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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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crop program aims to reduce illicit coca cultivation
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BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Introduction

Current issues: On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the former
Yugoslavia's three warring parties signed a peace agreement that
brought to a halt over three years of interethnic civil strife in
Bosnia and Herzegovina (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14
December 1995). The Dayton Agreement, signed by Bosnian President
IZETBEGOVIC, Croatian President TUDJMAN, and Serbian President
MILOSEVIC, divides Bosnia and Herzegovina roughly equally between the
Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serbs while maintaining
Bosnia's currently recognized borders. In 1995-96, a NATO-led
international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in
Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement.
IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR)
whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR will remain in
place until June 1998. A High Representative appointed by the UN
Security Council is responsible for civilian implementation of the
accord, including monitoring implementation, facilitating any
difficulties arising in connection with civilian implementation, and
coordinating activities of the civilian organizations and agencies in
Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Bosnian conflict began in the spring of
1992 when the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina held a referendum
on independence and the Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring
Serbia - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the
republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a
"greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosnia's Muslims and Croats reduced
the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an
agreement in Washington creating their joint Muslim/Croat Federation
of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation, formed by the Muslims and
Croats in March 1994, is one of two entities (the other being the
Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska) that comprise Bosnia and
Herzegovina.

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe

Area:
total: 51,233 sq km
land: 51,233 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,459 km
border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km
with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have
short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters
along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper,
chromium, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 14%
permanent crops : 5%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants;
sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties,
water shortages, and destruction of infrastructure because of the
1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders,
the country is divided into a joint Muslim-Croat Federation (about 51%
of the territory) and a Serb Republic, The Republika Srpska [RS]
(about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is
contiguous to Croatia and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic
Croat majority

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:People

Population: 3,222,584 (July 1997 est.)
note: all data dealing with population is subject to considerable
error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic
cleansing

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 301,637; female 284,694)
15-64 years: 70% (male 1,123,477; female 1,140,604)
65 years and over: 12% (male 145,711; female 226,461) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 5.09% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 8.29 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.88 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 56.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 37 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 59.42 years
male : 54.58 years
female: 64.59 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.09 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups: Serb 40%, Muslim 38%, Croat 22% (est.)

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%,
other 10%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian (often called Bosnian) 99%

Literacy: NA

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form : none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

Data code: BK

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: there are no first-order administrative
divisions approved by the US Government, but it has been reported that
the Muslim/Croat Federation is comprised of 10 cantons called by
either number or name - Goradzde (5), Livno (10), Middle Bosnia (6),
Neretva (7), Posavina (2), Sarajevo (9), Tuzla Podrinje (3), Una Sana
(1), West Herzegovina (8), Zenica Doboj (4)

Independence: NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Republika Srpska - "Republic Day", 9 January;
Independence Day, 1 March; Bosnia - "Republic Day", 25 November

Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included
a new constitution now in force

