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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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914 to 1,523 m: 58
under 914 m: 153 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 99
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 92 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: National Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Nacionales
or FAN) includes Ground Forces or Army (Fuerzas Terrestres or
Ejercito), Naval Forces (Fuerzas Navales or Armada), Air Force
(Fuerzas Aereas or Aviacion), Armed Forces of Cooperation or National
Guard (Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperacion or Guardia Nacional)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 5,997,099 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 4,333,497 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 238,650 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $902 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo
River; maritime boundary dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of
Venezuela

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, opium, and coca leaf for
the international drug trade on a small scale; however, large
quantities of cocaine and heroin transit the country from Colombia;
important money-laundering hub; active aerial eradication program
primarily targeting opium
______________________________________________________________________

VIETNAM

@Vietnam:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of
Tonkin, and South China Sea, between China and Cambodia

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 106 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 329,560 sq km
land: 325,360 sq km
water : 4,200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 4,639 km
border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km

Coastline: 3,444 km (excludes islands)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season
(mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to
mid-March)

Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly,
mountainous in far north and northwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Ngoc Linh 3,143 m

Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate,
offshore oil and gas deposits, forests

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures : 1%
forests and woodland: 30%
other: 48% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 18,600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive
flooding

Environment - current issues: logging and slash-and-burn agricultural
practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water
pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations;
groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban
industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading
environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

@Vietnam:People

Population: 75,123,880 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 13,713,340; female 12,946,322)
15-64 years: 59% (male 21,547,228; female 22,997,231)
65 years and over : 5% (male 1,573,823; female 2,345,936) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.51% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 22.3 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 37.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.38 years
male: 65.03 years
female: 69.86 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)
adjective: Vietnamese

Ethnic groups: Vietnamese 85%-90%, Chinese 3%, Muong, Tai, Meo, Khmer,
Man, Cham

Religions: Buddhist, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs,
Islam, Protestant, Cao Dai, Hoa Hao

Languages: Vietnamese (official), Chinese, English, French, Khmer,
tribal languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.7%
male: 96.5%
female: 91.2% (1995 est.)

@Vietnam:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
conventional short form: Vietnam
local long form: Cong Hoa Chu Nghia Viet Nam
local short form : Viet Nam
abbreviation: SRV

Data code: VM

Government type: Communist state

National capital: Hanoi

Administrative divisions: 50 provinces (tinh, singular and plural), 3
municipalities* (thu do, singular and plural); An Giang, Ba Ria-Vung
Tau, Bac Thai, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Thuan, Can Tho, Cao Bang, Dac
Lac, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Bac, Ha Giang, Ha Noi*, Ha Tay,
Ha Tinh, Hai Hung, Hai Phong*, Ho Chi Minh*, Hoa Binh, Khanh Hoa, Kien
Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Minh
Hai, Nam Ha, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Yen, Quang Binh,
Quang Nam-Da Nang, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son
La, Song Be, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien
Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phu, Yen Bai
note: eight existing provinces (Bac Thai, Ha Bac, Hai Hung, Minh Hai,
Nam Ha, Quang Nam-Da Nang, Song Be, and Vinh Phu) may have been
abolished and from their territory 15 new provinces and one new
municipality* (Bac Can, Bac Giang, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Binh Duong,
Binh Phuoc, Ca Mau, Da Nang City*, Ha Nam, Hai Duong, Hung Yen, Nam
Dinh, Phu Tho, Quang Nam, Thai Nguyen, and Vinh Phuc) may have been
created

Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945)

Constitution: 15 April 1992

Legal system: based on communist legal theory and French civil law
system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Le Duc ANH (since 23 September 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Vo Van KIET (since 9 August 1991);
First Deputy Prime Minister Phan Van KHAI (since 10 August 1991);
Deputy Prime Ministers Nguyen KHANH (since NA February 1987) and Tran
Duc LUONG (since NA February 1987)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the proposal of the
prime minister and ratification of the National Assembly
elections: president elected by the National Assembly from among its
members for a five-year term; election last held 23 September 1992
(next to be held when National Assembly meets following legislative
elections in July 1997); prime minister appointed by the president
from among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime
ministers appointed by the prime minister
election results: Le Duc ANH elected president; percent of National
Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Quoc-Hoi (395
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 19 July 1992 (next to be held 20 July 1997)
election results: percent of vote by party - CPV or CPV-approved 100%;
seats by party - CPV or CPV-approved 395

