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The American Indian as Participant in the Civil War by Annie Heloise Abel

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be taken as type, 45; redoubles efforts for organizing brigade, 49;
empowered to recruit, 50; conceives idea of utilizing Indians, 50, 57;
abandons Fort Scott, 52; throws up breastworks at Fort Lincoln, 52;
proceeds to seek revenge in spite of Robinson's opposition, 55; burns
Osceola, 55; attitude towards slavery, 56; suggests re-organization
of military districts on frontier, 58; disconcerted by appointment of
Hunter, 66-69; plans for inter-tribal council, 69; Denver had measured
swords with, 70; control over Federal patronage in Kansas, 71;
nominated brigadier-general, 71; friction between Hunter and, 74-76;
instructed by anti-Coffin conspirators, 88, _footnote_; protests
to Lincoln against appointment of Denver, 97; succeeds in preventing
appointment of Denver, 98; responsible for Blunt's promotion, 107,
_footnote_; Phillips appointed on staff, 126, _footnote_;
endorses request of Agent Johnson, 207, _footnote_; introduces
resolution for extending southern boundary of Kansas, 223; denounces
Stevens as defaulter, 226, _footnote_; opposed to Gamble,
Schofield, and Curtis, 249, _footnote_; belongs to party of

_Extremists_, 305, _footnote_; requests that Blunt be
summoned to Washington for conference, 322, _footnote_

Lane, W.P: 266, _footnote_

Lane's Kansas Brigade: 41, 43, 49, 51, 58, 59, 71; relation to
Hunter's command, 72 and _footnote_; marauding committed, 75,
_footnote_; prospective Indian element dispensed with, 77

Lawler, J.J: 204, _footnote_

Lawrence (Kans.): 62, _footnote_, 73, _footnote_;
Quantrill's raid upon, 238, _footnote_; Dole detained by raid
upon, 239

Lawrenceburg (Ind.): 43, _footnote_

Lawrence _Republican_: 58, _footnote_

Leased District (Okla.): 181-182, 198

Leavenworth _Daily Conservative_: 58, _footnote_

Lee, Robert E: 186, _footnote_, 187

Lee, R.W: 307, _footnote_

Leeper, Matthew: authorized to enlist men, 173, _footnote_;
departs for Texas, 183; murder, 183

Leetown (Ark.): 30, 31

Leroy (Kans.): 86, 229, 239 and _footnote_; arrangements for
keeping cattle, 54, _footnote_; Lane builds stockades, 55;
council held by Cutler at, 62, _footnote_; substituted for
Humboldt as place for council, 69; sessions of council, 69-70; Indian
Brigade left, for Humboldt, 115, _footnote_; Weer returns to,
121; some Quapaws at, 204, _footnote_; Osages at, 207; Blunt
thinks refugees not properly cared for, 215; Dole negotiates with
Osages at, 239 and _footnote_

Lexington (Mo.): 52, _footnote_, 55

Limestone Gap: 111, _footnote_

Limestone Prairie: 328

Lincoln, Abraham: 71, 72 and _footnote_, 211, _footnote_;
suggests Hunter's falling back, 13; calls for volunteers, 41;
approached by Phelps and Blair, 49; popularity asserted, 54,
_footnote_; fears Fremont's supineness, 56; Lane urged to seek
interview with, 58; appointment of Cameron mistake, 60; attention
solicited by Dole, 61; sickness in family, 76, _footnote_;
refugees appeal to, 87 and _footnote_; estimate of Halleck, 96;
protests to, against appointment of Denver, 97; wires Halleck to defer
assignment of Denver, 97-98; responsible for Blunt's promotion,
107, _footnote_; Ross to intercede with, 192, _footnote_;
inquires into practicability of occupying Cherokee country, 216;
selects Schofield to succeed Curtis, 260; Amnesty Proclamation
distributed among Indians, 322

Lindsay's Prairie: 216

Linn County (Kans.): 101, _footnote_

Lipans: 274, _footnote_

Little Arkansas River: 275, _footnote_

Little Bear: 240, _footnote_

Little Bear Band of Osages: 238, _footnote_

Little Blue River (Okla.): 151, _footnote_

Little Boggy (Okla.): 112

Little Osage River: 45, 52

Little Rock (Ark.): 36, 63, _footnote_, 190; Van Dorn assumes
command at, 25; Hindman assumes command at, 128; Hindman orders Pike
to move part of forces to, 147; Scott endeavours to interview Holmes
in, 299

Livermore, William Roscoe: work cited in _footnotes_ on 260, 269,
270

Locust Grove (Okla.): skirmish at, 33, 131-132; Clarkson's commissary
captured at, 138; defeat of Confederates at, counted heavily against
Pike, 161

Lo-ka-la-chi-ha-go: 109, _footnote_

Lo-ga-po-koh: 109, _footnote_

Long Tiger: 103, _footnote_

Longtown Creek (Okla.): 295, _footnote_

Louisiana: portion included within Trans-Mississippi District,
20; requisition upon, for troops, 25; portion included within
Trans-Mississippi Department, 192 and _footnote_; western,
detached from Trans-Mississippi Department, 246

Love, William DeLoss: work cited in _footnotes_ on pages 118, 138

Lower Creeks: 62, _footnote_

Lyon, Nathaniel: work to be repeated, 14; insight into Indian
character, 48; death, 49

McClellan, George B: 13, 75, _footnote_, 96

McClish, Fraser: 62, _footnote_

McCulloch, Ben: refuses to cooeperate with Price, 14, 56; takes
position in Arkansas, 15; relations with leading Confederates
in Arkansas and Missouri, 16; little in common with Price, 17;
indifference towards Missouri, 18; proceeds to Richmond to discuss
matters in controversy, 19; driven back into northwestern Arkansas,
26; death, 31, 34; had approved of using Indians against Kansas,
31, _footnote_; commission from, found on John Matthews, 54,
_footnote_; had diverted Pike's supplies, 147-148

McCulloch, Henry E: in command of Northern Sub-district of Texas, 302;
opinion of conditions in Indian Territory, 306, _footnote_

