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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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TUVALU

@Tuvalu:Geography

Location: Oceania, island group consisting of nine coral atolls in the
South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 S, 178 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total : 26 sq km
land: 26 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 24 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to
November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

Terrain: very low-lying and narrow coral atolls

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other : 100% (1993 est.)
note: Tuvalu's nine coral atolls have enough soil to grow coconuts and
support subsistence agriculture

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: severe tropical storms are rare

Environment - current issues: since there are no streams or rivers and
groundwater is not potable, all water needs must be met by catchment
systems with storage facilities; beachhead erosion because of the use
of sand for building materials; excessive clearance of forest
undergrowth for use as fuel; damage to coral reefs from the spread of
the crown of thorns starfish

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

@Tuvalu:People

Population: 10,297 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 1,871; female 1,803)
15-64 years : 59% (male 2,903; female 3,226)
65 years and over: 5% (male 229; female 265) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.45% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23.31 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.84 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 26.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.61 years
male: 62.44 years
female : 64.84 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.11 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Tuvaluan(s)
adjective: Tuvaluan

Ethnic groups: Polynesian 96%

Religions: Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day
Adventist 1.4%, Baha'i 1%, other 0.6%

Languages: Tuvaluan, English

Literacy: NA; note - education is free and compulsory from ages 6
through 13

@Tuvalu:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Tuvalu
former: Ellice Islands

Data code: TV

Government type: democracy; began debating republic status in 1992

National capital: Funafuti

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 1 October 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1978)

Constitution: 1 October 1978

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Manuella TULAGA (since NA June 1994)
head of government : Prime Minister Bikenibeu PAENIU (since 23
December 1996) and Deputy Prime Minister Ionatana IONATANA (since 23
December 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen on the recommendation of the prime minister;
prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from the
members of Parliament; election last held NA December 1996 (next to be
held by NA 1997)
election results: Bikenibeu PAENIU elected prime minister; percent of
Parliament vote - NA; Ionatana IONATANA elected deputy prime minister;
percent of Parliament vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Fale I Fono (12 seats -
two from each island with more than 1,000 inhabitants, one from all
the other inhabited islands; members elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 25 November 1993 (next to be held by NA 1997)
election results : percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 12

Judicial branch: High Court; note - a chief justice visits twice a
year to preside over sessions of the High Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: AsDB, C (special), ESCAP,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU,
WHO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Tuvalu does not have an embassy
in the US

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Tuvalu; the US ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tuvalu

Flag description: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant; the outer half of the flag represents a map of
the country with nine yellow five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine
islands

Economy

Economy - overview: Tuvalu consists of a densely populated, scattered
group of nine coral atolls with poor soil. The country has no known
mineral resources and few exports. Subsistence farming and fishing are
the primary economic activities. The islands are too small and too
remote for development of a large-scale tourist industry. Government
revenues largely come from the sale of stamps and coins and worker
remittances. About 1,000 Tuvaluans work in Nauru in the phosphate
mining industry. Nauru has begun repatriating Tuvaluans, however, as
phosphate resources decline, which will present additional problems
for Tuvalu's already stretched economy. Substantial income is received
annually from an international trust fund established in 1987 by
Australia, NZ, and the UK and supported also by Japan and South Korea.
In an effort to reduce its dependence on foreign aid, the government
is pursuing public sector reforms, including privatization of some
government functions and personnel cuts of up to 7%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.8 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8.7% (1995)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.9% (1989)

Labor force: NA
by occupation : NA
note: people make a living mainly through exploitation of the sea,
reefs, and atolls and from wages sent home by those working abroad
(mostly workers in the phosphate industry and sailors)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $4.3 million
expenditures: $4.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1989 est.)

Industries: fishing, tourism, copra

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 2,600 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 3 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: coconuts; fish

Exports:
total value: $165,000 (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: copra
partners: Fiji, Australia, NZ

Imports:
total value: $4.4 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities : food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured
goods
partners: Fiji, Australia, NZ

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $1.725 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.); $1.7
million from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 Tuvaluan dollar ($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100
cents

Exchange rates: Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A) per
US$1 - 1.2835 (January 1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667
(1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Tuvalu:Communications

Telephones: 130 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 4,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA

@Tuvalu:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 8 km (1995 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Funafuti, Nukufetau

Merchant marine:
total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 49,488 GRT/80,968 DWT
ships by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 1,
passenger-cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Police Force (consists
of full-time personnel 45, part-time personnel 16)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

UGANDA

@Uganda:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, west of Kenya

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 32 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 236,040 sq km
land: 199,710 sq km
water: 36,330 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 2,698 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933
km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to
February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, limestone, salt

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops : 9%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 28%
other: 29% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 90 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: draining of wetlands for agricultural
use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching is widespread

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Desertification, Environmental Modification