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : Chairman of the Presidency Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since
14 September 1996); other members of the three-member rotating
presidency: Kresimir ZUBAK (since 14 September 1996 - Croat) and
Momcilo KRAJISNIK (since 14 September 1996 - Serb)
head of government: Cochairman of the Council of Ministers Haris
SILAJDZIC (since NA January 1997); Cochairman of the Council of
Ministers Boro BOSIC (since NA January 1997) NA
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairmen
note: president of the Muslim-Croat Federation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina: Vladimir SOLJIC (since March 1997); president of the
Republika Srpska: Biljana PLAVSIC (since September 1996)
elections: the three presidency members (one each Muslim, Croat, Serb)
are elected by direct election (first election for a two-year term,
thereafter for a four-year term); the president with the most votes
becomes the chairman; election last held 14 September 1996 (next to be
held September 1998); the cochairmen are nominated by the presidency
election results: Alija IZETBEGOVIC elected chairman of the collective
presidency with the highest number of votes; percent of vote - Alija
IZETBEGOVIC received 80% of the Muslim vote to Haris SILAJDZIC's 14%;
Kresimir ZUBAK received 88% of the Croat vote to Ivo KOMSIC's 11%;
Momcilo KRAJISNIK received 68% of the Serb vote to Mladen IVANIC's 30%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina
consists of the National House of Representatives or Vijece Opcina (42
seats - 14 Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Muslim; members serve NA-year terms)
and the House of Peoples or Vijece Gradanstvo (15 seats - 5 Muslim, 5
Croat, 5 Serb; members serve NA-year terms)
elections: National House of Representatives - elections last held 14
September 1996 (next to be held NA); note - the House of Peoples are
elected by the Muslim-Croat Federation's 140-seat House of
Representatives (two-thirds) and the Bosnian Serb Republic's 83-seat
National Assembly (one-third)
election results: National House of Representatives: two-thirds chosen
from the Muslim-Croat Federation: percent of vote by party - NA; seats
by party - SDA 16, HDZ-BiH 7, Joint List of Social Democrats 3, Party
for Bosnia and Herzegovina 2; one-third chosen from the Bosnian Serb
Republic: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SDS 9, SDA
3, Democratic Patriotic Front/Union for Peace and Progress 2
note: the Muslim-Croat Federation has a House of Representatives with
140 seats: seats by party - SDA 80, HDZ-BiH 33, Party for Bosnia and
Herzegovina 11, Joint List of Social Democrats 10, other 6; the
Republika Srpska has a National Assembly with 83 seats: seats by party
- SDS 50, Democratic Patriotic Front/Union for Peace and Progress 10,
Serb Radical Party 7, SDA 6, other 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Party of Democratic Action or SDA
[Alija IZETBEGOVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH [Bozo
RAJIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Alexander BUHA, acting
president]; Party for Bosnia [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Joint List of Social
Democrats; Democratic Patriotic Front/Union for Peace and Progress;
Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croatian Peasants'
Party of BiH or HSS [Stanko STISKOVIC]; Independent Serbian Democratic
Party or NSDS [Milorad DODIK]; Liberal Bosniak Organization or LBO
[Muhamed FILIPOVIC]; Liberal Party or LS [Rasim KADIC, president];
Muslim-Bosniac Organization or MBO [Adil ZULFIKARPASIC]; Republican
Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina [Stjepan KLJUIC]; Serb Civic Council
or SGV [Mirko PEJANOVIC]; Serb Consultative Council [Ljubomir
BERBEROVIC]; Social Democratic Party or SDP (formerly the Democratic
Party of Socialists or DSS) [Zlatko LAGUMOZIJA, president]; Socialist
Party of Republika Srpska [Zivko RADISIC]; Union of Social Democrats
or SSDB [Selim BESLAGIC]; United Left of the Bosnian Serb Republic or
ULRS [Mile IVOSEVIC]; Yugoslav United Left or JUL [CAREVIC]; Social
Liberal Party [Miodrag ZIVANOVIC]; Serb Radical Party [Miodrag RAKIC];
Serb Patriotic Party [Slavko ZUPLJANIN]; Serb Homeland Party; Party of
Serbian Unity; Republik Srpska Independent Social Democrats [Branko
DOKIC, president]; Serb Party of Posavina and Krajina [Predrag
LAZAREVIC]; National Democratic Union [Fikret ABDIC]
note : 82 parties are registered for the September 1997 municipal
elections

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CE (guest), CEI, ECE, FAO,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OIC (observer), OSCE, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sven ALKALAJ
chancery: Suite 760, 1707 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-3612, 3613, 3615
FAX: [1] (202) 833-2061
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Robert
BEECROFT
embassy: 43 Ul. Djure Djakovica, Sarajevo
mailing address: American Embassy Sarajevo, US Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-7130
telephone: [387] (71) 445-700
FAX: [387] (71) 659-722

Flag description: white with a large blue shield; the shield contains
white fleurs-de-lis with a white diagonal band running from the upper
hoist corner to the lower outer side

Government - note: Until declaring independence in spring 1992, Bosnia
and Herzegovina existed as a republic in the Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia. Bosnia was partitioned by fighting during 1992-95 and
governed by competing ethnic factions. Bosnia's current governing
structures were created by the Dayton Accords, the 1995 peace
agreement which was officially signed in Paris on 14 December 1995 by
Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC, Croatian President TUDJMAN, and Serbian
President MILOSEVIC. This agreement retained Bosnia's exterior border
and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This
national government - based on proportional representation similar to
that which existed in the former socialist regime - is charged with
conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. The Dayton Accords
also recognized a second tier of government, comprised of two entities
- a joint Muslim-Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serb Republika
Srpska (RS) - each presiding over roughly one-half the territory.
These Federation and RS governments are charged with overseeing
internal functions. As mandated by the Dayton Accords, the Bosnians on
14 September 1996 participated in the first post-war elections of
national, entity, and cantonal leaders. The Bosnians have been slow to
form and install new joint institutions. A new Federation cabinet was
sworn in 18 December 1996 and the new Bosnian central government
cabinet was confirmed on 3 January 1997.