McCurtain, J: 312, _footnote_

McDaniel, James: 231, _footnote_

McDonald, Hugh: 173, _footnote_

McGee's Residence: 47, _footnote_

McIntosh, Chilly: 25, 62, _footnote_, 152

McIntosh, D.N: colonel in command of First Creek Regiment, 25; arrives
at Camp Stephens, 32; under orders to advance up Verdigris toward
Santa Fe road, 152; conduct as commander, 285, _footnote_;
commanded First and Second Creek at Honey Springs, 288

McIntosh, James: 29, _footnote_; death, 31, 34; defeated
Opoeth-le-yo-ho-la in Battle of Chustenahlah, 79

McIntosh, Unee: 62, _footnote_

McIntosh, William: 255, _footnote_

Mackey's Salt Works (Okla.): 325

McNeil, John: 297 and _footnote_, 305

Magazine Mountains: 266, _footnote_

Magruder, John Bankhead: to command Trans-Mississippi Department,
186; delay, 186, _footnote_; appointment, rescinded, 187; orders
Bankhead to Steele's assistance, 291-292; proposes consolidation of
commands for recovery of Forts Smith and Gibson, 302; tries to deprive
Steele of white force, 306, 311, _footnote_; wants Indian
Territory attached to Texas, 306, _footnote_

Manypenny, George W: 221

Marmaduke, John S: 251, 327

Marston, B.W: 329, _footnote_

Marque and Reprisal Law: 21

Martial Law: 162 and _footnote_

Martin, George W: work cited, 59, _footnote_

Martin, H.W: entrusted with mission by Coffin, 122 and
_footnote_, 133; opinion regarding refugees, 209, 217-218;
arrangements for inter-tribal council, 273, _footnote_

Martin's Regiment: 308, _footnote_

Marysville (Okla.): 112

Matthews, John: incensing Osages and Cherokees against U.S.
government, 47, _footnote_; death, 53 and _footnote_; had
commission from McCuIloch, 54, _footnote_

Maxey, Samuel B: assigned to command of Indian Territory, 311; project
for sweeping reforms, 315 and _footnote_; delivers address at
Armstrong Academy council, 320

and _footnote_; thinks Indians best adapted for irregular
warfare, 326; cooeperates with Price willingly, 326-327; rulings,
329-330, _footnote_; sets up printing-press for propaganda work,
330; speaks in own defense, 334; superseded by Cooper, 334

Maysville (Ark.): 131, 197

Maremec River (Mo.): 27

Methodist Episcopal Church South: 236, _footnote_

Mexican War: 70; Roane's conduct in, criticised by Pike, 149

Mexico: Lane in, 42, _footnote_; teams hauling cotton to, 266,
_footnote_

Miamies: 77, _footnote_

Mico Hatki: 62, _footnote_, 64, _footnote_, 108,
_footnote_, 234

Middle Boggy (Okla.): 152, 296

Miles, W. Porcher: 278, _footnote_

Mills, James K.: 113

Mississippi River: 14, _footnote_, 26, _footnote_, 34, 268,
_footnote_

Missouri: 17, 173, _footnote_; decisive result of Battle of
Pea Ridge, 13; expected Confederacy to force situation for her, 18;
requisition upon, for troops, 25; relief planned by Van Dorn, 26, 34;
Indians to cut off supplies from, 35; fight for, on border, 43-44;
troops from Kansas called to, 48; Denver served in, 70; activity
of secessionists, 110; Payton, senator from, 176, _footnote_;
Hindman and others plan to reenter southwest, 194, 218; Delaware
Reservation not far distant from, 206; Martin refuses to consider
refugees living upon impoverished people of, 217-218; political
squabbles in, 249, _footnote_; Watie succeeds in entering
southwestern, 312; Boudinot suggests arrangements for, 317,
_footnote_

Missouri Commandery: work cited, 148, _footnote_

Missouri River: 53

Missouri State Guard: 17, 158

Missouri State Guards: Eighth Division, 130, _footnote_

Missourians: customary fighting methods during period of border
warfare, 17, 44; refugee, in Lane's Kansas Brigade, 51; inroads
resented by various tribes, 77, _footnote_; intent upon ignoring
First Indian Expedition, 119, _footnote_; battalion of, at Locust
Grove, 131

Mitchell, Robert B: appointment by Robinson, 46, _footnote_;
raises volunteers to go against Indians, 46, _footnote_; needed
by Halleck, 101 and _footnote_

Mix, Charles E: 52, _footnote_, 60, 208, _footnote_

"Moderates": 304, _footnote_

Mograin, Charles: 207, _footnote_, 241, _footnote_

Moneka: 46, _footnote_

Montgomery, James: 15 and _footnote_, 45, 53, _footnote_

Moonlight, Thomas: 322

Moore, Charles: 206, _footnote_

Moore, Frank: work cited in _footnotes_ on pages 83, 84, 135,
184, 257, 287

Moore, Thomas O: 192, _footnote_

Moravian Mission: 194

Morgan, A.S: 291, _footnote_, 293

Morton, Oliver P: 43 and _footnote_

Moty Kennard: _footnotes_ on pages 62, 65, 262, 278, 302, 320

Mundy Durant: 235, _footnote_

Munsees: 212

Muskogee (Okla.): 288

Murrow, J.S: 162, _footnote_

Napier's _Peninsular War_: Pike's study of, 163

Nebraska Territory: 227, 231

Neosho (Mo.): defeat of Federals at, 113; Ratliff despatched to,
127; Cherokee refugees removed from Drywood Creek to, 214, 217, 218;
refugees at, 257, _footnote_, 273 and _footnote_

Neosho Agency: headquarters, 46, 50, 52; tribes included within, 48;
in great confusion, 115-116; changes in location of, 116-117

Neosho Falls (Kans.): 213

Neosho Valley: suitable place for refugees, 86; refugees object to
leaving, 88; Steele plans to replenish resources from, 286; Stand
Watie makes daring cavalry raid into, 312

New Albany: 80, _footnote_

New England Relief Society: 87, _footnote_

New Mexico: 61, 113, 152, 238, _footnote_

Newton, Robert C: 266, _footnote_

Newton County (Mo.): 47, _footnote_

Newtonia (Mo.): battle of, 194-195 and _footnotes_

New York Indian Lands: 79; intruded upon by white squatters, 80, 85;
refugees upon, 79, 85; controversy over, 85, _footnote_; Dole
makes treaty concerning, 235-236