Geography - note: landlocked

@Uganda:People

Population: 20,604,874 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 50% (male 5,126,249; female 5,092,583)
15-64 years : 48% (male 4,948,859; female 4,963,718)
65 years and over: 2% (male 234,351; female 239,114) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.14% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 45.08 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 20.98 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)
note : Uganda is host to refugees from a number of neighboring
countries, including Sudan, Rwanda, and Democratic Republic of the
Congo, formerly Zaire; probably in excess of 100,000 southern Sudanese
fled to Uganda during the past year; many of the 10,000 Rwandans who
took refuge in Uganda have returned home

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 98.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 39.69 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 40.1 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.52 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan

Ethnic groups: Baganda 17%, Karamojong 12%, Basogo 8%, Iteso 8%, Langi
6%, Rwanda 6%, Bagisu 5%, Acholi 4%, Lugbara 4%, Bunyoro 3%, Batobo
3%, non-African (European, Asian, Arab) 1%, other 23%

Religions: Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous
beliefs 18%

Languages: English (official), Luganda, Swahili, Bantu languages,
Nilotic languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.8%
male: 73.7%
female: 50.2% (1995 est.)

@Uganda:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda

Data code: UG

Government type: republic

National capital: Kampala

Administrative divisions: 39 districts; Apac, Arua, Bundibugyo,
Bushenyi, Gulu, Hoima, Iganga, Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole, Kalangala,
Kampala, Kamuli, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Kibale, Kiboga, Kisoro, Kitgum,
Kotido, Kumi, Lira, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mbale, Mbarara, Moroto,
Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Pallisa, Rakai,
Rukungiri, Soroti, Tororo

Independence: 9 October 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

Constitution: 8 October 1995; adopted by the interim, 284-member
Constituent Assembly, charged with debating the draft constitution
that had been proposed in May 1993; the Constituent Assembly was
dissolved on promulgation of the constitution in October 1995

Legal system: in 1995, the government restored the legal system to one
based on English common law and customary law and reinstituted a
normal judicial system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since
seizing power 29 January 1986); note - the president is both chief of
state and head of government
head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since
seizing power 29 January 1986); Prime Minister Kintu MUSOKE (since 18
November 1994) note - the president is both chief of state and head of
government; the prime minister assists the president in the
supervision of the cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected
legislators
elections: president elected by popular vote; election last held 9 May
1996 (next to be held by 31 May 2001); note - first popular election
for president since independence in 1962; prime minister appointed by
the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president;
percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 74%, Paul Kawanga
SSEMOGERERE 24%, Muhammad MAYANJA 2%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (276 members serve
five-year terms; 214 directly elected by universal suffrage, but 62
are nominated by legally established special interest groups and
approved by the president - women 39, army 10, disabled 5, youth 5,
labor 3)
elections: elections to the National Assembly (formerly the National
Resistance Council) took place on 27 June 1996 (next election to be
held in 2001);
election results: NA; note - election campaigning by party was not
permitted

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal; High Court

Political parties and leaders: only one political organization, the
National Resistance Movement or NRM [Dr. Samson KISEKKA, chairman] is
recognized; note - this is the party of President MUSEVENI; the
president maintains that the NRM is not a political party, but a
movement which claims the loyalty of all Ugandans
note: of the political parties which exist but are prohibited from
sponsoring candidates, the most important are the Ugandan People's
Congress or UPC [Milton OBOTE], Democratic Party or DP [Paul
SSEMOGERERE], and Conservative Party or CP [Joshua S. MAYANJA-NKANGI];
the new constitution confirms the suspension of political party
activity until 2000

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB,
ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edith Grace SSEMPALA
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador E. Michael SOUTHWICK
embassy : Parliament Avenue, Kampala
mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (41) 259792, 259793, 259795
FAX: [256] (41) 259794

Flag description: six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow,
red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the
center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing
the hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: Uganda has substantial natural resources,
including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral
deposits of copper and cobalt. Agriculture is the most important
sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is
the major export crop and accounts for the bulk of export revenues.
Since 1986 the government - with the support of foreign countries and
international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the
economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on
export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving
civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at
dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. In
1990-94, the economy turned in a solid performance based on continued
investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved
incentives for production and exports, and gradually improving
domestic security. The economy again prospered in 1995 with rapid
growth, low inflation, growing foreign investment, a trimmed
bureaucracy, and the continued return of exiled Indian-Ugandan
entrepreneurs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $16.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.1% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $900 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 55%
industry : 12%
services: 33% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.3% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 8.361 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 86%, industry 4%, services 10% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $766.5 million
expenditures : $894.3 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY94/95 est.)

Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement

Industrial production growth rate: 15% (1994)

Electricity - capacity: 155,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 611 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 31 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava
(tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; beef, goat meat, milk,
poultry

Exports:
total value: $555 million (f.o.b., FY94/95)
commodities : gold, cotton, coffee, tea, corn, fish
partners: Spain 23%, France 14%, Germany 14%, Italy 10%, Netherlands
8%

Imports:
total value: $1.18 billion (c.i.f., FY94/95)
commodities: petroleum products, machinery, metals, transportation
equipment, cotton piece goods, food
partners: Kenya 26%, UK 12%, Japan 8%, Germany 8%, India 5.5%

Debt - external: $3.4 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1 - 1,030.3 (December
1996), 1,046.1 (1996), 968.9 (1995), 979.4 (1994), 1,195.0 (1993),
1,133.8 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Uganda:Communications

Telephones: 54,900 (1989 est.)

