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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

@Trinidad and Tobago:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 11 00 N, 61 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 5,130 sq km
land: 5,130 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental
margin
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to December)

Terrain: mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, asphalt

Land use:
arable land: 15%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland : 46%
other: 28% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 220 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical
storms

Environment - current issues: water pollution from agricultural
chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of
beaches; deforestation; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

@Trinidad and Tobago:People

Population: 1,130,337 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29% (male 167,857; female 161,196)
15-64 years: 64% (male 373,434; female 347,489)
65 years and over: 7% (male 36,300; female 44,061) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.18% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 15.37 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.87 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -19.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 70.36 years
male: 67.92 years
female: 72.88 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.13 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian

Ethnic groups: black 43%, East Indian (a local term - primarily
immigrants from northern India) 40%, mixed 14%, white 1%, Chinese 1%,
other 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 32.2%, Hindu 24.3%, Anglican 14.4%, other
Protestant 14%, Muslim 6%, none or unknown 9.1%

Languages: English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.9%
male: 98.8%
female : 97% (1995 est.)

@Trinidad and Tobago:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago

Data code: TD

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Port-of-Spain

Administrative divisions: 8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**;
Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint
David, Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria

Independence: 31 August 1962 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962)

Constitution: 1 August 1976

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON (since 19
March 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Basdeo PANDAY (since 9 November
1995)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament
elections : president elected by an electoral college that consists of
the members of the Senate and House of Representatives for a five-year
term; election last held NA February 1997 (next to be held NA 2002);
prime minister appointed from among the members of Parliament;
following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in
the House of Representatives is usually appointed prime minister
election results: Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON elected president;
percent of electoral college vote - 69%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate (31
seats; members appointed by the president for a maximum term of five
years) and a House of Representatives (36 seats; members are elected
by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 6 November 1995 (next
to be held by December 2000)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - PNM
52%, UNC 42.2%, NAR 5.2%; seats by party - PNM 17, UNC 17, NAR 2; the
UNC formed a coalition with the NAR
note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly with 15 members
serving four-year terms

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the
president on the advice of the prime minister; Supreme Court, judges
are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: People's National Movement (PNM),
Patrick MANNING; United National Congress (UNC), Basdeo PANDAY;
National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), A. N. R. ROBINSON;
Movement for Social Transformation (MOTION), David ABDULLAH; National
Joint Action Committee (NJAC), Makandal DAAGA; National Development
Party (NDP), Carson CHARLES; Movement for Unity and Progress (MUP),
Hulsie BHAGGAN

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES,
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UNU, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Corinne Averille McKNIGHT
chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490
FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Brian J. DONNELLY
embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain
mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain
telephone: [1] (809) 622-6372 through 6376, 6176
FAX : [1] (809) 628-5462

Flag description: red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the
upper hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: Trinidad and Tobago has earned a reputation as an
excellent investment site for international businesses. Successful
economic reforms implemented in 1995 are expected to bring an average
growth rate of 2% over the next three years, and foreign investment
and trade are flourishing. Unemployment - a main cause of the
country's socio-economic problems - is high, but has decreased to its
lowest point in five years. The country enjoys a healthy trade surplus
of $500 million, yet its heavy dependence on oil and petrochemical
prices makes its trade balance vulnerable to sudden shifts.
Furthermore, Caricom, Trinidad and Tobago's main market, is saturated,
provoking some countries to establish non-tariff trade barriers.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $17.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.1% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $13,500 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 45%
services: 53% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5.3% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 404,500
by occupation: construction and utilities 13%, manufacturing, mining,
and quarrying 14%, agriculture 11%, services 62% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16.1% (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $1.65 billion
expenditures: $1.61 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement,
beverage, cotton textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 1.253 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 4.229 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,885 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cocoa, sugarcane, rice, citrus, coffee,
vegetables; poultry

Exports:
total value : $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, steel
products, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, flowers
partners: US 48%, Caricom countries 15%, Latin America 9%, EU 5%
(1994)

Imports:
total value: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods,
food, live animals
partners: US 47.7%, Venezuela 10%, UK 8.3%, other EU 8% (1994)

Debt - external: $1.67 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $10 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1 - 6.1791
(January 1997), 6.0051 (1996), 5.9478 (1995), 5.9249 (1994), 5.3511
(1993), 4.2500 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Trinidad and Tobago:Communications

Telephones: 170,000 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: excellent international service; good local service
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 0
note: there were a total of 10 radio stations in 1995

Radios: 700,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1995 est.)

