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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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volume of manufactures, making its economy unusually dependent on the
state of world markets. Two-thirds of its trade is with other EU
countries. The economy grew at a strong 4% annual pace during the
period 1988-90, slowed to 1% in 1991-92, dropped by 1.5% in 1993,
recovered with moderate 2.3% growth in 1994 and 1995, and fell off
again to 1.4% in 1996, with continued substantial unemployment.
Belgium's public debt has risen to 140% of GDP, and the government is
trying to control its expenditures to bring the figure more into line
with other industrialized countries.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $204.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 28%
services : 70% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.1% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 4.126 million
by occupation: services 69.7%, industry 27.7%, agriculture 2.6% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 14% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly,
processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles,
glass, petroleum, coal

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 13.59 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 74.4 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 6,823 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain,
tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk

Exports:
total value: $108 billion (f.o.b., 1994) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic
Union (BLEU)
commodities: iron and steel, transportation equipment, tractors,
diamonds, petroleum products
partners : EU 67.2% (Germany 19%), US 5.8%, former Communist countries
1.4% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $140 billion (c.i.f., 1994) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic
Union
commodities: fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: EU 68% (Germany 22.1%), US 8.8%, former Communist countries
0.8% (1994)

Debt - external: $31.3 billion (1992 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $808 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Belgian francs (BF) per US$1 - 33.067 (January 1997),
30.962 (1996), 29.480 (1995), 33.456 (1994), 34.597 (1993), 32.150
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Belgium:Communications

Telephones: 5.691 million (1992 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed, technologically advanced, and
completely automated domestic and international telephone and
telegraph facilities
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable
network; limited microwave radio relay network
international : 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 39, shortwave 0

Radios: 100,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 32 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 3,315,662 (1993 est.)

@Belgium:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,396 km (2,363 km electrified; 2,563 km double track)
standard gauge : 3,396 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 142,563 km
paved: 142,563 km (including 1,667 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)

Pipelines: crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural gas
3,300 km

Ports and harbors: Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports), Brugge,
Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Merchant marine:
total: 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 102,363 GRT/152,951 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 7, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 2,
liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 10 (1996 est.)

Airports: 42 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 39
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m : 21 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 2,559,951 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 2,122,673 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 63,005 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4.6 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.7% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American
cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish,
and marijuana entering Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

BELIZE

@Belize:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Guatemala and Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total : 22,960 sq km
land: 22,800 sq km
water: 160 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 516 km
border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note - from
the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial
sea is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the
purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for the
negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences with
Guatemala

Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)

Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland: 92%
other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent, devastating hurricanes (September to
December) and coastal flooding (especially in south)

Environment - current issues: deforestation; water pollution from
sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City
to Belmopan because of hurricanes; only country in Central America
without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean

@Belize:People

Population: 224,663 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 48,921; female 47,057)
15-64 years: 54% (male 61,133; female 59,466)
65 years and over: 3% (male 3,965; female 4,121) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.42% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 31.91 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.61 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 33.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.75 years
male: 66.8 years
female: 70.81 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.99 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Belizean(s)
adjective: Belizean

Ethnic groups: mestizo 44%, Creole 30%, Maya 11%, Garifuna 7%, other
8%

Religions: Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist
6%, Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's
Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)

Languages: English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib)

Literacy:
definition: age 14 and over has ever attended school
total population: 70.3%
male: 70.3%
female: 70.3% (1991 est.)
note : other sources list the literacy rate as high as 75%

@Belize:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Belize
former: British Honduras

Data code: BH

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Belmopan

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange
Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution: 21 September 1981

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG (since 17 November
1993)
head of government : Prime Minister Manuel ESQUIVEL (since July 1993);
Deputy Prime Minister Dean BARROW (since NA July 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen; prime minister appointed by the governor
general

