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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 11,527,058 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $35.1 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.1% (FY95/96)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Northern Ireland question with Ireland;
Gibraltar question with Spain; Argentina claims Falkland Islands
(Islas Malvinas); Argentina claims South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands; Mauritius claims island of Diego Garcia in British
Indian Ocean Territory; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving
Denmark, Iceland, and Ireland (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area); territorial claim in
Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory)

Illicit drugs: gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the
European market; producer of synthetic drugs, precursor chemicals;
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering
center
______________________________________________________________________

UNITED STATES

@United States:Geography

Location: North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and
the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 38 00 N, 97 00 W

Map references: North America

Area:
total: 9,629,091 sq km
land: 9,158,960 sq km
water : 470,131 sq km
note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia

Area - comparative: about one-half the size of Russia; about
three-tenths the size of Africa; about one-half the size of South
America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China;
about two and one-half times the size of Western Europe

Land boundaries:
total: 12,248 km
border countries : Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska),
Cuba 29 km (US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay), Mexico 3,326 km
note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part
of Cuba

Coastline: 19,924 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 12 nm
continental shelf: not specified
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida and
arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi
River and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter
temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January
and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the
Rocky Mountains

Terrain: vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low
mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska;
rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Death Valley -86 m
highest point: Mount McKinley 6,194 m

Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates,
uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver,
tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 30%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 207,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around
Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic coast; tornadoes in the
midwest; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding;
permafrost in northern Alaska is a major impediment to development

Environment - current issues: air pollution resulting in acid rain in
both the US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon
dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff
of pesticides and fertilizers; very limited natural fresh water
resources in much of the western part of the country require careful
management; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic
Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Desertification,
Hazardous Wastes

Geography - note: world's third-largest country (after Russia and
Canada)

@United States:People

Population: 267,954,764 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 29,837,393; female 28,450,028)
15-64 years: 65% (male 87,170,245; female 88,400,551)
65 years and over : 13% (male 13,975,746; female 20,120,801) (July
1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.89% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 14.6 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.8 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.55 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.04 years
male: 72.75 years
female : 79.49 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.06 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: American(s)
adjective: American

Ethnic groups: white 83.4%, black 12.4%, Asian 3.3%, Amerindian 0.8%
(1992)

Religions: Protestant 56%, Roman Catholic 28%, Jewish 2%, other 4%,
none 10% (1989)

Languages: English, Spanish (spoken by a sizable minority)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 97% (1979 est.)

@United States:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : United States of America
conventional short form: United States
abbreviation: US or USA

Data code: US

Government type: federal republic; strong democratic tradition

National capital: Washington, DC

Administrative divisions: 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska,
Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware,
District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois,
Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland,
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana,
Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York,
North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah,
Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Dependent areas: American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island,
Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa
Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin
Islands, Wake Island
note: from 18 July 1947 until 1 October 1994, the US administered the
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, but recently entered into a
new political relationship with all four political units: the Northern
Mariana Islands is a Commonwealth in political union with the US
(effective 3 November 1986); Palau concluded a Compact of Free
Association with the US (effective 1 October 1994); the Federated
States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association with the US
(effective 3 November 1986); the Republic of the Marshall Islands
signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 21 October
1986)

Independence: 4 July 1776 (from England)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Constitution: 17 September 1787, effective 4 March 1789

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January
1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20
January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with Senate approval
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state;
president and vice president serve four-year terms; election last held
5 November 1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000)
election results: William Jefferson CLINTON elected president; percent
of popular vote - William Jefferson CLINTON (Democratic Party) 49.2%,
Bob DOLE (Republican Party) 40.7%, Ross PEROT (Reform Party) 8.4%,
other 1.7%

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of Senate (100 seats,
one-third are renewed every two years; two members are elected from
each state by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and House of
Representatives (435 seats; members are directly elected by popular
vote to serve two-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held 2
November 1998); House of Representatives - last held 5 November 1996
(next to be held 2 November 1998)
election results : Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - Republican Party 55, Democratic Party 45; House of
Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Republican Party 227, Democratic Party 205, independent 1, vacant 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices are appointed for life by the
president with confirmation by the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Republican Party, Jim NICHOLSON,
national committee chairman; Democratic Party, Steve GROSSMAN,
national committee chairman; several other groups or parties of minor
political significance

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS,
APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE (observer), CP, EBRD, ECE,
ECLAC, ESCAP, FAO, G- 2, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR,
NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security
Council, UNCTAD, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIH, UNOMIG,
UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UNTAES, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO, ZC

Flag description: thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and
bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper
hoist-side corner bearing 50 small white five-pointed stars arranged
in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom)
alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50
states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; known as
Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis for a number of
other flags including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