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court, chief justice is elected for
a five-year term by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the
president

Political parties and leaders: only party - Communist Party of Vietnam
(CPV), DO MUOI, general secretary

International organization participation: ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC,
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, Mekong
Group, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Le Van BANG
chancery: 1233 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036, Suite 501
telephone: [1] (202) 861-0737
FAX: [1] (202) 861-0917

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas "Pete" Peterson
embassy : 7 Lang Ha Road, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 400, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [84] (4) 8431500
FAX: [84] (4) 8350484 or 8431510

Flag description: red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the
center

Economy

Economy - overview: Vietnam is a poor, densely populated country that
has had to recover from the ravages of war, the loss of financial
support from the old Soviet Bloc, and the rigidities of a centrally
planned economy. Substantial progress has been achieved over the past
10 years in moving forward from an extremely low starting point.
Economic growth continued at a strong pace during 1996 with industrial
output rising by 14% and real GDP expanding by 9.4%. Foreign direct
investment rose to an estimated $2.3 billion for the year, up by about
30% from 1995. These positive numbers, however, masked some major
difficulties that are emerging in economic performance. Many domestic
industries, including coal, cement, steel, and paper, reported large
stockpiles of inventory and tough competition from more efficient
foreign producers. Vietnam's trade deficit widened to $4 billion in
1996, up over 80% from a year ago. While disbursements of aid and
foreign direct investment have risen, they are not large enough to
finance the rapid increase in imports and it is widely believed that
Vietnam may be using short-term trade credits to bridge the gap - a
risky strategy that could result in a foreign exchange crunch during
1997. Meanwhile, Vietnamese authorities continue to move very slowly
toward implementing the structural reforms needed to revitalize the
economy and produce more competitive, export-driven industries.
Privatization of state enterprises remains bogged down in political
controversy, while the country's dynamic private sector is denied both
financing and access to markets. Reform of the banking sector is
proceeding slowly, raising concerns that the country will be unable to
tap sufficient domestic savings to maintain current high levels of
growth. Administrative and legal barriers are also causing costly
delays for foreign investors and are raising similar doubts about
Vietnam's ability to maintain the inflow of foreign capital.
Ideological bias in favor of state intervention and control of the
economy is slowing progress toward a more liberalized investment
environment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $108.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 9.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,470 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 28%
industry: 28%
services: 44% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4.5% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 32.7 million
by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry and services 35% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $4.67 billion
expenditures: $5 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.36
billion (1995 est.)

Industries: food processing, garments, shoes, machine building,
mining, cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil

Industrial production growth rate: 14% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 5.32 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 11.78 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 154 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: paddy rice, corn, potatoes, rubber, soybeans,
coffee, tea, bananas; poultry, pigs; fish

Exports:
total value : $7.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: crude oil, rice, marine products, coffee, rubber, tea,
garments, shoes
partners: Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong, France, South Korea

Imports:
total value: $11.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum products, machinery and equipment, steel
products, fertilizer, raw cotton, grain, cement, motorcycles
partners: Singapore, South Korea, Japan, France, Hong Kong, Taiwan

Debt - external: $7.3 billion Western countries; $4.5 billion CEMA
debts primarily to Russia; $9 billion to $18 billion nonconvertible
debt (former CEMA, Iraq, Iran)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: $2.4 billion in credits and grants pledged by international
donors for 1997

Currency: 1 new dong (D) = 100 xu

Exchange rates: new dong (D) per US$1 - 11,100 (December 1996), 11,193
(1995 average), 11,000 (October 1994), 10,800 (November 1993), 8,100
(July 1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Vietnam:Communications

Telephones: 800,000 (1995 est.)