Telephone system: fair system
domestic: microwave radio relay and radiotelephone communications
stations
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.04 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 193,000 (1992 est.)

@Uganda:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,241 km
narrow gauge: 1,241 km 1.000-m gauge
note : a program to rehabilitate the railroad is underway (1995)

Highways:
total: 27,000 km
paved: 1,800 km
unpaved: 25,200 km (of which about 4,800 km are all-weather roads)
(1990 est.)

Waterways: Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake
Edward; Victoria Nile, Albert Nile

Ports and harbors: Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell

Merchant marine:
total: 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
5,091 GRT/5,943 DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 21 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m : 1
under 914 m: 7 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Wing

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 4,466,851 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 2,423,556 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $56 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.7% (FY93/94)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

UKRAINE

@Ukraine:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland and
Russia

Geographic coordinates: 49 00 N, 32 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 603,700 sq km
land: 603,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 4,558 km
border countries: Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km,
Poland 428 km, Romania (southwest) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km,
Russia 1,576 km, Slovakia 90 km

Coastline: 2,782 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern
Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest
in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from
cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm
across the greater part of the country, hot in the south

Terrain: most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and
plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians),
and in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt,
sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber

Land use:
arable land: 58%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures : 13%
forests and woodland: 18%
other: 9% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 26,050 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the
northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Environmental
Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: strategic position at the crossroads between Europe
and Asia; second-largest country in Europe

@Ukraine:People

Population: 50,447,719 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 5,000,518; female 4,802,193)
15-64 years: 67% (male 16,087,147; female 17,429,313)
65 years and over: 14% (male 2,308,354; female 4,820,194) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: -0.65% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 9.55 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 16.26 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.48 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.77 years
male: 59.93 years
female: 71.91 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.36 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ukrainian(s)
adjective: Ukrainian

Ethnic groups: Ukrainian 73%, Russian 22%, Jewish 1%, other 4%

Religions: Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate, Ukrainian
Orthodox - Kiev Patriarchate, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox,
Ukrainian Catholic (Uniate), Protestant, Jewish

Languages: Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 100%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

@Ukraine:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ukraine
local long form: none
local short form: Ukrayina
former: Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: UP

Government type: republic

National capital: Kiev (Kyyiv)

Administrative divisions: 24 oblasti (singular - oblast'), 1
autonomous republic* (avtomnaya respublika), and 2 municipalities
(mista, singular - misto) with oblast status**; Cherkas'ka (Cherkasy),
Chernihivs'ka (Chernihiv), Chernivets'ka (Chernivtsi),
Dnipropetrovs'ka (Dnipropetrovs'k), Donets'ka (Donets'k),
Ivano-Frankivs'ka (Ivano-Frankivs'k), Kharkivs'ka (Kharkiv),
Khersons'ka (Kherson), Khmel'nyts'ka (Khmel'nyts'kyy), Kirovohrads'ka
(Kirovohrad), Kyyiv**, Kyyivs'ka (Kiev), Luhans'ka (Luhans'k),
L'vivs'ka (L'viv), Mykolayivs'ka (Mykolayiv), Odes'ka (Odesa),
Poltavs'ka (Poltava), Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol'),
Rivnens'ka (Rivne), Sevastopol'**, Sums'ka (Sumy), Ternopil's'ka
(Ternopil'), Vinnyts'ka (Vinnytsya), Volyns'ka (Luts'k), Zakarpats'ka
(Uzhhorod), Zaporiz'ka (Zaporizhzhya), Zhytomyrs'ka (Zhytomyr)
note: oblasts have the administrative center name following in
parentheses

Independence: 1 December 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 August (1991)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1996

