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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Political parties and leaders: People's Party of Tajikistan [Abdumajid
DOSTIYEV]; National Revival Bloc [Abdumalik ABDULLOJONOV]; Tajik
Communist Party [Shodi SHABDOLOV]; Democratic Party [Jumaboy NIYAZOV,
chairman]; Islamic Renaissance Party or IRP [Mohammed Sharif
HIMMATZODA, chairman]; Rebirth (Rastokhez) [Takhir ABDUZHABOROV]; Lali
Badakhshan Society [Atobek AMIRBEK]; Tajikistan Party of Economic and
Political Renewal or TPEPR; Citizenship, Patriotism, Unity Party
[Bobokhon MAHMADOV]; Adolatho "Justice" Party [Abdurahmon KARIMOV,
chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Tajikistan Opposition Movement
based in northern Afghanistan [Seyed Abdullah NURI, chairman]

International organization participation: CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP,
FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM,
ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Tajikistan does not have an
embassy in the US, but has a mission at the UN: address - 136 East
67th Street, New York, NY 10021, telephone - [1] (212) 472-7645, FAX -
[1] (212) 628-0252; permanent representative to the UN is Rashid
ALIMOV

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador R. Grant SMITH
embassy : interim chancery, Oktyabrskaya Hotel, 105A Prospect Rudaki,
Dushanbe 734001
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone : [7] (3772) 21-03-56
FAX: Telex (787) 20116

Flag description: three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider
stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven
five-pointed gold stars is located in the center of the white stripe

Economy

Economy - overview: Tajikistan had the next-to-lowest per capita GDP
in the former USSR, the highest rate of population growth, an
extremely low standard of living, and rampant inflation. Agriculture
dominates the economy, with cotton being the most important crop.
Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold,
uranium, and tungsten. Industry is limited to a large aluminum plant,
hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light
industry and food processing. The Tajik economy has been gravely
weakened by four years of civil conflict and by the loss of subsidies
from Moscow and of markets for its products, which has left Tajikistan
dependent on Russia and Uzbekistan and on international humanitarian
assistance for much of its basic subsistence needs. Moreover, constant
political turmoil and the continued dominance by former communist
officials have impeded the introduction of meaningful economic
reforms. The regime made initial efforts to stabilize the economy and
promote reform in 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.4 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: -17% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $920 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 65% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.9 million (1996)
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 52%, manufacturing, mining,
and construction 17%, services 31% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 2.4% includes only officially registered
unemployed; also large numbers of underemployed workers and
unregistered unemployed people (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures : $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement,
vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers

Industrial production growth rate: -20% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 4.44 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 16.8 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,135 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables;
cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value: $768 million (1996 est.)
commodities : cotton, aluminum, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
partners: FSU 78%, Netherlands (1994)

Imports:
total value: $657 million (1996 est.)
commodities: fuel, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment,
textiles, foodstuffs
partners : FSU 55%, Switzerland, UK (1994)

Debt - external: $635 million (of which $250 million to Russia) (1995
est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $22 million (1993)
note: commitments, $885 million (disbursements $115 million) (1992-95)

Currency: the Tajikistani ruble (TSR) = 100 tanga; Tajikistan
introduced its own currency in May 1995

Exchange rates: Tajikistani rubles (TJR) per US$1 - 350 (January
1997), 284 (January 1996)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Tajikistan:Communications

Telephones: 303,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns
are not reached by the national network
domestic: cable and microwave radio relay
international: linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS
republics, and by leased connections to the Moscow international
gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway
switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2
Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: 1 state-owned radio broadcast station

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1
note : 1 Intelsat earth station provides TV receive-only service from
Turkey

Televisions: NA

@Tajikistan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 480 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines (1990)

Highways:
total: 32,752 km
paved: 21,119 km (note - these roads are said to be hard-surfaced,
meaning that some are paved and some are all-weather gravel surfaced)
unpaved: 11,633 km (1992 est.)

