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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Zealand and Western Samoa, resides in Wellington, New Zealand)
embassy: 5th floor, Beach Road, Apia
mailing address: P.O. Box 3430, Apia
telephone : [685] 21631
FAX: [685] 22030

Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
quadrant bearing five white five-pointed stars representing the
Southern Cross constellation

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy of Western Samoa has traditionally
been dependent on development aid, private family remittances from
overseas, and agricultural exports. Increasingly, tourism is becoming
a significant source of revenue, earning approximately $34 million in
1995. While registering an overall economic improvement in 1995,
however, the country continues to struggle with a series of natural
disasters from the early 1990s which wiped out the nation's
infrastructure as well as its then-major export crop, taro root.
Agriculture continues to be a key source of wealth for Apia, employing
more than one-half of the labor force, and furnishing 90% of exports.
The bulk of these export earnings comes from the sale of coconut
cream, coconut oil, and copra. Family remittances also play a key role
in economic viability for the island nation - in 1995, remittances
totaled $34.9 million, four times export earnings. The economy did
well in 1996, supported by a steady flow of foreign aid and
remittances.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $415 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.7% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,900 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 50%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 45,635 (1986 est.)
by occupation : agriculture 65%, services 30%, industry 5% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $118 million
expenditures : $128 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97)

Industries: timber, tourism, food processing, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 29,000 kW (1990)

Electricity - production: 60 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 287 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, bananas, taro, yams

Exports:
total value: $8.7 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : coconut oil and cream, taro, copra, cocoa
partners: New Zealand 44%, Australia 22%, American Samoa, Germany

Imports:
total value: $91 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: intermediate goods 58%, food 17%, capital goods 12%
partners : New Zealand 37%, Australia 21%, US/American Samoa 13%

Debt - external: $178.3 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA; $8.7 million bilateral aid from Australia (FY96/97
est.); $5 million bilateral aid from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 tala (WS$) = 100 sene

Exchange rates: tala (WS$) per US$1 - 2.4570 (January 1997), 2.4618
(1996), 2.4722 (1995), 2.5349 (1994), 2.5681 (1993), 2.4655 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Western Samoa:Communications

Telephones: 7,500 (1988 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 76,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 6,000 (1992 est.)

@Western Samoa:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 2,030 km
paved: 373 km
unpaved: 1,657 km (1988 est.)

Ports and harbors: Apia, Asau, Mulifanua, Salelologa

Merchant marine:
total : 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
3,838 GRT/5,536 DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: no regular armed services; Western Samoa Police
Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

WORLD
[Map of World]

@World:Geography

Map references: World, Time Zones

Area:
total: 510.072 million sq km
land: 148.94 million sq km
water: 361.132 million sq km
note : 70.8% of the world's surface is water, 29.2% is land

Area - comparative: land area about 15 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: the land boundaries in the world total 251,480.24 km
(not counting shared boundaries twice)

Coastline: 356,000 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm claimed by most but can vary
continental shelf: 200-m depth claimed by most or to depth of
exploitation, others claim 200 nm or to the edge of the continental
margin
exclusive fishing zone : 200 nm claimed by most but can vary
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm claimed by most but can vary
territorial sea: 12 nm claimed by most but can vary
note: boundary situations with neighboring states prevent many
countries from extending their fishing or economic zones to a full 200
nm; 43 nations and other areas that are landlocked include
Afghanistan, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan,
Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic,
Chad, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Holy See (Vatican City), Hungary,
Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg,
Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda, San
Marino, Slovakia, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tajikistan, The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, West
Bank, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Climate: two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather
narrow temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to
subtropical climates

Terrain: the greatest ocean depth is the Marianas Trench at 10,924 m
in the Pacific Ocean

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m

Natural resources: the rapid using up of nonrenewable mineral
resources, the depletion of forest areas and wetlands, the extinction
of animal and plant species, and the deterioration in air and water
quality (especially in Eastern Europe and the former USSR) pose
serious long-term problems that governments and peoples are only
beginning to address

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 26%
forests and woodland: 32%
other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,481,250 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: large areas subject to severe weather (tropical
cyclones), natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis,
volcanic eruptions)

Environment - current issues: large areas subject to overpopulation,
industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic
substances), loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation,
desertification), loss of wildlife, soil degradation, soil depletion,
erosion

Environment - international agreements: selected international
environmental agreements are included under the Environment -
international agreements entry for each country and in the Selected
International Environmental Agreements appendix

@World:People

Population: 5,849,699,041 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (male 922,447,462; female 877,221,909)
15-64 years: 63% (male 1,856,697,495; female 1,808,219,116)
65 years and over: 6% (male 166,513,212; female 218,599,847)

Population growth rate: 1.4% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 59 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63 years
male: 61 years
female: 64 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1997 est.)