Economy

Economy - overview: The US has the most powerful, diverse, and
technologically advanced economy in the world, with a per capita GDP
of $28,600, the largest among major industrial nations. In this
market-oriented economy, private individuals and business firms make
most of the decisions, and government buys needed goods and services
predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy
considerably greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western
Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, lay off surplus
workers, and develop new products. At the same time, they face higher
barriers to entry in their rivals' home markets than the barriers to
entry of foreign firms in US markets. In all economic sectors, US
firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances,
especially in computers, and medical, aerospace, and military
equipment, although their advantage has narrowed since the end of
World War II. The onrush of technology largely explains the gradual
development of a "two-tier labor market" in which those at the bottom
lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at
the top and, more and more, fail to get pay raises, health insurance
coverage, and other benefits. The years 1994-96 witnessed moderate
gains in real output, low inflation rates, and a drop in unemployment
below 6%. Long-term problems include inadequate investment in economic
infrastructure, rapidly rising medical costs of an aging population,
sizable budget and trade deficits, and stagnation of family income in
the lower economic groups. The outlook for 1997 is for continued
moderate growth, low inflation, and about the same level of
unemployment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.61 trillion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $28,600 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 23%
services: 75% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 133.943 million (includes unemployed) (1996)
by occupation: managerial and professional 28.8%, technical, sales and
administrative support 29.7%, services 13.6%, manufacturing, mining,
transportation, and crafts 25.1%, farming, forestry, and fishing 2.8%

Unemployment rate: 5.4% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $1.351 trillion
expenditures: $1.514 trillion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995)

Industries: leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified
and technologically advanced; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles,
aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food
processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining

Industrial production growth rate: 3.1% (1996)

Electricity - capacity: 702.7 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 3.5357 trillion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 11,636 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, other grains, corn, fruits, vegetables,
cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; forest products; fish

Exports:
total value: $584.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw
materials, consumer goods, agricultural products
partners: Canada 22%, Western Europe 21%, Japan 11%, Mexico 8% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $771 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: crude oil and refined petroleum products, machinery,
automobiles, consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and
beverages
partners : Canada, 20%, Western Europe 18%, Japan 16.5%, Mexico 8%
(1995)

Debt - external: $862 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
donor : ODA, $9.721 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: British pounds () per US$ - 0.6023 (January 1997),
0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664
(1992); Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$ - 1.3486 (January 1997),
1.3635 (1996), 1.3724 (1995), 1.3656 (1994), 1.2901 (1993), 1.2087
(1992); French francs (F) per US$ - 5.4169 (January 1997), 5.1155
(1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992);
Italian lire (Lit) per US$ - 1,568.1 (January 1997), 1,542.9 (1996),
1,628.9 (1995), 1,612.4 (1994), 1,573.7 (1993), 1,232.4 (1992);
Japanese yen () per US$ - 118.02 (January 1997), 108.78 (1996), 94.06
(1995), 102.21 (1994), 111.20 (1993), 126.65 (1992); German deutsche
marks (DM) per US$ - 1.6043 (January 1997), 1.5048 (1996), 1.4331
(1995), 1.6228 (1994), 1.6533 (1993), 1.5617 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@United States:Communications

Telephones: 182.558 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay,
coaxial cable, and domestic satellites
international : 24 ocean cable systems in use; satellite earth
stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean) (1990
est.), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific
and Atlantic Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4,987, FM 4,932, shortwave 0

Radios: 540.5 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1,092 (in addition, there are about
9,000 cable TV systems)

Televisions: 215 million (1993 est.)

@United States:Transportation

Railways:
total: 240,000 km mainline routes (nongovernment owned)
standard gauge: 240,000 km 1.435-m gauge (1989)

Highways:
total : 6,261,154 km
paved: 3,759,516 km (including 88,500 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,501,638 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive of the
Great Lakes

Pipelines: petroleum products 276,000 km; natural gas 331,000 km
(1991)

Ports and harbors: Anchorage, Baltimore, Boston, Charleston, Chicago,
Duluth, Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston, Jacksonville, Los Angeles,
New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, Port Canaveral, Portland
(Oregon), Prudhoe Bay, San Francisco, Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Toledo

Merchant marine:
total: 305 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 10,319,000
GRT/14,454,000 DWT
ships by type : bulk 15, cargo 22, chemical tanker 16, intermodal 119,
liquefied gas tanker 14, passenger-cargo 3, tanker 104, tanker
tug-barge 12
note: in addition, there are 193 government-owned vessels (1996 est.)