Pipelines: natural gas 400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 59 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 14
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 45
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m : 36 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Presidential National Guard,
Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,393,416 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,143,159 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 60,832 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 180 billion rubles (1995); note
- conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: boundary with China in dispute; territorial
dispute with Kyrgyzstan on northern boundary in Isfara Valley area;
foreign support to Islamic fighters based in northern Afghanistan in
Tajikistan's civil war

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium
poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; increasingly used as
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia to Russia
and Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

TANZANIA

@Tanzania:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya
and Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 35 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total : 945,090 sq km
land: 886,040 sq km
water: 59,050 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

Area - comparative: slightly larger than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:
total : 3,402 km
border countries: Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km,
Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km

Coastline: 1,424 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north,
south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m

Natural resources: hydropower potential, tin, phosphates, iron ore,
coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops : 1%
permanent pastures: 40%
forests and woodland: 38%
other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,500 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: the tsetse fly; flooding on the central plateau
during the rainy season

Environment - current issues: soil degradation; deforestation;
desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats;
recent droughts affected marginal agriculture

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography - note: Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa

@Tanzania:People

Population: 29,460,753 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 6,597,703; female 6,638,333)
15-64 years: 52% (male 7,496,133; female 7,868,581)
65 years and over: 3% (male 399,747; female 460,256) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.6% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 40.92 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 19.84 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 104.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 41.71 years
male: 40.34 years
female: 43.13 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.58 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian

Ethnic groups: mainland - native African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu
consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian,
European, and Arab)
note: Zanzibar - Arab, native African, mixed Arab and native African

Religions: mainland - Christian 45%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs
20%
note: Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim

Languages: Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguju (name for Swahili
in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce,
administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in
Zanzibar), many local languages
note : Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of Bantu people living
in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu
in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources,
including Arabic and English, and it has become the lingua franca of
central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one
of the local languages

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili),
English, or Arabic
total population: 67.8%
male: 79.4%
female: 56.8% (1995 est.)

@Tanzania:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Data code: TZ

Government type: republic

National capital: Dar es Salaam
note: some government offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which
is planned as the new national capital by the end of the 1990s

Administrative divisions: 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma,
Iringa, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara,
Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga,
Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North,
Zanzibar Urban/West, Ziwa Magharibi

Independence: 26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December
1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became
independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with
Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and
Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

National holiday: Union Day, 26 April (1964)

Constitution: 25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 22 November
1995); Vice President Omar Ali JUMA (since 22 November 1995); note the
president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 22
November 1995); Vice President Omar Ali JUMA (since 22 November 1995);
note the president is both chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet ministers, including the prime minister, are
appointed by the president from among the members of the National
Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 29 October-19
November 1995 (next to be held NA October 2000); prime minister
appointed by the president
election results: percent of vote - Benjamin William MKAPA 62%, MREMA
28%, LIPUMBA 6%, CHEYO 4%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274 seats,
232 directly elected; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 29 October-19 November 1995 (next to be held NA
October 2000)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM
186, opposition parties 46; note - of the 42 seats which are not
elected, some are filled by presidential appointment and others are
designated by law for specific officials

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal; High Court

Political parties and leaders: Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM
(Revolutionary Party) [Benjamin William MKAPA]; Civic United Front or
CUF [Seif Sharif HAMAD]; National Convention for Construction and
Reform or NCCR [Lyatonga (Augustine) MREMA]; Union for Multiparty
Democracy or UMD [Abdullah FUNDIKIRA]; Chama Cha Demokrasia na
Maendeleo or CHADEMA [Edwin I. M. MTEI, chairman]; Democratic Party
(unregistered) [Reverend MTIKLA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John
CHEYO]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB,
ECA, FAO, G- 6, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU,
SADC, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mustafa Salim NYANG'ANYI
chancery : 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador J. Brady ANDERSON
embassy: 36 Laibon Road (off Bagamoyo Road), Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (51) 66010 through 66015
FAX : [255] (51) 66701

Flag description: divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from
the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green
and the lower triangle is blue

Economy

Economy - overview: Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the
world. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts
for 57% of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 90% of the work
force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated
crops to only 4% of the land area. Industry accounts for 17% of GDP
and is mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light
consumer goods. The economic recovery program announced in mid-1986
has generated notable increases in agricultural production and
financial support for the program by bilateral donors. The World Bank,
the International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided
funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure.
Growth in 1991-96 has featured a pickup in industrial production and a
substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Recent
banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth and
investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $18.9 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $650 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 57%
industry: 17%
services: 26% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 30% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 13.495 million
by occupation: agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 10% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $495 million
expenditures: $631 million, including capital expenditures of $118
million (1990 est.)

Industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer,
cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond and gold mining, oil refining,
shoes, cement, textiles, wood products, fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 7.7% (1994)

Electricity - capacity: 440,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 1.91 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 60 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum
(insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashews, tobacco, cloves
(Zanzibar), corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits,
vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value: $679 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: coffee, cotton, cashew nuts, cloves, tobacco, sisal
partners: India, Germany, Belgium, UK, Japan, Netherlands, Kenya, Hong
Kong, US

Imports:
total value: $1.69 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transportation
equipment, cotton piece goods, crude oil, foodstuffs
partners : UK, Germany, Italy, Japan, US, Kenya, China

Debt - external: $7.4 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Tanzanian shilling (TSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings (TSh) per US$1 - 597.27 (January
1997), 579.98 (1996), 574.76 (1995), 509.63 (1994), 405.27 (1993),
297.71 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Tanzania:Communications

Telephones: 137,000 (1989 est.)

Telephone system: fair system operating below capacity
domestic: open wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 640,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1995 est.)

Televisions: 45,000 (1992 est.)

@Tanzania:Transportation

Railways:
total : 3,569 km (1995)
narrow gauge: 2,600 km 1.000-m gauge; 969 km 1.067-m gauge
note: the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates
1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es Salaam and New
Kapiri Mposhi in Zambia (of which 969 km are in Tanzania and 891 km
are in Zambia) is not a part of Tanzania Railways Corporation; because
of the difference in gauge, this system does not connect to Tanzania
Railways

Highways:
total: 88,000 km
paved: 3,696 km
unpaved : 84,304 km (1994 est.)

Waterways: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa

Pipelines: crude oil 982 km

Ports and harbors: Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Lindi, Mkoani,
Mtwara, Musoma, Mwanza, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar

Merchant marine:
total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 30,371 GRT/41,269 DWT
ships by type: cargo 3, oil tanker 2, passenger-cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 110 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 39
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m : 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 28 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 71
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m : 56 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Tanzanian People's Defense Force or TPDF (includes
Army, Navy, and Air Force), paramilitary Police Field Force Unit,
Militia

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 6,630,336 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 3,842,624 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $69 million (FY94/95)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Malawi over the boundary in
Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Democratic Republic of the
Congo-Tanzania-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it has been informally reported that the indefinite
section of the Democratic Republic of the Congo-Zambia boundary has
been settled

Illicit drugs: growing role in transshipment of Southwest and
Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for
European and US markets and of South Asian methaqualone bound for
Southern Africa
______________________________________________________________________

THAILAND

@Thailand:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of
Thailand, southeast of Burma

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 100 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 514,000 sq km
land: 511,770 sq km
water: 2,230 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries:
total: 4,863 km
border countries: Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km,
Malaysia 506 km

Coastline: 3,219 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to
September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March);
southern isthmus always hot and humid

Terrain: central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains
elsewhere

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,576 m

Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum,
timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite

Land use:
arable land: 34%
permanent crops : 6%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland: 26%
other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 44,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the
depletion of the water table; droughts

Environment - current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions;
water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil
erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea

Geography - note: controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and
Singapore

@Thailand:People

Population: 59,450,818 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (male 7,531,192; female 7,257,574)
15-64 years: 69% (male 20,308,061; female 20,902,406)
65 years and over: 6% (male 1,530,905; female 1,920,680) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 17.03 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.05 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 32.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.8 years
male: 65.12 years
female: 72.66 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.86 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Thai (singular and plural)
adjective: Thai

Ethnic groups: Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%

Religions: Buddhism 95%, Muslim 3.8%, Christianity 0.5%, Hinduism
0.1%, other 0.6% (1991)

Languages: Thai, English the secondary language of the elite, ethnic
and regional dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.8%
male: 96%
female: 91.6% (1995 est.)