Telephone system: while Vietnam's telecommunication sector lags far
behind other countries in Southeast Asia, Hanoi has made considerable
progress since 1991 in upgrading the system; Vietnam has digitized all
provincial switch boards, while fiber-optic and microwave transmission
systems have been extended from Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City
to all provinces; the density of telephone receivers nationwide
doubled from 1993 to 1995, but is still far behind other countries in
the region; Vietnam's telecommunications strategy aims to increase
telephone density to 30 per 1,000 inhabitants by the year 2000 and
authorities estimate that approximately $2.7 billion will be spent on
telecommunications upgrades through the end of the decade
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean
region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM 228, shortwave 0

Radios: 7.215 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 36 (repeaters 77)

Televisions: 2.9 million (1992 est.)

@Vietnam:Transportation

Railways:
total : 2,835 km (in addition, there are 224 km not restored to
service after war damage)
standard gauge: 151 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 2,454 km 1.000-m gauge
other gauge: 230 km NA-m dual gauge (three rails)

Highways:
total : 106,048 km
paved: 27,466 km
unpaved: 78,582 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km navigable at all
times by vessels up to 1.8 m draft

Pipelines: petroleum products 150 km

Ports and harbors: Cam Ranh, Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong
Gai, Qui Nhon, Nha Trang

Merchant marine:
total : 121 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 534,937 GRT/863,307 DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 100, chemical tanker 1, oil tanker 9,
refrigerated cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
note: Vietnam owns an additional 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
107,592 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas, Honduras,
Malta, Panama, and Vanuatu (1996 est.)

Airports: 48 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 36
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m : 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 7 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m : 5
under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) (includes Ground
Forces, Navy, and Air Force)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 19,172,473 (1996 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 12,123,118 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 802,154 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $544 million (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.7% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined;
involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands in the South
China Sea with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and possibly
Brunei; unresolved maritime boundary with Thailand; maritime boundary
dispute with China in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands in the South
China Sea occupied by China but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan;
offshore islands and sections of boundary with Cambodia are in dispute

Illicit drugs: key growing areas in Vietnam cultivated 3,150 hectares
of poppy in 1996, producing 25 tons of opium; opium producer and
increasingly important transit point for Southeast Asian heroin
destined for the US and Europe; growing opium addiction; possible
small-scale heroin production
______________________________________________________________________

VIRGIN ISLANDS

(territory of the US)

@Virgin Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 20 N, 64 50 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 352 sq km
land: 349 sq km
water: 3 sq km

Area - comparative: twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 188 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low
humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to
November

Terrain: mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Crown Mountain 474 m

Natural resources: sun, sand, sea, surf

Land use:
arable land: 15%
permanent crops: 6%
permanent pastures : 26%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 47% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: several hurricanes in recent years; frequent and
severe droughts, floods, and earthquakes

Environment - current issues: lack of natural freshwater resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified : NA

Geography - note: important location along the Anegada Passage - a key
shipping lane for the Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best
natural, deepwater harbors in the Caribbean

@Virgin Islands:People

Population: 97,240 (July 1997 est.)
note: West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and 29% born
elsewhere in the West Indies) 74%, US mainland 13%, Puerto Rican 5%,
other 8%

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years : NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.18% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 16.72 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -9.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 12.54 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.29 years
male: 73.6 years
female: 77.2 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.18 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Virgin Islander(s)
adjective: Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups: black 80%, white 15%, other 5%

Religions: Baptist 42%, Roman Catholic 34%, Episcopalian 17%, other 7%

Languages: English (official), Spanish, Creole

Literacy: NA

@Virgin Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Virgin Islands of the United States
conventional short form: Virgin Islands
former: Danish West Indies

Data code: VQ

Dependency status: organized, unincorporated territory of the US;
administered by the Office of Territorial and International Affairs,
US Department of the Interior

Government type: NA

National capital: Charlotte Amalie

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Transfer Day, 31 March (1917) (from Denmark to US)

Constitution: Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954

Legal system: based on US laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note - indigenous inhabitants
are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch:
chief of state : President of the US William Jefferson CLINTON (since
20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993)
head of government: Governor Dr. Roy L. SCHNEIDER (since 5 January
1995) and Lieutenant Governor Kenneth E. MAPP (since 5 January 1995)
cabinet: NA
elections : governor and lieutenant governor of the Virgin Islands
elected by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 22
November 1994 (next to be held NA November 1998)
election results: Dr. Roy L. SCHNEIDER elected governor of the Virgin
Islands; percent of vote - Roy L. SCHNEIDER (ICM) 54.7%, former
Lieutenant Governor Derek HODGE 42.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral Senate (15 seats; members are elected
by popular vote to serve two-year terms)
elections: last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held NA November
1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
independents 6, Democrats 5, Republicans 2, Independent Citizens
Movement 2
note: the Virgin Islands elects one representative to the US House of
Representatives; elections last held 19 November 1996 (next to be held
NA November 1998); results - Dr. Donna GREEN (ICM) 51.5%, Victor O.
FRAZER (independent) 48.5%