@World:Government

Data code: none; there is no FIPS 10-4 country code for the World, so
the Factbook uses the "W" data code from DIAM 65-18 "Geopolitical Data
Elements and Related Features," Data Standard No. 3, March 1984,
published by the Defense Intelligence Agency; see the Cross-Reference
List of Country Data Codes appendix

Administrative divisions: 266 nations, dependent areas, other, and
miscellaneous entries

Legal system: varies by individual country; 186 (not including
Yugoslavia) are parties to the UN International Court of Justice (ICJ
or World Court)

Economy

Economy - overview: Real global output - gross world product (GWP) -
rose an estimated 3.6% in 1996, with the newly industrializing Third
World countries again setting the pace. And once more, results varied
widely among regions and countries. Average growth of 2.3% in the GDP
of industrialized countries (55% of GWP in 1996) and average growth of
6.5% in the GDP of less developed countries (39% of GWP) were partly
offset by a 2% drop in the GDP of the former USSR/Eastern Europe area
(only 6% of GWP). With the notable exception of Japan at 3%,
unemployment was typically 6%-12% in the industrial world. The US
accounted for 21% of GWP in 1996; Western Europe accounted for 20%;
and Japan accounted for 8%. These are the three "economic superpowers"
presumably destined to compete for mastery in international markets on
into the 21st century. As for the less developed countries: China,
India, and the Four Dragons - South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and
Singapore - once again posted records of 5% growth or better; however,
many other countries, especially in Africa, continued to suffer from
drought, rapid population growth, inflation, and civil strife. Central
Europe and the 15 successor states to the USSR generally made progress
in moving toward "market-friendly" economies, but output in Russia and
Ukraine continued to fall. Externally, the nation-state, as a bedrock
economic-political institution, is steadily losing control over
international flows of people, goods, funds, and technology.
Internally, the central government in a number of cases is losing
control over resources as separatist regional movements - typically
based on ethnicity - gain momentum, e.g., in the successor states of
the former Soviet Union, in the former Yugoslavia, in India, and in
Canada. In Western Europe, governments face the difficult political
problem of channeling resources away from welfare programs in order to
increase investment and strengthen incentives to seek employment. The
addition of nearly 100 million people each year to an already
overcrowded globe is exacerbating the problems of pollution,
desertification, underemployment, epidemics, and famine. Because of
their own internal problems, the industrialized countries have
inadequate resources to deal effectively with the poorer areas of the
world, which, at least from the economic point of view, are becoming
further marginalized. (For specific economic developments in each
country, see the individual country entries.)

GDP: GWP (gross world product) - purchasing power parity - $35.8
trillion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,200 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: all countries 25%; developed
countries 2% to 4% typically; developing countries 10% to 60%
typically (1996 est.)
note: national inflation rates vary widely in individual cases, from
stable prices in Japan to hyperinflation in a number of Third World
countries

Labor force:
total : 2.24 billion (1992)
by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: 30% combined unemployment and underemployment in
many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically
6%-12% unemployment (1996 est.)

Industries: dominated by the onrush of technology, especially in
computers, robotics, telecommunications, and medicines and medical
equipment; most of these advances take place in OECD nations; only a
small portion of non-OECD countries have succeeded in rapidly
adjusting to these technological forces; the accelerated development
of new industrial (and agricultural) technology is complicating
already grim environmental problems

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 4 billion kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 12.34268 trillion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,996 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: the whole gamut of crops, livestock, forest
products, and fish

Exports:
total value: $4.6 trillion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and
services
partners: in value, about 75% of exports from the developed countries

Imports:
total value : $4.7 trillion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and
services
partners: in value, about 75% of imports by the developed countries

Debt - external: $2 trillion for less developed countries (1996 est.)

Economic aid: worldwide traditional foreign aid $50 billion (1995
est.)

@World:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic : NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@World:Transportation

Railways:
total : 1,201,337 km includes about 190,000 to 195,000 km of
electrified routes of which 147,760 km are in Europe, 24,509 km in the
Far East, 11,050 km in Africa, 4,223 km in South America, and 4,160 km
in North America; note - fastest speed in daily service is 300 km/hr
attained by France's Societe Nationale des Chemins-de-Fer Francais
(SNCF) Le Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) - Atlantique line
broad gauge: 251,153 km
standard gauge: 710,754 km
narrow gauge: 239,430 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved : NA km

Ports and harbors: Chiba, Houston, Kawasaki, Kobe, Marseille, Mina' al
Ahmadi (Kuwait), New Orleans, New York, Rotterdam, Yokohama

Merchant marine:
total: 25,521 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 442,276,527
GRT/701,647,274 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 22, bulk 5,308, cargo 8,089, chemical
tanker 920, combination bulk 307, combination ore/oil 279, container
1,938, liquefied gas tanker 709, livestock carrier 52, multifunction
large-load carrier 62, oil tanker 4,320, passenger 298,
passenger-cargo 117, railcar carrier 21, refrigerated cargo 1,022,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1,034, short-sea passenger 484, specialized
tanker 81, vehicle carrier 458 (1995 est.)

Military

Military branches: ground, maritime, and air forces at all levels of
technology

Military expenditures - dollar figure: aggregate real expenditure on
arms worldwide in 1996 remained at about the 1995 level, about
three-quarters of a trillion dollars in money terms (1996 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: roughly 2% of gross world
product (1996 est.)
______________________________________________________________________

YEMEN

@Yemen:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and
Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 48 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 527,970 sq km
land: 527,970 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or
North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
(PDRY or South Yemen)

Area - comparative: slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries:
total: 1,746 km
border countries: Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km

Coastline: 1,906 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 nm in the North; 24 nm in the South
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in
western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot,
dry, harsh desert in east

Terrain: narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged
mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the
desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,760 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble, small deposits
of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper, fertile soil in west

Land use:
arable land : 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 30%
forests and woodland: 4%
other : 63% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: sandstorms and dust storms in summer

Environment - current issues: very limited natural fresh water
resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: controls Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red
Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

@Yemen:People

Population: 13,972,477 (July 1997 est.)
note: other estimates range as high as 16.6 million

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 3,421,216; female 3,237,594)
15-64 years : 49% (male 3,454,912; female 3,479,395)
65 years and over: 3% (male 162,600; female 216,760) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.57% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 44.83 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.17 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 68.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.31 years
male : 58.9 years
female: 61.78 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.18 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Yemeni(s)
adjective: Yemeni

Ethnic groups: predominantly Arab; Afro-Arab concentrations in western
coastal locations; South Asians in southern regions; small European
communities in major metropolitan areas

Religions: Muslim including Sha'fi (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shi'a), small
numbers of Jewish, Christian, and Hindu

Languages: Arabic

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38%
male: 53%
female: 26% (1990 est.)

@Yemen:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Yemen
conventional short form: Yemen
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah
local short form: Al Yaman

Data code: YM

Government type: republic

National capital: Sanaa

Administrative divisions: 17 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Abyan, Aden, Al Bayda, Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al
Mahwit, Ataq, Dhamar, Hadhramaut, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma'rib, Sa'dah,
San'a', Ta'izz
note: there may be a new governorate for the capital city of Sanaa

Independence: 22 May 1990 Republic of Yemen was established on 22 May
1990 with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic {Yemen (Sanaa) or
North Yemen} and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of
Yemen {Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen}; previously North Yemen had become
independent on NA November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South
Yemen had become independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic, 22 May (1990)

Constitution: 16 May 1991; amended 29 September 1994

Legal system: based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law,
and local tribal customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May
1990, the former president of North Yemen, assumed office upon the
merger of North and South Yemen); Vice President Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab
Mansur al-HADI (since NA October 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Abd al-Aziz ABD AL-GHANI (since NA
October 1994); Deputy Prime Ministers Abd al-Wahhab al-ANISI (since NA
October 1994), Dr. Abd al-Karim Ali al-IRYANI (since NA October 1994),
Dr. Muhammad Said al-ATTAR (since NA October 1994), and Abd al-Qadir
al-BA JAMAL (since NA October 1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice
of the prime minister
elections : president elected by the House of Representatives for a
five-year term; election last held 1 October 1994 (next to be held NA
1999); vice president appointed by the president; prime minister and
deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president; percent of
House of Representatives vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (301 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 27 April 1997 (next to be held NA April 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GPC
189, Islaah 52, Nasserite Unionist Party 3, Baath Party 2,
independents 54, election pending 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: there are over 12 political parties
active in Yemen, some of the more important are: General People's
Congress (GPC), President Ali Abdallah SALIH; Yemeni Reform Grouping
or Islaah, Shaykh Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR; Yemeni Socialist Party
(YSP), Ali Salih UBAYD; Nasserite Unionist Party, leader NA; Baath
Party, leader NA
note: following the May-July 1994 civil war, President SALIH's General
People's Congress and Shaykh Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR's Yemeni
Reform Grouping, or Islaah, formed a coalition government, but it is
unclear whether this coalition will continue in light of the GPC's
landslide victory in the April 1997 legislative election; the YSP, a
loyal opposition party, boycotted the April 1997 legislative election

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU,
CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent),
ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery : Suite 705, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760, 4761
FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David G. NEWTON
embassy: Dhahr Himyar Zone, Sheraton Hotel District, Sanaa
mailing address : P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa
telephone: [967] (1) 238843 through 238852
FAX: [967] (1) 251563

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black; similar to the flag of Syria which has two green stars and
of Iraq which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a
horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag
of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

Economy

Economy - overview: The northern city Sanaa is the political capital
of a united Yemen, and the southern city Aden, with its refinery and
port facilities, is the economic and commercial capital. Future
economic development depends heavily on Western-assisted development
of the country's moderate oil resources. Former South Yemen's
willingness to merge stemmed partly from the steady decline in Soviet
economic support. The low level of domestic industry and agriculture
has made northern Yemen dependent on imports for practically all of
its essential needs. Once self-sufficient in food production, northern
Yemen has become a major importer. Land once used for export crops -
cotton, fruit, and vegetables - has been turned over to growing a
shrub called qat, whose leaves are chewed for their stimulant effect
by Yemenis and which has no significant export market. Economic growth
in former South Yemen has been constrained by a lack of incentives,
partly stemming from centralized control over production decisions,
investment allocation, and import choices. Yemen's GDP has been
supplemented by remittances from Yemenis working abroad and by foreign
aid. Since the Gulf crisis, however, remittances have dropped
substantially. Floods in June 1996 caused the loss of much valuable
topsoil in the agricultural sector, increasing the need for imports of
foodstuffs. Oil production and GDP as a whole are expected to increase
moderately in 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $39.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,900 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 35%
services : 51%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 85% (1996 est.)