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Leonid D. KUCHMA (since 19 July 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Pavlo LAZARENKO (since NA May
1996), First Deputy Prime Minister Vasyl DURDYNETS (since NA July
1996), and three deputy prime ministers
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and approved
by the Supreme Council
note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC
originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council, but
significantly revamped and strengthened under President KUCHMA; the
NSDC includes the president, prime minister, ministers of defense,
internal affairs, foreign relations, and chairman of the security
service; the NSC staff is tasked with developing national security
policy on domestic and international matters and advising the
president; a Presidential Administration that helps draft presidential
edicts and provides policy support to the president; and a Council of
Regions that serves as an advisory body created by President KUCHMA in
September 1994 that includes the Kiev and Sevastopol City Supreme
Councils and the chairmen of Oblast
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 26 June and 10 July 1994 (next to be held NA 1999);
prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
and approved by the Supreme Council
election results: Leonid D. KUCHMA elected president; percent of vote
- Leonid KUCHMA 52.15%, Leonid KRAVCHUK 45.06%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450
seats; members are elected by popular vote from one-member districts
by complex procedures to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 27 March 1994 with repeat elections continuing
through December 1998 to fill empty seats (next to be held NA March
1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Communists 91, Rukh 22, Agrarians 18, Socialists 15, Republicans 11,
Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists 5, Labor 5, Party of Democratic
Revival 4, Democrats 2, Social Democrats 2, Civil Congress 2,
Conservative Republicans 1, Party of Economic Revival of Crimea 1,
Christian Democrats 1, independents 225; note - most recent repeat
election held in April 1996 filling 422 of 450 seats as follows:
independents 238, Communist 95, Rukh 22, Agrarians 18, Socialist 15,
Republicans 11, Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists 5, Labor 5, Party
of Democratic Revival 4, Democratic Party of Ukraine 2, Social
Democrats 2, Civil Congress 2, Conservative Republicans 1, Party of
Economic Revival of Crimea 1, Christian Democrats 1, vacant 28 (in
February 1997 there were 35 vacant seats)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Green Party of Ukraine [Vitaliy
KONONOV, leader]; Liberal Party of Ukraine; Liberal Democratic Party
of Ukraine [Volodymyr KLYMCHUK, chairman]; Democratic Party of Ukraine
[Volodymyr Oleksandrovych YAVORIVSKIY, chairman]; People's Party of
Ukraine; Peasants' Party of Ukraine; Party of Democratic Rebirth or
Revival of Ukraine [Volodymyr FILENKO, chairman]; Social Democratic
Party of Ukraine [Vasyl ONOPENKO, chairman]; Socialist Party of
Ukraine [Oleksandr MOROZ, chairman]; Ukrainian Christian Democratic
Party [Vitaliy ZHURAVSKYY, chairman]; Ukrainian Conservative
Republican Party [Stepan KHMARA, chairman]; Ukrainian Labor Party
[Valentyn LANDYK, chairman]; Ukrainian Party of Justice [Yuriy ZUBKO,
chairman]; Ukrainian Peasants' Democratic Party [Serhiy PLACHINDA,
chairman]; Ukrainian Republican Party [Bondan YAROSHPSKYY, chairman];
Ukrainian National Conservative Party; Ukrainian People's Movement for
Restructuring or Rukh [Vyacheslav CHORNOVIL, chairman]; Ukrainian
Communist Party [Petr SYMONENKO]; Agrarian Party; Congress of
Ukrainian Nationalists [Slava STESTKO]; Civil Congress [O. BAZYLUK];
Party of Economic Revival of Crimea; Progressive Socialist Party of
Ukraine [Nataliya VITRENKO and Volodymyr MARCHENKO, leaders]; People's
Democratic Party [Anatoliy MATVIYENKO, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: New Ukraine (Nova Ukrayina);
Congress of National Democratic Forces

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CIS,
EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, NACC, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Yuriy Mikolayevych SHCHERBAK
chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-0606
FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817
consulate(s) general : Chicago and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William Green MILLER
embassy: 10 Yuria Kotsyubinskovo, 254053 Kiev 53
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [380] (44) 244-7345
FAX: [380] (44) 244-7350

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden
yellow represent grainfields under a blue sky

Economy

Economy - overview: After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was far and
away the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union,
producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic.
Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet
agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of
meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its
diversified heavy industry supplied equipment and raw materials to
industrial and mining sites in other regions of the former USSR.
Shortly after the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, the
Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal
framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform
within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts
and led to some backtracking. Output in 1992-96 fell precipitously to
less than half the 1991 level. Loose monetary policies pushed
inflation to hyperinflationary levels in late 1993. Since his election
in July 1994, President KUCHMA has pushed a comprehensive economic
reform program, maintained financial discipline, and tried to remove
almost all remaining controls over prices and foreign trade.
Implementation of KUCHMA's economic agenda is encountering
considerable resistance from parliament, entrenched bureaucrats, and
industrial interests. However, if KUCHMA succeeds in implementing
aggressive market reforms during 1997, the economy should reverse its
downward trend, with real growth occurring by late 1997 and into 1998.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $161.1 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: -10% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,170 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 14%
industry: 45%
services: 41% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 40% (yearend 1996)

Labor force:
total: 23 million (January 1996)
by occupation: industry and construction 33%, agriculture and forestry
21%, health, education, and culture 16%, trade and distribution 7%,
transport and communication 7%, other 16% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 1% officially registered; large number of
unregistered or underemployed workers (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals,
machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food-processing
(especially sugar)

Industrial production growth rate: -5.1% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 54.24 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 181 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 3,487 kWh (1996)

Agriculture - products: grain, sugar beets, vegetables; meat, milk

Exports:
total value : $18.6 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals,
chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, grain, meat
partners: Russia, Belarus, US, Germany, China (1995)

Imports:
total value : $19.4 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: energy, machinery and parts, transportation equipment,
chemicals, textiles
partners: Russia, Turkmenistan, Belarus, Germany, Switzerland

Debt - external: $8.8 billion (including $4.5 billion to Russia) (late
1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $220 million (1993)
note : commitments, 1992-95, $4.5 billion ($4.1 billion drawn)

Currency: on 2 September 1996, Ukraine introduced the long-awaited
hryvnia (plural hryvni) as its national currency, replacing the
karbovanets (in circulation since 12 November 1992) at a rate of
100,000 karbovantsi to 1 hryvnia