Economy

Economy - overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old
Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in
private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic
traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been
greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of communist
central planning and management. TITO had pushed the development of
military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted
a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The bitter interethnic
warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by perhaps 90% since
1990, unemployment to soar, and human misery to multiply. No reliable
economic statistics for 1992-96 are available, although output almost
certainly is well below $1,000 per head. In the Federation,
unemployment remains in the 40%-50% range and inflation is low. By
contrast, growth in the Republika Srpska in 1996 was flat and
inflation surpassed 30%. The country receives substantial amounts of
humanitarian aid from the international community. Wide regional
differences in war damage and access to the outside world have
resulted in substantial variations in living conditions among local
areas.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.9 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 1,026,254
by occupation: NA%

Unemployment rate: officially about 70% but probably much lower,
perhaps 40%-50% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite,
vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank
and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining; much of
capacity damaged or shut down (1995)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 3.991 million kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 1.87 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 475 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Exports:
total value: $152 million (1995 est.)
commodities: NA
partners: NA

Imports:
total value : $1.1 billion (1995 est.)
commodities: NA
partners: NA

Debt - external: $3.5 billion (yearend 1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $600 million (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 dinar = 100 para; Croatian kuna used in Croat-held area;
old and new Serbian dinars used in Serb-held area; the deutsche mark
(DM) has supplanted local currencies throughout Bosnia

Exchange rates: NA

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Communications

Telephones: 727,000

Telephone system: telephone and telegraph network is in need of
modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when
compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics
domestic: NA
international : no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 840,000

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 1,012,094

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,021 km (electrified 795 km; operating as diesel or steam
until grids are repaired)
standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (1995); note - some segments
need repair and/or reconstruction

Highways:
total : 21,168 km
paved: 11,436 km
unpaved: 9,732 km (1991 est.)
note: roads need maintenance and repair

Waterways: NA km; Sava blocked by downed bridges

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992); note -
pipelines now disrupted

Ports and harbors: Bosanski Brod (access to Ploce, Croatia)

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 24 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m : 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 7 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 865,763 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 696,202 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 23,771 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: disputes with Serbia over Serbian populated
areas

Illicit drugs: transit point for minor regional marijuana trafficking
routes
______________________________________________________________________

BOTSWANA

@Botswana:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 600,370 sq km
land: 585,370 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 4,013 km
border countries : Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe
813 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari
Desert in southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hill 1,489 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash,
coal, iron ore, silver

Land use:
arable land : 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 47%
other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from
the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure
visibility

Environment - current issues: overgrazing; desertification; limited
fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part
of the country

@Botswana:People

Population: 1,500,765 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (male 319,920; female 312,104)
15-64 years: 54% (male 384,533; female 428,157)
65 years and over : 4% (male 21,949; female 34,102) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.48% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 32.65 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.9 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 54.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 44.52 years
male: 43.52 years
female: 45.55 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.14 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups: Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%, white
1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

Languages: English (official), Setswana

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 69.8%
male: 80.5%
female: 59.9% (1995 est.)