New York _Tribune_: 31, _footnote_, 126, _footnote_,
226

Nicolay, John G: 42, _footnote_

Nineteenth Regiment of Arkansas Volunteers: 150, _footnote_

Ninth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry: 119, _footnote_; Frederick
Salomon, colonel, 118; part attached to First Brigade of First Indian
Expedition, 126

North, The: 42, _footnote_, 171, 245; indifference towards West,
43; reconstruction measures in favor of, 228; Indian Territory came
too late into reckonings of, 250

North Fork of the Canadian (Okla.): 173, _footnote_

North Fork Village (Okla.): 173, _footnote_

Northern Sub-District of Texas: 286, 302

Ock-tah-har-sas Harjo: 228, _footnote_; elected principal chief
by refugee Creeks, 89; addresses "Our Father," 233

Office of Indian Affairs: prompt action needed, 47, _footnote_;
approval sought, 52; appeal to War Department for restoration of
military force in Indian Territory, 60; Carruth, special agent of,
accompanies First Indian Expedition, 122 and _footnote_;
agents ignored by military men of First Indian Expedition, 133 and
_footnote_; profiteering among employees, 208; Wattles sent out
by, 226; not yet prepared to treat with John Ross for retrocession of
Neutral Lands, 231

Oh-Chen-Yah-Hoe-Lah: 69, _footnote_

Oke-Tah-hah-shah-haw Choe: talk, 66, _footnote_

Olathe (Kans.): 205

Old George: 203

Oldham, Williamson S: 157 and _footnote_, 176, _footnote_

Opoeth-le-yo-ho-la: 24, 63, _footnote_, 73, _footnote_,
76 and _footnote_, 79; defeated by McIntosh in Battle of
Chustenahlah, 79; lodges complaint against Coffin, 87; friends oppose
election of Ock-tah-har-sas Harjo as principal chief, 89; interviews
Lane, 94; Coffin talks with, on subject of Indian Expedition, 102-103,
_footnote_; wants "wagons that shoot," 117; Creeks under, offered
home by Osages, 207 and _footnote_, 229; Ellithorpe complains of,
219, _footnote_; death, 234

Osage County (Kans.): 80

Osage Nation: 47, _footnote_

Osage Reservation (Kans.): exposed condition of, 55; refugees cross,
79; intruders upon, 222 and _footnote_; owners unwilling to cede
part of, 229-230

Osage River: 27

Osages: 252; bad white men interfering with, 46; disturbances

among, 46, _footnote_, 47, _footnote_; Mitchell schemes to
negotiate treaty with, 47, _footnote_; offer assistance to
U.S., 49; John Matthews, trader among, 53, _footnote_; loyalty
asserted, 54, _footnote_; Coffin to cooeperate with Elder in
negotiating with, 87-88, _footnote_; attempt to persuade
enlistment for First Indian Expedition, 115, 207; approached for
cession of lands, 116, 222; abandon Confederate cause, 121;
Weer promotes enlistment of, 121; service rendered by, 207,
_footnote_; offer home to Creeks, 207 and _footnote_, 229,
237-238; memorialize Congress, 229; disgusted with Coffin's draft
of treaty of cession, 229; Dole makes treaty with, 235, 239 and
_footnote_; massacre of Confederate officers, 237-238,
_footnote_; council of Great and Little, 237, _footnote_;
unfair advantage taken by representatives of U.S. government, 238;
terms of Dole's treaty with, 239, _footnote_; makes propositions
to Dole, 240-241, _footnote_; Dorn reported to have funds for,
264, _footnote_; Jim Ned's band involved in serious difficulties
with, 274, _footnote_; invited to inter-tribal council, 274-275,
_footnote_

Osceola (Mo.): Lane burns, 55

Ottawas: included within Sac and Fox Agency, 212; receive refugees
upon certain conditions, 212-213; extend further hospitality to
refugees, 213, _footnote_

Pagy, A.T: 65, _footnote_

Park Hill (Okla.): Pike tarries at, 28; Drew's regiment stationed near
in, _footnote_; Greene sent with detachment to Tahlequah and,
136; Blunt's expeditionary force reaches, 193; Phillips has camp at,
258

Parke County (Ind.): 80, _footnote_

Parks, R.C: 113, _footnote_

Parks, Thomas J: 248, _footnote_

Parsons, Luke F: 285

Partisan Rangers: authorized by Confederate government, 112; W.P.
Lane's company of Texas, 266, _footnote_

Paschal Fish: 205, _footnote_, 236, _footnote_

Pascofa: 62, _footnote_

Patton, James: 47, _footnote_

Pawnee Fork: 112

"Paw Paws": 304, _footnote_

Payton, R.L.Y: 176, _footnote_

Pea-o-pop-i-cult: 65, _footnote_

Pearce, N. Bart: 16, 22, 156, 158

Pea Ridge (Ark.): 13, 29, 34, 36, 197

Pegg, Thomas: 256

Pelzer, Louis: work cited, 260, _footnote_

Peorias: 77, _footnote_

Perryville (Okla.): 112, 295-296

Pheasant Bluff (Okla.): 271, 327

Phelps, John S: 49, 199-200

Phil David: 68, _footnote_

Phillips, James A: 126, _footnote_

Phillips, William A: 126, 321; _footnote_; biographical sketch,
126, _footnote_; commissioned colonel of Third Indian, 132;
forces engage with those of Stand Watie, 163-164; Indians under,
fought well in Battle of Newtonia, 194, 195, _footnote_;
reconnoissances, 218; orders buildings at Fort Davis destroyed, 220,
_footnote_; given command of Indian Brigade by Blunt,
249; reports Indian Brigade in sad state, 251; large view of
responsibilities to Indian Territory, 253; makes overtures to Indians,
254; expostulates against delay in attempting recovery of Indian
Territory, 257; reasons for returning refugees, 258; moves over
border, 258; communication with Fort Scott threatened, 272; continues
in charge at Fort Gibson, 305; Indian Home

