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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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total: 62,049 sq km
land: 62,049 sq km
water : 0 sq km
note: includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,587 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway but not
recognized by Russia
territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool
summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and
north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of
the year

Terrain: wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west
coast clear of ice about one-half of the year; fjords along west and
north coasts

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Arctic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Newtontoppen 1,717 m

Natural resources: coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife,
fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (no trees and the only bushes are crowberry and
cloudberry)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: ice floes often block up the entrance to Bellsund (a
transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make
parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible to maritime traffic

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists
of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total
area

@Svalbard:People

Population: 2,624 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -3.81% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over : NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : NA years
male: NA years
female : NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Ethnic groups: Russian and Ukrainian 62%, Norwegian 38%, other NEGL%
(1994)

Languages: Russian, Norwegian

@Svalbard:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Svalbard (sometimes referred to as
Spitzbergen)

Data code: SV

Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered by the Ministry
of Industry, Oslo, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in
Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was
given to Norway

Government type: NA

National capital: Longyearbyen

Independence: none (territory of Norway)

National holiday: NA

Legal system: NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: King HARALD V of Norway (since 17 January 1991)
head of government: Governor Ann-Krisitin OLSEN (since NA) and
Assistant Governor Jan-Atle HANSEN (since NA September 1993)
elections : none; the king is a hereditary monarch; governor and
assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry
of Justice

International organization participation: none

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used

Economy

Economy - overview: Coal mining is the major economic activity on
Svalbard. By treaty (9 February 1920), the nationals of the treaty
powers have equal rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to
Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal
companies have mined in the past, the only companies still mining are
Norwegian and Russian. The settlements on Svalbard are essentially
company towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly
60% of the Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local
services, and provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also
some trapping of seal, polar bear, fox, and walrus.

Labor force: NA

Budget:
revenues : $11.6 million
expenditures: $11.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Currency: 1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 6.4475 (January
1997), 6.4498 (1996), 6.3352 (1995), 7.0576 (1994), 7.0941 (1993),
6.2145 (1992)

@Svalbard:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: local telephone service
international: satellite earth station - 1 of NA type (for
communication with Norwegian mainland only)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1 (repeaters 2), shortwave 0
note: there are five meteorological/radio stations

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@Svalbard:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved : NA km

Ports and harbors: Barentsburg, Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, Pyramiden

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 4 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary
dispute in the Barents Sea between Norway and Russia
______________________________________________________________________

SWAZILAND

@Swaziland:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 26 30 S, 31 30 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 17,360 sq km
land: 17,200 sq km
water: 160 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total : 535 km
border countries: Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Great Usutu River 21 m
highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m

Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower,
forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc

Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 62%
forests and woodland : 7%
other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 670 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: limited supplies of potable water;
wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting;
overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South
Africa

@Swaziland:People

Population: 1,031,600 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 234,628; female 236,056)
15-64 years: 52% (male 255,775; female 280,416)
65 years and over: 2% (male 10,291; female 14,434) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.24% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.71 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.31 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population : 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 86.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 57.7 years
male: 53.67 years
female: 61.84 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.01 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Swazi(s)
adjective: Swazi

Ethnic groups: African 97%, European 3%

Religions: Christian 60%, indigenous beliefs 40%

Languages: English (official, government business conducted in
English), siSwati (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.7%
male : 78%
female: 75.6% (1995 est.)

@Swaziland:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Kingdom of Swaziland
conventional short form: Swaziland

Data code: WZ

Government type: monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth

National capital: Mbabane (administrative); Lobamba (legislative)

Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini,
Shiselweni

Independence: 6 September 1968 (from UK)

National holiday: Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968)

Constitution: none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended 12
April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but
has not been formally presented to the people

Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory
courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA; note - no suffrage before September 1993; 55 of the 65
seats in the House of Assembly were filled by popular vote in the
elections of September and October 1993; of a population of less than
1 million, the electorate numbered 283,693

Executive branch:
chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
head of government: Prime Minister Sibusiso Barnabas DLAMINI (since 9
August 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by
the king
elections : none; the king is a hereditary monarch; prime minister
appointed by the king

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Libandla, an advisory
body, consists of the Senate (20 seats, 10 appointed by the House of
Assembly and 10 appointed by the king; members serve five-year terms)
and the House of Assembly (65 seats, 10 appointed by the king and 55
elected by secret, popular vote; members serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Assembly - last held 26 September and 11 October
1993 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results : House of Assembly - balloting is done on a nonparty
basis; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of
each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with
the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single
winner by a second round

