
side of beef, and the purposes for which they are used, are as
follows:--

HIND QUARTER.

1. Sirloin.--The two sirloins, cut together in one joint, form a baron;
this, when roasted, is the famous national dish of Englishmen, at
entertainments, on occasion of rejoicing.

2. Rump,--the finest part for steaks.

3. Aitch-bone,--boiling piece.

4. Buttock,--prime boiling piece.

5. Mouse-round,--boiling or stewing.

6. Hock,--stewing.

7. Thick flank, cut with the udder-fat,--primest boiling piece.

8. Thin flank,--boiling.

FORE QUARTER.

9. Five ribs, called the fore-rib.--This is considered the primest
roasting piece.

10. Four ribs, called the middle-rib,--greatly esteemed by housekeepers
as the most economical joint for roasting.

11. Two ribs, called the chuck-rib,--used for second quality of steaks.

12. Leg-of-mutton piece,--the muscles of the shoulder dissected from the
breast.

13. Brisket, or breast,--used for boiling, after being salted.

14. Neck, clod, and sticking-piece,--used for soups, gravies, stocks,
pies, and mincing for sausages.

15. Shin,--stewing.

The following is a classification of the qualities of meat, according to
the several joints of beef, when cut up in the London manner.

_First class_.--includes the sirloin, with the kidney suet (1), the
rump-steak piece (2), the fore-rib (9).

_Second class_.--The buttock (4), the thick flank (7), the middle-rib
(10).

_Third class_.--The aitch-bone (3), the mouse-round (5), the thin flank
(8), the chuck (11), the leg-of-mutton piece (12), the brisket (13).

_Fourth class_.--The neck, clod, and sticking-piece (14).

_Fifth class_.--The hock (6), the shin (15).

RECIPES.

CHAPTER XIII.

BAKED BEEF (Cold Meat Cookery).

I.

598. INGREDIENTS.--About 2 lbs. of cold roast beef, 2 small onions, 1
large carrot or two small ones, 1 turnip, a small bunch of savoury
herbs, salt and pepper to taste, 4 tablespoonfuls of gravy, 3
tablespoonfuls of ale, crust or mashed potatoes.

_Mode_.--Cut the beef in slices, allowing a small amount of fat to each
slice; place a layer of this in the bottom of a pie-dish, with a portion
of the onions, carrots, and turnips, which must be sliced; mince the
herbs, strew them over the meat, and season with pepper and salt. Then
put another layer of meat, vegetables, and seasoning; and proceed in
this manner until all the ingredients are used. Pour in the gravy and
ale (water may be substituted for the former, but it is not so nice),
cover with a crust or mashed potatoes, and bake for 1/2 hour, or rather
longer.

_Time_.--Rather more than 1/2 hour.

_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6d.

_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note_.--It is as well to parboil the carrots and turnips before adding
them to the meat, and to use some of the liquor in which they were
boiled as a substitute for gravy; that is to say, when there is no gravy
at hand. Be particular to cut the onions in very _thin_ slices.

II.

599. INGREDIENTS.--Slices of cold roast beef, salt and pepper to taste,
1 sliced onion, 1 teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs, 5 or 6
tablespoonfuls of gravy or sauce of any kind, mashed potatoes.

_Mode_.--Butter the sides of a deep dish, and spread mashed potatoes
over the bottom of it; on this place layers of beef in thin slices (this
may be minced if there is not sufficient beef to cut into slices), well
seasoned with pepper and salt, and a very little onion end herbs, which
should be previously fried of a nice brown; then put another layer of
mashed potatoes, and beef, and other ingredients, as before; pour in the
gravy or sauce, cover the whole with another layer of potatoes, and bake
for 1/2 hour. This may be served in the dish, or turned out.

_Time_.--1/2 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold beef, 6d.

_Sufficient_.--A large pie-dish full for 5 or 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BEEF.--The quality of beef depends on various circumstances;
such as the age, the sex, the breed of the animal, and also on
the food upon which it has been raised. Bull beef is, in
general, dry and tough, and by no means possessed of an
agreeable flavour; whilst the flesh of the ox is not only highly
nourishing and digestible, but, if not too old, extremely
agreeable. The flesh of the cow is, also, nourishing, but it is
not so agreeable as that of the ox, although that of a heifer is
held in high estimation. The flesh of the smaller breeds is much
sweeter than that of the larger, which is best when the animal
is about seven years old. That of the smaller breeds is best at
about five years, and that of the cow can hardly be eaten too
young.