Airports: 13,396 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 11,677
over 3,047 m: 180
2,438 to 3,047 m: 201
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1,217
914 to 1,523 m: 2,354
under 914 m : 7,725 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1,719
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m : 152
914 to 1,523 m: 1,559 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 103 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Department of the Army, Department of the Navy
(includes Marine Corps), Department of the Air Force
note: the Coast Guard falls under the Department of Transportation,
but in wartime reports to the Department of the Navy

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 69,414,007 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 1,864,580 (1996 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $267.2 billion (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (1997 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary disputes with Canada
(Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal
Island); US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only
mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the
lease; Haiti claims Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim
in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not
recognize the claims of any other nation; Republic of Marshall Islands
claims Wake Island

Illicit drugs: consumer of cocaine shipped from Colombia through
Mexico and the Caribbean; consumer of heroin, marijuana, and
increasingly methamphetamines from Mexico; consumer of high-quality
Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana,
depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamines; drug
money-laundering center
______________________________________________________________________

URUGUAY

@Uruguay:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
between Argentina and Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 S, 56 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 176,220 sq km
land: 173,620 sq km
water: 2,600 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Washington State

Land boundaries:
total: 1,564 km
border countries : Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km

Coastline: 660 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea : 200 nm; overflight and navigation guaranteed beyond
12 nm

Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m

Natural resources: fertile soil, hydropower potential, minor minerals

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 77%
forests and woodland: 5%
other : 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,400 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and
occasional violent wind which blows north from the Argentine pampas),
droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as
weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid
changes in weather fronts

Environment - current issues: substantial pollution from Brazilian
industry along border; one-fifth of country affected by acid rain
generated by Brazil; water pollution from meat packing/tannery
industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation

@Uruguay:People

Population: 3,270,707 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 405,016; female 385,863)
15-64 years: 63% (male 1,021,166; female 1,042,401)
65 years and over: 13% (male 173,345; female 242,916) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.7% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 16.98 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.97 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 75.23 years
male: 72.09 years
female : 78.55 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Uruguayan(s)
adjective: Uruguayan

Ethnic groups: white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian,
specifically, the Charrua, which are practically nonexistent and make
up probably less than 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 66% (less than one-half of the adult
population attends church regularly), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%,
nonprofessing or other 30%

Languages: Spanish, Portunon, or Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on
the Brazilian frontier)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.3%
male: 96.9%
female: 97.7% (1995 est.)

@Uruguay:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
conventional short form: Uruguay
local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay
local short form : Uruguay

Data code: UY

Government type: republic

National capital: Montevideo

Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno,
Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio
Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y
Tres

Independence: 25 August 1828 (from Brazil)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1828)

Constitution: 27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended 27
June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980;
constitutional reforms approved by plebiscite 7 January 1997

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Julio Maria SANGUINETTI (since 1 March 1995)
and Vice President Hugo BATALLA (since 1 March 1995); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government as well as
the Senate president
head of government : President Julio Maria SANGUINETTI (since 1 March
1995) and Vice President Hugo BATALLA (since 1 March 1995); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government as well as
the Senate president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections : president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 27 November 1994
(next to be held NA November 1999)
election results: Julio Maria SANGUINETTI elected president; percent
of vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General
consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (30 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and
Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators - last held 27 November 1994 (next to
be held NA November 1999); Chamber of Representatives - last held 27
November 1994 (next to be held NA November 1999)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party -
Colorado 36%, Blanco 34%, Encuentro Progresista 27%, New Sector 3%;
seats by party - Colorado 11, Blanco 10, Encuentro Progresista 8, New
Sector 1; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party -
Colorado 32%, Blanco 31%, Encuentro Progresista 31%, New Sector 5%;
seats by party - Colorado 32, Blanco 31, Encuentro Progresista 31, New
Sector 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are nominated by the president
and elected for 10-year terms by the General Assembly

Political parties and leaders: National (Blanco) Party, Alberto
VOLONTE Berro; Herrerista faction of the Blanco Party, Luis LACALLE;
Colorado Party, Jorge BATLLE; Broad Front Coalition, Tabare VAZQUEZ
(as of 22 December 1996); New Sector Coalition, Rafael MICHELINI;
Party for the Government by the People (PGP), Hugo BATALLA;
Progressive Encounter (Encuentro Progresista), Tabare VAZQUEZ

International organization participation: AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC,
FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES,
LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN,
UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNMOT, UNOMIG,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alvaro DIEZ DE MEDINA SUAREZ
chancery : 2715 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313 through 1316
FAX : [1] (202) 331-8147
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas J. DODD
embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo
mailing address : APO AA 34035
telephone: [598] (2) 23 60 61, 48 77 77
FAX: [598] (2) 48 86 11

Flag description: nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and
bottom) alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper
hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the
Sun of May and 16 rays alternately triangular and wavy

Economy

Economy - overview: Uruguay's small economy benefits from a favorable
climate for agriculture and substantial hydropower potential. Economic
development has been restrained in recent years by high - though
declining - inflation and extensive government regulation. The
SANGUINETTI government's conservative monetary and fiscal policies are
aimed at continuing to reduce inflation, at 24.3% at yearend 1996;
other priorities include extensive reform of the social security
system and increased investment in education. Uruguay recovered from
recession in 1996 - partly due to the recovery in Argentina - and
ended the year with a nearly 5% rise in GDP. Uruguayan trade continued
to expand and the potential for new markets continued to open through
the negotiations of Mercosur (Southern Cone Common Market) with
neighboring countries and the European Union (EU). The economy is
expected to continue growing at a healthy rate in 1997 along with
other regional economies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (1996)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 10.8%
industry: 27.4%
services: 61.8% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 24.4% (December 1996)

Labor force:
total: 1.436 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: government 25%, manufacturing 19%, agriculture 11%,
commerce 12%, utilities, construction, transport, and communications
12%, other services 21% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3.03 billion
expenditures : $3.37 billion with capital expenditures of $NA (1994
est.)