Judicial branch: High Court, judges are appointed by the king; Court
of Appeal, judges are appointed by the king

Political parties and leaders:
note: political parties are banned by the constitution promulgated on
13 October 1978; illegal parties are prohibited from holding large
public gatherings
illegal parties: Peoples' United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario
MASUKU]; Swaziland Youth Congress or SWAYOCO (included in PUDEMO);
Swaziland Communist Party or SWACOPA [Mphandlana SHONGWE]; Swaziland
Liberation Front or FROLISA; Convention for Full Democracy in
Swaziland or COFUDESWA [Sabelo DLAMINI]; Swaziland National Front or
SWANAFRO; Ngwane Socialist Revolutionary Party or NGWASOREP; Swaziland
Democratic Alliance (represents key opposition parties) [Jerry
NXUMALO]; Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions or SFTU [Jan SITHOLE]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Madzandza KANYA
chancery: Suite 3M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6683, 6685
FAX: [1] (202) 244-8059

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Allen McKEE
embassy: Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane
mailing address: P. O. Box 199, Mbabane
telephone: [268] 46441 through 46445
FAX : [268] 45959

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple
width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red
band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff
decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally

Economy

Economy - overview: This small landlocked economy is based largely on
subsistence agriculture, which occupies more than 60% of the
population. Manufacturing features a number of agroprocessing
factories. Mining has declined in importance in recent years;
high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted by 1978, and health
concerns have cut world demand for asbestos. Exports of soft drink
concentrate, sugar and wood pulp are the main earners of hard
currency. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with
Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa from which
it receives nearly 90% of its imports and to which it sends more than
half of its exports. Remittances from Swazi workers in South African
mines supplement domestically earned income by as much as 20%. The
government is trying to improve the atmosphere for foreign investment.
Overgrazing, soil depletion, and drought persist as problems for the
future.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.9% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 43%
services: 45% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 14.7% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 160,355 (1986 est.)
by occupation: private sector about 65%, public sector 35%

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $397 million
expenditures: $413 million, including capital expenditures of $78
million (1995/96)

Industries: mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar, soft drink
concentrates

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1993 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 50,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 84 million kWh (1993)
note: imports 90% of its electricity from South Africa

Electricity - consumption per capita: 612 kWh (1993)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, cotton, maize, tobacco, rice,
citrus, pineapples, corn, sorghum, peanuts; cattle, goats, sheep

Exports:
total value : $700 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn
partners : South Africa 58%, EU 20%, Mozambique 6% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $831 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, petroleum
products, foodstuffs, chemicals
partners : South Africa 88%, Japan, UK, US (FY94/95)

Debt - external: $175 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 lilangeni (E) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: emalangeni (E) per US$1 - 4.6410 (January 1997),
4.2706 (1996), 3.6266 (1995), 3.5490 (1994), 3.2636 (1993), 2.8497
(1992); note - the Swazi emalangeni are at par with the South African
rand

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Swaziland:Communications

Telephones: 30,364 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and
low-capacity, microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 129,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 10

Televisions: 12,500 (1992 est.)

@Swaziland:Transportation

Railways:
total: 297 km; note - includes 71 km which are not in use
narrow gauge: 297 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 2,885 km
paved: 814 km
unpaved: 2,071 km (1994 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 17 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m : 10 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (Army), Royal
Swaziland Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 228,109 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 131,872 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $22 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Swaziland has asked South Africa to open
negotiations on reincorporating some nearby South African territories
that are populated by ethnic Swazis or that were long ago part of the
Swazi Kingdom
______________________________________________________________________

SWEDEN

@Sweden:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia,
Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 15 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 449,964 sq km
land : 410,928 sq km
water: 39,036 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 2,205 km
border countries: Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km

Coastline: 3,218 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf : 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of
straits to high seas)

Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly
cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m

Natural resources: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber,
uranium, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land : 7%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 68%
other: 24% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,150 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in
the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

Environment - current issues: acid rain damaging soils and lakes;
pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location along Danish Straits linking
Baltic and North Seas

@Sweden:People

Population: 8,865,051 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 849,093; female 805,087)
15-64 years: 64% (male 2,876,064; female 2,784,346)
65 years and over : 17% (male 655,490; female 894,971) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.23% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 11.37 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.78 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.08 years
male: 76.42 years
female : 81.89 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish

Ethnic groups: white, Lapp (Sami), foreign-born or first-generation
immigrants 12% (Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks)

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 94%, Roman Catholic 1.5%, Pentecostal
1%, other 3.5% (1987)