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate
(8 members; members are appointed for five-year terms, five on the
advice of the prime minister, two on the advice of the leader of the
opposition, and one after consultation with the Belize Advisory
Council - this council serves as an independent body to advise the
governor general with respect to difficult decisions such as granting
pardons, commutations, stays of execution, the removal of justices of
appeal who appear to be incompetent, etc.) and the National Assembly
(29 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 30 June 1993 (next to be held
no later than September 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PUP
13, UDP 15, NABR 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the chief justice is appointed by the
governor general on advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: People's United Party or PUP [Said
MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean BARROW];
National Alliance for Belizean Rights or NABR [Philip GOLDSON]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Society for the Promotion of
Education and Research or SPEAR [Assad SHOMAN]; United Workers Front

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James S. MURPHY
chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
FAX : [1] (202) 332-6888
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador George Charles BRUNO
embassy : Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City
mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Unit 7401, APO AA 34025
telephone: [501] (2) 77161 through 77163
FAX: [501] (2) 30802

Flag description: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the
bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms;
the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of
a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in
the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

Economy

Economy - overview: The small, essentially private enterprise economy
is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and
merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming increasing
importance. Agriculture accounts for about 20% of GDP and provides 75%
of export earnings, while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost
40% of hard currency earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner,
is assisting in efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an
agricultural diversification program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $649 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,960 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 27%
services : 53% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 6.4% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 51,500
by occupation: agriculture 30%, services 16%, government 15.4%,
commerce 11.2%, manufacturing 10.3%
note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
(1985)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $140 million
expenditures: $180 million, including capital expenditures of NA
(FY96/97 est.)

Industries: garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (1990)

Electricity - capacity: 34,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: bananas, coca, citrus, sugarcane; lumber;
fish, cultured shrimp

Exports:
total value: $204 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: sugar, citrus fruits, bananas, clothing, fish products,
molasses, wood
partners : US 38%, UK, other EU (1994)

Imports:
total value: $264 million (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, food,
manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners : US 53%, UK, other EU, Mexico (1994)

Debt - external: $192 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1 - 2.00 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Belize:Communications

Telephones: 29,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: above-average system
domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 8, shortwave 1

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 27,048 (1993 est.)

@Belize:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,770 km
paved: 521 km
unpaved : 2,249 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft;
seasonally navigable

Ports and harbors: Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

Merchant marine:
total: 166 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,592,846 GRT/1,087,555
DWT
ships by type: bulk 17, cargo 117, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk
1, container 6, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 13, passenger-cargo
1, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, specialized tanker
1, vehicle carrier 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 35 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 24 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Belize Defense Force (includes Army, Navy, Air
Force, and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 54,163 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 32,176 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 2,471 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $8.1 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: border with Guatemala in dispute; talks to
resolve the dispute are ongoing

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit
producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; minor
money-laundering center
______________________________________________________________________

BENIN

@Benin:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Nigeria and Togo

Geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 112,620 sq km
land: 110,620 sq km
water: 2,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 1,989 km
border countries : Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km,
Togo 644 km

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Tanekas 641 m

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble,
timber

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 48% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in
winter

Environment - current issues: recent droughts have severely affected
marginal agriculture in north; inadequate supplies of potable water;
poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation;
desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: no natural harbors

@Benin:People

Population: 5,902,178 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 1,420,335; female 1,411,160)
15-64 years: 50% (male 1,401,360; female 1,530,626)
65 years and over : 2% (male 60,704; female 77,993) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.31% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 46.28 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.14 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 102.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.15 years
male: 51.15 years
female: 55.21 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.56 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
adjective: Beninese

Ethnic groups: African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being
Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions: indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%

Languages: French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars
in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 37%
male: 48.7%
female: 25.8% (1995 est.)