Industries: meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles,
footwear, leather apparel, tires, cement, petroleum refining, wine

Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (1996)

Electricity - capacity: 2.142 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 6.308 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,568 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, rice, corn, sorghum; livestock; fishing

Exports:
total value : $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: wool and textile manufactures, beef and other animal
products, leather, rice
partners: Brazil, Argentina, US, China, Italy

Imports:
total value: $3.3 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals, minerals,
plastics, oil
partners: Brazil, Argentina, US, Nigeria

Debt - external: $5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $91 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Uruguayan peso ($Ur) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: Uruguayan pesos ($Ur) per US$1 - 8.6550 (January
1997), 7.9718 (1996), 6.3491 (1995), 5.0529 (1994), 3.9484 (1993),
3.0270 (1992)
note: on 1 March 1993 the former new peso (N$Ur) was replaced as
Uruguay's unit of currency by the peso which is equal to 1,000 of the
new pesos

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Uruguay:Communications

Telephones: 451,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: some modern facilities
domestic : most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new
nationwide microwave radio relay network
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 99, FM 0, shortwave 9

Radios: 1.89 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 26

Televisions: 725,000 (1992 est.)

@Uruguay:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,070 km (461 km closed; additional 460 km only partially
operational)
standard gauge: 2,070 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 50,900 km
paved: 6,973 km
unpaved: 43,927 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft

Ports and harbors: Fray Bentos, Montevideo, Nueva Palmira, Paysandu,
Punta del Este

Merchant marine:
total: 2 oil tanker ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 44,042
GRT/83,684 DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 60 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 45
2,438 to 3,047 m : 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 31 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 13 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air Arm, Coast Guard,
Marines), Air Force, Grenadier Guards, Coracero Guard, Police

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 792,365 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 643,137 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $256 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: two short sections of the boundary with
Brazil are in dispute - Arroyo de la Invernada (Arroio Invernada) area
of the Rio Cuareim (Rio Quarai) and the islands at the confluence of
the Rio Cuareim (Rio Quarai) and the Uruguay River
______________________________________________________________________

UZBEKISTAN

@Uzbekistan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, north of Afghanistan

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 64 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan
1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km
note : Uzbekistan borders the Aral Sea (420 km)

Maritime claims: none (doubly landlocked)

Climate: mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters;
semiarid grassland in east

Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat
intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya and Syr
Darya; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and
Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium,
silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops : 1%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: drying up of the Aral Sea is resulting
in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts;
these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed
and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial
wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of
many human health disorders; increasing soil salinization; soil
contamination from agricultural chemicals, including DDT

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: Uzbekistan and Liechtenstein are the only two doubly
landlocked countries in the world

@Uzbekistan:People

Population: 23,467,724 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 39% (male 4,609,766; female 4,474,481)
15-64 years: 57% (male 6,593,525; female 6,703,482)
65 years and over : 4% (male 421,609; female 664,861) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.35% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 24.02 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.63 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 70.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.31 years
male : 60.69 years
female: 68.11 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.92 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Uzbekistani(s)
adjective: Uzbekistani

Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazak 3%, Karakalpak
2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)

Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Languages: Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 96% (1989 est.)

@Uzbekistan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: Uzbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: none
former : Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: UZ

Government type: republic

National capital: Tashkent (Toshkent)

Administrative divisions: 12 wiloyatlar (singular - wiloyat), 1
autonomous republic* (respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahri); Andijon
Wiloyati, Bukhoro Wiloyati, Jizzakh Wiloyati, Farghona Wiloyati,
Qoraqalpoghiston* (Nukus), Qashqadaryo Wiloyati (Qarshi), Khorazm
Wiloyati (Urganch), Namangan Wiloyati, Nawoiy Wiloyati, Samarqand
Wiloyati, Sirdaryo Wiloyati (Guliston), Surkhondaryo Wiloyati
(Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Wiloyati
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 September (1991)