Exchange rates: hryvnia per US$1 - 1.8592 (November 1996), 1.4731
(1995), 0.3275 (1994), 0.0453 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Ukraine:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: system is unsatisfactory both for business and for
personal use; 3.56 million applications for telephones had not been
satisfied as of January 1991; electronic mail services have been
established in Kiev, Odessa, and Luhans'k by Sprint
domestic: an NMT-450 analog cellular telephone network operates in
Kiev (Kyyiv) and allows direct dialing of international calls through
Kiev's digital exchange
international: calls to other CIS countries are carried by landline or
microwave radio relay; calls to 167 other countries are carried by
satellite or by the 150 leased lines through the Moscow international
gateway switch; satellite earth stations - NA Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat
(Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions), and NA Intersputnik

Radio broadcast stations: 2 radio broadcast stations of NA type

Radios: 15 million (1990)

Television broadcast stations: at least 2

Televisions: 17.3 million (1992)

@Ukraine:Transportation

Railways:
total : 23,350 km
broad gauge: 23,350 km 1.524-m gauge (8,600 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 172,257 km
paved: 163,300 km (including 1,875 km of expressways); note - these
roads are said to be hard-surfaced, meaning that some are paved and
some are all-weather gravel surfaced
unpaved: 8,957 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 4,400 km navigable waterways, of which 1,672 km were on the
Pryp''yat' and Dnistr (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,010 km; petroleum products 1,920 km; natural
gas 7,800 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Berdyans'k, Illichivs'k, Izmayil, Kerch, Kherson,
Kiev (Kyyiv), Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Reni

Merchant marine:
total : 301 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,507,463 GRT/3,156,522
DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 5, bulk 21, cargo 192, chemical tanker 2,
combination bulk 1, container 10, multifunction large-load carrier 3,
oil tanker 23, passenger 7, passenger-cargo 4, railcar carrier 2,
refrigerated cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 20, short-sea passenger 6
note : Ukraine owns an additional 61 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 1,283,735 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas,
Cyprus, Liberia, Malta, Panama, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
(1996 est.)

Airports: 706 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 163
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 55
1,524 to 2,437 m : 34
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m : 57 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 543
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m : 16
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 476 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Internal
Troops, National Guard, Border Troops

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 12,408,912 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 9,720,351 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 366,086 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 1.35 billion hryvni (Ukrainian
Government's forecast for 1996); note - conversion of defense
expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could
produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: less than 2% (Ukrainian
Government's forecast for 1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Romania over continental shelf
of the Black Sea under which significant gas and oil deposits may
exist; agreed to two-year negotiating period, after which either party
can refer dispute to the International Court of Justice; potential
dispute with Russia over Crimea; has made no territorial claim in
Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not
recognize the claims of any other nation

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly
for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; used as
transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs to Western
Europe and Russia
______________________________________________________________________

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

@United Arab Emirates:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian
Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 54 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 82,880 sq km
land: 82,880 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
total: 867 km
border countries: Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 457 km

Coastline: 1,318 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; cooler in eastern mountains

Terrain: flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of
vast desert wasteland; mountains in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Jabal Yibir 1,527 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland : 0%
other: 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 50 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms

Environment - current issues: lack of natural freshwater resources
being overcome by desalination plants; desertification; beach
pollution from oil spills

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified : Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: strategic location along southern approaches to
Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

@United Arab Emirates:People

Population: 2,262,309 (July 1997 est.)
note: includes 1,546,547 non-nationals (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 32% (male 375,709; female 360,199)
15-64 years: 66% (male 975,868; female 511,692)
65 years and over: 2% (male 25,869; female 12,972) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.79% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 18.46 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 3.01 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 1.99 male(s)/female
total population: 1.56 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 15.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 74.64 years
male: 73.18 years
female : 76.17 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.62 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Emiri(s)
adjective: Emiri

Ethnic groups: Emiri 19%, other Arab and Iranian 23%, South Asian 50%,
other expatriates (includes Westerners and East Asians) 8% (1982)
note: less than 20% are UAE citizens (1982)

Religions: Muslim 96% (Shi'a 16%), Christian, Hindu, and other 4%

Languages: Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write but definition of
literacy not available
total population: 79.2%
male : 78.9%
female: 79.8% (1995 est.)