Labor force: no reliable estimates exist, most people are employed in
agriculture and herding or as expatriate laborers; services,
construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-half of
the labor force

Unemployment rate: 30% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3 billion
expenditures: $3.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale
production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing;
handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 810,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 1.84 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 117 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grain, fruits, vegetables, qat (mildly
narcotic shrub), coffee, cotton; dairy products, poultry, meat; fish

Exports:
total value: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : crude oil, cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables, dried and
salted fish
partners: China 23%, South Korea 19%, Japan 12%, Singapore 10%, Brazil
9%, Thailand 7% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: textiles and other manufactured consumer goods, petroleum
products, sugar, grain, flour, other foodstuffs, cement, machinery,
chemicals
partners: UAE 14%, Saudi Arabia 10%, US 8%, Malaysia 6%, UK 5% (1995)

Debt - external: $8 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $148 million (1993)

Currency: Yemeni rial (YRl) (new currency)

Exchange rates: Yemeni rials (YRl) per US$1 - 50.04 (new official
fixed rate), 40.839 (1995), 12.010 (official fixed rate 1992-94); 490
(market rate, December 1994)
note : on 29 March 1995 the official rate was changed from 12.01
Yemeni rials to 50.04 Yemeni rials per US dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Yemen:Communications

Telephones: 131,655 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: since unification in 1990, efforts have been made to
create a national telecommunications network
domestic: the network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, and
tropospheric scatter
international : satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean
and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2
Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 325,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 10

Televisions: 100,000 (1993 est.)

@Yemen:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 51,392 km
paved : 4,831 km
unpaved: 46,561 km (1992 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 644 km; petroleum products 32 km

Ports and harbors: Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Mukalla, Mocha, Nishtun

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,059 GRT/18,563 DWT
ships by type : cargo 1, oil tanker 2 (1996 est.)

Airports: 42 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 30
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m : 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m : 10 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary (includes
Police)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 3,109,553 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,753,779 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 148,864 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: a large section of boundary with Saudi
Arabia is not defined; a dispute with Eritrea over sovereignty of the
Hanish Islands in the southern Red Sea has been submitted to
arbitration under the auspices of the International Court of Justice
______________________________________________________________________

ZAMBIA

@Zambia:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, east of Angola

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 752,610 sq km
land: 740,720 sq km
water: 11,890 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,664 km
border countries: Angola 1,110 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo
1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania
338 km, Zimbabwe 797 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to
April)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold,
silver, uranium, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 40%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: tropical storms (November to April)

Environment - current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain in
the mineral extraction and refining region; poaching seriously
threatens rhinoceros and elephant populations; deforestation; soil
erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents
human health risks

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked

@Zambia:People

Population: 9,349,975 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 49% (male 2,315,739; female 2,286,829)
15-64 years: 48% (male 2,212,021; female 2,301,354)
65 years and over : 3% (male 112,134; female 121,898) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.02% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 44.37 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 24.18 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 96.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 35.58 years
male : 35.58 years
female: 35.59 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.48 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian

Ethnic groups: African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%

Religions: Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous
beliefs 1%

Languages: English (official), major vernaculars - Bemba, Kaonda,
Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and about 70 other indigenous
languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write in English
total population: 78.2%
male: 85.6%
female: 71.3% (1995 est.)

@Zambia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia

Data code: ZA

Government type: republic

National capital: Lusaka

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern,
Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

Independence: 24 October 1964 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

Constitution: 2 August 1991

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Frederick CHILUBA (since 31 October 1991);
Vice President General Godfrey MIYANDA (since NA August 1994); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Frederick CHILUBA (since 31 October
1991); Vice President General Godfrey MIYANDA (since NA August 1994);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of
the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 18 November 1996 (next to be held October 2001);
vice president appointed by the president
election results: Frederick CHILUBA elected president; percent of vote
- Frederick CHILUBA 70%, Dean MUNGO'MBA 12%, Humphrey MULEMBA 6%,
Akashambatwa LEWANIKA 4%, Chama CHAKOMBOKA 3%, others 5%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; members
are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 18 November 1996 (next to be held October 2001)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MMD
130, NP 5, ZDC 2, AZ 2, independents 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices are appointed by the
president