Constitution: new constitution adopted 8 December 1992

Legal system: evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent
judicial system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he
was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)
head of government: Prime Minister Utkur SULTONOV (since December
1995); First Deputy Prime Minister Ismoil JURABEKOV (since NA); First
Deputy Prime Minister for Agriculture Qobiljon OBIDOV (since NA);
Deputy Prime Ministers Viktor CHIZHEN (since NA), Bakhtiyor HAMIDOV
(since NA), Kayim HAQQULOV (since NA), Dilbar GHOLOMOVA (since NA),
Alisher AZIZKHOJAYEV (since NA), Mirabror USMONOV (since NA), Murat
SHARIFKHOJAYEV (since NA), Rustam YUNUSOV (since NA)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval
of the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 29 December 1991 (next to be held NA 2000; note -
extension of President KARIMOV's term for an additional four years
overwhelmingly approved - 99.6% of total vote in favor - by national
referendum held 26 March 1995); prime minister and deputy prime
ministers appointed by the president
election results: Islom KARIMOV elected president; percent of vote -
Islom KARIMOV 86%, Mukhammad SOLIKH 12%, other 2%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis (250
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 25 December 1994 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
People's Democratic Party 207, Fatherland Progress Party 12, other 31;
note - final runoffs were held 22 January 1995; seating was as
follows: People's Democratic Party 69, Fatherland Progress Party 14,
Social Democratic Party 47, local government 120
note: all parties in parliament support President KARIMOV

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are nominated by the president
and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly

Political parties and leaders: People's Democratic Party or PDP
(formerly Communist Party) [Islom A. KARIMOV, chairman]; Fatherland
Progress Party or FPP [Anwar YULDASHEV, chairman]; Social Democratic
Party [Anvar JORABAYEV, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Birlik (Unity) People's
Movement or BPM [Ibrahim BURIYEV, chairman]; Islamic Rebirth Party or
IRP [Abdullah UTAYEV, chairman]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party was
banned 9 December 1992
note: UTAYEV or IRP is either in prison or in exile

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE,
ECO, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol,
IOC, ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sodyk SAFAYEV
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general : New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stanley T. ESCUDERO
embassy: 82 Chilanzarskaya, Tashkent
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone : [7] (3712) 77-14-07, 77-10-81, 77-69-86
FAX: [7] (3712) 40-63-35

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
and green separated by red fimbriations with a crescent moon and 12
stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant

Economy

Economy - overview: Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which
10% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. It was
one of the poorest areas of the former Soviet Union with more than 60%
of its population living in overpopulated rural communities.
Uzbekistan is now the world's third largest cotton exporter, a major
producer of gold and natural gas, and a regionally significant
producer of chemicals and machinery. Following independence in
December 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style
command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and
prices. Faced with high rates of inflation, however, the government
stepped up the pace of reform in mid-1994, by introducing tighter
monetary policies, expanding privatization, slightly reducing the role
of the state in the economy, and improving the environment for foreign
investors. Nevertheless, the state continues to be a dominating
influence in the economy, and reforms have so far failed to bring
about much-needed structural changes. The IMF suspended Uzbekistan's
$185 million standby arrangement in late 1996 because of governmental
steps that made impossible fulfillment of Fund conditions.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $57 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,430 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 29%
industry: 24%
services: 47% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 55% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 8.2 million
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 44%, industry and construction
20%, other 36% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 0.3% includes only officially registered
unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues : $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy,
natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 11.82 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 45.15 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,970 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock

Exports:
total value: $3.2 billion (1996)
commodities: cotton, gold, natural gas, mineral fertilizers, ferrous
metals, textiles, food products, autos
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Eastern Europe, Western Europe

Imports:
total value: $3.2 billion (1996)
commodities : grain, machinery and parts, consumer durables, other
foods
partners: principally other FSU, Czech Republic, Western Europe

Debt - external: $1.285 billion (of which $510 million to Russia)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $71 million (1993)
note: commitments, $2,915 million ($135 million in disbursements)
(1992-95)

Currency: introduced provisional som-coupons 10 November 1993 which
circulated parallel to the Russian rubles; became the sole legal
currency 31 January 1994; was replaced in July 1994 by the som
currency

Exchange rates: Uzbekistani soms (UKS) per US$1 - 51.1 (January 1997),
35.8 (end December 1995), 25 (yearend 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Uzbekistan:Communications

Telephones: 1.458 million (1995 est.)