@United Arab Emirates:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : United Arab Emirates
conventional short form: none
local long form: Al Imarat al Arabiyah al Muttahidah
local short form: none
former: Trucial States
abbreviation : UAE

Data code: TC

Government type: federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE
federal government and other powers reserved to member emirates

National capital: Abu Dhabi

Administrative divisions: 7 emirates (imarat, singular - imarah); Abu
Zaby (Abu Dhabi), 'Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah (Sharjah), Dubayy
(Dubai), Ra's al Khaymah, Umm al Qaywayn

Independence: 2 December 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 2 December (1971)

Constitution: 2 December 1971 (made permanent in 1996)

Legal system: federal court system introduced in 1971; all emirates
except Dubayy (Dubai) and Ras al Khaymah have joined the federal
system; all emirates have secular and Islamic law for civil, criminal,
and high courts

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: President ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan (since 2
December 1971), ruler of Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) (since 6 August 1966)
and Vice President MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum (since 8 October 1990),
ruler of Dubayy (Dubai)
head of government: Prime Minister MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum (since
8 October 1990), ruler of Dubayy (Dubai) and Deputy Prime Minister
SULTAN bin Zayid Al Nuhayyan (since 20 November 1990)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
note : there is also a Supreme Council of Rulers which is composed of
the seven emirate rulers; the council is the highest constitutional
authority in the UAE; establishes general policies and sanctions
federal legislation, Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) and Dubayy (Dubai) rulers
have effective veto power; meets four times a year
elections : president and vice president elected by the Supreme
Council of Rulers (a group of seven electors) for five-year terms;
election last held NA October 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); prime
minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president
election results: ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan reelected president;
percent of Supreme Council of Rulers vote - NA, but believed to be
unanimous; MAKTUM bin Rashid al-Maktum elected vice president; percent
of Supreme Council of Rulers vote - NA, but believed to be unanimous

Legislative branch: unicameral Federal National Council or Majlis
al-Ittihad al-Watani (40 seats; members appointed by the rulers of the
constituent states to serve two-year terms)
elections: none
note: reviews legislation, but cannot change or veto

Judicial branch: Union Supreme Court, judges appointed by the
president

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad bin Husayn al-SHAALI
chancery: Suite 600, 3000 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 338-6500

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David C. LITT
embassy: Al-Sudan Street, Abu Dhabi
mailing address: P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi; American Embassy Abu
Dhabi, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-6010 (pouch); note -
work week is Saturday through Wednesday
telephone: [971] (2) 436691, 436692
FAX: [971] (2) 435441
consulate(s) general: Dubai

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and black with a thicker vertical red band on the hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: The UAE has an open economy with one of the
world's highest incomes per capita and with a sizable annual trade
surplus. Its wealth is based on oil and gas output (about 33% of GDP),
and the fortunes of the economy fluctuate with the prices of those
commodities. Since 1973, the UAE has undergone a profound
transformation from an impoverished region of small desert
principalities to a modern state with a high standard of living. At
present levels of production, crude oil reserves should last for over
100 years. The UAE Government is encouraging increased privatization
within the economy, and industrial development is expected to pick up
in 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $72.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 43%
services : 55% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5.2% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 794,400 (1993 est.)
by occupation: industry and commerce 56%, services 38%, agriculture 6%
(1990 est.)
note: 75.73% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $5.1 billion
expenditures: $5.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction
materials, some boat building, handicrafts, pearling

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 5.29 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 17.74 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 5,724 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: dates, vegetables, watermelons; poultry, eggs,
dairy products; fish

Exports:
total value: $31.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: crude oil 66%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish, dates
partners: Japan 38%, India 6%, South Korea 6%, Singapore 5%, Iran 4%,
Oman 4% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $22.3 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment,
food
partners : Japan 9%, US 8%, UK 8%, Italy 7%, Germany 7%, South Korea
5% (1995)

Debt - external: $14 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Emirian dirham (Dh) = 100 fils

Exchange rates: Emirian dirhams (Dh) per US$1 - 3.6710 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@United Arab Emirates:Communications

Telephones: 677,793 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: modern system consisting of microwave radio relay
and coaxial cable; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubai
domestic: microwave radio relay and coaxial cable
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 2 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain,
India, and Pakistan; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio
relay to Saudi Arabia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 545,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 12

Televisions: 170,000 (1993 est.)

@United Arab Emirates:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 4,750 km
paved: 4,750 km
unpaved : 0 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 830 km; natural gas, including natural gas
liquids, 870 km

Ports and harbors: 'Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Das Island, Khawr Fakkan,
Mina' Jabal 'Ali, Mina' Khalid, Mina' Rashid, Mina' Saqr, Mina' Zayid,
Umm al Qaywayn

Merchant marine:
total: 60 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,128,495 GRT/1,955,344
DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 18, chemical tanker 3, container 6,
liquefied gas tanker 1, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 22,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5 (1996 est.)

Airports: 36 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 27
over 3,047 m : 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 10 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 7 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary (includes
Federal Police Force)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 790,838 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 424,962 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 20,584 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.59 billion (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.3% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: location and status of boundary with Saudi
Arabia is not final, de facto boundary reflects 1974 agreement; no
defined boundary with most of Oman, but Administrative Line in far
north; claims two islands in the Persian Gulf occupied by Iran: Lesser
Tunb (called Tunb as Sughra in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e
Kuchek in Persian by Iran) and Greater Tunb (called Tunb al Kubra in
Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg in Persian by Iran); claims
island in the Persian Gulf jointly administered with Iran (called Abu
Musa in Arabic by UAE and Jazireh-ye Abu Musa in Persian by Iran) -
over which Iran has taken steps to exert unilateral control since
1992, including access restrictions and a military build-up on the
island; the UAE has garnered significant diplomatic support in the
region in protesting these Iranian actions