Televisions: 400,000 (1992 est.)

@Trinidad and Tobago:Transportation

Railways:
note: minimal agricultural railroad system near San Fernando; railway
service was discontinued in 1968

Highways:
total: 8,160 km
paved: 4,162 km
unpaved: 3,998 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,032 km; petroleum products 19 km; natural gas
904 km

Ports and harbors: Pointe-a-Pierre, Point Fortin, Point Lisas,
Port-of-Spain, Scarborough, Tembladora

Merchant marine:
total : 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,928 GRT/5,571 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, oil tanker 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m : 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (includes Ground
Forces, Coast Guard, and Air Wing), Trinidad and Tobago Police Service

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 312,628 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 223,418 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $83 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US and Europe and producer of cannabis
______________________________________________________________________

TROMELIN ISLAND

(possession of France)

@Tromelin Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 15 52 S, 54 25 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1 sq km
land: 1 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3.7 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sandy

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 7 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other : 100% (scattered bushes)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: climatologically important location for forecasting
cyclones; wildlife sanctuary

@Tromelin Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Tromelin Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Tromelin Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Tromelin

Data code: TE

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Flag description: the flag of France is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Tromelin Island:Communications

Communications - note: important meteorological station

@Tromelin Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar, Mauritius, and
Seychelles
______________________________________________________________________

TUNISIA

@Tunisia:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Algeria and Libya

Geographic coordinates: 34 00 N, 9 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 163,610 sq km
land: 155,360 sq km
water: 8,250 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,424 km
border countries: Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km

Coastline: 1,148 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry
summers; desert in south

Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south
merges into the Sahara

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Shatt al Gharsah -17 m
highest point: Jabal ash Shanabi 1,544 m

Natural resources: petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 4%
other : 44% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,850 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: toxic and hazardous waste disposal is
ineffective and presents human health risks; water pollution from raw
sewage; limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: strategic location in central Mediterranean

@Tunisia:People

Population: 9,245,284 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 32% (male 1,541,853; female 1,451,035)
15-64 years: 62% (male 2,858,987; female 2,873,748)
65 years and over: 6% (male 267,261; female 252,400) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.48% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 20.56 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.08 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 33.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.85 years
male : 71.5 years
female: 74.3 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.52 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Tunisian(s)
adjective: Tunisian

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 98%, European 1%, Jewish less than 1%

Religions: Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce),
French (commerce)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 66.7%
male: 78.6%
female : 54.6% (1995 est.)

@Tunisia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Tunisia
conventional short form: Tunisia
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
local short form: Tunis

Data code: TS

Government type: republic

National capital: Tunis

Administrative divisions: 23 governorates; Beja, Ben Arous, Bizerte,
Gabes, Gafsa, Jendouba, Kairouan, Kasserine, Kebili, L'Ariana, Le Kef,
Mahdia, Medenine, Monastir, Nabeul, Sfax, Sidi Bou Zid, Siliana,
Sousse, Tataouine, Tozeur, Tunis, Zaghouan

Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 20 March (1956)

Constitution: 1 June 1959; amended 12 July 1988

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint
session

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November
1987)
head of government : Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since 26 September
1989)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results : President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI reelected without
opposition; percent of vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Majlis al-Nuwaab
(163 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - RCD 97.7%, MDS 1.0%,
others 1.3%; seats by party - RCD 144, MDS 10, others 9; note - the
government changed the electoral code to guarantee that the opposition
won seats

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)

Political parties and leaders: Constitutional Democratic Rally Party
(RCD), President BEN ALI (official ruling party); Movement of
Democratic Socialists (MDS), Ismail BOULAHIA; five other political
parties are legal, including the Communist Party