Languages: Swedish
note: small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 99% (1979 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Sweden:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige

Data code: SW

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Stockholm

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (lan, singular and plural);
Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan, Gavleborgs Lan, Goteborgs och Bohus Lan,
Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan, Jamtlands Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan,
Kopparbergs Lan, Kristianstads Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan,
Norrbottens Lan, Orebro Lan, Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan,
Sodermanlands Lan, Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan,
Vasterbottens Lan, Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands Lan

Independence: 6 June 1523, Gustav VASA was elected king; 6 June 1809,
a constitutional monarchy was established

National holiday: Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June

Constitution: 1 January 1975

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir
Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the king
(born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 March 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: the king is a constitutional monarch; prime minister
elected by the Parliament; election last held NA March 1996 (next to
be held NA 1998)
election results : Goran PERSSON elected prime minister; percent of
parliamentary vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats;
members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation
basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 18 September 1994 (next to be held NA September
1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 45.4%,
Moderate Party (Conservatives) 22.3%, Center Party 7.7%, Liberals
7.2%, Left Party 6.2%, Greens 5.8%, Christian Democrats 4.1%, New
Democracy Party 1.2%; seats by party - Social Democrats 162, Moderate
Party (Conservatives) 80, Center Party 27, Liberals 26, Left Party 22,
Greens 18, Christian Democrats 14; note - the New Democracy Party did
not receive a seat because parties require a minimum of 4.0% of votes
for a seat in parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen, judges are
appointed by the government (prime minister and cabinet)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party [Goran
PERSSON]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Carl BILDT]; Liberal People's
Party [Maria LEISSNER]; Center Party [Olof JOHANSSON]; Christian
Democratic Party [Alf SVENSSON]; New Democracy Party [Vivianne
FRANZEN]; Left Party or VP (Communist) [Gudrun SCHYMAN]; Communist
Workers' Party [Rolf HAGEL]; Green Party [no formal leader but party
spokesperson is Briger SCHLAUG]

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU,
FAO, G- 6, G- 8, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC (observer), NAM (guest), NC,
NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council
(temporary), UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH,
UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer),
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Carl Henrik Sihver LILJEGREN
chancery: 1501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX : [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas L. SIEBERT
embassy: Strandvagen 101, S-115 89 Stockholm
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [46] (8) 783 53 00
FAX : [46] (8) 661 19 64

Flag description: blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges
of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist
side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy

Economy - overview: Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole
twentieth century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living
under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare
benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and
external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber,
hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy
heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account
for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector
accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only
2% of GDP and 2% of the jobs. In recent years, however, this
extraordinarily favorable picture has been clouded by budgetary
difficulties, inflation, growing unemployment, and a gradual loss of
competitiveness in international markets. To curb the budget deficit
and bolster confidence in the economy, the government adopted an
adjustment program in November 1994 that aims to eliminate the
government budget deficit and to stabilize the debt to GDP ratio.
Sweden has harmonized its economic policies with those of the EU,
which it joined at the start of 1995.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $184.3 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry : 27%
services: 71% (1993)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 0.2% (September 1996)

Labor force:
total: 4.552 million (84% unionized, 1992)
by occupation: community, social and personal services 38.3%, mining
and manufacturing 21.2%, commerce, hotels, and restaurants 14.1%,
banking, insurance 9.0%, communications 7.2%, construction 7.0%,
agriculture, fishing, and forestry 3.2% (1991)

Unemployment rate: 8% (September 1996) plus about 6% in training
programs

Budget:
revenues: $109.4 billion
expenditures : $146.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96)

Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and
telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed
foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 35.46 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 147.7 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 14,862 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grains, sugar beets, potatoes; meat, milk

Exports:
total value: $79.9 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and
wood, iron and steel products, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum
products
partners: EU 59.1% (Germany 13.2%, UK 10.2%, Denmark 6.9%, France
5.1%), Norway 8.1%, Finland 4.8%, US 8.0% (1994)

Imports:
total value : $64.4 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals,
motor vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing
partners: EU 62.6% (Germany 18.4%, UK 9.5%, Denmark 6.6%, France
5.5%), Finland 6.3%, Norway 6.1%, US 8.5% (1994)

Debt - external: $66.5 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.769 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Swedish krona (SKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1 - 7.0671 (January 1997),
6.7060 (1996), 7.1333 (1995), 7.7160 (1994), 7.7834 (1993), 5.8238
(1992)

Fiscal year: 1 January - 31 December (Sweden changed its fiscal year
from 1 July - 30 June in 1995)