@Benin:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Benin
conventional short form: Benin
local long form: Republique du Benin
local short form : Benin
former: Dahomey

Data code: BN

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped
Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February
1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

National capital: Porto-Novo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou,
Mono, Oueme, Zou

Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1990)

Constitution: 2 December 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government; Prime Minister Adrien HOUNGBEDJI (since 9 April 1996) acts
as assistant to the president; a prime minister is not provided for in
the constitution but was appointed by President KEREKOU with the
permission of the constitutional court
cabinet: Council of Ministers headed by the prime minister; all are
appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 18 March 1996 (next to be held March 2001)
election results: Mathieu KEREKOU elected president; percent of vote -
Mathieu KEREKOU 52.49%, Nicephore SOGLO 47.51%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (83 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 28 March 1995 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RB
20, PRD 19, FARD-ALAFIA 10, PSD 7, NCC 3, RDL-VIVOTEN 3, Communist
Party 2, Alliance Chameleon 1, RDP 1, other 17

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle,
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme, High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: Alliance of the National Party for
Democracy and Development or PNDD and the Democratic Renewal Party or
PRD [Pascal Chabi KAO]; Action for Renewal and Development or
FARD-ALAFIA [Mathieu KEREKOU]; Alliance of the Social Democratic Party
or PSD and the National Union for Solidarity and Progress or UNSP
[Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Alliance Chameleon; Alliance for Democracy and
Progress or ADP [Adekpedjon AKINDES]; Alliance for Social Democracy or
ASD [Robert DOSSOU]; Assembly of Liberal Democrats for National
Reconstruction or RDL [Severin ADJOVI]; Communist Party of Benin,
[Pascal FATONDJI, First Secretary]; Our Common Cause or NCC [Albert
TEVOEDJRE]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP; The Renaissance
Party of Benin or RB [Nicephore SOGLO]
note: as of February 1996, more than 80 political parties were
officially recognized

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM,
OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lucien Edgar TONOUKOUIN
chancery : 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656, 6657, 6658
FAX : [1] (202) 265-1996

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John M. YATES
embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou
mailing address: B. P. 2012, Cotonou
telephone : [229] 30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92
FAX: [229] 30-14-39, 30-19-74

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red
with a vertical green band on the hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and
dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional
trade. Growth in real output, which had averaged a sound 4% in
1990-95, rose to 5.5% in 1996. Rapid population growth offset much of
this growth in output. Inflation jumped to 55% in 1994 (compared to 3%
in 1993) following the 50% currency devaluation in January 1994, but
has subsided gradually over the past two years, with 14.5% inflation
in 1995 and a target of 4.5% inflation in 1996. Commercial and
transport activities, which make up a large part of GDP, are extremely
vulnerable to developments in Nigeria as evidenced by decreased
reexport trade in 1994 due to a severe contraction in Nigerian demand.
Support by the Paris Club and official bilateral creditors has eased
the external debt situation in recent years. The government, still
burdened with money-losing state enterprises and a bloated civil
service, has been gradually implementing a World Bank supported
structural adjustment program since 1991.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,440 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 36.8%
industry: 12.6%
services : 50.6% (1993)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 14.5% (1995)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $272 million (1993 est.)
expenditures: $375 million, including capital expenditures of $84
million (1993 est.)

Industries: textiles, cigarettes; beverages, food; construction
materials, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 28,000 kW (1992)

Electricity - production: 10 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 45 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: corn, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans,
rice, cotton, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, livestock

Exports:
total value : $300 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa
partners: Brazil 18%, Portugal 14%, Morocco, Libya, France

Imports:
total value: $380 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities : foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products,
intermediate goods, capital goods, light consumer goods
partners: France 27%, Thailand 9%, China, Hong Kong

Debt - external: $1.6 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Benin:Communications

Telephones: 16,200 (1986 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: fair system of open wire and microwave radio relay
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 20,000 (1993 est.)

@Benin:Transportation

Railways:
total: 578 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 8,460 km
paved: 2,656 km
unpaved: 5,804 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: navigable along small sections, important only locally

Ports and harbors: Cotonou, Porto-Novo

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 5 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force),
National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 1,261,059
females age 15-49: 1,333,966 (1997 est.)
note: both sexes are liable for military service

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 645,660 (1997 est.)
females: 675,243 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 64,028
females: 63,056 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $33 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.2% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics associated with
Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for
Western Europe and the US
______________________________________________________________________

BERMUDA

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Bermuda:Geography

Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
east of North Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references: North America

Area:
total : 50 sq km
land: 50 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in
winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops : NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: 20%
other: 80% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)

Environment - current issues: asbestos disposal; water pollution

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified : NA

Geography - note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with ample
rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some reclaimed land was
leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995

@Bermuda:People

Population: 62,569 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.75% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 14.92 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 13.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.03 years
male : 73.36 years
female: 76.97 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Bermudian(s)
adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups: black 61%, white and other 39%

Religions: Anglican 28%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist
Episcopal (Zion) 12%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Methodist 5%, other
34% (1991)

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male : 98%
female: 99% (1970 est.)