Political parties and leaders: Agenda for Zambia or AZ [Akashambatwa
LEWANIKA]; Labor Party or LP [Chibiza MFUNI]; Liberal Progressive
Front or LPF [Roger CHONGWE, president]; Movement for Democratic
Process or MDP [Chama CHAKOM BOKA]; Movement for Multiparty Democracy
or MMD [Frederick CHILUBA]; National Lima Party or NLP [Guy SCOTT and
Ben KAPITA]; National Party or NP [Humphrey MULEMBIA]; United National
Independence Party or UNIP [Kenneth KAUNDA]; Zambia Democratic
Congress or ZADACO [Dean MUNG'OMBA]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNAVEM
III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dunstan Weston KAMANA
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX : [1] (202) 332-0826

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arlene RENDER
embassy: corner of Independence Avenue and United Nations Avenue,
Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (1) 250-955, 252-230
FAX: [260] (1) 252-225

Flag description: green with a panel of three vertical bands of red
(hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the
outer edge of the flag

Economy

Economy - overview: Despite progress in privatization and budgetary
reform, Zambia's economy has a long way to go. Inflation, while
slowing somewhat, continues to be a major concern to the CHILUBA
government. Zambia's copper mining sector, which accounts for over 80%
of the nation's foreign currency intake, is struggling. Production
rates are down as are world copper prices. Aid cuts by Zambia's
donors, arising out of concern for the November 1996 flawed election,
will severely damage Zambia's economic prospects. Urged by the World
Bank, Zambia has embarked on a privatization program which is to
include the all-important copper industry.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,060 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 32%
industry : 33%
services: 35% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 34% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 3.4 million
by occupation: agriculture 85%, mining, manufacturing, and
construction 6%, transport and services 9%

Unemployment rate: 22% (1991)

Budget:
revenues: $888 million
expenditures: $835 million, including capital expenditures of $110
million (1995 est.)

Industries: copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs,
beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: -1% (1992)

Electricity - capacity: 2.44 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 7.78 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 610 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seed,
tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca); cattle, goats, pigs,
poultry, beef, pork, poultry meat, milk, eggs, hides

Exports:
total value : $975 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, tobacco
partners: EU countries, Japan, South Africa, US, Saudi Arabia, India,
Thailand, Malaysia

Imports:
total value: $990 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels,
petroleum products, electricity, miscellaneous manufactured goods
partners: South Africa, EU countries, Japan, Saudi Arabia, US

Debt - external: $7.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $734 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Zambian kwacha (ZK) = 100 ngwee

Exchange rates: Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1 - 1,250 (January 1997),
1,250 (1996), 833.33 (1995), 769.23 (1994), 434.78 (1993), 156.25
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Zambia:Communications

Telephones: 80,900 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa
domestic : high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger
towns and cities
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 5, shortwave 0

Radios: 1,889,140

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 215,000 (1995 est.)

@Zambia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,164 km (1995)
narrow gauge: 2,164 km 1.067-m gauge (13 km double track)
note: the total includes 891 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway
Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge
track between Dar es Salaam and New Kapiri Mposhi where it connects to
the Zambia Railways system; TAZARA is not a part of Zambia Railways

Highways:
total: 37,359 km
paved: 6,575 km (including 56 km of expressways)
unpaved: 30,784 km (1993 est.)

Waterways: 2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula rivers, Lake
Tanganyika

Pipelines: crude oil 1,724 km

Ports and harbors: Mpulungu

Airports: 103 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 42
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 32 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 61
2,438 to 3,047 m : 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 56 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, paramilitary forces, Police

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,990,403 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,051,227 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $96 million (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.7% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and
Zimbabwe is in disagreement; Democratic Republic of the
Congo-Tanzania-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it has been informally reported that the indefinite
section of the Democratic Republic of the Congo-Zambia boundary has
been settled

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for methaqualone, heroin, and
cocaine bound for Southern Africa and Europe; regional
money-laundering center
______________________________________________________________________

ZIMBABWE

@Zimbabwe:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, northeast of Botswana

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total : 390,580 sq km
land: 386,670 sq km
water: 3,910 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 3,066 km
border countries: Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa
225 km, Zambia 797 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to
March)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld);
mountains in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: junction of the Lundi and Savi rivers 162 m
highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m

Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper,
iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals

Land use:
arable land : 7%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 23%
other: 57% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,930 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; land
degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once
the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been
significantly reduced by poaching

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography - note: landlocked

@Zimbabwe:People

Population: 11,423,175 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 2,507,219; female 2,471,357)
15-64 years: 54% (male 3,020,632; female 3,106,729)
65 years and over : 3% (male 154,231; female 163,007) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.26% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 31.65 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 19.02 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: there is a small but steady flow of Zimbabweans into South
Africa in search of better paid employment

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 72.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 40.84 years
male: 40.85 years
female : 40.83 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.94 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Zimbabwean(s)
adjective: Zimbabwean

Ethnic groups: African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%), white
1%, mixed and Asian 1%

Religions: syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%,
Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%

Languages: English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the
Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write in English
total population: 85%
male: 90%
female: 80% (1995 est.)

@Zimbabwe:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Zimbabwe
conventional short form: Zimbabwe
former: Southern Rhodesia

Data code: ZI

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Harare

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial
status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central,
Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo (Victoria), Matabeleland
North, Matabeleland South, Midlands

Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

Constitution: 21 December 1979

Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31
December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31
December 1987) and Joshua M. NKOMO (since 6 August 1990); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government : Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since
31 December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31
December 1987) and Joshua M. NKOMO (since 6 August 1990); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House
of Assembly
elections: president nominated by the House of Assembly for a six-year
term (if more than one nomination, an electoral college consisting of
members of the House of Assembly elects the president); election last
held 26-27 March 1996 (next to be held NA March 2002); co-vice
presidents appointed by the president
election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE elected president; percent of
electoral college vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE 92.7%, Abel MUZOREWA
4.8%; Ndabaningi SITHOLE 2.4%

Legislative branch: unicameral parliament, called House of Assembly
(150 seats, 120 of which are directly elected by popular vote for
six-year terms; of the other 30 seats, 12 are nominated by the
president, 10 are occupied by traditional chiefs chosen by their
peers, and 8 by provincial governors)
elections: last held 8-9 April 1995 (next to be held NA April 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
ZANU-PF 117, ZANU-Ndonga 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Zimbabwe African National
Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert MUGABE]; Zimbabwe African
National Union-NDONGA or ZANU-NDONGA [Ndabaningi SITHOLE]; Zimbabwe
Unity Movement or ZUM [Edgar TEKERE]; Democratic Party or DP [Emmanuel
MAGOCHE]; Forum Party of Zimbabwe [Enock DUMBUTSHENA]; United Parties
[Abel MUZOREWA]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, PCA,
SADC, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Amos Bernard Muvengwa MIDZI
chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100
FAX : [1] (202) 483-9326

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Johnnie CARSON
embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
mailing address: P. O. Box 3340, Harare
telephone : [263] (4) 794521
FAX: [263] (4) 796488

Flag description: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red,
black, red, yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged
in black based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is
superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle

Economy

Economy - overview: Agriculture employs 70% of the labor force of this
landlocked nation and supplies almost 40% of exports. Mining accounts
for only 5% of both GDP and employment, but minerals and metals
account for about 40% of exports. Severe drought caused GDP to drop 8%
in 1992, with growth rebounding to 2% in 1993 and 4.5% in 1994, only
to drop by 2.4% in 1995. The government is continuing to push its
IMF/World Bank structural adjustment program aimed at encouraging
exports and foreign investment. Officials face the difficult task of
restraining expenditures in their effort to keep inflation within
bounds.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26.4 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,340 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 18.3%
industry: 35.3%
services: 46.4% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 21.7% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4.228 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 70%, transport and services 22%, industry
8%

Unemployment rate: at least 45% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.5 billion
expenditures : $2.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $29
million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: mining (coal, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic
ores), copper, steel, nickel, tin, wood products, cement, chemicals,
fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages

Industrial production growth rate: 10% (1994)

Electricity - capacity: 2.15 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 7.33 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 747 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee,
sugarcane, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs

Exports:
total value: $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: agricultural 47% (tobacco 31%), manufactures 27%, gold
12%, textiles 8%, ferrochrome 6% (1994 est.)
partners: South Africa 14%, UK 10%, Germany 8%, Japan 8%, (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 41%, other
manufactures 16%, chemicals 16%, fuels 10% (1994 est.)
partners: South Africa 41%, UK 7%, US 6%, Japan 6% (1995 est.)

Debt - external: $4.4 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $362 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Zimbabwean dollar (Z$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1 - 10.8696 (January
1997), 9.9206 (1996), 8.6580 (1995), 8.1500 (1994), 6.4725 (1993),
5.0942 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Zimbabwe:Communications

Telephones: 301,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: system was once one of the best in Africa, but now
suffers from poor maintenance
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines,
and radiotelephone communication stations
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 18, shortwave 0

Radios: 890,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 8 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 280,000 (1992 est.)

@Zimbabwe:Transportation

Railways:
total : 2,759 km (1995)
narrow gauge: 2,759 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified; 42 km double
track) (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 91,099 km
paved: 15,486 km
unpaved : 75,613 km (1993 est.)

Waterways: the Mazoe and Zambezi rivers are used for transporting
chrome ore from Harare to Mozambique

Pipelines: petroleum products 212 km

Ports and harbors: Binga, Kariba

Airports: 402 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 203
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m : 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 184 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 199
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 198 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe,
Zimbabwe Republic Police (includes Police Support Unit, Paramilitary
Police)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,717,032 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,687,536 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $236 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (FY95/96)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and
Zambia is in disagreement

Illicit drugs: significant transit point for African cannabis and
South Asian heroin, mandrax, and methamphetamines destined for the
South African and European markets
______________________________________________________________________

TAIWAN

@Taiwan:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, islands bordering the East China Sea,
Philippine Sea, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait, north of the
Philippines, off the southeastern coast of China