Judicial branch: US District Court, handles civil matters over
$200,000, felonies (persons 15 years of age and over), and federal
cases; judges are appointed by the president; Territorial Court,
handles civil matters of unlimited cash amount; felonies, small
claims, juvenile, domestic, misdemeanors, and traffic cases; judges
appointed by the governor

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party, Marilyn STAPLETON;
Independent Citizens' Movement (ICM), Virdin C. BROWN; Republican
Party, Charlotte-Poole DAVIS

International organization participation: ECLAC (associate), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)

Flag description: white with a modified US coat of arms in the center
between the large blue initials V and I; the coat of arms shows a
yellow eagle holding an olive branch in one talon and three arrows in
the other with a superimposed shield of vertical red and white stripes
below a blue panel

Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism is the primary economic activity,
accounting for more than 70% of GDP and 70% of employment. The number
of US tourists in the first five months of 1996 was down by 55% from
the same period in 1995, the lingering result of the fierce hurricanes
of 1995. Unemployment rose sharply in 1996. The manufacturing sector
consists of textile, electronics, pharmaceutical, and watch assembly
plants. The agricultural sector is small, most food being imported.
International business and financial services are a small but growing
component of the economy. One of the world's largest petroleum
refineries is at Saint Croix. A major economic problem at the
beginning of 1997 was the more than $1 billion in governmental
arrears, in income tax refunds, payments to vendors, and overdue
wages.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (1987 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $12,500 (1987 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services : NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 47,443 (1990 est.)
by occupation: agriculture, industry, services, other (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6.2% (March 1994)

Budget:
revenues: $364.4 million
expenditures : $364.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1990 est.)

Industries: tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum
distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics

Industrial production growth rate: 12% (year NA)

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: 990 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 9,565 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: truck garden products, fruit, vegetables,
sorghum; Senepol cattle

Exports:
total value: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
commodities : refined petroleum products
partners: US, Puerto Rico

Imports:
total value: $2.2 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
commodities: crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials
partners: US, Puerto Rico

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Virgin Islands:Communications

Telephones: 60,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : modern, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
international: submarine cable and satellite communications; satellite
earth stations - NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 8, shortwave 0 (1988)

Radios: 105,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 65,000 (1992 est.)

@Virgin Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 856 km
paved: NA km
unpaved : NA km

Ports and harbors: Charlotte Amalie, Christiansted, Cruz Bay, Port
Alucroix

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2
note: international airports on Saint Thomas and Saint Croix (1996
est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

WAKE ISLAND

(territory of the US)

@Wake Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, island in the North Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds
of the way from Hawaii to the Northern Mariana Islands

Geographic coordinates: 19 17 N, 166 36 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 6.5 sq km
land: 6.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 19.3 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: atoll of three coral islands built up on an underwater
volcano; central lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 6 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean;
emergency landing location for transpacific flights

@Wake Island:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are 302 US military and contract personnel (July 1995
est.)

@Wake Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form : Wake Island

Data code: WQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered by
the US Army and Strategic Defense Command since 1 October 1994

National capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Independence: none (territory of the US)

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services
to US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All
food and manufactured goods must be imported.