@Botswana:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
former : Bechuanaland

Data code: BC

Government type: parliamentary republic

National capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts and four town councils*;
Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng,
Kweneng, Lobatse*, Ngamiland, North-East, Selebi-Phikwe*, South-East,
Southern

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law;
judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Sir Ketumile MASIRE (since 13 July 1980);
Vice President Festus MOGAE (since 9 March 1992); note - the president
is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Sir Ketumile MASIRE (since 13 July
1980); Vice President Festus MOGAE (since 9 March 1992); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections : president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held 15 October 1994 (next to be held NA October
1999); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Sir Ketumile MASIRE elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of
Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of
the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members
selected by the other 12) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40
members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 appointed by the
majority party; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - elections last held 15 October 1994
(next to be held October 1999)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - BDP
27, BNF 13

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Sir
Ketumile MASIRE]; Botswana Freedom Party or BFP [leader NA]; Botswana
National Front or BNF [Kenneth KOMA]; Botswana People's Party or BPP
[Knight MARIPE]; Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Archibald Mooketsa MOGWE
chancery: Suite 7M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990, 4991
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Robert C. KRUEGER (14 June 1996)
embassy: address NA, Gaborone
mailing address: P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 353982
FAX: [267] 356947

Flag description: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black
stripe in the center

Economy

Economy - overview: Agriculture still provides a livelihood for more
than 80% of the population but supplies only about 50% of food needs
and accounts for only 4% of GDP. Subsistence farming and cattle
raising predominate. The sector is plagued by erratic rainfall and
poor soils. Substantial mineral deposits were found in the 1970s and
the mining sector grew from 25% of GDP in 1980 to 33% in 1995. The
unemployment rate remains a problem at 21%. On the plus side is the
substantial positive trade balance.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,100 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 43%
services : 53% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 9.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 428,000 (1992)
by occupation: 220,000 formal sector employees, including 14,300 who
are employed in various mines in South Africa; most others are engaged
in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: 21% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $1.8 billion
expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $613
million (FY95/96)

Industries: diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash;
livestock processing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.6% (FY92/93)

Electricity - capacity: 197,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 950 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 747 kWh (1993 est.)

Agriculture - products: sorghum, maize, millet, pulses, groundnuts
(peanuts), beans, cowpeas, sunflower seed; livestock

Exports:
total value: $2.1 billion (f.o.b. 1995 est.)
commodities: diamonds 71%, copper and nickel 5%, meat 3%
partners: Europe 81%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 14%,
Zimbabwe 3%

Imports:
total value: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles,
petroleum products
partners: Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 78%, Europe 8%,
Zimbabwe 6%

Debt - external: $691 million (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $189 million (1993)

Currency: 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1 - 3.6417 (January 1997), 3.3014
(1996), 2.7716 (1995), 2.6831 (1994), 2.4190 (1993), 2.1327 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Botswana:Communications

Telephones: 19,109 (1985 est.)

Telephone system: sparse system
domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations
international: microwave radio relay links to Zambia, Zimbabwe and
South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 13,800 (1993 est.)

@Botswana:Transportation

Railways:
total: 971 km
narrow gauge: 971 km 1.067-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 11,800 km
paved : 1,676 km
unpaved: 10,124 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 80 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 34
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 9
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 22 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 46
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m : 43 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air
Wing), Botswana National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 343,929 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 180,692 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 17,632 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $199 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.2% (FY93/94)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: quadripoint with Namibia, Democratic
Republic of the Congo, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; dispute with
Namibia over uninhabited Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe)
River remained unresolved in January 1996 and the parties have agreed
to refer the matter to the ICJ
______________________________________________________________________

BOUVET ISLAND

(territory of Norway)

@Bouvet Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean,
south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates: 54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 58 sq km
land : 58 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29.6 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly
inaccessible

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 780 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all ice)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: covered by glacial ice

@Bouvet Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Bouvet Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Data code: BV

Dependency status: territory of Norway

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity; declared a nature reserve

@Bouvet Island:Communications

Communications - note: automatic meteorological station

@Bouvet Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Norway

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

BRAZIL

@Brazil:Geography

Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 8,511,965 sq km
land : 8,456,510 sq km
water: 55,455 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
Paulo

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
total: 14,691 km
border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643
km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru
1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf : 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel,
phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use:
arable land : 5%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 22%
forests and woodland: 58%
other : 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 28,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and
occasional frost in south

Environment - current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys
the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and
animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio
de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land
degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Tropical Timber 94

Geography - note: largest country in South America; shares common
boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

@Brazil:People

Population: 164,511,366 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (male 25,018,597; female 24,164,894)
15-64 years: 65% (male 53,217,683; female 54,215,461)
65 years and over : 5% (male 3,181,539; female 4,713,192) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.1% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 20.43 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.42 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 53.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 61.42 years
male: 56.78 years
female: 66.3 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.29 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups: white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish,
Polish) 55%, mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes
Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 70%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.3%
male: 83.3%
female : 83.2% (1995 est.)