@Bermuda:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form : Bermuda

Data code: BD

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*;
Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint
Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution: 8 June 1968

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor John MASEFIELD (since June 1997)
head of government: Premier Pamela GORDON (since 25 March 1997);
Deputy Premier Jerome DILL (since 1 September 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed
by the queen; premier appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an
11-member body appointed by the governor) and the House of Assembly
(40 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 5 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October
1998)
election results : percent of vote by party - UBP 50%, PLP 46%,
independents 4%; seats by party - UBP 22, PLP 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party or UBP [Pamela
GORDON]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; National
Liberal Party or NLP [Charles JEFFERS]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU
[Derrick BURGESS]

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CCC,
ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General Robert A. FARMER
consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton
mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate
General Hamilton, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5300
telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592

Flag description: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a
red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea
Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy

Economy - overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita
incomes in the world, having successfully exploited its location by
providing financial services for international firms and luxury
tourist facilities for 200,000 visitors annually. The tourist industry
attracts 91% of its business from North America. The industrial sector
is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable
land. About 80% of food needs are imported. International business
contributes over 60% of Bermuda's economic output; a failed
independence vote in late 1995 can be partially attributed to
Bermudian's fear of scaring away foreign firms.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $29,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.5% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 34,133
by occupation: clerical 23%, services 23%, laborers 17%, professional
and technical 16%, administrative and managerial 12%, sales 7%,
agriculture and fishing 2% (1995)

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: $406.2 million
expenditures : $405.9 million, including capital expenditures of $34.5
million (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: tourism, finance, insurance, structural concrete products,
paints, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 145,000 kW (1996)

Electricity - production: 527,526,728 kWh (1996)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 7,856 kWh (1996)

Agriculture - products: bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy
products

Exports:
total value: $54 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: semitropical produce, light manufactures, reexports of
pharmaceuticals
partners : Netherlands 50%, Brazil 13%, Canada 6% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $550 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: miscellaneous manufactured articles, machinery and
transport equipment, food and live animals, chemicals
partners: US 73%, UK 5%, Canada 5% (1995 est.)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (February
1997; fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Bermuda:Communications

Telephones: 54,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : modern, fully automatic telephone system
international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 78,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: 57,000 (1992 est.)

@Bermuda:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 225 km
paved: 225 km
unpaved : 0 km (1997 est.)
note: in addition, there are 400 km of paved and unpaved roads that
are privately owned

Ports and harbors: Hamilton, Saint George

Merchant marine:
total: 76 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,416,667 GRT/5,163,435
DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 1, container 15, liquefied gas tanker 14,
oil tanker 16, refrigerated cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4,
short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1,
livestock carrier 1
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 11 countries
among which are UK 26, Canada 12, US 9, Norway 7, Hong Kong 4, Nigeria
4, Sweden 4, Switzerland 2, Mexico 1, and Romania 1; Bermuda owns 48
additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,911,678 DWT that
operate under Australian, Bahamian, Hong Kong, Liberian, Panamanian
and Singaporean registry (1996 est.)

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda
Reserve Constabulary

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

BHUTAN

@Bhutan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 47,000 sq km
land: 47,000 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,075 km
border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot
summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in
Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dangme Chu 97 m
highest point: Khula Kangri I 7,553 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 6%
forests and woodland: 66%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 340 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are the
source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder
Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season

Environment - current issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable
water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified : Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and
India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

@Bhutan:People

Population: 1,865,191 (July 1997 est.)
note: other estimates range as low as 600,000

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (male 387,721; female 359,857)
15-64 years: 56% (male 536,797; female 507,551)
65 years and over: 4% (male 37,249; female 36,016) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.3% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 37.91 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 14.94 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 1.03 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 114 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 51.88 years
male: 52.37 years
female: 51.37 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.27 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant
tribes 15%

Religions: Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
Hinduism 25%

Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects,
Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42.2%
male: 56.2%
female: 28.1% (1995 est.)

People - note: refugee issue over the presence in Nepal of
approximately 100,000 Bhutanese refugees, 90% of whom are in seven
United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
camps

@Bhutan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Kingdom of Bhutan
conventional short form: Bhutan

Data code: BT

Government type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

National capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and
plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi,
Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang,
Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday: National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen WANGCHUCK
became first hereditary king)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights
note: Bhutan uses 1953 Royal decree for the Constitution of the
National Assembly

Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972); note
- the king is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972);
note - the king is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) appointed by the
king
note: there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members
nominated by the king
elections : none; the king is a hereditary monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150
seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 12 represent religious
bodies, and 33 are designated by the king to represent government and
other secular interests; members serve three-year terms)
elections: last held NA (next to be held NA)
election results: NA

Judicial branch: the Supreme Court of Appeal is the king; High Court,
judges appointed by the king

Political parties and leaders: no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Buddhist clergy; Indian
merchant community; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
antigovernment campaign

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Bhutan has a
Permanent Mission to the UN, headed by Ugyen TSERING; address: 2
United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1]
(212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular
jurisdiction in the US
consulate(s) general: New York
honorary consulate(s): San Francisco; Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Bhutan have no
formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained
between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner;
the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange;
centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon
facing away from the hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy, one of the world's smallest and least
developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the
main livelihood for 90% of the population and account for about 40% of
GDP. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal
husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building
of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy
is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary
links. The industrial sector is small and technologically backward,
with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development
projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor.
Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key
resources; however, the government limits the number of tourists to
4,000 per year to minimize foreign influence. The Bhutanese Government
has made some progress in expanding the nation's productive base and
improving social welfare, but growth continues to be constrained by
the government's desire to protect the country's environment and
cultural traditions. Growth picked up in 1995 and the country's
balance of payments remained strong with comfortable reserves. The
cautious fiscal stance planned for FY95/96 suggests continued economic
stability in 1996. However, excessive controls and uncertain policies
in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue
to hamper foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.3 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.9% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $730 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 42%
industry: 31%
services : 27%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 8.6% (FY94/95 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation : agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
note: massive lack of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $52 million
expenditures: $150 million, including capital expenditures of $95
million (FY93/94 est.)
note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's
budget expenditures

Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic
beverages, calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate: 7.6% (1992 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 351,000 kW (1989)

Electricity - production: 1.67 billion kWh (1994)
note: exports electricity to India

Electricity - consumption per capita: 79 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains;
dairy products, eggs

Exports:
total value: $70.9 million (f.o.b., FY94/95 est.)
commodities: cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit,
electricity (to India), precious stones, spices
partners: India 94%, Bangladesh

Imports:
total value: $113.6 million (c.i.f., FY94/95 est.)
commodities : fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts,
vehicles, fabrics, rice
partners: India 77%, Japan, UK, Germany, US

Debt - external: $141 million (October 1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note - Indian currency is
also legal tender

Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 35.872 (January 1997), 35.433
(1996), 32.427 (1995), 31.374 (1994), 30.493 (1993), 25.918 (1992);
note - the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Bhutan:Communications

Telephones: 4,620 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with very few
telephones in use
international : international telephone and telegraph service is by
landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1990)

Radios: 23,000 (1989 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1990 est.)

Televisions: 200 (1985 est.)