Guards under, only Federal troops left in Indian Territory, 312;
undertakes extended expedition through Indian Territory, 322; gives
own interpretation to Lincoln's Amnesty Proclamation, 322-323;
differences between Blunt and, 325; removed from command at Fort
Gibson, 333; restored to command, 335

Phisterer, Frederick: work cited in _footnotes_ on pages 30, 288

Piankeshaws: 77, _footnote_

Pickett Papers: work cited in _footnotes_ on pages 171, 172, 175

Pike, Albert: 128; assigned to command of Department of Indian
Territory, 20; report submitted to Davis, 21; report to be found
in U.S. War Department, 21, _footnote_; makes headquarters at
Cantonment Davis, 22; anxious to save Indian Territory for South,
22-23; ordered to join Van Dorn with Indians, 27; becomes ranking
officer in field, 31; criticism in New York _Tribune_, 31,
_footnote_; authorizes Indian fighting at Pea Ridge, 32; rejoins
army at Cincinnati, 35; receives orders from Maury, 36; talk with
Comanches, 65, _footnote_; negotiations with Upper Creeks, 66,
_footnote_; negotiations with Seminoles, 68, _footnote_;
intrenches himself at Fort McCulloch, 110; report on Indian military
activity, 112; ordered to send more important of forces to Little
Rock, 147; protests against orders of May 31 and June 17, 154-156;
objects to appointment of Pearce, 156; reports grievances to Randolph,
156; Cherokees exasperated by stay at Fort McCulloch, 159; letter
to Stand Watie, 159, _footnote_; John Ross complains of, 160;
prepares resignation, 161; indites conciliatory letter to Hindman,
162-163; student of art of war, 163; publishes circular address to
Southern Indians, 165; effect of circular, 166 and _footnote_;
correspondence with Davis, 167-168; arrested by Cooper, 169; entered
upon diplomatic career as agent of Confederate State Department,
171-172 and _footnote_; exceeded instructions in assuming
financial obligations, 174, _footnote_; considers remuneration,
175, _footnote_; makes important recommendations to Davis, 179;
applies to Holmes for leave of absence, 190; resignation, 191 and
_footnote_; reenters Indian Territory, 198; rumors of conspiracy
with unionists in Texas, 199; arrested, 200; sums up grievances in
letter to Holmes, 201, Appendix; Kirby Smith attempts to reemploy for
service among Indians of Plains, 201, 335; Steele takes umbrage at
published statement, 286, _footnote_

"Pins": 193, 268, _footnote_

Planter's House: 74, _footnote_, 94, _footnote_

Pocahontas (Ark.): 25

Poison Spring (Ark.): battle of, 326-327

Pomeroy, Samuel C: 41, _footnote_; elected senator from Kansas,
42; John Brown's opinion of, 42, _footnote_; endorses principle
underlying Fremont's emancipation proclamation, 56-57 instructed
by anti-Coffin conspirators, 88, _footnote_; protests against
appointment of Denver, 97; succeeds in preventing appointment
of Denver, 98; responsibility for Blunt's promotion, 107,
_footnote_; advocates confiscation of Cherokee Neutral Lands,
224; recommends concentration of tribes of West in Indian
Territory, 230, _footnote_; in company of Dole at Leroy, 239,
_footnote_

Pontiac: 31, _footnote_

Portlock, E.E: 329, _footnote_

Poteau River (Okla.): 297, _footnote_

Pottawatomies: 234 and _footnote_, 274-275, _footnote_

Prairie Creek (Ark.): 216

Prairie d'Ane (Ark.): 326

Prairie Grove (Ark.): battle of, 218 and _footnote_, 249

Prairie Springs: 279

Price, Sterling: 16, 17, 26, 29, 52, 55, 56, 127, _footnote_,
185, 317, _footnote_; tries to induce Quantrill and his men to
enter regular service, 205, _footnote_; Hindman's opinion
of, 270, _footnote_; commands in District of Arkansas, 299,
_footnote_, 326

Prince, William E: 55, 58

Proctor, A.G: 214, 234, _footnote_

Provisional Congress: refuses to confirm nomination of Heth, 19;
calls for information on McCulloch-Price controversy, 19; established
precedents of good faith in Indian relations, 172; resolution
authorizing Davis to send a commissioner to Indian nations, 172,
_footnote_, 173, _footnote_; work of, 173-175 and
_footnotes_; confers honour upon John Jumper, 174,
_footnote_; considerations of committees regarding Indian
superintendency, 175, 176

Pryor, Nathaniel: 145, _footnote_

Pryor Creek (Okla.): 142, 145

Quantrill, W.C: 45; guerrillas raid Black Bob Lands and Olathe, 205;
raid upon Lawrence, 238, _footnote_, 239; work scorned and
repudiated by McCulloch, 303, _footnote_; perpetrates Baxter
Springs massacre, 304; movements, 304 and _footnote_; Maxey feels
no repugnance for services of, 326

Quapaw Agency: 53, _footnote_

Quapaw Nation: 46, 50, _footnote_

Quapaws: 48, in First Indian Expedition, 115, _footnote_; driven
into exile, 116 and _footnote_; become refugees or are drawn into
ranks of Federal army, 204; some, not _bona fide_ refugees, 204,
_footnote_; no longer in Second Regiment of Indian Home Guards,
252

Quapaw Strip (Kans.): 126

Quesenbury, William: 158, 248, _footnote_

Rabb's Battery: 114, _footnote_

"Radicals": 305, _footnote_

Rains, James S: 125; makes Tahlequah headquarters of Eighth Division
Missouri State Guard, 130, _footnote_; to attempt to reenter
southwest Missouri, 194; Cooper acts under orders from, 197; in
disgrace, 198

Randolph, J.L: 267, _footnote_, 309, _footnote_

Randolph, George W: Pike makes complaint against Hindman, 156-158;
sympathy for Pike, 168; desires to terminate Magruder's delay, 186;
suggests that Price serve as second in command under Magruder, 186,
_footnote_; reassures Pike, 187, 189; instructions to Holmes, 189

Ratliff, Robert W: 121, _footnote_, 127

Rector, Elias: 175, 181, _footnote_

Rector, H.M: 185, _footnote_

"Red Legs": 305, _footnote_

Red River: 20, 36, 248, 311, 315

Reserve Indians: 112; Pike negotiates successfully with, 173,
_footnote_; volunteers authorized, 173-174, _footnote_;
disorders among, 182; uprising against and murder of Leeper undertaken
by, 182-183; Tonkawas almost exterminated by, 184; companies organized
among, 266, _footnote_; fed by contract, 308, _footnote_