Political pressure groups and leaders: the Islamic fundamentalist
party, Al Nahda (Renaissance), is outlawed

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD,
AL, AMF, AMU, BSEC (observer), CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member),
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO,
NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNTAES, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed Azouz ENNIFAR
chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Mary Ann CASEY
embassy: 144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [216] (1) 782-566
FAX: [216] (1) 789-719

Flag description: red with a white disk in the center bearing a red
crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and
star are traditional symbols of Islam

Economy

Economy - overview: Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important
agricultural, mining, energy, tourism, and manufacturing sectors.
Detailed governmental control of economic affairs has gradually
lessened over the past decade with increasing privatization of trade
and commerce, simplification of the tax structure, and a cautious
approach to debt. Real growth has averaged 4.5% in 1991-96, and
inflation has been moderate. Growth in tourism and increased trade
have been key elements in this solid record. Agricultural production
accounted for a major portion of growth in GDP in 1996, growth having
been adversely affected by drought in 1995. Further privatization, the
attraction of increased foreign investment, and improvements in
government efficiency are among the challenges for the future.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $43.3 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.1% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13.5%
industry: 33.8%
services: 52.7% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 6% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.917 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: services 55%, industry 23%, agriculture 22% (1995 est.)
note : shortage of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: 16% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $5.2 billion
expenditures: $7.2 billion, including capital expenditures to $1.4
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore),
tourism, textiles, footwear, food, beverages

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 1.7 million kW (1995 est.)

Electricity - production: 6.5 billion kWh (1995 est.)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 678 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: olives, dates, oranges, almonds, grain, sugar
beets, grapes; poultry, beef, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $5.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: hydrocarbons, textiles, agricultural products, phosphates
and chemicals
partners: EU 75%, North African countries 7%, India 2%, US 1%

Imports:
total value: $7.7 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: industrial goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons 13%,
food 12%, consumer goods
partners: EU countries 70%, North African countries 6%, US 5%, Japan
2%, Switzerland 1%

Debt - external: $9.6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $221 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Tunisian dinar (TD) = 1,000 millimes

Exchange rates: Tunisian dinars (TD) per US$1 - 1.0075 (January 1997),
0.9985 (December 1996), 0.9733 (1996), 0.9458 (1995), 1.0116 (1994),
1.0037 (1993), 0.8844 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Tunisia:Communications

Telephones: 560,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: the system is above the African average; key centers
are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis
domestic : trunk facilities consist of open-wire lines, coaxial cable,
and microwave radio relay
international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat with back-up control station;
coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya;
participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 8, shortwave 0

Radios: 1,693,527 (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 19

Televisions: 670,000 (1992 est.)

Communications - note: Internet access is permitted but is licensed
through a government agency

@Tunisia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,260 km
standard gauge: 492 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge : 1,758 km 1.000-m gauge
dual gauge: 10 km 1.000-m and 1.435-m gauges (1993 est.)

Highways:
total: 20,830 km
paved: 15,831 km
unpaved: 4,999 km (1993 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 797 km; petroleum products 86 km; natural gas 742
km

Ports and harbors: Bizerte, Gabes, La Goulette, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis,
Zarzis

Merchant marine:
total: 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 138,113 GRT/179,906 DWT
ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 5, chemical tanker 3, oil tanker 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1
(1996 est.)

Airports: 29 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m : 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 2,464,973 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,411,804 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 94,868 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $535 million (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.8% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary dispute with Libya; land
boundary dispute with Algeria settled in 1993; Malta and Tunisia are
discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf
between their countries, particularly for oil exploration
______________________________________________________________________

TURKEY

@Turkey:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia (that part west of the Bosporus is
sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between
Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the
Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 35 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 780,580 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
water: 9,820 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 2,627 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km,
Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km

Coastline: 7,200 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only - to the maritime boundary
agreed upon with the former USSR
territorial sea : 6 nm in the Aegean Sea,; 12 nm in the Black Sea and
in the Mediterranean Sea

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher
in interior

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau
(Anatolia)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m

Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate,
sulfur, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 32%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 16%
forests and woodland : 26%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 36,740 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: very severe earthquakes, especially in northern
Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van

Environment - current issues: water pollution from dumping of
chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas;
deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Biodiversity, Desertification, Environmental Modification

Geography - note: strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits
(Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean
Seas

@Turkey:People

Population: 63,528,225 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (male 10,180,631; female 9,820,505)
15-64 years: 63% (male 20,326,169; female 19,648,647)
65 years and over : 6% (male 1,638,048; female 1,914,225) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.64% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 21.83 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.43 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 40.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.37 years
male : 69.95 years
female: 74.91 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.52 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish

Ethnic groups: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20%

Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (Christian and
Jews)

Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.3%
male: 91.7%
female: 72.4% (1995 est.)

@Turkey:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye

Data code: TU

Government type: republican parliamentary democracy

National capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions: 79 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana,
Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan,
Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol,
Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli,
Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gazi Antep,
Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Iggdir, Isparta, Istanbul,
Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri,
Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya,
Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Rize,
Sakarya, Samsun, Sanli Urfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag,
Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
note: Karabuk, Kilis, and Yalova are three new Turkish provinces
mentioned in the 24 December 1995 election results; the Turkish press
has mentioned another province called Osmaniye

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29
October (1923)

Constitution: 7 November 1982

Legal system: derived from various continental legal systems; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Suleyman DEMIREL (since 16 May 1993)
head of government : Prime Minister Necmettin ERBAKAN (since 8 July
1996) and Deputy Prime Minister Tansu CILLER (since 8 July 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
nomination of the prime minister
note: there is also a National Security Council that serves as an
advisory body to the president and the cabinet
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a seven-year
term; election last held 16 May 1993 (next to be held NA 2000); prime
minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president
election results : Suleyman DEMIREL elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - 54%

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or
Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected to serve
five-year terms)
elections : last held 24 December 1995 (next to be held by December
2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - RP 21.38%, DYP 19.18%,
ANAP 19.65%, DSP 14.64%, CHP 10.71%, independent 0.48%; seats by party
- RP 158, DYP 135, ANAP 133, DSP 75, CHP 49; note - seats held by
various parties are subject to change due to defections, creation of
new parties, and ouster or death of sitting deputies; current seats by
party are as follows: RP 160, DYP 120, ANAP 127, DSP 68, CHP 49, BBP
7, DTP 7, independents 10, vacant 2

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges appointed by the
president; Court of Appeals, judges are elected by the Supreme Council
of Judges and Prosecutors

Political parties and leaders: True Path Party or DYP [Tansu CILLER];
Motherland Party or ANAP [Mesut YILMAZ]; Welfare Party or RP
[Necmettin ERBAKAN]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Bulent ECEVIT];
Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Tugrul TURKES]; New Party or YP
[Yusuf Bozkurt OZAL]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Deniz BAYKAL];
Workers' Party or IP [Dogu PERINCEK]; Nation Party or MP [Aykut
EDIBALI]; Democrat Party or DP [Murat UZMAN]; Grand Unity Party or BBP
[Muhsin YAZICIOGLU]; Rebirth Party or YDP [Hasan Celal GUZEL];
People's Democracy Party or HADEP [Murat BOZLAK]; Main Path Party or
ANAYOL [Gurcan BASER]; Democratic Target Party or DHP [Abdulkadir
Yasar TURK]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Besim TIBUK]; New
Democracy Movement or YDH [Huseyin ERGUN]; Labor Party or EP [Abdullah
Levent TUZER]; Democracy and Peace Party or DBP [Refik KARAKOC];
Freedom and Solidarity Party or ODP [Ufuk URAS]; Peace Party or BP
[Mehmet ETI]; Democratic Mass Party or DKP [Serafettin ELCI]; Democrat
Turkey Party or DTP [Husamettin CINDORUK]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Turkish Confederation of Labor
or Turk-Is [Bayram MERAL]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers
Unions or DISK [Ridvan BUDAK]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is
[Salim USLU]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or
TUSIAD [Muharrem KAYHAN]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and
Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [Fuat MIRAS]; Turkish Confederation of
Employers' Unions or TISK [Refik BAYDUR]; Independent Industrialists
and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Erol YARAR]