Telephone system: poorly developed
domestic: NMT-450 analog cellular network established in Tashkent
international: linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS
member states and to other countries by leased connection via the
Moscow international gateway switch; new Intelsat links to Tokyo and
Ankara give Uzbekistan international access independent of Russian
facilities; satellite earth stations - NA Orbita and NA Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA; note - there is
at least one state-owned broadcast station of NA type

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 national, many local

Televisions: NA

@Uzbekistan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,380 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 3,380 km 1.520-m gauge (300 km electrified) (1993)

Highways:
total: 80,000 km
paved : 69,760 km (note - these roads are said to be hard surfaced,
meaning that some are paved and some are all-weather gravel surfaced)
unpaved: 10,240 km dirt (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,100 (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810
km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Termiz (Amu Darya river)

Airports: 261 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 35
over 3,047 m : 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 226
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m : 216 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense, Security Forces
(internal and border troops), National Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 5,833,862 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 4,748,539 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 239,978 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 164 million soms (1993); note -
conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.7% (1993)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivator of cannabis and small
amounts of opium poppy; mostly for domestic consumption; limited
government eradication program; increasingly used as transshipment
point for illicit drugs to Russia and Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

VANUATU

@Vanuatu:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 S, 167 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total : 14,760 sq km
land: 14,760 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes more than 80 islands

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,528 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Tabwemasana 1,877 m

Natural resources: manganese, hardwood forests, fish

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 10%
permanent pastures : 2%
forests and woodland: 75%
other: 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April);
volcanism causes minor earthquakes

Environment - current issues: a majority of the population does not
have access to a potable and reliable supply of water; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

@Vanuatu:People

Population: 181,358 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (male 36,655; female 35,359)
15-64 years: 57% (male 53,506; female 50,508)
65 years and over: 3% (male 2,904; female 2,426) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.12% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 29.87 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.63 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 1.2 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 62.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.56 years
male: 58.65 years
female: 62.58 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.88 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ni-Vanuatu (singular and plural)
adjective: Ni-Vanuatu

Ethnic groups: indigenous Melanesian 94%, French 4%, Vietnamese,
Chinese, Pacific Islanders

Religions: Presbyterian 36.7%, Anglican 15%, Catholic 15%, indigenous
beliefs 7.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.2%, Church of Christ 3.8%, other
15.7%

Languages: English (official), French (official), pidgin (known as
Bislama or Bichelama)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 53%
male: 57%
female: 48% (1979 est.)

@Vanuatu:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Vanuatu
conventional short form: Vanuatu
former: New Hebrides

Data code: NH

Government type: republic

National capital: Port-Vila

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Malampa, Penama, Sanma, Shefa,
Tafea, Torba

Independence: 30 July 1980 (from France and UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 July (1980)

Constitution: 30 July 1980

Legal system: unified system being created from former dual French and
British systems

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jean Marie LEYE (since 2 March 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Rialuth Serge VOHOR (since 30
September 1996); Deputy Prime Minister Donald KALPOKAS (since 25
October 1996)
cabinet : Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister,
responsible to Parliament
elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of
Parliament and the presidents of the regional councils for a five-year
term; election for president last held 2 March 1994 (next to be held
NA 1999); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority
party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by
Parliament from among its members; election for prime minister last
held 30 September 1996 (next to be held NA November 1999); note - the
general legislative elections in November 1995 did not give a majority
to any of the political parties; since the election, there have been
three changes of government - all of which have been coalitions formed
by Parliamentary vote; Rialuth Serge VOHOR was prime minister from
November 1995 until he resigned 7 February 1996 when faced with a
no-confidence vote in Parliament; Maxime Carlot KORMAN was then
elected prime minister and served until he was ousted in a
no-confidence motion on 30 September 1996; VOHOR was then elected
prime minister for a second time
election results: Jean Marie LEYE elected president; percent of
electoral college vote - NA; Serge VOHOR elected prime minister by a
Parliamentary vote of 28 to 22

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (50 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : last held 30 November 1995 (next to be held NA November
1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP
17, VP 14, NUP 9, MPP 5, TU 2, Na-Griamel Movement 1, Friend
Melanesian Party 1, independent 1; note - political party associations
are fluid; there have been three changes of government since the
November 1995 elections
note : the National Council of Chiefs advises on matters of custom and
land

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice is appointed by the
president after consultation with the prime minister and the leader of
the opposition, three other justices are appointed by the president on
the advice of the Judicial Service Commission

Political parties and leaders: Union of Moderate Parties (UMP), Serge
VOHOR; National United Party (NUP), Walter LINI; Vanuatu Party (VP),
Donald KALPOKAS; Melanesian Progressive Party (MPP), Barak SOPE; Tan
Union (TU), Vincent BOULEKONE; Na-Griamel Movement, Frankie STEVENS;
Friend Melanesian Party, Albert RAUUTIA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Vanuatu does not have an embassy
in the US

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Vanuatu; the ambassador to Papua New Guinea is accredited to
Vanuatu

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green
with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all
separated by a black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal
Y (the two points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the
triangle); centered in the triangle is a boar's tusk encircling two
crossed namele leaves, all in yellow

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based primarily on subsistence or
small-scale agriculture which provides a living for 65% of the
population. Fishing and tourism are the other mainstays of the
economy, with 43,000 visitors in 1992. Mineral deposits are
negligible; the country has no known petroleum deposits. A small light
industry sector caters to the local market. Tax revenues come mainly
from import duties. Economic development is hindered by dependence on
relatively few commodity exports, vulnerability to natural disasters,
and long distances from main markets and between constituent islands.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $219 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1995)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,230 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 25%
industry: 9%
services: 66%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 66,597 (1989 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 65%, services 32%, industry 3% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $74.8 million
expenditures: $76.1 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Industries: food and fish freezing, wood processing, meat canning

