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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Imports:
total value: $1.4 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: cigarettes, construction materials, petroleum products,
machinery, motor vehicles
partners : Singapore, Vietnam, Japan, Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia

Debt - external: $1.9 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA
note: international donors pledged a total of $1.8 billion in 1995 and
1996

Currency: 1 new riel (CR) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: riels (CR) per US$1 - 2,723.0 (January 1997), 2,624.1
(1996), 2,450.8 (1995), 2,545.3 (1994), 2,689.0 (1993), 1,266.6 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cambodia:Communications

Telephones: 7,000 (1981 est.)

Telephone system: service barely adequate for government requirements
and virtually nonexistent for general public
domestic: NA
international: landline international service limited to Vietnam and
other adjacent countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik
(Indian Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 5

Televisions: 70,000 (1993 est.)

@Cambodia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 603 km
narrow gauge: 603 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total : 35,769 km
paved: 2,683 km
unpaved : 33,086 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m; 282 km
navigable to craft drawing 1.8 m

Ports and harbors: Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh
Kong, Phnom Penh

Merchant marine:
total: 27 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 187,652 GRT/256,929 DWT
ships by type : bulk 4, cargo 20, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated
cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 14 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 7 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Khmer Royal Armed Forces (KRAF) - created in 1993
by the merger of the Cambodian People's Armed Forces and the two
noncommunist resistance armies; note - the KRAF is also known as the
Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF); Resistance forces - National Army
of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,418,916 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,348,065 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 97,361 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $160 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: offshore islands and sections of the
boundary with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam
not defined; parts of border with Thailand in dispute; maritime
boundary with Thailand not clearly defined

Illicit drugs: transshipment country for Golden Triangle heroin en
route to West; possibly becoming money-laundering center; high-level
narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving government,
military, and police; possible small-scale opium, heroin, and
amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis for the
international market
______________________________________________________________________

CAMEROON

@Cameroon:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 475,440 sq km
land: 469,440 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total : 4,591 km
border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km,
Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 50 nm

Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid
and hot in north

Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau
in center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Fako 4,095 m

Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower
potential

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 78%
other : 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 210 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous
gases

Environment - current issues: water-borne diseases are prevalent;
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
94
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

@Cameroon:People

Population: 14,677,510 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 3,387,450; female 3,356,237)
15-64 years: 51% (male 3,712,809; female 3,736,245)
65 years and over: 3% (male 219,975; female 264,894) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.86% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.22 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.64 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 77.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.27 years
male: 51.22 years
female: 53.35 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.93 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cameroonian(s)
adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi
11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other
African 13%, non-African less than 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%

Languages: 24 major African language groups, English (official),
French (official)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.4%
male: 75%
female: 52.1% (1995 est.)

@Cameroon:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
conventional short form: Cameroon
former: French Cameroon

Data code: CM

Government type: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime
(opposition parties legalized 1990)

National capital: Yaounde

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French
administration)

National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)

Constitution: 20 May 1972

Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law
influence; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
head of government: Prime Minister Peter Mafany MUSONGA (since 19
September 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA October 1997);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote -
Paul BIYA 40%, SDF candidate John FRU NDI 36%, UNDP candidate Bello
Bouba MAIGARI 19%; note - election held amid widespread allegations of
fraud

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms; note - the president can either lengthen or
shorten the term of the legislature)
elections: last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
CDPM 109, SDF 43, UNDP 13, UDC 5, UPC-K 1, MDR 1, MLJC I; note - 7
contested seats will be filled in an election at a time to be set by
the Supreme Court

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Cameroon People's Democratic Movement
or CPDM (government-controlled and the only party until legalization
of opposition parties in 1990) [Paul BIYA, president]
major opposition parties: Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou
NDAM NJOYA]; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole
DAISSALA, leader]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP
[Maigari BELLO BOUBA, chairman]; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John
FRU NDI, leader]; Union of Cameroonian Populations or UPC [Ndeh
NTUMAZAH, leader]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Alliance for Change or FAC;
Cameroon Anglophone Movement or CAM

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C,
CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
chancery : 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790 through 8794

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles H. TWINING
embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
mailing address : B. P. 817, Yaounde; Pouch American Embassy DOS,
Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone: [237] 23-40-14, 23-05-12
FAX: [237] 23-07-53

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red
band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy

Economy - overview: Because of its offshore oil resources and
favorable agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the
best-endowed primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still,
it faces many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped
countries, such as political instability, a top-heavy civil service,
and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. The
development of the oil sector led to rapid economic growth between
1970 and 1985. Growth came to an abrupt halt in 1986, precipitated by
steep declines in the prices of major exports: coffee, cocoa, and
petroleum. Export earnings were cut by almost one-third, and
inefficiencies in fiscal management were exposed. Since 1990, the
government has embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs
designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in
agriculture, improve trade and recapitalize the nation's banks.
Political instability, following suspect elections in 1992, has
limited the effectiveness of aid programs. Currently, Cameroon
receives only minimal assistance from the IMF and the World Bank.
Although the 50% devaluation of the currency of 12 January 1994
improved the potential for export growth, mismanagement remains and is
the main barrier to economic improvement. The devaluation led to a
spurt in inflation to 48% in 1994, but it moderated in 1995-96.
Progress toward privatization of remaining state industry remains
slow.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $17.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,230 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 29%
industry: 25%
services: 46% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 6% (FY96/97 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $2.23 billion
expenditures: $2.23 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97 est.)

Industries: petroleum production and refining, food processing, light
consumer goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 630,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 2.71 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 186 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas,
oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber

Exports:
total value: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, aluminum, cocoa
beans, coffee, cotton
partners: EU (particularly France) about 50%, African countries

Imports:
total value : $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: machines and electrical equipment, food, consumer goods,
transport equipment, petroleum products
partners: EU (France 42%, Germany), African countries, US 4%

Debt - external: $8.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992), 282.11 (1991)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Cameroon:Communications

Telephones: 36,737 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: available only to business and government
domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 11, shortwave 0

Radios: 2 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1995)

Televisions: NA

@Cameroon:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,104 km
narrow gauge: 1,104 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 34,300 km
paved : 4,288 km
unpaved: 30,012 km (1995)

Waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance

Ports and harbors: Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Merchant marine:
total: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509
DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 44 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m : 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 12 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 22
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m : 15 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air Force,
National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,211,508 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,623,228 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 156,208 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $102 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: demarcation of international boundaries in
vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in
the past, is completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad,
Niger, and Nigeria; dispute with Nigeria over land and maritime
boundaries in the vicinity of the Bakasi Peninsula has been referred
to the International Court of Justice
______________________________________________________________________

CANADA

@Canada:Geography

Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean
and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references: North America

Area:
total: 9,976,140 sq km
land: 9,220,970 sq km
water: 755,170 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than US

Land boundaries:
total: 8,893 km
border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in
north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in
southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,950 m

Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum,
potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 3%
forests and woodland: 54%
other: 38% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle
to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a
result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North
American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow

Environment - current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain
severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting,
coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on
agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming
contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry
activities

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: second-largest country in world (after Russia);
strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly
90% of the population is concentrated within 161 km of the US/Canada
border

@Canada:People

Population: 30,337,334 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 3,101,968; female 2,957,927)
15-64 years: 68% (male 10,333,085; female 10,201,996)
65 years and over: 12% (male 1,583,643; female 2,158,715) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.13% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 12.4 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.23 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population : 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.96 years
male: 75.61 years
female: 82.48 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.66 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other
European 20%, Amerindian 1.5%, other, mostly Asian 11.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 45%, United Church 12%, Anglican 8%, other
35% (1991)

Languages: English (official), French (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97% (1986 est.)
male : NA%
female: NA%

@Canada:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Canada

Data code: CA

Government type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

National capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta,
British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest
Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec,
Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
note: the Northwest Territories will be split in two as of April 1999;
the eastern section will be renamed Nunavut, the west is as yet
unnamed

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the
machinery of the government was set up in the British North America
Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where
civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Romeo LeBLANC (since 8 February 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November
1993)
cabinet : Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the
members of his own party sitting in Parliament
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen on the advice of the prime minister; following
legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the House
of Commons is automatically designated by the governor general to
become prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the
Senate or Senat (a body whose members are appointed to serve until
reaching 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on the
advice of the prime minister; its normal limit is 104 senators) and
the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (295 seats; note - number
of seats will rise to 301 at the time of the next election; members
elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Commons - last held 25 October 1993 (next to be
held by 3 November 1998)
election results: percent of votes by party - Liberal Party 41%,
Reform Party 19%, Tories 16%, Bloc Quebecois 14%, New Democratic Party
7%, other 3%; seats by party - Liberal Party 177, Bloc Quebecois 53,
Reform Party 52, New Democratic Party 9, Progressive Conservative
Party 2, independents 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the prime
minister through the governor general

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party [Jean CHRETIEN]; Bloc
Quebecois [Michel GAUTHIER (until March 1997)]; Reform Party [Preston
MANNING]; New Democratic Party [Alexa MCDONOUGH]; Progressive
Conservative Party [Jean CHAREST]

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer),
APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE
(observer), EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G- 7, G-
8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD,
OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Raymond A. J. CHRETIEN
chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
consulate(s) general : Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
consulate(s): Cincinnati, Cleveland, Miami, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh,
Princeton, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Jose

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
embassy : 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
mailing address: P. O. Box 866, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430
telephone : [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470
FAX: [1] (613) 238-5720
consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and
Vancouver

Flag description: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white
(double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the
white band

Economy

Economy - overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society,
Canada today closely resembles the US in per capita output,
market-oriented economic system, and pattern of production. Since
World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and
service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural
economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Canada started the
1990s in recession, and real rates of growth have averaged only 1.1%
so far this decade. Because of slower growth, Canada still faces high
unemployment - especially in Quebec and the Maritime Provinces - and a
large public sector debt. With its great natural resources, skilled
labor force, and modern capital plant, however, Canada will enjoy
better economic prospects in the future. The continuing constitutional
impasse between English- and French-speaking areas is raising the
possibility of a split in the confederation, making foreign investors
somewhat edgy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $721 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 31%
services : 66% (1996)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.4% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 15.1 million (1996)
by occupation : services 74%, manufacturing 15%, agriculture 3%,
construction 5%, other 3% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 9.7% (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $94.3 billion
expenditures: $115.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.7
billion (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood
and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish
products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 1.3% (1996)

Electricity - capacity: 113.65 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 547.9 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 16,137 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits,
vegetables; dairy products; forest products; commercial fisheries
provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is
exported

Exports:
total value: $195.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum,
machinery, natural gas, aluminum, motor vehicles and parts;
telecommunications equipment
partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China

Imports:
total value: $169.5 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities : crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable
consumer goods, electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and
parts
partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea

Debt - external: $253 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.6 billion (1995)
note : ODA and OOF commitments, $10.1 billion (1986-91)

Currency: 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.3486 (January
1997), 1.3635 (1996), 1.37241 (1995), 1.3656 (1994), 1.2901 (1993),
1.2087 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Canada:Communications

Telephones: 15.3 million (1990)

Telephone system: excellent service provided by modern technology
domestic : domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations -
5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik
(Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 900, FM 29, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 70 (repeaters 1,400) (1991)

Televisions: 11.53 million (1983 est.)

@Canada:Transportation

Railways:
total: 70,176 km; note - there are two major transcontinental freight
railway systems: Canadian National (privatized November 1995) and
Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by
government-operated firm VIA, which has no trackage of its own
standard gauge: 70,000 km 1.435-m gauge (63 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 176 km 0.914-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 1.021 million km
paved: 358,371 km (including 19,000 km of expressways)
unpaved: 662,629 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports and harbors: Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Montreal,
New Westminister, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick),
Saint John's (Newfoundland), Seven Islands, Sydney, Three Rivers,
Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine:
total: 60 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 557,941 GRT/775,391 DWT
ships by type: bulk 14, cargo 9, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 15,
passenger 2, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 8, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2
note: does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes (1996
est.)

Airports: 1,139 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 816
over 3,047 m: 17
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m : 138
914 to 1,523 m: 229
under 914 m: 417 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 323
1,524 to 2,437 m: 55
914 to 1,523 m: 268 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 17 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Canadian Armed Forces (includes Land Forces Command
or LC, Maritime Command or MC, Air Command or AC, Communications
Command or CC, Training Command or TC), Royal Canadian Mounted Police
(RCMP)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 8,160,914 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 7,007,901 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 208,138 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $9 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (FY95/96)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary disputes with the US
(Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal
Island); Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary
dispute between Canada and France; in 1992 an arbitration panel
awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone area of 12,348 sq km to
settle the dispute

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug
market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large
quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a
transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market
______________________________________________________________________

CAPE VERDE

@Cape Verde:Geography

Location: Western Africa, group of Islands in the North Atlantic
Ocean, west of Senegal

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 4,030 sq km
land: 4,030 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 965 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very
erratic

Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point : Pico 2,829 m

Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzuolana (a siliceous volcanic
ash used to produce hydraulic cement), limestone, kaolin, fish

Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure
visibility; volcanically and seismically active

Environment - current issues: overgrazing of livestock and improper
land use such as the cultivation of crops on steep slopes has led to
soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in
deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened
several species of birds and reptiles; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa
near major north-south sea routes; important communications station;
important sea and air refueling site

@Cape Verde:People

Population: 393,943 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 91,409; female 89,810)
15-64 years: 48% (male 87,868; female 100,948)
65 years and over: 6% (male 9,594; female 14,214) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.54% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 35.45 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 49.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 70.04 years
male: 66.76 years
female: 73.42 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.2 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cape Verdean(s)
adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic groups: Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions: Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs

Languages: Portuguese, Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African
words

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.6%
male: 81.4%
female: 63.8% (1995 est.)

@Cape Verde:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
conventional short form: Cape Verde
local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
local short form: Cabo Verde

Data code: CV

Government type: republic

National capital: Praia

Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos, singular -
concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo,
Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao
Vicente, Tarrafal

Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution: new constitution came into force 25 September 1992

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (since 22 March
1991)
head of government : Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho
VEIGA (since 13 January 1991)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister from
among the members of the People's National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 18 February 1996 (next to be held NA February
2001); prime minister nominated by the People's National Assembly and
appointed by the president
election results: Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro elected president;
percent of vote - Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (independent) 80.1%

Legislative branch: unicameral People's National Assembly or
Assembleia Nacional Popular (72 seats; members are elected by popular
vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results : percent of vote by party - MPD 59%, PAICV 28%, PCD
6%; seats by party - MPD 50, PAICV 21, PCD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de
Justia

Political parties and leaders: Movement for Democracy or MPD [Prime
Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and chairman]; African Party for
Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Pedro Verona Rodrigues PIRES,
chairman]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD; Social Democratic
Party or PSD [leader NA]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alberto Santos SILVA CARLOS
chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
consulate(s) general: Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Lawrence Neal BENEDICT (17 June 1996)
embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia
mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
telephone: [238] 61 56 16
FAX : [238] 61 13 55

Flag description: three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double
width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and
light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on
the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower
blue bands

Economy

Economy - overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor
natural resource base, serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles
of long-term drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is service
oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for
almost 70% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in
rural areas, the share of agriculture in GNP is only 14%, of which
fishing accounts for 4%. About 90% of food must be imported. The
fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited.
Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by remittances
from emigrants and foreign aid, which form important supplements to
GDP. Economic reforms, launched by the new democratic government in
1991, are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting
foreign investment to diversify the economy. Prospects for 1997 depend
heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, remittances, and the momentum
of the government's development program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $472 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.7% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 14%
industry: 17%
services: 69% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.8% (1995)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA %

Budget:
revenues: $253.7 million
expenditures: $276 million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: fish processing, salt mining, garments, ship repair, food
and beverages

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 17,000 kW

Electricity - production: 15 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 39 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes,
sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish

Exports:
total value: $10 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: fish, bananas, fuels, basic manufactures
partners: Netherlands, Portugal 50%, Angola, Spain, Singapore, UK

Imports:
total value : $211.8 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products,
transport equipment, fuels
partners : Portugal 45%, Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Brazil, France,
Cote d'Ivoire

Debt - external: $170 million (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1 - 84.770
(December 1996), 82.591 (1996), 76.853 (1995), 81.891 (1994), 80.427
(1993), 68.018 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cape Verde:Communications

Telephones: 1,740 (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system
international : 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to
Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)

@Cape Verde:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 1,100 km
paved: 858 km
unpaved: 242 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine:
total: 3 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,032 GRT/5,966 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP; includes
Army and Navy), Security Service

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 78,622 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 44,870 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.4 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for illicit
drugs moving from Latin America and Africa destined for Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

CAYMAN ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Cayman Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of
the way from Cuba to Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total : 260 sq km
land: 260 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 160 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and
cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: The Bluff 43 m

Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 8%
forests and woodland: 23%
other: 69% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (July to November)

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources,
drinking water supplies must be met by rainwater catchment

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: important location between Cuba and Central America

@Cayman Islands:People

Population: 36,153 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 4.25% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 14.24 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 33.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)
note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population : NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 77.1 years
male: 75.37 years
female: 78.81 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.37 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Caymanian(s)
adjective : Caymanian

Ethnic groups: mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various
ethnic groups 20%

Religions: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican,
Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 98% (1970 est.)

@Cayman Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Cayman Islands

Data code: CJ

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: George Town

Administrative divisions: 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South
Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day (first Monday in July)

Constitution: 1959, revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system: British common law and local statutes

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor and President of the Executive Council
John OWEN (since 15 September 1995)
cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor,
four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; the governor is
appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (18 seats, 3
official members and 15 elected by popular vote; members serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 November 1996 (next to be held NA November
2000)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - National Team
coalition 9, independents 6

Judicial branch: Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: no formal political parties

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk
centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a
pineapple and turtle above a shield with three stars (representing the
three islands) and a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH
FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

Economy

Economy - overview: With no direct taxation, the Islands are a
thriving offshore financial center; 28,000 foreign companies do
business with the 600 registered banks and trust companies; banking
assets exceed $500 billion. Tourism is also a mainstay, accounting for
about 70% of GDP and 75% of foreign currency earnings. The tourist
industry is aimed at the luxury market and caters mainly to visitors
from North America. Total tourist arrivals exceeded one million
visitors in 1995 and again in 1996. About 90% of the islands' food and
consumer goods must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the
highest outputs per capita and one of the highest standards of living
in the world.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $860 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 1.4%
industry: 3.2%
services: 95.4% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.5% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 8,061
by occupation: service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction
12.5%, finance and investment 6.7%, directors and business managers
5.9% (1979)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992)

Budget:
revenues: $141.5 million
expenditures: $160.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1991)

Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction,
construction materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 71,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: 7,487 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruit; livestock; turtle farming

Exports:
total value : $10 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: turtle products, manufactured consumer goods
partners : mostly US

Imports:
total value: $329 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods
partners: US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan

Debt - external: $15 million (1986)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 0.83 (3 November
1995), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Cayman Islands:Communications

Telephones: 21,584 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: 1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 28,200 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1995)

Televisions: 6,000 (1992 est.)

@Cayman Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 406 km
paved: 304 km
unpaved : 102 km

Ports and harbors: Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine:
total: 42 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 736,004 GRT/1,153,058 DWT
ships by type : bulk 5, cargo 10, chemical tanker 2, container 4, oil
tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5, vehicle
carrier 1
note : a flag of convenience registry; Greece owns 7 ships, US 7, UK
5, India 1, Japan 1, Norway 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 1, and United
Arab Emirates 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: vulnerable to drug money-laundering and drug
transshipment
______________________________________________________________________

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

Introduction

Current issues: in 1996 the Central African Republic experienced three
mutinies by dissident elements of the armed forces which demanded back
pay as well as political and military reforms; continuing violence in
1997 between the government and rebel military and civilian groups
over pay issues, living conditions, and lack of opposition party
representation in the government has destroyed many businesses in the
capital, reducing tax revenues and exacerbating the government's
problems in meeting expenses

@Central African Republic:Geography

Location: Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 622,980 sq km
land: 622,980 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total : 5,203 km
border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Democratic Republic
of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in
northeast and southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Oubangui River 335 m
highest point: Mount Gaou 1,420 m

Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 75%
other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern
areas; floods are common

Environment - current issues: tap water is not potable; poaching has
diminished its reputation as one of the last great wildlife refuges;
desertification; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

@Central African Republic:People

Population: 3,342,051 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 738,623; female 731,163)
15-64 years : 52% (male 858,386; female 894,695)
65 years and over: 4% (male 54,848; female 64,336) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.01% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 39.52 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.94 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 110.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 45.24 years
male: 44.4 years
female : 46.12 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.35 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Central African(s)
adjective: Central African

Ethnic groups: Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%,
M'Baka 4%, Europeans 6,500 (including 3,600 French)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%,
Muslim 15%, other 11%
note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian
majority

Languages: French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national
language), Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60%
male: 68.5%
female: 52.4% (1995 est.)

@Central African Republic:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Central African Republic
conventional short form: none
local long form : Republique Centrafricaine
local short form: none
former: Central African Empire
abbreviation: CAR

Data code: CT

Government type: republic;

National capital: Bangui

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures economiques,
singular - prefecture economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran,
Bangui**, Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha,
Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere,
Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga

Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation of the
republic)

Constitution: passed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7 January
1995

Legal system: based on French law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ange PATASSE (since 22 October 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Michel GBEZERA-BRIA (since January
1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections : president elected by popular vote for a 6-year term;
election last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held October 1999);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ange PATASSE elected president; percent of vote -
PATASSE 52.45%, Abel GOUMBA 45.62%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (85 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held October 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MLPC
34, RDC 13, PLD 7, FPP 7, ADP 6, PSD 3, CN 3, MDREC 1, PRC 1, FC 1,
MESAN 1, independents supporting David DACKO 6, independents 2
note: the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional
Council or Conseil Economique et Regional; when they sit together they
are called the Congress or Congres

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme, judges appointed by
the president; Constitutional Court, judges appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Progress or
ADP [Tchapka BREDE]; Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre
KOLINGBA]; Central African Republican Party or PRC; Civic Forum or FC
[Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Movement for the Renaissance and
Evolution of Central Africa or MDREC [Joseph BENDOUNGA]; Liberal
Democratic Party or PLD [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement for the
Liberation of the Central African People or MLPC [the party of the
president, Ange Felix PATASSE]; Movement for Democracy and Development
or MDD [David DACKO]; National Convention or CN [David GALIAMBO];
Patriotic Front for Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA]; Social Democratic
Party or PSD [Enoch Derant LAKOUE]; Social Evolution Movement of Black
Africa or MESAN [Prosper LAVODRAMA and Joseph NGBANGADIBO]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC
(observer), UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Henri KOBA
chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 483-7800, 7801
FAX: [1] (202) 332-9893

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mosina H. JORDAN
embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
mailing address : B. P. 924, Bangui
telephone: [236] 61 02 00, 61 25 78, 61 02 10
FAX: [236] 61 44 94

Flag description: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
green, and yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a
yellow five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band

Economy

Economy - overview: Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry,
remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic
(CAR), with more than 70% of the population living in outlying areas.
The agricultural sector generates half of GDP. Timber has accounted
for about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry for nearly
54%. Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's
landlocked position, a poor transportation system, a largely unskilled
work force, and a legacy of misdirected macroeconomic policies. The
50% devaluation of the currencies of 14 Francophone African nations on
12 January 1994 had mixed effects on the CAR's economy. Diamond,
timber, coffee, and cotton exports increased, leading an estimated
rise of GDP of 7% in 1994 and nearly 5% in 1995. Inflation, however,
remains a problem. Moreover, ongoing violence between the government
and rebel military and civilian groups over pay issues, living
conditions, and opposition party political representation has
destroyed many businesses in the capital, reducing tax revenues for
the government, and delaying negotiations for an IMF financial aid
agreement.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 50%
industry: 14%
services: 36% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 19.4% (1995)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $638 million
expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $888
million (1994 est.)

Industries: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear,
assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 40,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 95 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 32 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca),
yams, millet, corn, bananas; timber

Exports:
total value: $181 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities : diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco
partners: France 16%, Belgium-Luxembourg 40.1%, Italy, Japan, US,
Spain, Iran, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo

Imports:
total value: $176 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical
equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods,
industrial products
partners: France 37%, other EU countries, Japan 24%, Algeria,
Cameroon, Namibia

Debt - external: $890 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Central African Republic:Communications

Telephones: 16,867 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: fair system
domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and
low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 7,500 (1993 est.)

@Central African Republic:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 23,810 km
paved: 429 km
unpaved: 23,381 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of
shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river

Ports and harbors: Bangui, Nola

Airports: 43 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
under 914 m: 8 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 32
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 10
914 to 1,523 m: 21 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Central African Army (includes Republican Guard),
Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 755,441 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 393,765 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $30 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.3% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

CHAD

Introduction

Historical perspective: After enduring decades of civil warfare among
ethnic groups as well as invasions by Libya, Chad got started toward a
more stable state with the seizure of the government in early December
1990 by former northern guerrilla leader Idress DEBY. His transitional
government eventually suppressed armed rebellion in all quarters of
the country, settled the territorial dispute with Libya on terms
favorable to Chad, produced a democratic constitution which was
ratified by popular referendum in March 1996, held multiparty national
presidential elections in June and July 1996 (DEBY won with 67% of the
vote), and held multiparty elections to the National Assembly in
January and February 1997, in which Idress DEBY's party, Patriotic
Salvation Movement or MPS, won a majority of the seats.

@Chad:Geography

Location: Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of
California

Land boundaries:
total: 5,968 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197
km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in
northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Djourab Depression 175 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way),
uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops : 0%

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