International organization participation: AsDB, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
CERN (observer), EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NATO, NEA,
OECD, OIC, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UPU, WEU (associate), WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR
chancery : 1714 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 659-8200
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marc GROSSMAN
embassy : 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 468-6110
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana

Flag description: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed
portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered
just outside the crescent opening

Economy

Economy - overview: Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of
modern industry and commerce along with traditional village
agriculture and crafts. The economy has a strong and rapidly growing
private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic
industry, banking, transport, and communication. The current economic
situation is marked by strong growth coupled with worsening
imbalances. Real GDP expanded by about 7% in 1996 but inflation rose
to 80%, the current account deficit reached about 3% of GDP, and the
public sector fiscal deficit probably topped 10% of GDP, leading to
speculation that the country could be headed toward a repeat of its
1994 financial crisis. To some extent, Ankara is caught in a vicious
circle because half of all central government revenue in 1996 went to
pay interest on the national debt. The government that took office in
July 1996 - an unusual coalition of Prime Minister ERBAKAN's Islamic
Welfare Party and Deputy Prime Minister CILLER's conservative True
Path Party - is trying to solve the fiscal problem by greatly
accelerating Turkey's privatization program. It has proposed a
balanced budget for 1997, although this is widely regarded as over
optimistic because it is based on earning more privatization revenue
in one year than Turkey has earned over the last decade. Ankara is
trying to increase trade with other countries in the region but most
of Turkey's trade is still with OECD countries. Despite the
implementation in January 1996 of a customs union with the EU, foreign
direct investment in the country totaled only about half a billion
dollars, perhaps because potential investors were concerned about the
prospects for economic stability.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $379.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,100 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 15%
industry: 33%
services: 52% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 80% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 21.3 million
by occupation: agriculture 47%, services 33%, industry 20% (1995)
note: about 1.5 million Turks work abroad (1994)

Unemployment rate: 6.3% (April 1996); another 6.3% officially
considered underemployed

Budget:
revenues: $32.9 billion
expenditures: $50.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.8
billion (1996)

Industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper,
boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Industrial production growth rate: 6.5% (1996)

Electricity - capacity: 20.86 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 86.3 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,206 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets,
pulses, citrus; livestock

Exports:
total value : $22 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: textiles and apparel 40%, steel products 9%, foodstuffs
20% (1995)
partners: Germany 23%, Russia 6%, US 7%, Italy 7% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $42 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : machinery 23%, fuels 13%, raw materials 11%, foodstuffs
7% (1995)
partners: Germany 16%, US 10%, Italy 9%, France 6%, UK 5% (1995)

Debt - external: $75.8 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $195 million (1993)
note: aid for Gulf war efforts from coalition allies (1991), $4.1
billion; aid pledged for Turkish Defense Fund, $2.5 billion

Currency: Turkish lira (TL)

Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 110,119 (January 1997),
81,405 (1996), 45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993),
6,872.4 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Turkey:Communications

Telephones: 14.3 million (1995 est.)

Telephone system: fair domestic and international systems
domestic: trunk microwave radio relay network; limited open-wire
network
international : 12 satellite earth stations - Intelsat (Atlantic
Ocean), Eutelsat, and Inmarsat (Indian and Atlantic Ocean regions); 3
submarine fiberoptic cables (1996)

Radio broadcast stations: national broadcast stations 36, regional
broadcast stations 108, local broadcast stations 1,058 (1996)

Radios: 9.4 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 15 national, 15 regional, 229 local

Televisions: 10.53 million (1993 est.)