@Bhutan:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,210 km
paved: 0 km
unpaved : 2,210 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 455,556 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 243,156 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 18,290 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

BOLIVIA

@Bolivia:Geography

Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 1,098,580 sq km
land: 1,084,390 sq km
water : 14,190 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total : 6,743 km
border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano),
hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Rio Paraguay 90 m
highest point: Cerro Illimani 6,882 m

Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten,
antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 24%
forests and woodland : 53%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to
efficient fuel combustion, as well as to physical activity by those
unaccustomed to it from birth; flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment - current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural
purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are
contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor
cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture);
desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water
supplies used for drinking and irrigation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's
highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

@Bolivia:People

Population: 7,669,868 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (male 1,543,641; female 1,511,579)
15-64 years: 56% (male 2,081,792; female 2,184,876)
65 years and over : 4% (male 158,409; female 189,571) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.04% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 32.14 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.18 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 65.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 60.34 years
male: 57.46 years
female : 63.38 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.18 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bolivian(s)
adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed white and
Amerindian ancestry) 25%-30%, white 5%-15%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.1%
male: 90.5%
female: 76% (1995 est.)

@Bolivia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
conventional short form: Bolivia
local long form: Republica de Bolivia
local short form : Bolivia

Data code: BL

Government type: republic

National capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital
and seat of judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando,
Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution: 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21
years of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamente (since
6 August 1993); Vice President Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde (since 6
August 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head
of government
head of government: President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamente
(since 6 August 1993); Vice President Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde
(since 6 August 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from a panel of candidates
proposed by the Senate
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 6 June 1993 (next
to be held June 1997); Constitutional reforms extend presidential and
vice presidential terms to 5 years beginning in 1997
election results: Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA elected president; percent
of vote - Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (MNR) 34%, Hugo BANZER Suarez
(ADN/MIR alliance) 20%, Carlos PALENQUE Aviles (CONDEPA) 14%, Max
FERNANDEZ Rojas (UCS) 13%, Antonio ARANIBAR Quiroga (MBL) 5%; no
candidate received a majority of the popular vote; Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE
LOZADA won a congressional runoff election on 4 August 1993 after
forming a coalition with Max FERNANDEZ and Antonio ARANIBAR; FERNANDEZ
died in a plane crash 26 November 1995

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats;
members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are
directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held 6
June 1993 (next to be held June 1997); Constitutional reforms extend
congressional terms to 5 years beginning in 1997
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - MNR 17, ADN 4, MIR 4, CONDEPA 1, UCS 1; Chamber of
Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MNR 52, UCS
20, ADN 17, MIR 17, CONDEPA 13, MBL 7, ARBOL 1, ASD 1, EJE 1, PDC 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges appointed for a
10-year term by National Congress

Political parties and leaders:
Left Parties: Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Antonio ARANIBAR];
Patriotic Axis of Convergence or EJE-P [Ramiro BARRANECHEA]; April 9
Revolutionary Vanguard or VR-9 [Carlos SERRATE]; Alternative of
Democratic Socialism or ASD [Jerjes JUSTINIANO]; Revolutionary Front
of the Left or FRI [Oscar ZAMORA]; Bolivian Communist Party or PCB
[Marcos DOMIC]; United Left or IU [Marcos DOMIC]; Assembly for the
Sovereignty of the People or ASP [Evo MORALES]; Front of National
Salvation or FSN [Manual MORALES Davila]; Socialist Party One or PS-1;
Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB; Socialist Unzaguista Movement or
MAS
Center-Left Parties: Movement of the Revolutionary or MIR [Jaime PAZ
ZAMORA]; Christian Democrat or PDC [Benjamin MIGUEL]; New Youth Force
[Alfonso SAAVEDRA Bruno]
Center Party: Nationalist Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo
SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]
Center-Right Parties : Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN [Hugo
BANZER]; New Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES VILLA]
Populist Parties: Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ];
Conscience of the Fatherland or CONDEPA [Remedios LOZA Alvarado];
Solidarity and Democracy or SYD; Unity and Progress Movement or MUP
[Ivo KULJIS]; Popular Patriotic Movement or MPP [Julio MANTILLA]
Evangelical Party : Bolivian Renovating Alliance or ARBOL [Marcelo
FERNANDEZ, Hugo VILLEGAS]
Indigenous Parties: Tupac Katari Revolutionary Liberation Movement or
MRTK-L [Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde]; Nationalist Katarista Movement or
MKN [Fernando UNTOJA]; Front of Katarista Unity or FULKA [Genaro
FLORES]; Katarismo National Unity or KND [Filepe KITTELSON]