Electricity - capacity: NA kW
note: electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

@Wake Island:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: satellite communications; 1 DSN circuit off the
Overseas Telephone System (OTS)
domestic : NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM NA, shortwave NA
note : Armed Forces Radio/Television Service (AFRTS) radio service
provided by satellite

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA
note: Armed Forces Radio/Television Service (AFRTS) television service
provided by satellite

Televisions: NA

@Wake Island:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Ports and harbors: none; two offshore anchorages for large ships

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Transportation - note: formerly an important commercial aviation base,
now used by US military, some commercial cargo planes, as well as the
US Army Space and Strategic Defense Command for missile launches

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by the Republic of the Marshall
Islands
______________________________________________________________________

WALLIS AND FUTUNA

(overseas territory of France)

@Wallis and Futuna:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 13 18 S, 176 12 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 274 sq km
land: 274 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Ile Uvea (Wallis Island), Ile Futuna (Futuna Island),
Ile Alofi, and 20 islets

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 129 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry
season (May to October); rains 2,500-3,000 mm per year (80% humidity);
average temperature 26.6 degrees C

Terrain: volcanic origin; low hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point : Mount Singavi 765 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land : 5%
permanent crops: 20%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 75% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation (only small portions of
the original forests remain) largely as a result of the continued use
of wood as the main fuel source; as a consequence of cutting down the
forests, the mountainous terrain of Futuna is particularly prone to
erosion; there are no permanent settlements on Alofi because of the
lack of natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified : NA

Geography - note: both island groups have fringing reefs

@Wallis and Futuna:People

Population: 14,817 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over : NA

Population growth rate: 1.08% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23.7 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -7.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 22.26 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.29 years
male : 72.7 years
female: 73.9 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.89 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), or Wallis and Futuna Islanders
adjective: Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islander

Ethnic groups: Polynesian

Religions: Roman Catholic 100%

Languages: French, Wallisian (indigenous Polynesian language)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 50%
male: 50%
female: 50% (1969 est.)

@Wallis and Futuna:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands
conventional short form: Wallis and Futuna
local long form: Territoire des Iles Wallis et Futuna
local short form: Wallis et Futuna

Data code: WF

Dependency status: overseas territory of France

Government type: NA

National capital: Mata-Utu (on Ile Uvea)

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there
are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are three kingdoms named Wallis, Sigave, Alo

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995), represented by High Administrator Claude PIERRET (since NA)
head of government: President of the Territorial Assembly Keleto
LAKALAKA (since NA)
cabinet: Council of the Territory consists of three kings and three
members appointed by the high administrator on the advice of the
Territorial Assembly
note : there are three traditional kings with limited powers
elections: high administrator appointed by the president of France on
the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of
the Territorial Government and the Territorial Assembly are elected by
the members of the assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly or Assemblee
Territoriale (20 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections : last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held NA March 1997)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR
9, Taumu'a Lelei 11
note: Wallis and Futuna elects one senator to the French Senate and
one deputy to the French National Assembly; French Senate - elections
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held by NA September 1998);
results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats - (1 total) RPR 1;
French National Assembly - elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993
(next to be held by 25 May-1 June 1997 - special election); results -
percent of vote by party - NA; seats - (1 total) MRG 1

Judicial branch: none; justice generally administered under French law
by the high administrator, but the three traditional kings administer
customary law and there is a magistrate in Mata-Utu

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic or RPR; Union
Populaire Locale or UPL; Union Pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF;
Lua kae tahi (Giscardians); Mouvement des Radicaux de Gauche or MRG;
Taumu'a Lelei

International organization participation: FZ, SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Flag description: a large white modified Maltese cross centered on a
red background; the flag of France outlined in white on two sides is
in the upper hoist quadrant; the flag of France is used for official
occasions

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is limited to traditional subsistence
agriculture, with about 80% of the labor force earning its livelihood
from agriculture (coconuts and vegetables), livestock (mostly pigs),
and fishing. About 4% of the population is employed in government.
Revenues come from French Government subsidies, licensing of fishing
rights to Japan and South Korea, import taxes, and remittances from
expatriate workers in New Caledonia. Wallis and Futuna imports food -
particularly sugar, rice, and beef - fuel, clothing, machinery, and
transport equipment, but its exports are negligible, consisting of
copra and handicrafts.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $28.7 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,000 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture, livestock, and fishing 80%, government 4%
(est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $17 million
expenditures : $17 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: copra, handicrafts, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: yams, taro, bananas; pigs, goats

Exports:
total value: $370,000 (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: copra, handicrafts
partners: NA

Imports:
total value: $13.5 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, transportation equipment,
fuel, clothing
partners : France, Australia, New Zealand