@Turkey:Transportation

Railways:
total: 10,386 km
standard gauge : 10,386 km 1.435-m gauge (1,093 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 381,300 km
paved : 87,699 km (including 1,246 km of expressways)
unpaved: 293,601 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: about 1,200 km

Pipelines: crude oil 1,738 km; petroleum products 2,321 km; natural
gas 708 km

Ports and harbors: Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Izmit,
Mersin, Samsun, Trabzon

Merchant marine:
total: 515 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,986,328 GRT/10,157,071
DWT
ships by type: bulk 155, cargo 232, chemical tanker 24, combination
bulk 7, combination ore/oil 11, container 6, liquefied gas tanker 4,
livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 43, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated
cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 20, short-sea passenger 7, specialized
tanker 2
note: Turkey owns an additional 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
163,512 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas, Malta, and
Panama (1996 est.)

Airports: 104 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 94
over 3,047 m : 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 28 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 8 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Land Forces, Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval
Infantry), Air Force, Coast Guard, Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 17,352,876 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 10,553,157 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 649,336 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4.3 billion (1996); note -
figures do not include about $7 billion for the government's
counterinsurgency effort

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.5% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: complex maritime, air and territorial
disputes with Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question with Greece; Hatay
question with Syria; dispute with downstream riparians (Syria and
Iraq) over water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates
Rivers; traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey have
subsided

Illicit drugs: major transit route for Southwest Asian heroin and
hashish to Western Europe and the US via air, land, and sea routes;
major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking
organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert
imported morphine base into heroin are in remote regions of Turkey as
well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas
of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate
______________________________________________________________________

TURKMENISTAN

@Turkmenistan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and
Kazakstan

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 60 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total : 488,100 sq km
land: 488,100 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 3,736 km
border countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakstan 379 km,
Uzbekistan 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km
note: Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: subtropical desert

Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains
in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian
Sea in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sarygamysh Koli -110 m
highest point: Ayrybaba 3,139 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 63%
forests and woodland: 8%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 13,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater
with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salinization, water-logging
of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution;
diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into
irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral
Sea; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked

@Turkmenistan:People

Population: 4,229,249 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 39% (male 840,168; female 812,573)
15-64 years : 57% (male 1,182,706; female 1,217,484)
65 years and over: 4% (male 66,451; female 109,867) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.61% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 26.61 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.65 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 72.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 61.51 years
male: 57.88 years
female: 65.31 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.31 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Turkmen(s)
adjective: Turkmen

Ethnic groups: Turkmen 77%, Uzbek 9.2%, Russian 6.7%, Kazak 2%, other
5.1% (1995)

Religions: Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%

Languages: Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

@Turkmenistan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turkmenistan
local long form: none
local short form: Turkmenistan
former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: TX

Government type: republic

National capital: Ashgabat

Administrative divisions: 5 welayatlar (singular - welayat): Ahal
Welayaty (Ashgabat), Balkan Welayaty (Nebitdag), Dashhowuz Welayaty
(formerly Tashauz), Lebap Welayaty (Charjew), Mary Welayaty
note : administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1991)

Constitution: adopted 18 May 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers
Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct
presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the
chief of state and head of government
head of government: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers
Saparmurat NIYAZOV; note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government; Deputy Chairmen of the Cabinet of Ministers
Mukhamed ABALAKOV (since NA), Babamurad BAZAROV (since NA), Dadebaya
ANNAGELDIYEV (since NA), Orazgeldy AYDOGDYYEV (since NA), Hudaayguly
HALYKOV (since NA), Aleksandr DADONOV (since NA), Pirkuly ODEYEV
(since NA), Rejep SAPAROV (since NA), Boris SHIKHMURADOV (since NA),
Batyr SARJAYEV (since NA), Ilaman SHYKHYYEV (since NA)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
note: NIYAZOV has been asked by various local groups, most recently on
26 October 1995 at the annual elders meeting, to be "president for
life," but he has declined, saying the status would require an
amendment to the constitution
elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 21 June 1992 (next to be held NA 2002; note -
extension of President NIYAZOV's term for an additional five years
overwhelmingly approved - 99.9% of total vote in favor - by national
referendum held 15 January 1994); deputy chairmen of the cabinet of
ministers are appointed by the president
election results: Saparmurad NIYAZOV elected president without
opposition; percent of vote - Saparmurad NIYAZOV 99.5%