BAKED BEEF-STEAK PUDDING.

600. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of flour, 2 eggs, not quite 1 pint of milk,
salt to taste, 1-1/2 lb. of rump-steaks, 1 kidney, pepper and salt.

_Mode_.--Cut the steaks into nice square pieces, with a small quantity
of fat, and the kidney divide into small pieces. Make a batter of flour,
eggs, and milk in the above proportion; lay a little of it at the bottom
of a pie-dish; then put in the steaks and kidney, which should be well
seasoned with pepper and salt, and pour over the remainder of the
batter, and bake for 1-1/2 hour in a brisk but not fierce oven.

_Time_.--1-1/2 hour. _Average cost_, 2s.

_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BEEF A LA MODE.

(_Economical_.)

601. INGREDIENTS.--About 3 lbs. of clod or sticking of beef, 2 oz. of
clarified dripping, 1 large onion, flour, 2 quarts of water, 12 berries
of allspice, 2 bay-leaves, 1/2 teaspoonful of whole black pepper, salt
to taste.

_Mode_.--Cut the beef into small pieces, and roll them in flour; put the
dripping into a stewpan with the onion, which should be sliced thin. Let
it get quite hot; lay in the pieces of beef, and stir them well about.
When nicely browned all over, add _by degrees_ boiling water in the
above proportion, and, as the water is added, keep the whole well
stirred. Put in the spice, bay-leaves, and seasoning, cover the stewpan
closely, and set it by the side of the fire to stew very _gently_, till
the meat becomes quite tender, which will be in about 3 hours, when it
will be ready to serve. Remove the bay-leaves before it is sent to
table.

_Time_.--3 hours.

_Average cost_, 1s. 3d.

_Sufficient_ for 6 persons.

_Seasonable_ at any time.

BEEF A LA MODE.

602. INGREDIENTS.--6 or 7 lbs. of the thick flank of beef, a few slices
of fat bacon, 1 teacupful of vinegar, black pepper, allspice, 2 cloves
well mixed and finely pounded, making altogether 1 heaped teaspoonful;
salt to taste, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, all finely
minced and well mixed; 3 onions, 2 large carrots, 1 turnip, 1 head of
celery, 1-1/2 pint of water, 1 glass of port wine.

_Mode_.--Slice and fry the onions of a pale brown, and cut up the other
vegetables in small pieces, and prepare the beef for stewing in the
following manner:--Choose a fine piece of beef, cut the bacon into long
slices, about an inch in thickness, dip them into vinegar, and then into
a little of the above seasoning of spice, &c., mixed with the same
quantity of minced herbs. With a sharp knife make holes deep enough to
let in the bacon; then rub the beef over with the remainder of the
seasoning and herbs, and bind it up in a nice shape with tape. Have
ready a well-tinned stewpan (it should not be much larger than the piece
of meat you are cooking), into which put the beef, with the vegetables,
vinegar, and water. Let it simmer _very gently_ for 5 hours, or rather
longer, should the meat not be extremely tender, and turn it once or
twice. When ready to serve, take out the beef, remove the tape, and put
it on a hot dish. Skim off every particle of fat from the gravy, add the
port wine, just let it boil, pour it over the beef, and it is ready to
serve. Great care must be taken that this does not boil fast, or the
meat will be tough and tasteless; it should only just bubble. When
convenient, all kinds of stews, &c., should be cooked on a hot-plate, as
the process is so much more gradual than on an open fire.

_Time_.--5 hours, or rather more.

_Average cost_, 7d. per lb.

_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.

_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable for a winter dish.

GOOD MEAT.--The lyer of meat when freshly killed, and the
animal, when slaughtered, being in a state of perfect health,
adheres firmly to the bones. Beef of the best quality is of a
deep-red colour; and when the animal has approached maturity,
and been well fed, the lean is intermixed with fat, giving it
the mottled appearance which is so much esteemed. It is also
full of juice, which resembles in colour claret wine. The fat of
the best beef is of a firm and waxy consistency, of a colour
resembling that of the finest grass butter; bright in
appearance, neither greasy nor friable to the touch, but
moderately unctuous, in a medium degree between the
last-mentioned properties.

BEEF-STEAKS AND OYSTER SAUCE.

603. INGREDIENTS.--3 dozen oysters, ingredients for oyster sauce (see
No. 492), 2 lbs. of rump-steak, seasoning to taste of pepper and salt.

_Mode_.--Make the oyster sauce by recipe No. 492, and when that is
ready, put it by the side of the fire, but do not let it keep boiling.

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