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1
- 98.48 (January 1997), 93.00 (1996), 90.75 (1995), 100.94 (1994),
102.96 (1993), 96.24 (1992); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the
French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Wallis and Futuna:Communications

Telephones: 340 (1985 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA

@Wallis and Futuna:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 120 km (Ile Uvea 100 km, Ile Futuna 20 km)
paved: 16 km (all on Ile Uvea)
unpaved: 104 km (Ile Uvea 84 km, Ile Futuna 20 km)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Leava, Mata-Utu

Merchant marine:
total: 1 oil tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 25,060 GRT/40,406 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

WEST BANK

Introduction

Current issues: The Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim
Self-Government Arrangements ("the DOP"), signed in Washington on 13
September 1993, provides for a transitional period not exceeding five
years of Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the
West Bank. Permanent status negotiations began on 5 May 1996. Under
the DOP, Israel agreed to transfer certain powers and responsibilities
to the Palestinian Authority, which includes a Palestinian Legislative
Council elected in January 1996, as part of interim self-governing
arrangements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. A transfer of powers and
responsibilities for the Gaza Strip and Jericho has taken place
pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4 May 1994 Cairo Agreement on the Gaza
Strip and the Jericho Area and in additional areas of the West Bank
pursuant to the Israel-PLO 28 September 1995 Interim Agreement. The
DOP provides that Israel will retain responsibility during the
transitional period for external security and for internal security
and public order of settlements and Israelis. Permanent status is to
be determined through direct negotiations which began on 5 May 1996.

@West Bank:Geography

Location: Middle East, west of Jordan

Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 35 15 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 5,860 sq km
land: 5,640 sq km
water: 220 sq km
note: includes West Bank, Latrun Salient, and the northwest quarter of
the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt. Scopus; East Jerusalem and Jerusalem No
Man's Land are also included only as a means of depicting the entire
area occupied by Israel in 1967

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:
total : 404 km
border countries: Israel 307 km, Jordan 97 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude,
warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

Terrain: mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west, but
barren in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Tall Asur 1,022 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 27%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 32%
forests and woodland: 1%
other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; highlands are main recharge area for
Israel's coastal aquifers; there are 203 Israeli settlements and
civilian land use sites in the West Bank and 26 in East Jerusalem
(August 1996 est.)

@West Bank:People

Population: 1,495,683 (July 1997 est.)
note: in addition, there are 136,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank
and 156,000 in East Jerusalem (August 1996 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 347,152; female 329,906)
15-64 years : 51% (male 387,847; female 380,629)
65 years and over: 3% (male 21,223; female 28,926) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.32% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 37.71 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.5 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 10.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.11 years
male: 70.43 years
female: 73.88 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.06 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : NA
adjective: NA

Ethnic groups: Palestinian Arab and other 83%, Jewish 17%

Religions: Muslim 75% (predominantly Sunni), Jewish 17%, Christian and
other 8%

Languages: Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers and many
Palestinians), English (widely understood)

Literacy: NA

@West Bank:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: West Bank

Data code: WE

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic progress in the West Bank has been
hampered by tight Israeli security restrictions. Industries using
advanced technology or requiring sizable investment have been
discouraged by a lack of local capital and restrictive Israeli
policies. Capital investment consists largely of residential housing,
not productive assets that would enable local Palestinian firms to
compete with Israeli industry. GDP has been substantially supplemented
by remittances of workers employed in Israel. Such transfers from the
Persian Gulf states dropped after Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990.
In the wake of the Persian Gulf crisis, many Palestinians have
returned to the West Bank, increasing unemployment, and export
revenues have dropped because of the decline of markets in Jordan and
the Gulf states. An estimated 147,000 people were in refugee camps in
1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1% to -2% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,600 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 33%
industry: 25%
services: 42% (1995 est., includes Gaza Strip)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 11% (1995 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: construction 28.2%, agriculture 21.8%, industry 14.5%,
commerce, restaurants, and hotels 12.6%, other services 22.9% (1991)
note: excluding Israeli settlers

Unemployment rate: 35% to 40% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $684 million
expenditures: $779 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996)
note : includes Gaza Strip

Industries: generally small family businesses that produce cement,
textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs;
the Israelis have established some small-scale, modern industries in
the settlements and industrial centers