@Thailand:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
conventional short form: Thailand

Data code: TH

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Bangkok

Administrative divisions: 76 provinces (changwat, singular and
plural); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat,
Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon,
Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep
Mahanakhon (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son,
Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom,
Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat,
Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani,
Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit,
Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri,
Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo,
Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri,
Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat
Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai
Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon

Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)

Constitution: new constitution approved 7 December 1991; amended 10
June 1992; new constitution currently being drafted with completion
expected by the end of 1997

Legal system: based on civil law system, with influences of common
law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (since 9 June 1946); Heir
Apparent Crown Prince WACHIRALONGKON (born 28 July 1952)
head of government: Prime Minister CHAWALIT Yongchaiyut (since 25
November 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
note: there is also a Privy Council
elections : none; the king is a constitutional monarch; prime minister
designated from among the members of the House of Representatives;
following elections in the House of Representatives, the leader of the
party that wins a plurality of seats usually becomes prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Rathasapha consists
of the Senate or Wuthisapha (a 270-member appointed body; members
serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Sapha
Phuthaen Ratsadon (393 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections : House of Representatives - last held 17 November 1996
(next scheduled to be held by 17 November 2000, but may be held
earlier as Prime Minister CHAWALIT has promised to hold elections
after the draft of the new constitution is complete and that is
scheduled for the end of 1997)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party
- NA; seats by party - NAP 125, DP 123, NDP 52, TNP 39, SAP 20, TCP
18, SP 8, LDP 4, MP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sandika), judges appointed by the king

Political parties and leaders: Thai Nation Party (TNP or Chat Thai
Party), BANHAN Sinlapa-acha; Democratic Party (DP or Prachathipat
Party), CHUAN Likphai; New Aspiration Party (NAP or Khwamwang Mai),
Gen. CHAWALIT Yongchaiyut; National Development Party (NDP or Chat
Phattana), CHATCHAI Chunhawan; Phalang Dharma Party (PDP or Phalang
Tham), SUDARAT Keyuraphan; Social Action Party (SAP or Kitsangkhom
Party), MONTRI Phongphanit; Thai Citizen's Party (TCP or Prachakon
Thai), SAMAK Sunthonwet; Liberal Democratic Party (LDP or Seri Tham),
PHINIT Charusombat; Solidarity Party (SP or Ekkaphap Party), UTHAI
Phimchaichon; Mass Party (MP or Muanchon), Pol. Cpt. CHALOEM Yubamrung

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP,
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador NIT Phibunsongkhram
chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-3600
FAX: [1] (202) 944-3611
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador William H. ITOH
embassy: 120/22 Wireless Road, Bangkok
mailing address: APO AP 96546
telephone: [66] (2) 205-4000
FAX : [66] (2) 254-2990
consulate(s) general: Chiang Mai

Flag description: five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue
(double width), white, and red

Economy

Economy - overview: One of the more advanced developing countries in
Asia, Thailand depends on exports of manufactures - including
high-technology goods - and the development of the service sector to
fuel the country's rapid growth, averaging 9% since 1989. Most of
Thailand's recent imports have been for capital equipment and raw
materials, although imports of consumer goods are beginning to rise.
Thailand's 35% domestic savings rate is a key source of capital for
the economy, and the country is also benefiting from rising investment
from abroad. Prime Minister CHAWALIT's government - Thailand's seventh
government in six years - will continue Bangkok's probusiness policies
and reemphasize Bangkok's traditional fiscal austerity. CHAWALIT is
beginning to address Thailand's serious infrastructure bottlenecks,
especially in the transport and telecommunications sectors. Over the
longer term, Bangkok must produce more college graduates with
technical training and upgrade workers' skills to continue its rapid
economic development.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $455.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,700 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10.5%
industry: 30.5%
services: 59% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5.9% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 34.03 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 57%, industry 17%, commerce 11%, services
(including government) 15% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.6% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $28.4 billion
expenditures: $28.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $6.1
billion (FY94/95)

Industries: tourism; textiles and garments, agricultural processing,
beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing, such as jewelry;
electric appliances and components, integrated circuits, furniture,
plastics; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest
tin producer