@Brazil:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form : Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil

Data code: BR

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1
federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas,
Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato
Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana,
Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do
Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70;
compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January
1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1
January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 October 1994
(next to be held NA October 1998)
election results: Fernando Henrique CARDOSO elected president; percent
of vote - Fernando Henrique CARDOSO 53%, Luis Inacio LULA da Silva
26%, Eneas CARNEIRO 7%, Orestes QUERCIA 4%, Leonel BRIZOLA 3%,
Espiridiao AMIN 3%; note - second direct presidential election since
1960

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional
consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three
members from each state or federal district elected according to the
principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected
after a four year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year
period ) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513
seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
four-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held 3 October 1994 for two-thirds of
Senate (next to be held October 1998 for one-third of the Senate);
Chamber of Deputies - last held 3 October 1994 (next to be held
October 1998)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - PMBD
28%, PFL 22%, PSDB 12%, PPR 7%, PDT 7%, PT 6%, PTB 6%, other 12%;
seats by party - NA; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party -
PMDB 21%, PFL 18%, PDT 7%, PSDB 12%, PPR 10%, PTB 6%, PT 10%, other
16%; seats by party - NA
note: party totals since the fall of 1994 have changed considerably
due to extensive party-switching

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal, judges are appointed for
life by the president and confirmed by the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or
PMDB [Paes DE ANDRADE, president]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jose
JORGE, president]; Workers' Party or PT [Jose DIRCEU, president];
Brazilian Workers' Party or PTB [Rodrigues PALMA, president];
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA, president]; Brazilian
Progressive Party or PPB [Espiridiao AMIN, president]; Brazilian
Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Artur DA TAVOLA, president]; Popular
Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto FREIRE, president]; Communist Party of
Brazil or PCdoB [Joao AMAZONAS, chairman]; Liberal Party or PL [Alvaro
VALLE, president]; Progressive Reform Party or PPR [Esperido AMIN,
president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: left wing of the Catholic
Church and labor unions allied to leftist Workers' Party are critical
of government's social and economic policies

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), BIS
(pending member), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MTCR, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN,
UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UNU, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Paulo Tarso FLECHA de LIMA
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general : Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Melvyn LEVITSKY
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal
mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 321-7272
FAX : [55] (61) 225-9136
consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
consulate(s): Recife

Flag description: green with a large yellow diamond in the center
bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one
for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern
as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band
with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

Economy

Economy - overview: Possessing large and well-developed agricultural,
mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs
that of all other South American countries and is expanding its
presence in world markets. Prior to the institution of a stabilization
plan - the Plano Real (Real Plan) - in mid-1994, stratospheric
inflation rates had disrupted economic activity and discouraged
foreign investment. Since then, tight monetary policy has brought
inflation under control - consumer prices increased by only 10% in
1996 compared to more than 1,000% in 1994. At the same time, GDP
growth slowed from 5.7% in 1994 to 2.9% in 1996 due to tighter credit.
The steadily appreciating currency has also encouraged imports,
contributing to a growing trade deficit, and depressed export growth.
Brazil's more stable economy allowed it to weather the fallout in 1995
from the Mexican peso crisis relatively well, and record levels of
foreign investment have since flowed in, helping to swell official
foreign exchange reserves to $60 billion in 1996; stock markets
reflected this increased investor confidence, gaining 53% in dollar
terms. President CARDOSO remains committed to further reducing
inflation in 1997 and putting Brazil on track for expanded economic
growth, but he faces several key challenges. Fiscal reforms requiring
constitutional amendments are stalled in the Brazilian legislature; in
their absence, the government is continuing to run deficits and has
limited room to relax its interest and exchange rate policies much if
it wants to keep inflation under control. High interest rates have
made servicing domestic debt dramatically more burdensome for both
public and private sector entities, contributing to federal and state
budget problems and a surge in bankruptcies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.022 trillion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.9% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13%
industry: 38%
services: 49% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 10% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 57 million (1989 est.)
by occupation: services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%

Unemployment rate: 5.2% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $86 billion
expenditures: $90 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995)

Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin,
steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and
equipment

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 59.036 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 268.874 billion kWh (1995)
note: imports some electricity from Paraguay

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,572 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn,
sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Exports:
total value: $47.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee,
motor vehicle parts
partners: EU 26%, Latin America 22%, US 23%, Argentina 11% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $53.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs,
coal
partners : EU 26%, US 24%, Argentina 11%, Japan 5% (1995)

Debt - external: $176 billion (December 1996)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $107 million (1993)

Currency: 1 real (R$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: R$ per US$1 - 1.043 (January 1997), 1.005 (1996),
0.918 (1995), 0.639 (1994); CR$ per US$1 - 390.845 (January 1994),
88.449 (1993), 4.513 (1992)
note: on 1 August 1993 the cruzeiro real (CR$), equal to 1,000
cruzeiros, was introduced; another new currency, the real (R$) was
introduced on 1 July 1994, equal to 2,750 cruzeiro reais

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Brazil:Communications

Telephones: 14,426,673 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: good working system
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic
satellite system with 64 earth stations
international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations -
3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean Region East)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1,223, FM 0, shortwave 151

Radios: 60 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 112
note: Brazil has the world's fourth largest television broadcasting
system

Televisions: 30 million (1993 est.)

@Brazil:Transportation

Railways:
total: 27,418 km (1,750 km electrified)
broad gauge: 5,730 km 1.600-m gauge
standard gauge : 194 km 1.440-m gauge
narrow gauge: 20,958 km 1.000-m gauge; 13 km 0.760-m gauge
dual gauge: 523 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges

Highways:
total: 1.939 million km
paved: 178,388 km
unpaved: 1,760,612 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural
gas 1,095 km

Ports and harbors: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus,
Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador,
Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine:
total : 193 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,475,748 GRT/7,175,061
DWT
ships by type: bulk 42, cargo 26, chemical tanker 10, combination
ore/oil 11, container 13, liquefied gas tanker 11, multifunction
large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 62, passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated
cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11
note: Brazil owns 16 additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,270,275 DWT that operate under Bahamian, Liberian, Panamanian, and
St. Vincent and the Grenadines registry (1996 est.)

Airports: 2,871 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1,658
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m : 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 125
914 to 1,523 m: 304
under 914 m: 1,205 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 1,213
1,524 to 2,437 m: 67
914 to 1,523 m: 1,146 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes Marines),
Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 45,876,084 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 30,843,947 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 1,756,732 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6.736 billion (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: short section of the boundary with Paraguay,
just west of Salto das Sete Quedas (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana,
has not been precisely delimited; two short sections of boundary with
Uruguay are in dispute - Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada)
area of the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the confluence
of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay River

Illicit drugs: limited illicit producer of cannabis, minor coca
cultivation in the Amazon region, mostly used for domestic
consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to
control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian and
Colombian cocaine headed for the US and Europe
______________________________________________________________________

BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY
Territory]

(dependent territory of the UK)

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, archipelago in the Indian Ocean, about
one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references: World

Area:
total: 60 sq km
land : 60 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 698 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: flat and low (up to four meters in elevation)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources: coconuts, fish

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures : NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest
and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian
Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

@British Indian Ocean Territory:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are UK-US military personnel and civilian contractors;
civilian inhabitants, known as the Ilois, evacuated to Mauritius
before construction of UK-US military facilities

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
conventional short form : none
abbreviation: BIOT

Data code: IO

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK; administered by a
commissioner, resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in
London

National capital: none

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Commissioner David Ross MACLENNAN (since NA 1994);
Administrator Don CAIRNS (since NA); note - both reside in the UK
cabinet: NA
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; commissioner and
administrator appointed by the queen

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: white with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and six blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a
palm tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy

Economy - overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the
largest island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities
are located. Construction projects and various services needed to
support the military installations are done by military and contract
employees from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There
are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.