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW
note: most electricity imported from Israel; East Jerusalem Electric
Company buys and distributes electricity to Palestinians in East
Jerusalem and its concession in the West Bank; the Israel Electric
Company directly supplies electricity to most Jewish residents and
military facilities; at the same time, some Palestinian
municipalities, such as Nabulus and Janin, generate their own
electricity from small power plants

Electricity - production: NA kWh
note: most electricity imported from Israel; East Jerusalem Electric
Company buys and distributes electricity to Palestinians in East
Jerusalem and its concession in the West Bank; the Israel Electric
Company directly supplies electricity to most Jewish residents and
military facilities; at the same time, some Palestinian
municipalities, such as Nabulus and Janin, generate their own
electricity from small power plants

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables;
beef, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $235 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.) (includes Gaza Strip)
commodities : olives, fruit, vegetables
partners: Jordan, Israel

Imports:
total value: $1.55 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.) (includes Gaza Strip)
commodities: food, consumer goods, construction materials
partners : Jordan, Israel

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot; 1 Jordanian
dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 3.41 (May 1997),
3.2882 (1996), 3.0113 (1995), 3.0111 (1994), 2.8301 (1993), 2.4591
(1992); Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1 - 0.7090 (January 1997), 0.7090
(1996), 0.7005 (1995), 0.6987 (1994), 0.6928 (1993), 0.6797 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year (since 1 January 1992)

@West Bank:Communications

Telephones: NA
note: 3.1% of Palestinian households have telephones

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international : NA
note: Israeli company BEZEK is responsible for communication services
in the West Bank

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA; note - 82% of Palestinian households have radios (1992
est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0
note: 1 broadcast station is planned for Jericho

Televisions: NA; note - 54% of Palestinian households have televisions
(1992 est.)

@West Bank:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km
note: small road network; Israelis have developed many highways to
service Jewish settlements

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: NA

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli
occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian
Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further
negotiation
______________________________________________________________________

WESTERN SAHARA

@Western Sahara:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Mauritania and Morocco

Geographic coordinates: 24 30 N, 13 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 266,000 sq km
land: 266,000 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about the size of Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 2,046 km
border countries: Algeria 42 km, Mauritania 1,561 km, Morocco 443 km

Coastline: 1,110 km

Maritime claims: contingent upon resolution of sovereignty issue

Climate: hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents
produce fog and heavy dew

Terrain: mostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or sandy
surfaces rising to small mountains in south and northeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sebjet Tah -55 m
highest point : unnamed location 463 m

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore

Land use:
arable land : 19%
permanent crops: 24%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 47%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur
during winter and spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of
time, often severely restricting visibility

Environment - current issues: sparse water and arable land

Environment - international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Western Sahara:People

Population: 228,138 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years : NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 2.43% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 46.14 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.53 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 142.75 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.71 years
male: 46.66 years
female: 49.09 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sahrawi(s), Sahraoui(s)
adjective: Sahrawian, Sahraouian

Ethnic groups: Arab, Berber

Religions: Muslim

Languages: Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic

Literacy: NA

@Western Sahara:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Western Sahara

Data code: WI

Government type: legal status of territory and question of sovereignty
unresolved; territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front
(Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de
Oro), which in February 1976 formally proclaimed a government-in-exile
of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR); territory partitioned
between Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976, with Morocco acquiring
northern two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario
guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979;
Morocco moved to occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since
asserted administrative control; the Polisario's government-in-exile
was seated as an OAU member in 1984; guerrilla activities continued
sporadically, until a UN-monitored cease-fire was implemented 6
September 1991

National capital: none

Administrative divisions: none (under de facto control of Morocco)

Suffrage: none; a UN sponsored voter identification campaign has yet
to be completed

Executive branch: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none

Diplomatic representation from the US: none

Economy

Economy - overview: Western Sahara, a territory poor in natural
resources and having little rainfall, depends on pastoral nomadism,
fishing, and phosphate mining as the principal sources of income for
the population. Most of the food for the urban population must be
imported. All trade and other economic activities are controlled by
the Moroccan Government. Incomes and standards of living are
substantially below the Moroccan level.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: 40%-45% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 12,000
by occupation: animal husbandry and subsistence farming 50%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: phosphate mining, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 56,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 85 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: fruits and vegetables (grown in the few
oases); camels, sheep, goats (kept by the nomads)