Industrial production growth rate: 13.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 15.84 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 70.21 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,205 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), rubber, corn,
sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans

Exports:
total value: $57.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: manufactures 73%, agricultural products and fisheries
21%, raw materials 5%, fuels 1%
partners : US 21.0%, Japan 17.1%, Singapore 13.6%, Hong Kong 5.3%,
Germany 3.5%, UK 3.0%, Netherlands 2.8%, Malaysia 2.4%

Imports:
total value: $72.4 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: manufactures 80%, fuels 6.9%, raw materials 6.6%,
foodstuffs 4.3%
partners: Japan 30.4%, US 11.9%, Singapore 6.3%, Germany 5.8%, Taiwan
5.1%, Malaysia 4.9%, South Korea 3.7%, China 2.6%

Debt - external: $61.6 billion (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $624 million (1993)

Currency: 1 baht (B) = 100 satang

Exchange rates: baht (B) per US$1 - 25.708 (January 1997), 15.343
(1996), 24.915 (1995), 25.150 (1994), 25.319 (1993), 25.400 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@Thailand:Communications

Telephones: 1,553,200 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: service to general public inadequate; bulk of
service to government activities provided by multichannel cable and
microwave radio relay network
domestic: microwave radio relay and multichannel cable; domestic
satellite system being developed
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 200 (in government-controlled network),
FM 100 (in government-controlled network), shortwave 0

Radios: 10.75 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 11 (in government-controlled network)

Televisions: 3.3 million (1993 est.)

@Thailand:Transportation

Railways:
total : 4,623 km
narrow gauge: 4,623 km 1.000-m gauge (99 km double track)

Highways:
total: 56,903 km
paved: 52,806 km
unpaved : 4,097 km (1993 est.)

Waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable
depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways
navigable by shallow-draft native craft

Pipelines: petroleum products 67 km; natural gas 350 km

Ports and harbors: Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip,
Si Racha, Songkhla

Merchant marine:
total : 283 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,859,021 GRT/3,060,277
DWT
ships by type: bulk 38, cargo 144, chemical tanker 5, combination bulk
1, container 12, liquefied gas tanker 15, multi-function large load
carrier 3, oil tanker 49, passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 10,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 2
(1996 est.)

Airports: 100 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 86
over 3,047 m : 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 36 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m : 1
914 to 1,523 m: 13 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (includes Royal
Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force, Paramilitary Forces

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 17,076,040 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 10,315,765 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 591,094 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4 billion (FY94/95)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY94/95)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: boundary dispute with Laos; unresolved
maritime boundary with Vietnam; parts of border with Cambodia in
dispute; maritime boundary with Cambodia not clearly defined

Illicit drugs: a minor producer of opium, heroin, and marijuana; major
illicit transit point for heroin en route to the international drug
market from Burma and Laos; eradication efforts have reduced the area
of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring
countries; opium poppy cultivation has been reduced by eradication
efforts; also a drug money-laundering center; rapidly growing role in
amphetamine production for regional consumption; increasing indigenous
abuse of methamphetamines and heroin
______________________________________________________________________

TOGO

@Togo:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin
and Ghana

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 1 10 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total : 56,790 sq km
land: 54,390 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km

Coastline: 56 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 30 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern
plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pic Baumann 986 m

Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, marble

Land use:
arable land : 38%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 17%
other : 34% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 70 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in
north during winter; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation attributable to
slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; recent
droughts affecting agriculture

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Togo:People

Population: 4,735,610 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 49% (male 1,153,174; female 1,143,085)
15-64 years: 49% (male 1,129,720; female 1,206,926)
65 years and over: 2% (male 47,211; female 55,494) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.54% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 45.71 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.32 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 82.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 58.32 years
male: 56.1 years
female : 60.61 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.68 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese

Ethnic groups: native African (37 tribes; largest and most important
are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than
1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 70%, Christian 20%, Muslim 10%

Languages: French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and
Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes
spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the
north)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.7%
male: 67%
female: 37% (1995 est.)