Illicit drugs: growing role as heroin transshipment and
money-laundering center due to its proximity to southwest Asian
producing countries and the bustling free trade zone in Dubai
______________________________________________________________________

UNITED KINGDOM

@United Kingdom:Geography

Location: Western Europe, islands including the northern one-sixth of
the island of Ireland between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North
Sea, northwest of France

Geographic coordinates: 54 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 244,820 sq km
land: 241,590 sq km
water : 3,230 sq km
note: includes Rockall and Shetland Islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 360 km
border countries : Ireland 360 km

Coastline: 12,429 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf : as defined in continental shelf orders or in
accordance with agreed upon boundaries
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the
North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast

Terrain: mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling
plains in east and southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Fenland -4 m
highest point: Ben Nevis 1,343 m

Natural resources: coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron
ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland : 10%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,080 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: sulfur dioxide emissions from power
plants contribute to air pollution; some rivers polluted by
agricultural wastes and coastal waters polluted because of large-scale
disposal of sewage at sea

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km
from France and now linked by tunnel under the English Channel;
because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km
from tidal waters

@United Kingdom:People

Population: 57,591,677 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 5,647,549; female 5,386,750)
15-64 years : 65% (male 18,532,243; female 18,757,168)
65 years and over: 16% (male 3,808,399; female 5,459,568) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.24% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 11.83 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.77 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.25 years
male: 74.67 years
female: 79.96 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Briton(s), British (collective plural)
adjective: British

Ethnic groups: English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh 1.9%,
Ulster 1.8%, West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%

Religions: Anglican 27 million, Roman Catholic 9 million, Muslim 1
million, Presbyterian 800,000, Methodist 760,000, Sikh 400,000, Hindu
350,000, Jewish 300,000 (1991 est.)
note: the UK does not include a question on religion in its census

Languages: English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales),
Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
schooling
total population: 99% (1978 est.)
male: NA%
female : NA%

@United Kingdom:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland
conventional short form: United Kingdom
abbreviation: UK

Data code: UK

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: London

Administrative divisions: 47 counties, 7 metropolitan counties, 26
districts, 9 regions, and 3 islands areas; England - 39 counties, 7
metropolitan counties*; Avon, Bedford, Berkshire, Buckingham,
Cambridge, Cheshire, Cleveland, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derby, Devon,
Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucester, Greater London*,
Greater Manchester*, Hampshire, Hereford and Worcester, Hertford,
Humberside, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicester, Lincoln,
Merseyside*, Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland, North Yorkshire,
Nottingham, Oxford, Shropshire, Somerset, South Yorkshire*, Stafford,
Suffolk, Surrey, Tyne and Wear*, Warwick, West Midlands*, West Sussex,
West Yorkshire*, Wiltshire; Northern Ireland - 26 districts; Antrim,
Ards, Armagh, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge, Belfast,
Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Craigavon, Down,
Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, Londonderry,
Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh,
Strabane; Scotland - 9 regions, 3 islands areas*; Borders, Central,
Dumfries and Galloway, Fife, Grampian, Highland, Lothian, Orkney*,
Shetland*, Strathclyde, Tayside, Western Isles*; Wales - 8 counties;
Clwyd, Dyfed, Gwent, Gwynedd, Mid Glamorgan, Powys, South Glamorgan,
West Glamorgan

Dependent areas: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar,
Guernsey, Hong Kong (scheduled to become a Special Administrative
Region of China on 1 July 1997), Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat,
Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich
Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands

Independence: 1 January 1801 (United Kingdom established)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice

Legal system: common law tradition with early Roman and modern
continental influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir
Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 November 1948)
head of government: Prime Minister Tony BLAIR (since 2 May 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; prime minister is
the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons and must have
the consent of the monarch

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of House of Lords
(1,200 seats; four-fifths of the members are hereditary peers, two
archbishops, 24 other senior bishops, serving and retired Lords of
Appeal in Ordinary, other life peers, Scottish peers) and House of
Commons (659 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: House of Lords - no elections; House of Commons - last held
1 May 1997 (next to be held by NA May 2002)
election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Labor
44.5%, Conservative 31%, Liberal Democratic 17%, other 7.5%; seats by
party - Labor 418, Conservative 165, Liberal Democratic 46, other 30

Judicial branch: House of Lords, several Lords of Appeal in Ordinary
are appointed by the monarch for life

Political parties and leaders: Conservative and Unionist Party [John
MAJOR]; Labor Party [Anthony (Tony) Blair]; Liberal Democrats or LD
[Jeremy (Paddy) ASHDOWN]; Scottish National Party [Alex SALMOND];
Welsh National Party (Plaid Cymru) [Dafydd Iwan WIGLEY]; Ulster
Unionist Party (Northern Ireland) [David TRIMBLE]; Democratic Unionist
Party (Northern Ireland) [Rev. Ian PAISLEY]; Social Democratic and
Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Ireland) [John HUME]; Sinn Fein
(Northern Ireland) [Gerry ADAMS]; Alliance Party (Northern Ireland)
[Lord ALDERDICE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Trades Union Congress;
Confederation of British Industry; National Farmers' Union; Campaign
for Nuclear Disarmament