Electricity - capacity: NA kW
note : electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: facilities for military needs only
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: short stretch of paved road of NA km between port and airfield
on Diego Garcia
unpaved : NA km

Ports and harbors: Diego Garcia

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the island of Diego Garcia is claimed by
Mauritius
______________________________________________________________________

BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@British Virgin Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 150 sq km
land: 150 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note : includes the island of Anegada

Area - comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 3 nm

Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 33%
forests and woodland: 7%
other : 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources
(except for a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the
islands' water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchment)

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto
Rico

@British Virgin Islands:People

Population: 13,368 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years : NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.32% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 20.13 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.03 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years : NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 18.99 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.83 years
male: 70.99 years
female: 74.8 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.25 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: British Virgin Islander(s)
adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups: black 90%, white, Asian

Religions: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God
7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%,
other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 97.8% (1991 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@British Virgin Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: British Virgin Islands
abbreviation: BVI

Data code: VI

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Road Town

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution: 1 June 1977

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor David MACKILLIGIN (since NA June 1995)
head of government : Chief Minister Ralph T. O'NEAL (since 15 May
1995; appointed after the death of former Chief Minister H. Lavity
STOUTT)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of
the Legislative Council
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor
appointed by the queen; chief minister appointed by the governor from
among the members of the Legislative Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats; members
are elected by direct popular vote, 1 member from each of 9 electoral
districts, 4 at large members; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 February 1995 (next to be held NA February
2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - VIP
6, CCM 2, UP 2, independents 3

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, one judge of the
Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High
Court

Political parties and leaders: United Party or UP [Conrad MADURO];
Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]; Concerned Citizens
Movement or CCM [E. Walwyln BREWLEY]; Independent People's Movement or
IPM [Omar HODGE and Allen O'NEAL]

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB,
ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO
(associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer
half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either
side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the
Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy, one of the most prosperous in the
Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, which generates an
estimated 45% of the national income. In 1985, the government began
offering offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in
the islands, and incorporation fees now generate substantial revenues.
The adoption of a comprehensive insurance law in late 1994, which
provides a blanket of confidentiality with regulated statutory
gateways for investigation of criminal offenses, is expected to make
the British Virgin Islands even more attractive to international
business. Livestock raising is the most important agricultural
activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet domestic food
requirements. Because of traditional close links with the US Virgin
Islands, the British Virgin Islands have used the dollar as their
currency since 1959.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $135 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,200 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 14%
services: 83% (1989)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.5% (1990 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4,911 (1980)
by occupation: tourism NA%

Unemployment rate: 3% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: $77.1 million
expenditures : $76.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY93/94)

Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete
block, offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1985)

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Exports:
total value: $3.4 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities : rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand
partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports:
total value: $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities: building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Debt - external: $4.5 million (1985)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@British Virgin Islands:Communications

Telephones: 6,291 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: worldwide telephone service
domestic: NA
international: submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1995)

Radios: 9,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,000 (1992 est.)

@British Virgin Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 113 km (1995 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Road Town

Merchant marine: none (1995 est.)

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m : 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

BRUNEI

@Brunei:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and
Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 5,770 sq km
land : 5,270 sq km
water: 500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:
total: 381 km
border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland
in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land : 1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 85%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very
rare

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea
linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by
Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia

@Brunei:People

Population: 307,616 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 52,239; female 50,025)
15-64 years: 63% (male 101,326; female 90,941)
65 years and over: 4% (male 7,207; female 5,878) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.5% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 25.2 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.13 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.23 male(s)/female
total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.54 years
male: 70 years
female: 73.16 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.37 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%

Religions: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%,
indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.2%
male: 92.6%
female: 83.4% (1995 est.)

@Brunei:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei

Data code: BX

Government type: constitutional sultanate

National capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular -
daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a
State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
January 1984)

Legal system: based on Islamic law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri
Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5
October 1967); note - the sultan is both the chief of state and head
of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri
Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5
October 1967); note - the sultan is both the chief of state and head
of government
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by
the sultan; deals with executive matters
note: there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the
sultan) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members
appointed by the sultan) that deals with constitutional matters, and
the Council of Succession (members appointed by the sultan) that
determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
elections: none; the sultan is a traditional Islamic monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat
Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative capacity;
NA seats; members appointed by the sultan)
elections: last held in March 1962
note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree
of the sultan; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as

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