Reynolds, Thomas C: 287, _footnote_

Richardson, James D; work cited in _footnotes_ on pages 21, 172,
278, 322

Richardson, John M: 113

Riddle's Station (Okla.): 276, _footnote_ 293, 295,
_footnote_

Ritchie, John: applies to Dole for new instructions, 106; appraisement
of, 106, _footnote_; dilatory in movements, 114, _footnote_;
disagreement with Kile, 115, _footnote_; slow in putting in
appearance at Humboldt, 115; commands Second Regiment Indian Home
Guards, 115; conducts prisoners to Fort Leavenworth, 144; allows
men to run amuck at Shirley's Ford, 197; dismissal from service
recommended, 197; Phillip's ranking officer, 325

Roane, J.S: Arkansas left in care of, 128, 149; asks forces of Pike,
149; conduct in Mexican War criticised by Pike, 149, _footnote_;
fights duel with Pike, 149, _footnote_; character, 199; arrests
Pike, 200

Roberts, S.A: 308, _footnote_, 320, _footnote_

Robertson, W.S: 225 and _footnote_

Robinson, Charles: work cited in _footnotes_ on pages 15, 70,
97, 98, 226; appointment of Mitchell, 46, _footnote_; opposed
to Lane's plans for revenge, 55; approves of principle underlying
Fremont's proclamation, 56-57; opposed to enlistment of Indians, 57;
seeks aid of Prince, 58; responsible for Stanton's contesting of
Lane's seat, 59, _footnote_; Lane has no intention of obliging,
71, _footnote_; commissions for First Indian Expedition pouring
in, 123, _footnote_; calls for volunteers against guerrillas,
205, _footnote_; relations with Stevens, 226, _footnote_

Robinson, William: 62, _footnote_

Rocky Creek (Clear Creek): 184, _footnote_

Rolla (Mo.): 13, 26

Roman, Alfred: work cited, 14, _footnote_, 34, _footnote_

Roman Catholic Mission: 87, _footnote_, 121, 241, _footnote_

Rosengarten, Joseph George: work cited, 118, _footnote_

Ross, John: attitude of faction of, towards proposed Confederate
military occupation of Indian Territory, 15; communicates with Pike
on movements of Cherokee troops, 28, _footnote_; opposed to
secession, 63, _footnote_; reported to have host ready to
do service for U.S., 66, _footnote_; loyal to U.S., 74,
_footnote_; communication from Weer, 134 and _footnote_,
135; reply to Weer, 135-136; submits documents justifying his own
and tribal actions, 136; receives peremptory order from Cooper, 137;
arrested by Greeno, 137; suspected of collusion with captor, 137-138,
192; addresses himself to Hindman against Pike, 160; on mission to
Washington, 192 and _footnote_; formally deposed by convention
called by secessionist Cherokees, 193; receives monetary assistance,
214 and _footnote_; makes personal appeal to Lincoln to enable
refugees to be returned to homes, 215-216; and associates ready to
negotiate for retrocession of Neutral Lands, 231; Gillpatrick medium
of diplomatic intercourse between, and First Indian Expedition, 271

Ross, Mrs. W.P: work cited, 111, _footnote_

Ross, W.W: 234, _footnote_

Round Grove (Okla.): 126

Russell, O.F: 152-153

Sac and Fox Agency (Kans.): 54, _footnote_, 114, _footnote_;
suggested removal of refugees to, 212; tribes included within, 212;
Osages repair to, to confer with Dole, 238 and _footnote_

Sacs and Foxes of Mississippi: encounter refugees from Indian

Territory, 80; offer home to refugees, 86; reservation, 87; receive
Creeks, Choctaws, and Chickasaws, 213; scheme of building houses for,
226 and _footnote_; Dole makes treaty with, 235; claim against
Creek refugees, 235, _footnote_; some Sacs confer with Carruth,
274, _footnote_; invited to inter-tribal council, 274-275.
_footnote_

St. Francis River: 20

St. Joe (St. Joseph): 74, _footnote_, 116, 230

St Louis _Republican_: 75, _footnote_

Salomon, Frederick: colonel of Ninth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry,
118; in command at Fort Scott, 118; left in command at Baxter Springs
by Weer, 121; in charge of First Brigade, First Indian Expedition,
125; instructions to, with respect to Indian policy of U.S.
government, 134; deplorable equipment of troops, 138; arrests Weer,
139; gives reasons arrest, 140-142; retrograde movement of, 142, 143,
147, 203; establishes himself at Camp Quapaw, 146; ordered by Blunt to
send troops to support of Indian Brigade, 192-193

Salt Plains: 152, 153

Sam Checote: 62, _footnote_

Santa Fe Trail: to intercept trains on, 129, _footnote_, 267,
_footnote_; Creek regiment to advance toward, 152

Scales, J.A: 268, _footnote_, 277, _footnote_

Schaumburg, W.C: 305, _footnote_

Schoenmaker, John: 241, _footnote_

Schofield, John M: 106, _footnote_, 119, _footnote_, 196,
248, 249 and _footnote_, 260, 261, 293, 304 and _footnote_

Schurz, Carl: 41 and _footnote_, 42, _footnote_

Scott, S.S: acting commissioner of Indian affairs, 172,
_footnote_; remarks of, 177, _footnote_; to investigate
conditions in Indian Territory, 181; hurries to Leased District,
184; asks Governor Colbert to harbor fugitive Tonkawas, 184,
_footnote_; sets out upon tour of inspection, 299; made full
commissioner, 299, _footnote_; reports to Holmes concerning
neglect of Indian Territory, 300; reports to Seddon prospects for
three Indian brigades, 329