@Togo:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique Togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togo

Data code: TO

Government type: republic under transition to multiparty democratic
rule

National capital: Lome

Administrative divisions: 21 circumscriptions (circonscriptions,
singular - circonscription); Amlame, Aneho, Atakpame, Badou, Bafilo,
Bassar, Dapaong, Kande, Kara, Kpalime, Lome, Niamtougou, Notse,
Pagouda, Sansanne-Mango, Sokode, Sotouboua, Tabligbo, Tchamba, Tsevie,
Vogan
note : the 21 units may have become second-order administrative
divisions with the imposition of a new first-order level of five
prefectures (singular - prefecture) named De La Kara, Des Plateaux,
Des Savanes, Du Centre, and Maritime

Independence: 27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 April (1960)

Constitution: multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council
of the Republic 1 July 1992; adopted by public referendum 27 September
1992

Legal system: French-based court system

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14 April
1967)
head of government: Prime Minister Kwassi KLUTSE (since September
1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime
minister
elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 25 August 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Gnassingbe EYADEMA elected president; percent of
vote - Gnassingbe EYADEMA 96.5%; note - all major opposition parties
boycotted the election

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members
are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 6 and 20 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CAR
36, RPT 35, UTD 7, UJD 2, CFN 1
note: as a result of a byelection in August 1996, ordered by the
Supreme Court for three seats of the Action Committee for Renewal and
the Togolese Union for Democracy, representation in the National
Assembly changed to RPT 38, CAR 34, UDT 6, UJD 2, and CFN 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or
Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Rally of the Togolese People or RPT
[President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA]; Coordination des Forces Nouvelles
or CFN [Joseph KOFFIGOH]; Togolese Union for Democracy or UTD [Edem
KODJO]; Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yao AGBOYIBOR]; Union for
Democracy and Solidarity or UDS [Antoine FOLLY]; Pan-African
Sociodemocrats Group or GSP, an alliance of three radical parties:
CDPA, PDR, and PSP; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA
[Leopold GNININVI]; Party for Democracy and Renewal or PDR [Zarifou
AYEVA]; Pan-African Social Party or PSP [Francis AGBAGLI]; Union of
Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO (in exile)]; Union of
Justice and Democracy or UJD [Lal TAXPANDJAN]
note: Rally of the Togolese People or RPT, led by President EYADEMA,
was the only party until the formation of multiple parties was
legalized 12 April 1991

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU,
MINURSO, NAM, OAU, OIC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH,
UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kossivi OSSEYI
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX : [1] (202) 232-3190

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Johnny YOUNG
embassy: Rue Pelletier Caventou and Rue Vauban, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome
telephone: [228] 21 77 17, 21 29 91 through 21 29 94
FAX : [228] 21 79 52

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of green (top and
bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on
a red square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy

Economy - overview: This small sub-Saharan economy is heavily
dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which
provides employment for more than 60% of the labor force. Cocoa,
coffee, and cotton together generate about 30% of export earnings.
Togo is self-sufficient in basic foodstuffs when harvests are normal.
In the industrial sector, phosphate mining is by far the most
important activity, although it has suffered from the collapse of
world phosphate prices and increased foreign competition. Togo serves
as a regional commercial and trade center. The government's
decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to
implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and
bring revenues in line with expenditures has stalled. Political
unrest, including private and public sector strikes throughout 1992
and 1993, has jeopardized the reform program, shrunk the tax base, and
disrupted vital economic activity. Although strikes had ended in 1994,
political unrest and lack of funds prevented the government from
taking advantage of the 50% currency devaluation of 12 January 1994.
Resumption of World Bank and IMF flows will depend on implementation
of several controversial moves toward privatization and on downsizing
the military, on which the regime depends to stay in power.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.45 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $970 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 35%
industry: 23%
services: 42% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.2% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.538 million (1993 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 64%, industry 9%, services 21%, unemployed
6% (1981 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $242 million
expenditures: $262 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement;
handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh
note: imports electricity from Ghana

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava
(tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; meat; annual fish catch
of 10,000-14,000 tons

Exports:
total value: $265 (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: phosphates, cotton, coffee, cocoa
partners : Canada 9.2%, US 8.1%, Taiwan 7.5%, Nigeria 6.7% (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $350 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities : machinery and equipment, consumer goods, food, chemical
products
partners: Ghana 17.1%, China 13.3%, France 12.5%, Cameroon 6.0% (1995
est.)