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (1993 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 11,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 30 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: copra, coconuts, cocoa, coffee, taro, yams,
coconuts, fruits, vegetables; fish, beef

Exports:
total value: $28 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: copra, beef, cocoa, timber, coffee
partners : EU 32%, Japan 29%, Australia 11%, New Caledonia 7% (1993)

Imports:
total value: $93 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: machines and vehicles, food and beverages, basic
manufactures, raw materials and fuels, chemicals
partners: Australia 41%, France 15%, NZ 11%, Japan 9%, Fiji 6% (1992)

Debt - external: $38.2 million (yearend 1993)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $9.6 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.); $3.1
million from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 vatu (VT) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: vatu (VT) per US$1 - 112.36 (January 1997), 111.72
(1996), 112.11 (1995), 116.41 (1994), 121.58 (1993), 113.39 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Vanuatu:Communications

Telephones: 3,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 2,000 (1992 est.)

@Vanuatu:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 1,050 km
paved: 250 km
unpaved: 800 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Forari, Port-Vila, Santo (Espiritu Santo)

Merchant marine:
total : 100 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,451,548 GRT/1,945,514
DWT
ships by type: bulk 32, cargo 30, chemical tanker 2, combination bulk
1, container 2, liquefied gas tanker 5, oil tanker 7, refrigerated
cargo 13, vehicle carrier 8
note : a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 17
countries among which are Japan 31, India 10, Greece 7, Netherlands 7,
US 7, Hong Kong 6, Canada 4, France 4, Australia 2, and Singapore 2
(1996 est.)

Airports: 30 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 19
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 17 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 10 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Vanuatu Police Force
(VPF; includes the paramilitary Vanuatu Mobile Force or VMF)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims Matthew and Hunter Islands east of
New Caledonia
______________________________________________________________________

VENEZUELA

@Venezuela:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the
North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 66 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 912,050 sq km
land: 882,050 sq km
water: 30,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total: 4,993 km
border countries: Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km

Coastline: 2,800 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 15 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central
plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point : Pico Bolivar (La Columna) 5,007 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite,
other minerals, hydropower, diamonds

Land use:
arable land : 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures : 20%
forests and woodland: 34%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,900 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: subject to floods, rockslides, mud slides; periodic
droughts

Environment - current issues: sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia;
oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil
degradation; urban and industrial pollution, especially along the
Caribbean coast

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Tropical
Timber 94

Geography - note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South
America

@Venezuela:People

Population: 22,396,407 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 34% (male 3,964,886; female 3,720,984)
15-64 years: 61% (male 6,877,890; female 6,838,799)
65 years and over: 5% (male 456,182; female 537,666) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.83% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23.67 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.03 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 72.37 years
male: 69.4 years
female : 75.58 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.78 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Venezuelan(s)
adjective: Venezuelan

Ethnic groups: mestizo 67%, white 21%, black 10%, Amerindian 2%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%

Languages: Spanish (official), native dialects spoken by about 200,000
Amerindians in the remote interior

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.1%
male: 91.8%
female: 90.3% (1995 est.)

@Venezuela:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Venezuela
conventional short form: Venezuela
local long form: Republica de Venezuela
local short form : Venezuela

Data code: VE

Government type: republic

National capital: Caracas

Administrative divisions: 22 states (estados, singular - estado),1
federal district* (distrito federal), and 1 federal dependency**
(dependencia federal); Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas,
Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales**,
Distrito Federal*, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas,
Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia
note: the federal dependency consists of 11 federally controlled
island groups with a total of 72 individual islands

Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811)

Constitution: 23 January 1961

Legal system: based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of legislative
acts in Cassation Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Rafael CALDERA Rodriguez (since 2 February
1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Rafael CALDERA Rodriguez (since 2
February 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and
head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1998)
election results : Rafael CALDERA Rodriguez elected president; percent
of vote - Rafael CALDERA Rodriguez (National Convergence) 30.45%,
Claudio FERMIN (AD) 23.59%, Oswaldo ALVAREZ PAZ (COPEI) 22.72%, Andres
VELASQUEZ (Causa R) 21.94%, other 1.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de
la Republica consists of the Senate or Senado (53 seats, two from each
state and the Federal District, and retired presidents; members are
elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of
Deputies or Camara de Diputados (203 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held NA
December 1998); Chamber of Deputies - last held 5 December 1993 (next
to be held NA December 1998)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - AD 18, COPEI 15, Causa R 9, MAS 5, National Convergence 6;
note - three former presidents (2 from AD, 1 from COPEI) hold lifetime
Senate seats; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - AD
27.9%, COPEI 26.9%, MAS 12.4%, National Convergence 12.9%, Causa R
19.9%; seats by party - AD 55, COPEI 53, MAS 24, National Convergence
26, Causa R 40, other 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia),
magistrates are elected by both chambers in joint session