Scott, T.M: 316, _footnote_

Scott, W.H: 287, _footnote_

Scott, Winfield S: 48, 56, 69, _footnote_

Scott County (Ark.): 20

Scullyville (Okla.): 155, 325, and _footnote_

Second Brigade, First Indian Expedition: put under Judson, 125

Second Choctaw Regiment: 312, _footnote_

Second Indian Brigade: 327

Second Indian Expedition: Carruth and Martin act in anticipation of,
133, _footnote_; Blunt making plans for, 196 and _footnote_,
208, _footnote_; Blunt discovers that Indians stipulate care of
families during absence, 215

Second Indiana Battery: 118, 125

Second Ohio Cavalry: 118, 119, _footnote_, 125-126

Second Regiment Cherokee Mounted Rifles: commanded by Stand Watie, 25;
joins Pike at Cincinnati, 28; takes position to observe enemy, 32;
guiltless of atrocities committed at Pea Ridge, 32; makes way to Camp
Stephens, 35; detail sent with ammunition to main army, 35; scouting
along northern line of Cherokee country, 112; desertions from, 145

Second Regiment Indian Home Guards: miscellaneous in composition, 114
and _footnote_; men not yet mustered in, 121; fills up after
defeat of Confederates at Locust Grove, 132; Corwin takes

command of, 144; engagement at Shirley's Ford, 197; component part of
Phillips's Indian Brigade, 249; Cherokee in composition, 252; fought
dismounted at Honey Springs, 288; stationed at Mackey's Salt Works,
325

Sedalia (Mo.): 13

Seddon, James A: 270, _footnote_, 299, _footnote_, 317,
_footnote_; instructs Scott to attend meeting of council at
Armstrong Academy, 320; Scott reports prospects of forming three
Indian brigades, 329

Seminole Battalion: 152, 312, _footnote_

Seminole Nation: 130

Seminoles (Confederate): Murrow, agent, 162, _footnote_; Pike
negotiates treaty with, 173, _footnote_; agree to furnish five
companies of mounted volunteers, 173, _footnote_; Creeks and,
want separate military department made of Indian Territory, 278-279;
disperse, 323

Seminoles (Federal or Unionist): Carruth teacher among, 59;
destitution of refugee, 83, _footnote_; in First Regiment Indian
Home Guards, 114 and _footnote_; attempt tribal reoerganization,
228

Senate Committee on Indian Affairs (Confederate): Johnson's bill, 176;
members, 176, _footnote_

Senecas: 48, 204 and _footnote_

Seneca-Shawnees: refugees, 116, 204; object to Wyandot treaty, 237,
_footnote_

Shawnee Agency (Kans.): 236, _footnote_

Shawnee Reserve (Kans.): 205 and _footnote_

Shawnees: 48; loyal to U.S., 66, _footnote_; in First Indian
Expedition, 113, _footnote_; from Cherokee country made refugees,
116; implicated in tragedy at Wichita Agency, 183; Neosho Agency
Indians seek refuge among, 204; are depredated upon, 204, 205,
_footnote_; Dole makes treaty with, 235

Shelby, Jo: 45, 194, 200

Sheridan, Philip H: work cited, 296, _footnote_

Sherman (Tex.): 190

Sherman, William T: 44

Shians (Cheyennes): 274, _footnote_

Shirley's Ford (Mo.): 197

Shoal Creek (Mo.): 118, 120, _footnote_

Shoe-Nock-Me-Koe: 68, _footnote_

Shreveport (La.): 303, _footnote_

Sigel, Franz: 29

Simms, W.E: 176, _footnote_

Sixth Kansas Cavalry: 249

Slavery: 298, _footnote_

Smith, James M.C: 173, _footnote_

Smith, Caleb P: 60, _footnote_, 61, 99; authorizes expenditure of
funds for relief of refugees, 83

Smith, John: 62, _footnote_

Smith, E. Kirby: 317; seeks to reemploy Pike for service among
Indians, 201, 335 and _footnote_; assigned to command, 269;
approves Steele's adoption of Fabian policy, 297; reply to Stand
Watie, 297-298, _footnote_; detaches command of Indian Territory
from that of Arkansas, 303; subscribes to idea of forming two Indian
brigades, 310; is stanchest of Steele's friends, 311; opposed to three
brigade plan and to promotion of Cooper implicit in it, 318; commends
work of Steele, 318; address emended by Maxey, 330; friend of
Maxey, 334; holds in abeyance orders for retirement of Maxey, 334,
_footnote_; enters into convention with Canby, 335

Smith's Mill: 28

Snead, Thomas L: work cited, 15, _footnote_, 296, _footnote_

Snow, George C: 80, _footnote_, 83, _footnote_

Soda Springs (Okla.): 291, _footnote_

South, The: indifference towards West, 43; love of home state, great
bulwark of, 187-188; Choctaws reported as wavering in allegiance to,
220; Indian Territory as separate military entity comes too late into
reckonings, 250

Southern Confederacy: decisive results of battle of Pea Ridge, 13;
expected by Missouri to force situation for her, 18; relation of
Indian Territory determined by treaties of alliance, 21; Pike's great
purpose to save Indian Territory for, 22-23; Weer suggests that
Cherokee Nation dissolve its alliance with, 134; management of Indian
affairs of, 149-150, 171; view of obligations towards Indians,
174, _footnote_; policy with respect to guerrillas, 205,
_footnote_; Wyandots refuse to throw in lot with, 206; Kansas
politicians want to punish Indians for going over to, 224; Cherokees
repudiate alliance with, 232; Indians losing faith in, 273-274;
charged with bad faith by Cherokees, 279-281; Indian devotion to,
re-asserted, 317; Indians pledge anew loyalty to, 323

Southern Expedition: 73 and _footnote_

Southern Indian Regiments: 24-25

Southern Superintendency (Confederate): establishment delayed by
prolongation of Pike's mission, 175; bill for establishment of, 176