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EBRD, ECA
(associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G-10,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security
Council, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIG,
UNRWA, UNTAES, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sir John Olav KERR (will return to London
in late 1997)
chancery: 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 588-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 588-7870
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Houston,
Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
consulate(s): Dallas, Miami, and Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William J. CROWE, Jr.
embassy: 24/31 Grosvenor Square, London, W. 1A1AE
mailing address: PSC 801, Box 40, London; FPO AE 09498-4040
telephone: [44] (71) 499-9000
FAX : [44] (71) 409-1637
consulate(s) general: Belfast, Edinburgh

Flag description: blue with the red cross of Saint George (patron
saint of England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red
cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland) which is superimposed
on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of
Scotland); known as the Union Flag or Union Jack; the design and
colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number
of other flags including dependencies, Commonwealth countries, and
others

Economy

Economy - overview: The UK is one of the world's great trading powers
and financial centers, and its essentially capitalistic economy ranks
among the four largest in Western Europe. Over the past 17 years the
ruling Tories have greatly reduced public ownership and contained the
growth of social welfare programs. Agriculture is intensive, highly
mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60%
of food needs with only about 1% of the labor force. The UK has large
coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy production
accounts for 12% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any industrial
nation. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business
services, account by far for the largest proportion of GDP while
industry continues to decline in importance, now employing only 25% of
the work force. The economy registered 3.9% GDP growth in 1994, the
best rate for six years, but slipped back to 2.7% in 1995 and 2.4% in
1996. Exports and manufacturing output have been the primary engines
of growth. Unemployment is gradually falling. Inflation is a
comfortable 2.6%. A major economic policy question for the UK in the
late 1990s is the terms on which it participates in the financial and
economic integration of Europe.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.19 trillion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,400 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.9%
industry: 34.1%
services : 64% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.6% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 28.1 million (September 1996)
by occupation: services 62.8%, manufacturing and construction 25.0%,
government 9.1%, energy 1.9%, agriculture 1.2% (June 1992)

Unemployment rate: 6.7% (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues : $421.5 billion
expenditures: $474.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96 est.)

Industries: production machinery including machine tools, electric
power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment,
shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and
communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper
and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other
consumer goods

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 66.15 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 327.7 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 5,178 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables;
cattle, sheep, poultry; fish

Exports:
total value: $240.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, chemicals,
semifinished goods, transport equipment
partners: EU countries 56.4% (Germany 12.7%, France 9.9%, Netherlands
7.0%), US 13.1% (1994)

Imports:
total value : $258.8 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery, semifinished goods,
foodstuffs, consumer goods
partners: EU countries 54.9% (Germany 14.6%, France 10.0%, Netherlands
6.7%), US 12.2% (1994)

Debt - external: $16.2 billion (June 1992)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $2.908 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 British pound (£) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: British pounds (£) per US$1 - 0.6023 (January 1997),
0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664
(1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@United Kingdom:Communications

Telephones: 29.5 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: technologically advanced domestic and international
system
domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and
fiber-optic systems
international: 40 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations -
10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat
(Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large
international switching centers

Radio broadcast stations: AM 225, FM 525 (mostly repeaters), shortwave
0

Radios: 70 million

Television broadcast stations: 207 (repeaters 3,210)

Televisions: 20 million

@United Kingdom:Transportation

Railways:
total : 17,561 km
broad gauge: 434 km 1.600-m gauge (190 km double track); note - all
1.600-m gauge track, of which 357 km is in common carrier use, is in
Northern Ireland
standard gauge: 16,892 km 1.435-m gauge (4,928 km electrified; 12,591
km double or multiple track); note - 16,532 km of 1.435-m routes are
in common carrier service; the remaining 360 km are operated by a
total of 40 tourist or other private companies
narrow gauge: 235 km 0.260-m, 0.311-m, 0.381-m, 0.600-m, 0.610-m,
0.686-m, 0.760-m, 0.762-m, 0.800-m, 0.825-m, 0.914-m and 1.067-m
gauges; note - these short, narrow-gage lines are operated by a total
of 25 tourist and other private firms (1995)

Highways:
total: 388,831 km (1994 est.)
paved: NA km (including 3,284 km of expressways)
unpaved: NA km

Waterways: 3,200 km under British Waterways Board

Pipelines: crude oil (almost all insignificant) 933 km; petroleum
products 2,993 km; natural gas 12,800 km

Ports and harbors: Aberdeen, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Grangemouth,
Hull, Leith, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Sullom Voe, Tees, Tyne

Merchant marine:
total: 150 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,719,891 GRT/3,246,718
DWT
ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 28, chemical tanker 2, container 21,
liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 54, passenger 8, passenger-cargo 1,
refrigerated tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea passenger
12, specialized tanker 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 387 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 366
over 3,047 m: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 103
914 to 1,523 m: 59
under 914 m: 166 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 21
914 to 1,523 m: 21 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 12 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Royal
Air Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 13,829,704 (1997 est.)

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