Geographic coordinates: 23 30 N, 121 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 35,980 sq km
land : 32,260 sq km
water: 3,720 sq km
note: includes the Pescadores, Matsu, and Quemoy

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland and Delaware
combined

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June
to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year

Terrain: eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently
rolling plains in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Yu Shan 3,997 m

Natural resources: small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone,
marble, and asbestos

Land use:
arable land : 24%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 55%
other : 15%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: earthquakes and typhoons

Environment - current issues: water pollution from industrial
emissions, raw sewage; air pollution; contamination of drinking water
supplies; trade in endangered species; low-level radioactive waste
disposal

Environment - international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

@Taiwan:People

Population: 21,699,776 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 23% (male 2,576,022; female 2,399,926)
15-64 years: 69% (male 7,630,512; female 7,363,155)
65 years and over: 8% (male 937,206; female 792,955) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.95% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 14.97 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.45 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.18 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.04 years
male: 73.81 years
female: 80.52 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.77 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Taiwanese 84%, mainland Chinese 14%, aborigine 2%

Religions: mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%, Christian
4.5%, other 2.5%

Languages: Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka
dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86%
male: 93%
female: 79% (1980 est.)

@Taiwan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Taiwan
local long form: none
local short form: T'ai-wan

Data code: TW

Government type: multiparty democratic regime headed by popularly
elected president

National capital: Taipei

Administrative divisions: since in the past the authorities claimed to
be the government of all China, the central administrative divisions
include the provinces of Fu-chien (some 20 offshore islands of Fujian
Province including Quemoy and Matsu) and Taiwan (the island of Taiwan
and the Pescadores islands); note - the more commonly referenced
administrative divisions are those of Taiwan Province - 16 counties
(hsien, singular and plural), 5 municipalities* (shih, singular and
plural), and 2 special municipalities** (chuan-shih, singular and
plural); Chang-hua, Chia-i, Chia-i*, Chi-lung*, Hsin-chu, Hsin-chu*,
Hua-lien, I-lan, Kao-hsiung, Kao-hsiung**, Miao-li, Nan-t'ou,
P'eng-hu, P'ing-tung, T'ai-chung, T'ai-chung*, T'ai-nan, T'ai-nan*,
T'ai-pei, T'ai-pei**, T'ai-tung, T'ao-yuan, and Yun-lin; the
provincial capital is at Chung-hsing-hsin-ts'un
note: Taiwan uses the Wade-Giles system for romanization

National holiday: National Day, 10 October (1911) (Anniversary of the
Revolution)

Constitution: 1 January 1947, amended in 1992, presently undergoing
revision

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President LI Teng-hui (succeeded to the presidency
following the death of President CHIANG Ching-kuo 13 January 1988,
elected by the National Assembly 21 March 1990, elected by popular
vote in the first-ever direct elections for president 23 March 1996);
Vice President LIEN Chan (since 20 May 1996); note - LIEN Chan serves
as both vice president and premier
head of government: Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) LIEN
Chan (since 23 February 1993) and Vice Premier (Vice President of the
Executive Yuan) HSU Li-teh (since 23 February 1993); note - LIEN Chan
serves as both vice president and premier
cabinet: Executive Yuan appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 23 March 1996
(next to be held NA 2000); premier appointed by the president; vice
premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the
premier
election results : LI Teng-hui elected president; percent of vote - LI
Teng-hui 54%, PENG Ming-min 21%, LIN Yang-kang 15%, and CHEN Li-an 10%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Yuan (164 seats - 128
elected by popular vote, 36 indirectly elected on the basis of
proportional representation; members serve three-year terms; note -
national conference agreed to change the term to four years, pending
ratification by the National Assembly) and unicameral National
Assembly (334 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections : Legislative Yuan - last held 2 December 1995 (next to be
held NA December 1998); National Assembly - last held 23 March 1996
(next to be held NA 2000)
election results: Legislative Yuan - percent of vote by party - KMT
46%, DPP 33%, CNP 13%, independents 8%; seats by party - KMT 85, DPP
54, CNP 21, independents 4; note - since the election, there has been
a change in the distribution of seats, the new distribution is as
follows - KMT 83, DPP 54, CNP 21, independents 6; National Assembly -
percent of vote by party - KMT 55%, DPP 30%, CNP 14%, other 1%; seats
by party - KMT 183, DPP 99, CNP 46, other 6

Judicial branch: Judicial Yuan, justices appointed by the president
with the consent of the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Kuomintang (KMT, Nationalist Party), LI
Teng-hui, chairman; Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), HSU
Hsin-Liang, chairman; Chinese New Party (CNP), CHEN Kuei-Miao; Labor
Party (LP), leader NA; Taiwan Independence Party (TAIP), leader NA

Political pressure groups and leaders: Taiwan independence movement,
various environmental groups
note : debate on Taiwan independence has become acceptable within the
mainstream of domestic politics on Taiwan; political liberalization
and the increased representation of the opposition Democratic
Progressive Party in Taiwan's legislature have opened public debate on
the island's national identity; advocates of Taiwan independence,
including within the DPP, oppose the ruling party's traditional stand
that the island will eventually reunify with mainland China; goals of
the Taiwan independence movement include establishing a sovereign
nation on Taiwan and entering the UN; other organizations supporting
Taiwan independence include the World United Formosans for
Independence and the Organization for Taiwan Nation Building

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, BCIE, ICC, IOC,
WCL, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; unofficial commercial and
cultural relations with the people of the US are maintained through a
private instrumentality, the Taipei Economic and Cultural
Representative Office (TECRO) with headquarters in Taipei and field
offices in Washington and 12 other US cities

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; unofficial commercial and
cultural relations with the people of Taiwan are maintained through a
private institution, the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT), which has
offices in Taipei at #7 Lane 134, Hsin Yi Road, Section 3, telephone
[886] (2) 709-2000, FAX [886] (2) 702-7675, and in Kao-hsiung at #2
Chung Cheng 3d Road, telephone [886] (7) 224-0154 through 0157, FAX
[886] (7) 223-8237, and the American Trade Center at Room 3207
International Trade Building, Taipei World Trade Center, 333 Keelung
Road Section 1, Taipei 10548, telephone [886] (2) 720-1550, FAX [886]
757-7162

Flag description: red with a dark blue rectangle in the upper
hoist-side corner bearing a white sun with 12 triangular rays

Economy

Economy - overview: Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with
considerable guidance of investment and foreign trade by government
officials and partial government ownership of some large banks and
industrial firms. Real growth in GDP has averaged about 9% a year
during the past three decades. Export growth has been even faster and
has provided the impetus for industrialization. Inflation and
unemployment are low. Agriculture contributes less than 4% to GDP,
down from 35% in 1952. Traditional labor-intensive industries are
steadily being moved off-shore and replaced with more capital- and
technology-intensive industries. Taiwan has become a major investor in
China, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam.
The tightening of labor markets has led to an influx of foreign
workers, both legal and illegal.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $315 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.7% (1996)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $14,700 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 3.3%
industry: 35.7%
services: 61% (1996)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3.1% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 9.31 million
by occupation: services 52%, industry 38%, agriculture 10% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.6% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $57.6 billion
expenditures: $79.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: electronics, textiles, chemicals, clothing, food
processing, plywood, sugar milling, cement, shipbuilding, petroleum
refining

Industrial production growth rate: 4.1% (1996)

Electricity - capacity: 21.87 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 117.16 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 5,270 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, corn, soybeans, vegetables,
fruit, tea; pigs, poultry, beef, milk; fish catch increasing, reached
1.4 million metric tons in 1988

Exports:
total value: $116 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 46.3%, textile
products 13.5%, basic metals and articles 8.8%, chemicals 6.7% (1996
est.)
partners : US 27.6%, Hong Kong 21.7%, EU countries 15.2%, Japan 10.5%
(1994 est.)

Imports:
total value: $102.4 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 35.5%, chemicals
10.9%, basic metals and articles 10.3%, minerals 9.2% (1996 est.)
partners: Japan 30.1%, US 21.7%, EU countries 17.6% (1993 est.)

Debt - external: $600 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 New Taiwan dollar (NT$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Taiwan dollars per US$1 - 27.5 (1996), 27.4
(1995), 26.2 (1994), 26.6 (1993), 25.4 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Taiwan:Communications

Telephones: 9,391,304 (1996 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay trunk system on east and
west coasts
international : satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean); submarine cables to Japan (Okinawa), Philippines,
Guam, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Australia, Middle East, and
Western Europe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 91, FM 23, shortwave 0

Radios: 8.62 million

Television broadcast stations: 15 (repeaters 13)

Televisions: 10.8 million (1996 est.)

@Taiwan:Transportation

Railways:
total : 4,600 km (498 km electrified); note - 1,108 km belongs to the
Taiwan Railway Administration and the remaining 3,492 km is dedicated
to industrial use
narrow gauge: 4,600 km 1.067-m

Highways:
total : 19,584 km
paved: 17,124 km (including 387 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,460 km

Pipelines: petroleum products 615 km; natural gas 97 km

Ports and harbors: Chi-lung (Keelung), Hua-lien, Kao-hsiung, Su-ao,
T'ai-chung

Merchant marine:
total: 200 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,872,739 GRT/8,965,523
DWT
ships by type : bulk 50, cargo 29, combination bulk 3, combination
ore/oil 1, container 85, oil tanker 19, refrigerated cargo 11,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1996 est.)

Airports: 38 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 37
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m : 6
under 914 m: 7 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, Coastal
Patrol and Defense Command, Armed Forces Reserve Command, Combined
Service Forces

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 6,394,422 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 4,927,346 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 207,332 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $11.5 billion (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.6% (FY96/97)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: involved in complex dispute over the Spratly
Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, and possibly
Brunei; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and
Taiwan; Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu
Tai) claimed by China and Taiwan

Illicit drugs: considered an important heroin transit point; major
problem with domestic consumption of methamphetamines and heroin

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