International organization participation: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM,
OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Fernando Alvaro COSSIO
chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410 through 4412
FAX : [1] (202) 328-3712
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Curtis Warren KAMMAN
embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz
mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
telephone : [591] (2) 430251
FAX: [591] (2) 433900

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow,
and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar
to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star
centered in the yellow band

Economy

Economy - overview: With its long history of semifeudal social
controls, dependence on volatile prices for its mineral exports, and
bouts of hyperinflation, Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and
least developed Latin American countries. However, Bolivia has
experienced generally improving economic conditions since the PAZ
Estenssoro administration (1985-89) introduced market-oriented
policies which reduced inflation from 11,700% in 1985 to about 20% in
1988. PAZ Estenssoro was followed as president by Jaime PAZ Zamora
(1989-93) who continued the free-market policies of his predecessor,
despite opposition from his own party and from Bolivia's once powerful
labor movement. By maintaining fiscal discipline, PAZ Zamora helped
reduce inflation to 9.3% in 1993, while GDP grew by an annual average
of 3.25% during his tenure. Inaugurated in August 1993, President
SANCHEZ DE LOZADA has vowed to advance the market-oriented economic
reforms he helped launch as PAZ Estenssoro's planning minister. His
successes include the signing of a free trade agreement with Mexico
and the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) as well as the
privatization of the state airline, phone company, railroad, electric
power company, and oil company. Furthermore, SANCHEZ DE LOZADA
sponsored legislation creating private social security accounts for
all adult Bolivians and capitalized these new accounts with the
state's remaining 50% share in the privatized companies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.9% (1996)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 17%
industry: 31%
services : 52% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 8% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 2.3 million
by occupation: agriculture NA%, services and utilities NA%,
manufacturing, mining and construction NA%

Unemployment rate: 18.8% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3.75 billion
expenditures : $3.75 billion, including capital expenditures of $556.2
million (1995 est.)

Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco,
handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 804,300 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 3.02 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 334 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice,
potatoes; timber

Exports:
total value: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: metals 39%, natural gas 9%, soybeans 11%, jewelry 11%,
wood 8%
partners: US 26%, Argentina 17%, UK 15%, Peru 14% (1995)

Imports:
total value : $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: capital goods 48%, chemicals 11%, petroleum 5%, food 5%
(1993 est.)
partners: US 18%, Brazil 15%, Japan 13%, Argentina 8% (1995)

Debt - external: $4.3 billion (November 1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $362 million (1993)

Currency: 1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 5.1720 (November 1996),
4.8003 (1995), 4.6205 (1994), 4.2651 (1993), 3.9005 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bolivia:Communications

Telephones: 144,300 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most
telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities
domestic : microwave radio relay system being expanded
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 129, FM 0, shortwave 68

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 43

Televisions: 500,000 (1993 est.)

@Bolivia:Transportation

Railways:
total : 3,691 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km 0.760-m gauge (13 km
electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 55,487 km
paved: 2,663 km (including 27 km of expressways)
unpaved : 52,824 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas
1,495 km

Ports and harbors: none; however, Bolivia has free port privileges in
the maritime ports of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine:
total : 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,214 GRT/6,390 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 941 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 693
over 3,047 m : 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
under 914 m: 683 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 248
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 68
914 to 1,523 m: 178 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval
Boliviana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana),
National Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 1,811,952 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,178,259 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 80,606 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $145 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South
Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884;
dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

Illicit drugs: world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Peru
and Colombia) with an estimated 48,100 hectares under cultivation in
1996, a one percent decrease in overall cultivation of coca over 1995
levels; Bolivia, however, is the second-largest producer of coca leaf;
even so, voluntary and forced eradication programs resulted in leaf
production dropping from 85,000 metric tons in 1995 to 75,100 tons in
1996; government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit;
intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia
and Brazil to the US and other international drug markets; alternative

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