Legislative branch: under the 1992 constitution, there are two
parliamentary bodies, a unicameral People's Council or Halk Maslahaty
(more than 100 seats, some of which are popularly elected and some are
appointed; meets infrequently) and a unicameral Assembly or Majlis (50
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections : People's Council - no elections; Assembly - last held 11
December 1994 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - Democratic Party 45, other 5; note - all 50 preapproved by
President NIYAZOV

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of Turkmenistan
[Saparmurat NIYAZOV]; Party for Democratic Development [Durdymurat
HOJA-MUHAMEDOV, chairman]; Agzybirlik [Nurberdy NURMAMEDOV,
cochairman, Hubayberdi HALLIYEV, cochairman]
note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small
opposition movements exist underground or in foreign countries

International organization participation: CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO,
ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, NAM, OIC,
OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Halil UGUR
chancery: 2207 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-1500
FAX : [1] (202) 588-0697

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael W. COTTER
embassy : 9 Pushkin Street, Ashgabat
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [9] (9312) 35-00-45, 35-00-46, 35-00-42, Tie Line [8]
962-0000
FAX: [9] (9312) 51-13-05

Flag description: green field, including a vertical stripe on the
hoist side, with a claret vertical stripe in between containing five
white, black, and orange carpet guls (an asymmetrical design used in
producing rugs) associated with five different tribes; a white
crescent and five white stars in the upper left corner to the right of
the carpet guls

Economy

Economy - overview: Turkmenistan is largely desert country with
nomadic cattle raising, intensive agriculture in irrigated oases, and
huge gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted
in cotton, making it the world's tenth largest producer. It also
possesses the world's fifth largest reserves of natural gas and
substantial oil resources. Until the end of 1993, Turkmenistan had
experienced less economic disruption than other former Soviet states
because its economy received a boost from higher prices for oil and
gas and a sharp increase in hard currency earnings. In 1994, Russia's
refusal to export Turkmen gas to hard currency markets and mounting
debts of its major customers in the former USSR for gas deliveries
contributed to a sharp fall in industrial production and caused the
budget to shift from a surplus to a slight deficit. The economy
recovered slightly in 1996, but high inflation continued. Furthermore,
with an authoritarian ex-communist regime in power and a tribally
based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to
economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its
inefficient economy. In 1996, the government set in place a
stabilization program aimed at a unified and market-based exchange
rate, allocation of government credits by auction, and strict limits
on budget deficits. Privatization goals remain limited. Turkmenistan
is working hard to open new gas export channels through Iran and
Turkey to Europe, but these will take many years to realize.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.8 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.1% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,840 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 16%
industry: 48%
services: 36% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 600% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 1.68 million (1995)
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 43%, industry and construction
20%, other 37% (1992)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food
processing

Industrial production growth rate: 17.9% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 3.95 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 9.87 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,855 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain; livestock

Exports:
total value: $1.8 billion to states outside the FSU (1996 est.)
commodities: natural gas, cotton, petroleum products, electricity,
textiles, carpets
partners: FSU, Eastern Europe, Turkey, Argentina

Imports:
total value : $1.3 billion from states outside the FSU (1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and parts, grain and food, plastics and rubber,
consumer durables, textiles
partners: FSU, Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, Turkey

Debt - external: $400 million (of which $275 million to Russia) (1995
est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $10 million (1993)
note: commitments, $1,830 million ($375 million drawn), 1992-95

Currency: 1 Tukmen manat (TMM) = 100 tenesi; Turkmenistan introduced
its national currency on 1 November 1993

Exchange rates: manats per US$1 - 4,070 (January 1997), 2,400 (January
1996)
note: government established a unified rate in mid-January 1996

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Turkmenistan:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: poorly developed
domestic: NA
international : linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS
republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow
international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to
Iran has been established; a new exchange in Ashgabat switches
international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth
stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: 1 state-owned radio broadcast station of NA
type

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 state-run

Televisions: NA

@Turkmenistan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,187 km
broad gauge: 2,187 km 1.520-m gauge (1996 est.)

Highways:
total: 23,000 km
paved: 18,300 km (note - these roads are said to be hard-surfaced,
meaning that some are paved and some are all-weather gravel surfaced
unpaved: 4,700 km (1990 est.)