Political parties and leaders: National Convergence (Convergencia),
Jose Miguel UZCATEGUI, president, Juan Jose CALDERA, national
coordinator; Social Christian Party (COPEI), Luis HERRERA Campins,
president, and Donald RAMIREZ, secretary general; Democratic Action
(AD), Pedro PARIS Montesinos, president, and Luis ALFARO Ucero,
secretary general; Movement Toward Socialism (MAS), Gustavo MARQUEZ,
president, and Enrique OCHOA Antich, secretary general; Radical Cause
(La Causa R), Lucas MATHEUS, secretary general

Political pressure groups and leaders: FEDECAMARAS, a conservative
business group; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers (CTV, labor
organization dominated by the Democratic Action); VECINOS groups

International organization participation: AG, BCIE, Caricom
(observer), CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G- 3, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, MINURSO,
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pedro Luis ECHEVERRIA
chancery: 1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone : [1] (202) 342-2214
FAX: [1] (202) 342-6820
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans,
New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador John Francis MAISTO
embassy: Calle F con Calle Suapure, Colinas de Valle Arriba, Caracas
1060
mailing address: P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A; APO AA 34037
telephone: [58] (2) 977-2011
FAX: [58] (2) 977-0843

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue,
and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and
an arc of seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

Economy

Economy - overview: The petroleum sector dominates the economy,
accounting for roughly 25% of GDP, 70% of export earnings, and 50% of
central government revenues. It is likely to become even more
important as the state petroleum company plans to double its
production over the next ten years. The non-petroleum sectors have
been contracting, however, with GDP shrinking by 1.6% during 1996.
Realizing the failure of interventionist policies, the CALDERA
administration embarked on a comprehensive reform program and
successfully negotiated a $1.4 billion stand-by agreement with the
IMF. The state eliminated price and exchange controls, reduced the
long-standing subsidy on gasoline, and revitalized its stalled
privatization program. Foreign investors reacted positively and the
Caracas stock exchange ended 1996 as the world's best performing stock
market. The influx of foreign investment and a windfall of oil
revenues resulting from higher-than-expected international oil prices
raised Venezuela's reserves to over $15 billion. As a result,
Venezuela used only the first tranche of the IMF credit - $400
million. The currency depreciated sharply following the exchange
liberalization, and caused an inflationary burst that led to a 103%
yearly rate of inflation, the highest in Venezuelan history. The
bolivar has since strengthened and inflation fell near the end of the
year. The macroeconomic adjustments should take hold in 1997, and the
economy is expected to grow by 4% or more. Increased salary demands by
public and private sector workers, however, threaten a renewal of
inflationary pressures.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $197 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1.6% (1996)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $9,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 41%
services: 54% (1993)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 103% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 8.8 million
by occupation : services 64%, industry 23%, agriculture 13% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 13% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $11.99 billion
expenditures : $11.48 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.3
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, iron ore mining, construction materials, food
processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly

Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 18.966 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 74.886 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,887 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas,
vegetables, coffee; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish

Exports:
total value : $22.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum 72%, bauxite and aluminum, steel, chemicals,
agricultural products, basic manufactures
partners: US and Puerto Rico 55%, Japan, Netherlands, Italy

Imports:
total value : $10.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport
equipment, construction materials
partners: US 40%, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Canada

Debt - external: $26.5 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $46 million (1993)

Currency: 1 bolivar (Bs) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: bolivares (Bs) per US$1 - 476.840 (January 1997),
417.333 (1996), 176.843 (1995), 148.503 (1994), 90.826 (1993), 68.376
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Venezuela:Communications

Telephones: 1.44 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern and expanding
domestic: domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations
international: 3 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 181, FM 0, shortwave 26

Radios: 9.04 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 59

Televisions: 3.3 million (1992 est.)

@Venezuela:Transportation

Railways:
total : 584 km (336 km single track; 248 km privately owned)
standard gauge: 584 km 1.435-m gauge

Highways:
total: 82,700 km
paved: 32,501 km
unpaved: 50,199 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept
oceangoing vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 6,370 km; petroleum products 480 km; natural gas
4,010 km

Ports and harbors: Amuay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La Guaira, La
Salina, Maracaibo, Matanzas, Palua, Puerto Cabello, Puerto la Cruz,
Puerto Ordaz, Puerto Sucre, Punta Cardon

Merchant marine:
total: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 525,123 GRT/933,016 DWT
ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 7, combination bulk 1, container 1,
liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 9, passenger-cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 360 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 261
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 35

Book of the day: