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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several
years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice and judges are sworn in
by the sultan for three-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Brunei United National Party
(inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman; Brunei National Solidarity
Party (the first legal political party and now banned), Mohamad HATTA
bin Maji Zainal Abidin, secretary general; Brunei Peoples Party
(banned), Sheik A. M. AZAHARI, leader; Brunei National Democratic
Party or BNDP (deregistered), Haji Abdul LATIF bin Abdul Hamad,
president

International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN, C, CCC, ESCAP,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Pengiran Anak Dato Haji PUTEH
chancery: Watergate, Suite 300, 3rd floor, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 342-0159
FAX: [1] (202) 342-0158

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Glen Robert RASE
embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
Begawan
mailing address : American Embassy Box B, Bandar Seri Begawan, APO AP
96440
telephone: [673] (2) 229670
FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag description: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost
double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the
national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem
includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an
upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

Economy

Economy - overview: This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of
foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and
welfare measures, and village tradition. It is almost totally
supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from
the petroleum sector accounting for perhaps half of GDP. Per capita
GDP is among the highest in the Third World, and substantial income
from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production.
The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food
and housing. The government is beginning to show progress on its basic
policy of diversifying the economy away from oil and gas. Brunei's
leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world
economy will undermine internal social cohesion.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.6 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,800 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 3%
industry: 46%
services: 51% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.5% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 119,000 (1993 est.); note - includes members of the Army
by occupation: government 48%, production of oil, natural gas,
services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4%,
other 6% (1986 est.)
note : 33% of labor force is foreign (1988)

Unemployment rate: 4.8% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.5 billion
expenditures : $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $768
million (1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas,
construction

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 344,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 1.24 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 4,003 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), bananas; water
buffalo, pigs

Exports:
total value : $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
partners: Japan 50%, UK 19%, Thailand 10%, Singapore 9% (1994 est.)

Imports:
total value: $2 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities : machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
food, chemicals
partners: Singapore 29%, UK 19%, US 13%, Malaysia 9%, Japan 5% (1994
est.)

Debt - external: $0

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.4061 (January
1997), 1.4100 (1996), 1.4174 (1995), 1.5274 (1994), 1.6158 (1993),
1.6290 (1992); note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore
dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Brunei:Communications

Telephones: 76,900 (1993)

Telephone system: service throughout country is adequate for present
needs; international service good to adjacent Malaysia
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 115,000 (1993)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1984 est.)

Televisions: 78,000 (1993 est.)

@Brunei:Transportation

Railways:
total: 13 km (private line)
narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways:
total: 1,120 km
paved: 388 km
unpaved : 732 km (1995)

Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas
920 km

Ports and harbors: Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria,
Tutong

Merchant marine:
total: 7 liquefied gas tankers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476
GRT/340,635 DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 85,327 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 49,466 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 3,014 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $312 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 6.2% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient
that divides the country; all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by
China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and
the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone
that encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly claimed the island
______________________________________________________________________

BULGARIA

@Bulgaria:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
Romania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 110,910 sq km
land: 110,550 sq km
water: 360 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
total: 1,808 km
border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km (all
with Serbia), Turkey 240 km

Coastline: 354 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable
land

Land use:
arable land: 37%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 16%
forests and woodland: 35%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,370 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions;
rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents;
deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid
rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants
and industrial wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls
key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

@Bulgaria:People

Population: 8,290,988 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 720,499; female 685,258)
15-64 years: 67% (male 2,769,288; female 2,823,431)
65 years and over: 16% (male 558,028; female 734,484) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.63% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 8.05 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.38 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.65 years
male: 68.06 years
female: 75.44 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.14 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bulgarian(s)
adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups: Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian
2.5%, Armenian 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%

Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman
Catholic 0.5%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian,
and other 0.5%

Languages: Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic
breakdown

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1992 est.)