Debt - external: $1.5 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Togo:Communications

Telephones: 12,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: fair system based on network of microwave radio
relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
and 1 Symphonie

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 795,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (relays 2)

Televisions: 24,000 (1992 est.)

@Togo:Transportation

Railways:
total: 525 km (1995)
narrow gauge : 525 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 7,519 km
paved: 2,376 km
unpaved: 5,143 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 50 km Mono river

Ports and harbors: Kpeme, Lome

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 8 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 4
914 to 1,523 m : 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,016,251 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 533,292 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $48 million (1993)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.9% (1993)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers
______________________________________________________________________

TOKELAU

(territory of New Zealand)

@Tokelau:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 9 00 S, 172 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 10 sq km
land: 10 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 17 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 101 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)

Terrain: coral atolls enclosing large lagoons

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: lies in Pacific typhoon belt

Environment - current issues: very limited natural resources and
overcrowding are contributing to emigration to New Zealand

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Tokelau:People

Population: 1,463 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over : NA

Population growth rate: -1.35% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Tokelauan(s)
adjective: Tokelauan

Ethnic groups: Polynesian

Religions: Congregational Christian Church 70%, Roman Catholic 28%,
other 2%
note: on Atafu, all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on
Nukunonu, all Roman Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the
Congregational Christian Church predominant

Languages: Tokelauan (a Polynesian language), English

@Tokelau:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form : Tokelau

Data code: TL

Dependency status: territory of New Zealand

Government type: NA

National capital: none; each atoll has its own administrative center

Administrative divisions: none (territory of New Zealand)

Independence: none (territory of New Zealand)

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi
established British sovereignty over New Zealand)

Constitution: administered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948, as
amended in 1970

Legal system: British and local statutes

Suffrage: 21 years of age

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952);
the queen and New Zealand are represented by Administrator Lindsay
WATT (since NA March 1993)
head of government: Official Secretary Brian LAWRENCE (since NA)
cabinet: the Council of Faipule, consisting of the elected leaders
from each atoll, functions as a cabinet
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; administrator
appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade in New Zealand

Legislative branch: unicameral General Fono (45 seats - 15 from each
of the three atolls; members chosen by each atoll's Council of Elders
or Taupulega who meet together twice a year)

Judicial branch: High Court in Niue; Supreme Court in New Zealand

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: SPC, WHO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of New Zealand)

Flag description: the flag of New Zealand is used

Economy

Economy - overview: Tokelau's small size, isolation, and lack of
resources greatly restrain economic development and confine
agriculture to the subsistence level. The people must rely on aid from
New Zealand to maintain public services, annual aid being
substantially greater than GDP. The principal sources of revenue come
from sales of copra, postage stamps, souvenir coins, and handicrafts.
Money is also remitted to families from relatives in New Zealand.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.5 million (1993 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (1993 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $430,830
expenditures: $2.8 million, including capital expenditures of $37,300
(1987 est.)

Industries: small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work,
plaited craft goods; stamps, coins; fishing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: coconuts, copra, breadfruit, papaya, bananas;
pigs, poultry, goats

Exports:
total value: $98,000 (f.o.b., 1983)
commodities: stamps, copra, handicrafts
partners: NZ

Imports:
total value : $323,400 (c.i.f., 1983)
commodities: foodstuffs, building materials, fuel
partners: NZ

Debt - external: $0

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $3.7 million from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.4247 (January
1997), 1.4543 (1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993),
1.8584 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Tokelau:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: radiotelephone service between islands
international: radiotelephone service to Western Samoa

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
note: each atoll has a radio broadcast station of NA type that
broadcasts shipping and weather reports

Radios: 1,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@Tokelau:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine: none

Airports: none; lagoon landings by amphibious aircraft from Western
Samoa

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

TONGA

@Tonga:Geography

Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 175 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 748 sq km
land: 718 sq km
water: 30 sq km

Area - comparative: four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 419 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to
May), cool season (May to December)

Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral
formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Kao Island 1,033 m

Natural resources: fish, fertile soil

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 43%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 11%
other : 16% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic
activity on Fonuafo'ou

Environment - current issues: deforestation results as more and more
land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to
coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell
collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited)

@Tonga:People

Population: 107,335 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.81% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 26.95 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.14 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 39.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.3 years
male : 67.29 years
female: 71.7 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Tongan(s)
adjective: Tongan

Ethnic groups: Polynesian, Europeans about 300

Religions: Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000
adherents)

Languages: Tongan, English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write a simple message in
Tongan or English
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female : 100% (1976 est.)