Southern Superintendency (Federal): 117, _footnote_

Southwest, The: 46, 70

Southwestern District of Missouri: 26-27

Southwestern Division of District of Missouri: 127

Spavinaw Creek (Okla.): 130, 138

Spavinaw Hills (Okla.): 127

Spears, John: 279

Speer, John: 43, _footnote_

Speight, J.W: brigade of, 246, _footnote_, 267, _footnote_

Springfield (Mo.): 26, 51

Spring, Leverett: work cited in _footnotes_ on pages 15, 52, 97

Spring River: 119, 126; Shirley's Ford on, 197

Staked Plains: 153

Stand Watie: 159, _footnote_; colonel of Second Regiment Cherokee
Mounted Rifles, 25; men in poor trim and undisciplined, 28; men take
position as corps of observation, 32; makes way to Camp Stephens, 35;
scouting, 112, 127; engagements, 112, 113, 119 and _footnote_;
encampment on Cowskin Prairie, 119; home of, 127; successful
skirmishing commented upon, 152; elected Principal Chief, 193;
Phillips compels, to re-cross Arkansas, 218; in command of First
Cherokee Regiment, 262, _footnote_; Steele's great reliance upon,
270; cavalry raids, 272, 312; forced to retire from Cabin Creek, 285;
commanded First and Second Cherokee at Honey Springs, 288; complaints
to Kirby Smith, 297, _footnote_; related to Boudinot, 300; makes
reports and appeals, 301; proposed advancement, 309; authorizes
formation of Cherokee Brigade, 309; Steele's appraisement of, 310;
skirmish at Barren Fork, 312; has command of First Indian Brigade,
327; all Cherokee military units summoned to camp on Limestone
Prairie, 328; name becomes source of terror, 331; last great raid of,
332

Stanton, Edwin M: 75, _footnote_, 76; refuses to countenance
use of Indians as soldiers, 76 and _footnote_; efficient
administration of, 96; deprecates interference in military affairs in
Kansas, 98 and _footnote_

Stanton, Frederick P: 59, 72, _footnote_

State Department (Confederate): 171, 172, _footnote_

State Rights: 18

Statutes at Large of Provisional Government: work cited, 174,
_footnote_

Stearns, Frank Preston: work cited, in _footnotes_ on pages 42,
87

Steele, Frederick: in command of Department of Arkansas, 322; argues
over military status of Fort Smith, 321-322

Steele, James: special agent, 100; infers Halleck unfavorable to
Indian expedition, 101; presents credentials at arsenal at Fort
Leavenworth, 101; Sac and Fox chiefs willing to abide by decision,
235, _footnote_

Steele, William: 247; to report to Holmes for duty, 245,
_footnote_; preferred to Cooper, 246; sends most of troops in
direction of Red River, 248; takes large view of responsibilities
to Indian Territory, 253; difficulties and embarrassments, 261-269;
appeal for loyalty to Confederate cause, 267-268, _footnote; ex
officio_ superintendent of Indian affairs, 275-276; regards Indian
Territory as buffer, 276; influences to undermine, 278; makes stand in
Creek country, 291; opposition to, 310; command in bad condition, 292;
crosses from Creek into Choctaw country, 295; journeys to Bonham
to consult with McCulloch, 302-303; command detached from that of
Arkansas, 303; size of force, 305, _footnote_; work discredited
and disparaged by Cooper, 306; policy and practice in matter of
feeding indigents and refugees, 307 and _footnote_; relieved of
command of Indian Territory, 311; Kirby Smith commends work, 318

Stettaner Bros: 211, _footnote_

Stevens, Robert S: 211, _footnote_, 212, 226 and _footnote_

Stevens, Thaddeus: 57, 60, _footnote_

Stidham, George W: 62, _footnote_, 173, _footnote_

Stockton's Hall: 58 and _footnote_

Sturgis, S.D: Lane ordered to cooeperate with, 56; placed in command
of District of Kansas, 98; policy with respect to First Indian
Expedition, 103-104; opposed to idea of Indian expedition, 104;
military despotism, 104; forbids enlistment of Indians, 105; refusal
to reinstate Weer, 117, _footnote_

Sugar Creek (Ark.): 30, _footnote_

Sumner, E.V: 260, _footnote_

Susquehanna River: 232

Tahlequah (Okla.): 132, 136; Rains makes headquarters, 130,
_footnote_; Hindman places white cavalry at, 192; Blunt's
expeditionary force seizes archives and treasury of Cherokee Nation,
193; Hindman appears in, 193; steamer, 263, _footnote_

Talliaferro (Taliaferro?), T.D: 267, _footnote_

Tandy Walker: supporter of Cooper, 265; recruits among Choctaws, 265;
appointment, 265, _footnote_; asks for establishment of Indian
Territory as separate military department, 279; commanded Regiment
of Choctaws and Chickasaws at Honey Springs, 288; indulging in petty
graft, 306, _footnote_; service of Choctaws under, in Camden
campaign, 326; has command of Second Indian Brigade, 327

Tawa Kuwus: 274, _footnote_

Taylor, N.G: 207, _footnote_

Taylor, R: 297, _footnote_

Taylor, Samuel M: 279

Tecumseh: 73, _footnote_

Te-Nah: 65, _footnote_

Tenth Kansas Infantry: 117, 118

Texans: assist Indians at Leetown

engagement, 31; away fighting "the cold weather people," 65,
_footnote_; circulate malicious stories about Pike, 160,
_footnote_; disposition towards self-sacrifice, 268; not possible
to deal with Indians arbitrarily, 326

Texas: 179; requisition upon, for troops, 25; Pike to call for troops
from, 36; way to, likely to be blocked by Southern Indians, 61; Pike
wants to be near, 151; anti-Pike reports spreading through, 169; road
from Missouri to, 173, _footnote_; Oldham, senator from,
176, _footnote_; rumors current that Pike is conspiring with
unionists, in, 199; detached from Trans-Mississippi Department,
245-246; cotton speculation alluring men with ready money,
248, _footnote_; public feeling towards deserters, 266,
_footnote_; great commissary depot west of Mississippi, 268,
_footnote_; Bankhead becomes alarmed for safety of, 287, 292;
virtual chaos in, 303; Steele contracts for clothing in northern, 308

Thayer, John M: 324 and _footnote_

Thayer, William Roscoe: work cited in _footnotes_ on pages 41,
45, 96

Third Choctaw Regiment: 321

Thomas, L: 74-75, _footnote_, 100, 109, _footnote_

Throckmorton, James W: 335, _footnote_

Thurston's House: 54, _footnote_

Timiny Barnet: 62, _footnote_

Tishomingo (Okla.): 200

Toe-Lad-Ke: talk, 67, _footnote_; signature, 69, _footnote_

Tonkawas: negotiations with Pike, 182; about one-half of, butchered,
184; surviving, flee to Fort Arbuckle, 184 and _footnote_