@Bulgaria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
conventional short form: Bulgaria

Data code: BU

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast);
Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo, Lovech, Montana, Plovdiv, Ruse, Sofiya,
Varna

Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system with Soviet law influence;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Petar STOYANOV (since 22 January 1997); Vice
President Todor KAVALDZHIEV (since 22 January 1997)
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime
Minister) Ivan Kostov (since 19 May 1997); Deputy Prime Ministers
Aleksandur BOZHKOV (since 12 February 1997 Evgeniy BAKURDZHIEV (since
21 May 1997), Veselin METODIEV (since 21 May 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 27 October and 3
November 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); chairman of the Council of
Ministers (prime minister) appointed by the president
election results: Petar STOYANOV elected president; percent of vote -
Petar STOYANOV 59.73%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie
(240 seats; members are popularly elected to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 19 April 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results : percent of vote by party - UDF 52%, BSP 22%, ANS
7%, Euro-left 5.5%, BBB 4.95%; seats by party - UDF 137, BSP 58, ANS
19, Euro-left 14, BBB 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman appointed for a seven-year
term by the president; Constitutional Court, 12 justices appointed or
elected for a nine-year term

Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP
[Georgi PURVANOV, chairman]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF (an
alliance of pro-Democratic parties) [Ivan KOSTOV]; Euro-left
[Alexander TOMOV]; Alliance for National Salvation or ANS (coalition
led mainly by Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]);
Bulgarian Business Bloc or BBB [George GANCHEV]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Democratic Alliance for the
Republic or DAR; New Union for Democracy or NUD; Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa
Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union; Bulgarian Communist Party or
BCP; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or KNSB;
Bulgarian Agrarian National Union - United or BZNS; Bulgarian
Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov" Bulgarian Agrarian National Union;
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Union of Macedonian
Societies or IMRO-UMS; numerous regional, ethnic, and national
interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
CEI, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OSCE,
PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMOT, UPU,
WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Snezhana Damianova BOTUSHAROVA
chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 387-7969
FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Avis T. BOHLEN (22 July 1996)
embassy : 1 Saborna Street, Sofia
mailing address: Embassy Sofia, Department of State, Washington, DC
50521-5740
telephone: [359] (2) 980-52-41 through 48
FAX: [359] (2) 981-89-77

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green,
and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white
stripe has been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath
of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing
the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation
from Nazi control)

Economy

Economy - overview: One of the poorest countries of central Europe,
Bulgaria has slowly continued the process of moving from its old
command economy towards a market-oriented economy. Slow advancement on
economic reforms pitched the economy into crisis in 1996, marked by a
banking system in turmoil, a depreciating currency, inflation of 311%
and contracting production and foreign trade. Foreign exchange
reserves dwindled to extremely low levels ($518 million), while
dramatically hiked interest rates added to the domestic debt burden
and stifled growth. GDP fell by 10% in 1996, after experiencing 2.6%
growth in 1995. Privatization of state-owned industries stagnated,
although the first auction of a mass privatization program was
undertaken in late 1996. Lagging progress on structural reforms led to
postponement of IMF disbursements under a $580 million standby loan
agreed to in July. In November 1996, the IMF proposed a currency board
as Bulgaria's best chance to restore confidence in the lev, eliminate
discretionary spending, and avoid hyperinflation. The government has
pledged to sell some of the country's most attractive state assets to
the highest foreign bidders in 1997. The Bulgarian economy is
projected to have another year of negative growth (minus 5%), and
inflation near 700% in 1997, assuming introduction of a currency board
in July of 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $39.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -10% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,630 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12.6%
industry: 35.7%
services: 51.7% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 311% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 3.57 million (1996 est.)
by occupation : industry 41%, agriculture 18%, other 41% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 12.5% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3 billion
expenditures : $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: machine building and metal working, food processing,
chemicals, textiles, construction materials, ferrous and nonferrous
metals

Industrial production growth rate: -6.5% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 12.09 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 36.07 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 4,491 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grain, oilseed, vegetables, fruits, tobacco;
livestock

Exports:
total value: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : machinery and equipment 12.8%; agriculture and food
21.9%; textiles and apparel 14%; metals and ores 19.7%; chemicals
16.9%; minerals and fuels 9.3% (1995)
partners: OECD 50.0% (EU 37.2%); CIS and Central and Eastern Europe
32.4%; Arab countries 5.8%; other 11.8% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $4.1 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials 30.1%; machinery and
equipment 23.6%; textiles and apparel 11.6%; agricultural products
10.8%; metals and ores 6.8%; chemicals 12.3%; other 4.8% (1995)
partners : OECD 45.5% (EU 38.1%); CIS and Central and Eastern European
countries 41.1%; Arab countries 1.8%; other 11.6% (1995)