Waterways: the Amu Darya is an important inland waterway

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; natural gas 4,400 km

Ports and harbors: Turkmenbashi (formerly Krasnowodsk)

Merchant marine:
total: 1 oil tanker ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,896 GRT/3,389
DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 64 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 22
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m : 8
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 42
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 35 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense, Republic Security Forces
(internal and border troops), National Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,052,184 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 856,380 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 42,948 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 4.5 billion manats (1995); note
- conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet
determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivator of opium poppy, mostly for
domestic consumption; limited government eradication program;
increasingly used as transshipment point for illicit drugs from
Southwest Asia to Russia and Western Europe; also a transshipment
point for acetic anhydride destined for Afghanistan
______________________________________________________________________

TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, two island groups in the North Atlantic Ocean,
southeast of The Bahamas

Geographic coordinates: 21 45 N, 71 35 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 430 sq km
land: 430 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 389 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and
relatively dry

Terrain: low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Blue Hills 49 m

Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch

Land use:
arable land : 2%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources,
private cisterns collect rainwater

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: 30 islands (eight inhabited)

@Turks and Caicos Islands:People

Population: 14,631 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years : NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.88% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 12.3 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.14 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years : NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 12.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.42 years
male: 73.49 years
female: 77.1 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: none
adjective: none

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Baptist 41.2%, Methodist 18.9%, Anglican 18.3%, Seventh-Day
Adventist 1.7%, other 19.9% (1980)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population : 98%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1970 est.)

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turks and Caicos Islands

Data code: TK

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Grand Turk

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)

Constitution: introduced 30 August 1976, suspended in 1986, restored
and revised 5 March 1988

Legal system: based on laws of England and Wales with a small number
adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1953),
represented by Governor John KELLY (since NA September 1996)
head of government: Chief Minister Derek H. TAYLOR (since 31 January
1995)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of three ex officio members and
five appointed by the governor from among the members of the
Legislative Council
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed
by the queen; chief minister appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (19 seats, of which
13 are popularly elected; members serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 31 January 1995 (next to be held by NA December
1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDM
8, PNP 4, independent (Norman SAUNDERS) 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Progressive National Party (PNP),
Washington MISICK; People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Derek H.
TAYLOR; United Democratic Party (UDP), Wendal SWANN

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the colonial shield centered on the outer half of the
flag; the shield is yellow and contains a conch shell, lobster, and
cactus

Economy

Economy - overview: The Turks and Caicos economy is based on tourism,
fishing, and offshore financial services. Most food for domestic
consumption is imported; there is some subsistence farming - mainly
corn, cassava, citrus, and beans - on the Caicos Islands. The tourism
sector expanded in 1995, posting a 10% increase in the first quarter
as compared to the same period in 1994. The US was the leading source
of tourists in 1995, accounting for upward of 70% of arrivals or about
60,000 visitors. Major sources of government revenue include fees from
offshore financial activities and customs receipts as the Islands rely
on imports for nearly all consumption and capital goods.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $84.5 million (1993 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1993 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,400 (1993 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 4,848 (1990 est.)
by occupation: majority engaged in fishing and tourist industries;
some subsistence agriculture

Unemployment rate: 12% (1992)

Budget:
revenues: $31.9 million
expenditures: $30.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995)

Industries: fishing, tourism, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: corn, beans; fish

Exports:
total value: $6.8 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells
partners: US, UK

Imports:
total value: $42.8 million (1993)
commodities: food and beverages, tobacco, clothing, manufactures,
construction materials
partners: US, UK

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Communications

Telephones: 1,359 (1988 est.)

Telephone system: fair cable and radiotelephone services
domestic: NA
international : 2 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 7,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: television programs are available from
a cable network, and broadcasts from the Bahamas can be received in
the islands

Televisions: NA

@Turks and Caicos Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 121 km
paved : 24 km
unpaved: 97 km

Ports and harbors: Grand Turk, Providenciales

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 7 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m : 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics
destined for the US
______________________________________________________________________

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