Exports: $NA
commodities: phosphates 62%
partners: Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade
partners are included in overall Moroccan accounts

Imports: $NA
commodities: fuel for fishing fleet, foodstuffs
partners : Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so trade
partners are included in overall Moroccan accounts

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1 - 9.018 (January 1997),
8.716 (1996), 8.540 (1995), 9.203 (1994), 9.299 (1993), 8.538 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Western Sahara:Communications

Telephones: 2,000

Telephone system: sparse and limited system
domestic: NA
international: tied into Morocco's system by microwave radio relay,
tropospheric scatter, and satellite; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) linked to Rabat, Morocco

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: NA

@Western Sahara:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 6,200 km
paved : 1,350 km
unpaved: 4,850 km (1991 est.)

Ports and harbors: Ad Dakhla, Cabo Bojador, El Aaiun

Airports: 12 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: NA

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed and administered by Morocco, but
sovereignty is unresolved and the UN is attempting to hold a
referendum on the issue; the UN-administered cease-fire has been in
effect since September 1991
______________________________________________________________________

WESTERN SAMOA

@Western Samoa:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 13 35 S, 172 20 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 2,860 sq km
land: 2,850 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 403 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to
October)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains
in interior

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mauga Silisili 1,857 m

Natural resources: hardwood forests, fish

Land use:
arable land : 19%
permanent crops: 24%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 47%
other: 10%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons; active volcanism

Environment - current issues: soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

@Western Samoa:People

Population: 219,509 (July 1997 est.)
note: other estimates range as low as 162,000

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (male 44,281; female 42,876)
15-64 years: 56% (male 64,433; female 59,006)
65 years and over : 4% (male 4,225; female 4,688) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.34% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 30.4 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.63 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 33 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 69.09 years
male: 66.7 years
female : 71.6 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.82 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Western Samoan(s)
adjective: Western Samoan

Ethnic groups: Samoan 92.6%, Euronesians 7% (persons of European and
Polynesian blood), Europeans 0.4%

Religions: Christian 99.7% (about one-half of population associated
with the London Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman
Catholic, Methodist, Latter-Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)

Languages: Samoan (Polynesian), English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 97%
male: 97%
female: 97% (1971 est.)

@Western Samoa:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Independent State of Western Samoa
conventional short form: Western Samoa

Data code: WS

Government type: constitutional monarchy under native chief

National capital: Apia

Administrative divisions: 11 districts; A'ana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua,
Fa'asaleleaga, Gaga'emauga, Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupa'itea,
Tuamasaga, Va'a-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano

Independence: 1 January 1962 (from New Zealand-administered UN
trusteeship)

National holiday: National Day, 1 June (1962)

Constitution: 1 January 1962

Legal system: based on English common law and local customs; judicial
review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the
citizen; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : Chief Susuga MALIETOA Tanumafili II (cochief of state
from 1 January 1962 until becoming sole chief of state 5 April 1963)
head of government: Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana (since 7 April
1988); Deputy Prime Minister TUILA'EPA Sailele Malielegaoi (since NA
1992)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the chief of state with the prime
minister's advice
elections : upon the death of Chief Susuga MALIETOA Tanumafili II, a
new chief of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly to
serve a five-year term; prime minister appointed by the chief of state
with the approval of the Legislative Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fono (49 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 26 April 1996 (next to be held 26 April 2001)
election results : percent of vote by party - HRPP 45.17%, SNDP 27.1%,
independents 23.7%; seats by party - HRPP 25, SNDP 13, independents 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP),
TOFILAU Eti Alesana, chairman; Samoan National Development Party
(SNDP), TAPUA Tamasese Efi, chairman; Samoan Progressive Conservative
Party, LEOTA Ituau Ale; Samoa All People's Party (SAPP), Matatumua
MAIMOAGA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tuiloma Neroni SLADE
chancery: 820 Second Avenue, Suite 800D, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 599-6196, 6197
FAX : [1] (212) 599-0797

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Josiah Horton BEEMAN (Ambassador to New

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