Debt - external: $9.3 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: NA

Currency: 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki

Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1 - 483.4 (1996), 70.7 (1995), 54.2
(1994), 27.1 (1993), 23.3 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bulgaria:Communications

Telephones: 2,773,293 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: almost two-thirds of the lines are residential; 67%
of Sofia households have telephones (November 1988 est.)
domestic: extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial
cable and microwave radio relay; telephone service is available in
most villages
international : direct dialing to 36 countries; satellite earth
stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region); Intelsat available
through a Greek earth station

Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 15, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 29 (Russian repeater in Sofia 1)

Televisions: 2.1 million (May 1990 est.)

@Bulgaria:Transportation

Railways:
total : 4,292 km
standard gauge: 4,047 km 1.435-m gauge (2,650 km electrified; 917
double track)
other gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 36,777 km
paved: 33,798 km (including 314 km of expressways)
unpaved : 2,979 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 470 km (1987)

Pipelines: crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 525 km; natural gas
1,400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine:
total: 99 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,063,367 GRT/1,596,438
DWT
ships by type: bulk 45, cargo 25, chemical tanker 4, container 2, oil
tanker 12, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 1
note : Bulgaria owns an additional 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 151,855 DWT operating under the registries of Liberia and
Malta (1996 est.)

Airports: 355 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 116
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
under 914 m: 88 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 239
2,438 to 3,047 m : 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 226 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border
Troops, Internal Troops

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,052,731 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,711,729 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 62,908 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $418.6 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.0% to 2.5% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian
heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the
European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; significant
producer of amphetamines, much of which are consumed in the Middle
East
______________________________________________________________________

BURKINA FASO

@Burkina Faso:Geography

Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 274,200 sq km
land : 273,800 sq km
water: 400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 3,192 km
border countries: Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km,
Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west
and southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Black Volta River 200 m
highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of
gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc,
silver

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 22%
forests and woodland: 50%
other : 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: recent droughts and desertification
severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution,
and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked

@Burkina Faso:People

Population: 10,891,159 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 2,636,509; female 2,602,984)
15-64 years : 49% (male 2,515,266; female 2,799,542)
65 years and over: 3% (male 146,267; female 190,591) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.45% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 46.43 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 20.33 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 116.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 42.29 years
male: 42.45 years
female : 42.12 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.72 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic groups: Mossi about 24%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande,
Fulani

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman
Catholic) 10%

Languages: French (official), tribal languages belonging to Sudanic
family, spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 19.2%
male: 29.5%
female: 9.2% (1995 est.)

@Burkina Faso:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Burkina Faso
former: Upper Volta

Data code: UV

Government type: parliamentary

National capital: Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba,
Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houe, Kadiogo,
Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri,
Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno,
Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo

Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)

Constitution: 2 June 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October
1987)
head of government: Prime Minister Kadre' De'sire' OUE'DRAOGO (since 6
February 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1998); prime
minister appointed by the president with the consent of the
legislature
election results: Blaise COMPAORE elected president with 90.4% percent
of the votes of those who voted (the abstention rate was 74.7%)

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of People's Deputies or
Assemblee des Deputes Populaires (111 seats; members are popularly
elected to serve five-year terms)
elections : last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CDP
97, PDP 6, RDA 2, ADF 2; note - 4 contested seats are to be filled in
special election on 19 June 1997 by order of the Supreme Court
note: the current law also provides for a second consultative chamber,
which has not been formally constituted

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: Organization for People's Democracy -
Labor Movement or ODP-MT (ruling party at time of 1992 elections but
was subsumed, with about a dozen smaller parties, into the powerful
CDP in February 1996); African Democratic Assembly or RDA [Gerard
Kango OUEDRAOGO]; Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF [Herman
YAMEOGO]; Burkinabe Socialist Bloc or BSB [Earnest Nongma OUEDRAOGO,
president]; Burkinabe Environmentalist Party or UVDB; Congress for
Democracy and Progress or CDP [Din Salif SAWADAGO] (the strongest
party in the 1997 legislative elections); Front for Social Forces or
FFS [Fide'le KIENTEGA]; National Convention of Progressive
Patriots-Social Democratic Party or CNPP-PSD [Moussa BOLY] (not
prominent in 1997); Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Joseph
KI-ZERBO]; Party for Progress and Social Development or PPDS; Party
for African Independence or PAI