@Tonga:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga
conventional short form: Tonga
former: Friendly Islands

Data code: TN

Government type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

National capital: Nuku'alofa

Administrative divisions: three island groups; Ha'apai, Tongatapu,
Vava'u

Independence: 4 June 1970 (emancipation from UK protectorate)

National holiday: Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)

Constitution: 4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967

Legal system: based on English law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965)
head of government: Prime Minister Baron VAEA (since 22 August 1991)
and Deputy Prime Minister S. Langi KAVALIKU (since 22 August 1991)
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the king
note: there is also a Privy Council that consists of the king and the
Cabinet
elections: none; the king is a constitutional monarch; prime minister
and deputy prime minister appointed for life by the king

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fale Alea (30
seats - 12 reserved for cabinet ministers sitting ex officio, nine for
nobles selected by the country's 33 nobles, and nine elected by
popular vote; members serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 24-25 January 1996 (next to be held NA January
1999)
election results : percent of vote - NA; seats - 7 proreform, 2
traditionalist

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the king;
Privy Council with the addition of the chief justice of the Supreme
Court sits as the Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Tonga People's Party, Viliami FUKOFUKA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IMF,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Tonga does not have an embassy in
the US; Ambassador Sione KITE, resides in London
consulate(s) general : San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Tonga; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga

Flag description: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in
the upper hoist-side corner

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy's base is agriculture, which
contributes 36% to GDP. Squash, coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans
are the main crops, and agricultural exports make up two-thirds of
total exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food,
mainly from New Zealand. The industrial sector accounts for only 13%
of GDP. Tourism is the primary source of hard currency earnings, but
the country also remains dependent on sizable external aid and
remittances to offset its trade deficit. The economy continued to grow
in 1993-95 largely because of a rise in squash exports, increased aid
flows, and several large construction projects, but contracted in
1995-96. The government is now turning its attention to further
development of the private sector and the reduction of the budget
deficit. Current proposals include selling Tongan citizenship and
passports to foreigners, leasing its seven equatorial satellite spots,
and setting up a joint venture gas production facility with South
Korea.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $228 million (FY95/96 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1.9% (FY95/96 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,140 (FY95/96 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 36%
industry: 13%
services: 51% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.4% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 32,013 (1990 est.)
by occupation : agriculture 70% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $44 million
expenditures : $86 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 7,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 30 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: coconuts, copra, bananas, vanilla beans,
cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper

Exports:
total value : $15.25 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: squash, vanilla, fish, root crops, coconut oil
partners: Japan 59%, US 14%, Australia 6%, NZ 6% (FY93/94)

Imports:
total value: $80.3 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities : food products, live animals, machinery and transport
equipment, manufactures, fuels, chemicals
partners: NZ 38%, Australia 28%, US 10%, Fiji 7.5% (1995)

Debt - external: $48.4 million (FY93/94)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $7.8 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.); $3.9
million from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 pa'anga (T$) = 100 seniti

Exchange rates: pa'anga (T$) per US$1 - 1.2127 (December 1996), 1.2323
(1996), 1.2709 (1995), 1.3202 (1994), 1.3841 (1993), 1.3471 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Tonga:Communications

Telephones: 3,500 (1986 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 66,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1995)

Televisions: 1,000 (1992 est.)

@Tonga:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 674 km
paved : 182 km
unpaved: 492 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Neiafu, Nuku'alofa, Pangai

Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,990 GRT/14,884 DWT
ships by type : cargo 1, liquefied gas tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Tonga Defense Services (includes, Royal Tongan
Marines, Tongan Royal Guards, Maritime Force, Police); note - a new
Air Wing which will be subordinate to the Defense Ministry is being
developed

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

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