Toombs, Robert: 171, _footnote_, 173, _footnote_

Totten, James: 197

Trans-Mississippi Department: 128, _footnote_, 149, 168, 186,
187, 192, 245-246, 269, 270 and _footnote_, 315, 318-319

Trans-Mississippi District of Department no. 2: 14, 19, 20, 25, 127,
_footnote_, 128, _footnote_, 190, 191

Treaties of Alliance: 21, 23 and _footnote_, 173 and
_footnote_

Trench, E.B: 215, _footnote_

Turner, E.P: 292, _footnote_

Turner, John W: 83 and _footnote_

Tus-te-nu-ke-ema-ela: 108, _footnote_

Tus-te-nuk-ke: 108, _footnote_

Upper Creeks: 62, _footnote_

Usher, John P: 231, 239, _footnote_

Van Buren (Ark.): 162, _footnote_, 177

Van Dorn, Earl: 14, _footnote_, 20, 25, 26, 34, 35, 36;
appointment, 19; failure to credit Indians in report, 31 and
_footnote_, 148; orders Indians to harass enemy on border of
own country, 35-36, 110; telegraphic request to Davis, 127,
_footnote_, 186; diverts and appropriates Pike's supplies,
147-148 and _footnote_; hopes Price will be successor, 185

Vann's Ford: 144

Vaughan, Champion: 305, _footnote_

Vaughn, Richard C: 218, _footnote_

Verdigris River: 76, 79, 80, 85, 142, 144, 145, 210-211,
_footnote_, 273, _footnote_; tributary of Arkansas, 22

Verdigris Valley: 79, 85

Vernon County (Mo.): 304, _footnote_

Vicksburg (Miss.): 188, _footnote_, 259, 260, 283, 301,
_footnote_

Villard, Henry: work cited, 45, _footnote_

Villard, Oswald Garrison: work cited, 226, _footnote_

Vore, Israel G: 302 and _footnote_

Wakoes (Wacoes): 66, _footnote_; sent out as runners, 274,
_footnote_

Walker, L.P: 172, _footnote_

Walnut Creek (Kans.): 79, 85, 152, 205, _footnote_

Walnut Grove: 35

Walworth, E: 329, _footnote_

War Department (Confederate): 127, 172 and _footnote_, 186, 318

War Department (Federal): 60 and _footnote_, 73, _footnote_,
76, 99, 100

Warren (Tex.): 190

Warrensburg (Mo.): 58

Washington (George): 65, _footnote_

Washington Territory: 232

Wattles, Augustus: 46, _footnote_, 54, _footnote_, 57,
225-228

Wattles, Stephen H: 131, _footnote_, 333 and _footnote_

Weas: 77, _footnote_

Webber's Falls (Okla.): 216, 255, 260, 271, 276, 287, _footnote_

Weed, Thurlow: work cited, 60, _footnote_

Weer, William: 117 and _footnote_, 119, 120, 121, 130, 133;
ideas on Indian relations with U.S. government, 133, _footnote_;
communication with Ross, 134; proposes Cherokee Nation abolish
slavery by vote, 134, _footnote_; sends out two detachments to
reconnoitre, 136; joins Campbell at Fort Gibson, 136-137; faults and
failures, 139, 140-142; arrested by Salomon, 139; Ritchie's men run
amuck and attack their comrades in brigade of, 197

Welch, O.G: 29

Wells, J.W: 267, _footnote_

West, The: indifference towards, 43; character of war in, 44;
character of leaders, 45; criticism of Confederate management of
Indian affairs in, 149-150; establishment of Indian superintendency
left unsettled by Provisional Government, 174-175; Price submits plan
of operations for, 186, _footnote_; circumstances and
conditions concerning migrations of eastern tribes, 227; project for
concentrating tribes in Indian Territory, 230, _footnote_; keep
too many men needlessly in, 259; desertions, 292 and _footnote_

Western Military District: 43, 47, _footnote_

West's Battery: 267, _footnote_

Whistler, W: 69, _footnote_

White, George E: 157, _footnote_

White Auxiliary (Confederate): urged by Pike, 24 and _footnote_;
ordered to Little Rock, 129, 147; Kirby Smith thinks possible to
separate from Indian troops, 310

White Auxiliary (Federal): Dole's recommendation regarding, 99;
Stanton's instructions regarding, 100; not heard from, 102; orders
for, 109 and _footnote_; Indians ask for evidence of
existence, 118; composition, 118; comparison with Indians, 123 and
_footnote_; brigaded with Indian Home Guards, 125; retrograde
movement, 143, 203; Blunt orders Salomon to send to support of Indian
Brigade, 192-193, 203

White Chief: 68, _footnote_

White Cloud: 77, _footnote_

White Hair: 207, _footnote_, 238, _footnote_; principal
chief of Osages, 240, _footnote_

Whitney, H.C: 50, _footnote_, 52, _footnote_, 54,
_footnote_

Wichita Agency: 64, _footnote_; tragedy, 183-184; Belmont,
temporary, 274, _footnote_

Wichita Mountains: 153

Wigfall, Louis T: 264, _footnote_, 277, _footnote_

Wilder, A. Carter: 230, _footnote_, 322, _footnote_

Wilder, D.W: 58, _footnote_, 305, _footnote_

Willamette River: 232

Williams, James M: 284, 285

Williams, the: 327

Williamson, George: 327

Wilson, Hill P: work cited, 226, _footnote_

Wilson's Creek (Mo.): battle of, 34, _footnote_, 49

Wolcott, Edward: 83, _footnote_

Wolf Creek (Ark.): 135, 136, 145, 164

Wood, W.D: 218, _footnote_

Woodburn, James Albert: work cited, 57, _footnote_, 60,
_footnote_

Woodruff's Battery: 147, 150, 154

Wright, Marcus J: work cited, 19, _footnote_, 187,
_footnote_

Wyandot City (Kans.): 204, _footnote_

Wyandots: robbed by secessionist Indians, 206 and _footnote_;
escape into Kansas, 206; want to render military service, 206,
_footnote_; Dole's abortive treaty with, 236-237, _footnote_

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