Political pressure groups and leaders: committees for the defense of
the revolution; watchdog/political action groups throughout the
country in both organizations and communities

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM,
OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Gaetan R. OUEDRAOGO
chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577, 6895

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sharon P. WILKINSON (16 July 1996)
embassy: Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou
mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou
telephone: [226] 306723 through 306725
FAX : [226] 303890

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green
with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy

Economy - overview: One of the poorest countries in the world,
landlocked Burkina Faso has a high population density and a high
population growth rate, few natural resources, and a fragile soil.
Over 80% of the population is engaged in subsistence agriculture which
is highly vulnerable to variations in rainfall. Industry remains
dominated by unprofitable government-controlled corporations.
Following the African franc currency devaluation in January 1994 the
government updated its development program in conjunction with
international agencies, and exports and economic growth have
increased.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $740 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 31%
industry: 25%
services: 44% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.8% (1995)

Labor force: NA (most adults are employed in subsistence agriculture)
by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry 15%, commerce, services, and
government 5%
note: 20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring
countries for seasonal employment (1984)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $483 million
expenditures : $548 million, including capital expenditures of $189
million (1992)

Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap,
cigarettes, textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1994)

Electricity - capacity: 121,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 320 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 28 kWh (1992 est.)

Agriculture - products: peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton, sorghum,
millet, corn, rice; livestock

Exports:
total value : $298 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: cotton, gold, animal products
partners: Cote d'Ivoire, France, Italy, Thailand

Imports:
total value: $500 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities : machinery, food products, petroleum
partners: Cote d'Ivoire, France, Togo, Nigeria

Debt - external: $1.1 billion (December 1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Burkina Faso:Communications

Telephones: 21,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: all services only fair
domestic: microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone
communication stations
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 49,000 (1991 est.)

@Burkina Faso:Transportation

Railways:
total: 622 km (517 km from Ouagadougou to the Cote d'Ivoire border and
105 km from Ouagadougou to Kaya)
narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 12,506 km
paved : 2,001 km
unpaved: 10,505 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 22 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 8 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National
Police, People's Militia

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,219,544 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,137,882 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $104 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 6.4% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

BURMA

@Burma:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of
Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total : 678,500 sq km
land: 657,740 sq km
water: 20,760 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,876 km
border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers
(southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall,
mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m
highest point : Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper,
tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural
gas

Land use:
arable land : 15%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 49%
other: 34% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and
landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic
droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution of
air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment
contribute to disease

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping
lanes

@Burma:People

Population: 46,821,943 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 37% (male 8,743,108; female 8,410,224)
15-64 years: 59% (male 13,878,541; female 13,859,783)
65 years and over : 4% (male 873,670; female 1,056,617) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.81% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 29.54 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 11.41 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 78.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 56.62 years
male: 54.89 years
female: 58.45 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.76 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%,
Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%),
Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2%

Languages: Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.1%
male: 88.7%
female: 77.7% (1995 est.)

@Burma:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Union of Burma
conventional short form: Burma
local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US
Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)
local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

Data code: BM

Government type: military regime

National capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7
states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*, Bago*,
Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*, Mon State,
Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988);
national convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new
constitution; chapter headings and three of 15 sections have been
approved

Legal system: does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Law and Order
Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note - the
prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government : Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Law and
Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note -
the prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: State Law and Order Restoration Council; military junta which
assumed power 18 September 1988
elections: none; the prime minister assumed power upon resignation of
the former prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw
(485 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened
election results: percent of vote by party - NLD 82%; seats by party -
NLD 396, NUP 10, other 79

Judicial branch: limited; remnants of the British-era legal system in
place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary
is not independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders: Union Solidarity and Development
Association (USDA, proregime), THAN AUNG, general secretary; National
Unity Party (NUP, proregime), THA KYAW; National League for Democracy
(NLD), AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary; and eight minor legal
parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Coalition Government
of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), headed by Dr. SEIN WIN - consists of
individuals legitimately elected to the People's Assembly but not
recognized by the military regime; the group fled to a border area and
joined with insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government;
Kachin Independence Army (KIA); United Wa State Army (UWSA); Karen
National Union (KNU); several Shan factions, including the Mong Tai
Army (MTA); All Burma Student Democratic Front (ABSDF)

International organization participation: AsDB, ASEAN (observer), CCC,
CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU,
Mekong Group, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador TIN WINN
chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044, 9045
FAX : [1] (202) 332-9046
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kent M.
WIEDEMANN
embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)
mailing address : Box B, APO AP 96546
telephone: [95] (1) 282055, 282182 (operator assistance required)
FAX: [95] (1) 280409

Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a
cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14
administrative divisions

Economy

Economy - overview: Burma has a mixed economy with private activity
dominant in agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with
substantial state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy
industry, and the rice trade. Government policy in the last eight
years, 1989-96, has aimed at revitalizing the economy after three
decades of tight central planning. Thus, private activity has markedly
increased; foreign investment has been encouraged, so far with
moderate success; and efforts continue to increase the efficiency of
state enterprises. Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are
greatly understated because of the volume of black-market trade. A
major ongoing problem is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal
stability. Although Burma remains a poor Asian country, its rich
resources furnish the potential for substantial long-term increases in
income, exports, and living standards.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $51.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,120 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 63%
industry: 9%
services : 28% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 30%-40% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 16.007 million (1992)
by occupation: agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%,
government 6.3%, other 4.1% (FY88/89 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $5.3 billion
expenditures : $10 billion, including capital expenditures of $3
billion (1995 est.)

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and
wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials;
pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 8.9% (FY94/95 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 1.21 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 3.37 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 73 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses;
hardwood

Exports:
total value: $1.1 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: rice, pulses and beans, teak, rubber, hardwood
partners: Singapore, China, Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia,
Japan

Imports:
total value : $2 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, construction materials,
food products, consumer goods
partners: Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, China, Malaysia, Thailand

Debt - external: $5.5 billion (FY94/95 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $61 million (1993)

Currency: 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1 - 6.0600 (1997), 5.9176 (1996),
5.6670 (1995), 5.9749 (1994), 6.1570 (1993), 6.1045 (1992); unofficial
- 160-170 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Burma:Communications

Telephones: 122,195 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: meets minimum requirements for local and intercity
service for business and government; international service is good
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1985 est.)
note: radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most populous areas

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 88,000 (1992 est.)

@Burma:Transportation

Railways:
total : 3,569 km
narrow gauge: 3,569 km 1.000-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 27,600 km
paved: 3,340 km
unpaved : 24,260 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km

Ports and harbors: Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein,
Myitkyina, Rangoon, Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy

Merchant marine:
total: 52 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 657,498 GRT/901,418 DWT
ships by type : bulk 16, cargo 18, chemical tanker 5, container 2, oil
tanker 5, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 1, vehicle carrier 2
(1996 est.)

Airports: 73 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 54
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m : 9
under 914 m: 28 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 16 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 12,037,009
females age 15-49: 11,846,381 (1997 est.)
note: both sexes liable for military service

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 6,434,452 (1997 est.)
females: 6,317,112 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 480,893
females: 462,314 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $135 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium (2,560 metric
tons in 1996 - a 9% increase over 1995) and a minor producer of
cannabis for the international drug trade; surrender of drug warlord
KHUN SA's Mong Tai Army in January 1996 was hailed by Rangoon as a
major counternarcotics success, but lack of serious government
commitment and resources continue to hinder the overall antidrug
effort; growing role in the production of methamphetamines for
regional consumption
______________________________________________________________________

BURUNDI

Introduction

Current issues: in a number of waves since October 1993, hundreds of
thousands of refugees have fled the ethnic violence between the Hutu
and Tutsi factions in Burundi and crossed into Rwanda, Tanzania, and
Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire; since October 1996,
an estimated 92,000 Burundi Hutus who fled to Zaire have been forced
to return to Burundi by Tutsi rebel forces in Zaire, leaving an
estimated 35,000 still dispersed there; in Burundi, the ethnic
violence between the Hutus and the Tutsis continued in 1996, causing
an estimated additional 150,000 Burundi Hutus to flee to Tanzania,
thus raising their numbers in that country to about 250,000

@Burundi:Geography

Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 27,830 sq km
land: 25,650 sq km
water: 2,180 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 974 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290
km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation
(772 m to 2,760 m); average annual temperature varies with altitude
from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the
average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about
150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November,
and dry seasons from June to August and December to January

Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some
plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
highest point: Mount Heha 2,760 m

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt,
copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium

Land use:
arable land: 44%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures : 36%
forests and woodland: 3%
other : 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding, landslides

Environment - current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing
and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation
(little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees
for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Endangered Species
signed, but not ratified : Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo
watershed

@Burundi:People

Population: 6,052,614 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 1,425,071; female 1,418,957)
15-64 years : 50% (male 1,490,426; female 1,558,362)
65 years and over: 3% (male 63,225; female 96,573) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.11% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.33 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 15.12 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 100.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 49 years
male: 47.91 years
female : 50.12 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.48 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundi

Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%,
Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%),
indigenous beliefs 32%, Muslim 1%

Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35.3%
male: 49.3%
female: 22.5% (1995 est.)

@Burundi:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
conventional short form: Burundi
local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
local short form : Burundi

Data code: BY

Government type: republic

National capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi,
Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba,
Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 13 March 1992; provides for establishment of a plural
political system

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary
law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since 27
September 1996) note - former President NTIBANTUNGANYA was overthrown
in a coup on 25 July 1996 and has taken refuge in the US ambassador's
residence in Bujumbura; former Major (retired) Pierre BUYOYA has not
been recognized as president of Burundi by the US or most other
governments
head of government: Prime Minister Pascal-Firmin NDIMIRA (since 31
July 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by prime minister
elections : NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (81 seats; members are popularly elected on a proportional
basis to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71%, UPRONA
21.4%; seats by party - (81 total) FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16; other
parties won too small shares of the vote to win seats in the assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Unity for National Progress or UPRONA
[Charles MUKASI, president]; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean
MINANI, president]; Organization of the People of Burundi or RPB
[Sylvestre SINDAYIGAYA]; Socialist Party of Burundi or PSB; People's
Reconciliation Party or PRP [Mathias HITIMANA, leader]; opposition
parties, legalized in March 1992, include Burundi African Alliance for
the Salvation or ABASA, Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social
Development or RADDES [Cyrille SIGEJEJE, chairman], and Party for
National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA, leader]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC,
CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber),
ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Severin NTAHOMVUKIYE
chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Morris N. HUGHES, Jr. (27 June l996)
embassy : Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone : [257] (2) 23454
FAX: [257] (2) 22926

Flag description: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels
(top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a
white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed
stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star
above, two stars below)

Economy

Economy - overview: Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country in
an early stage of economic development. The economy is predominately
agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on
subsistence agriculture. Its economic health depends on the coffee
crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability
to pay for imports therefore rests largely on the vagaries of the
climate and the international coffee market. As part of its economic
reform agenda, launched in February 1991 with IMF and World Bank
support, Burundi is trying to diversify its agricultural exports,
attract foreign investment in industry, and modernize government
budgetary practices. Since October 1993 the nation has suffered from
massive ethnic-based violence which has resulted in the death of
perhaps 100,000 persons and the displacement of a million others.
Production continued to fall in 1996; foods, medicines, and
electricity are in extremely short supply. An impoverished and
disorganized government can hardly implement the needed reform
programs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -3.7% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 56%
industry: 18%
services: 26% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 40% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.9 million
by occupation: agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and
commerce 1.5%, services 1.5% (1983 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $222 million
expenditures: $258 million, including capital expenditures of $92
million (1995 est.)

Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap;
assembly of imported components; public works construction; food
processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 55,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 105 million kWh (1991)
note: imports some electricity from Democratic Republic of the Congo

Electricity - consumption per capita: 18 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet
potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); meat, milk, hides

Exports:
total value: $117 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: coffee 81%, tea, cotton, hides
partners : EU 60%, US 7%, Asia 1%

Imports:
total value: $234 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: capital goods 26%, petroleum products, foodstuffs,
consumer goods
partners: EU 47%, Asia 25%, US 6%

Debt - external: $1.1 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 268.13 (November
1995), 249.76 (1995), 252.66 (1994), 242.78 (1993), 208.30 (1992),
181.51 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Burundi:Communications

Telephones: 7,200 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: primitive system
domestic: sparse system of open wire, radiotelephone communications,
and low-capacity microwave radio relay
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,500 (1993 est.)

@Burundi:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 14,480 km
paved : 1,028 km
unpaved: 13,452 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Ports and harbors: Bujumbura

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary
Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 16 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,346,737 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 700,914 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 70,013 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $25 million (1993)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.6% (1993)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

CAMBODIA

@Cambodia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
Thailand and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 181,040 sq km
land: 176,520 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries:
total : 2,572 km
border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season
(December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 11%
forests and woodland: 66%
other : 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding;
occasional droughts

Environment - current issues: logging activities throughout the
country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the
border with Thailand are resulting in habitat loss and declining
biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens
natural fisheries); deforestation; soil erosion; in rural areas, a
majority of the population does not have access to potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Marine Life Conservation,
Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the
Mekong River and Tonle Sap

@Cambodia:People

Population: 11,163,861 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 2,573,135; female 2,497,776)
15-64 years : 52% (male 2,668,089; female 3,084,009)
65 years and over: 3% (male 144,001; female 196,851) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.72% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.63 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 15.39 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 106 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.25 years
male: 48.79 years
female : 51.79 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.81 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions: Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%

Languages: Khmer (official), French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 35%
male: 48%
female : 22% (1990 est.)

@Cambodia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea
local short form: Kampuchea

Data code: CB

Government type: multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional
monarchy established in September 1993

National capital: Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (khett, singular and plural)
and 1 municipality* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean Cheay,
Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum,
Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean
Cheay, Phnum Penh, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu (Sihanoukville), Preah
Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng,
Takev

Independence: 9 November 1949 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 November 1949

Constitution: promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system: currently being defined

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)
head of government: power shared between First Prime Minister Prince
Norodom RANARIDDH (since NA 1993) and Second Prime Minister HUN SEN
(since NA 1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the king
elections : none; the king is a constitutional monarch; prime
ministers appointed by the king

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (120 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 23 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
FUNCINPEC 58, CPP 51, BLDP 10, MOLINAKA 1
note : the May 1993 elections were for the Constituent Assembly which
became the National Assembly after the new constitution was
promulgated in September 1993

Judicial branch: Supreme Court provided for by the constitution has
not yet been established and the future judicial system is yet to be
defined by law

Political parties and leaders: National United Front for an
Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC),
Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian
People's Party (CPP), CHEA SIM; Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party
(BLDP), SON SANN faction; Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party (BLDP),
IENG MOULY faction; Democratic Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer
Rouge), KHIEU SAMPHAN; Movement Pour La Liberation Nationale Khmere
(MOLINAKA), PROM NEAKAREACH; Khmer Nation Party (KNP), SAM RAINSY

International organization participation: ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN
(observer), CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador VAR HUOTH
chancery: 4500 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
FAX : [1] (202) 726-8381

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth M. QUINN
embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 426436, 426438
FAX: [855] (23) 426811

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double
width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor
Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band

Economy

Economy - overview: The Cambodian economy - virtually destroyed by
decades of war - is slowly recovering. Government leaders are moving
toward restoring fiscal and monetary discipline and have established
good working relations with international financial institutions.
Growth, starting from a low base, has been strong in 1991-96. Despite
such positive developments, the reconstruction effort faces many tough
challenges because of the persistence of internal political divisions
and the related lack of confidence of foreign investors. Rural
Cambodia, where 90% of about 9.5 million Khmer live, remains mired in
poverty. The almost total lack of basic infrastructure in the
countryside will hinder development and will contribute to a growing
imbalance in growth between urban and rural areas over the near term.
Moreover, the government's lack of experience in administering
economic and technical assistance programs and rampant corruption
among officials will slow the growth of critical public sector
investment. The decline of inflation from the 1992 rate of more than
50% is one of the bright spots.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $710 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 51%
industry: 14%
services: 35%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5% (1996 est.)

Labor force: 2.5 million to 3 million
by occupation : agriculture 80% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $261 million
expenditures: $496 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber,
cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 7.9% (1993 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 100,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 180 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 17 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Exports:
total value: $464 million (1996 est.)
commodities: timber, rubber, soybeans, sesame
partners : Singapore, Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia

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