@Sweden:Communications

Telephones: 13 million (1996 est.)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international facilities;
automatic system
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cable carry most voice traffic;
parallel microwave radio relay network carries some additional
telephone channels
international: 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations -
1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and
Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station
with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and
Norway)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 360 (mostly repeaters), shortwave 0

Radios: 7.272 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 880 (mostly repeaters)

Televisions: 3.5 million

@Sweden:Transportation

Railways:
total: 12,624 km (includes 953 km of privately-owned railways)
standard gauge: 11,767 km 1.435-m gauge (7,320 km electrified and
1,152 km double track)
other gauge: 857 km NA-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 136,233 km
paved: 103,537 km (including 1,231 km of expressways)
unpaved : 32,696 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

Pipelines: natural gas 84 km

Ports and harbors: Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Hudiksvall,
Kalmar, Karlshamn, Malmo, Solvesborg, Stockholm, Sundsvall

Merchant marine:
total: 179 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,131,361 GRT/2,244,410
DWT
ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 39, chemical tanker 27, combination
ore/oil 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 31, railcar carrier 1,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 43, short-sea passenger
7, specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 13 (1996 est.)

Airports: 251 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 247
over 3,047 m : 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 84
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m : 127 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Swedish Army, Royal Swedish Navy, Swedish Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,101,889 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,839,158 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 51,314 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $5.8 billion (FY94/95)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY94/95)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for and consumer of narcotics
shipped via the CIS and Baltic states; increasing consumer of European
amphetamines
______________________________________________________________________

SWITZERLAND

@Switzerland:Geography

Location: Central Europe, east of France

Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 41,290 sq km
land: 39,770 sq km
water : 1,520 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 1,852 km
border countries: Austria 164 km, France 573 km, Italy 740 km,
Liechtenstein 41 km, Germany 334 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy,
rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with
occasional showers

Terrain: mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a
central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Lake Maggiore 195 m
highest point: Dufourspitze 4,634 m

Natural resources: hydropower potential, timber, salt

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 28%
forests and woodland: 32%
other : 28% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 250 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: avalanches, landslides, flash floods

Environment - current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions and
open-air burning; acid rain; water pollution from increased use of
agricultural fertilizers; loss of biodiversity

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern
Europe; along with southeastern France and northern Italy, contains
the highest elevations in Europe

@Switzerland:People

Population: 7,240,463 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 643,301; female 614,913)
15-64 years: 68% (male 2,501,705; female 2,412,165)
65 years and over : 15% (male 429,754; female 638,625) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.33% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 11.05 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.77 years
male : 75.59 years
female: 82.11 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.45 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Swiss (singular and plural)
adjective: Swiss

Ethnic groups: total population - German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%,
Romansch 1%, other 6%
note : Swiss nationals - German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch
1%, other 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 46.7%, Protestant 40%, other 5%, no religion
8.3% (1990)

Languages: German 63.7%, French 19.2%, Italian 7.6%, Romansch 0.6%,
other 8.9%
note: figures for Swiss nationals only: German 74%, French 20%,
Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1%

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Switzerland:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Swiss Confederation
conventional short form: Switzerland
local long form: Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (German),
Confederation Suisse (French), Confederazione Svizzera (Italian)
local short form: Schweiz (German), Suisse (French), Svizzera
(Italian)

Data code: SZ

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Bern

Administrative divisions: 26 cantons (cantons, singular - canton in
French; cantoni, singular - cantone in Italian; kantone, singular -
kanton in German); Aargau, Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft,
Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve, Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden,
Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Sankt Gallen,
Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud,
Zug, Zurich

Independence: 1 August 1291

National holiday: Anniversary of the Founding of the Swiss
Confederation, 1 August (1291)

Constitution: 29 May 1874

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts, except with respect to federal decrees of
general obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Arnold KOLLER (since 1 January 1997); Vice
President Flavio COTTI (since 1 January 1997); note - the president is
both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Arnold KOLLER (since 1 January 1997);
Vice President Flavio COTTI (since 1 January 1997); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Federal Council or German - Bundesrat, French - Conseil
Federal, Italian - Consiglio Federale elected by the Federal Assembly
from among its own members for a four-year term
elections : president and vice president elected by the Federal
Assembly from among the members of the Federal Council for one-year
terms that run concurrently; election last held 4 December 1996 (next
to be held NA December 1997)
election results: Arnold KOLLER elected president; percent of Federal
Assembly vote - NA; Flavio COTTI elected vice president; percent of
legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or German -
Bundesversammlung, French - Assemblee Federale, Italian - Assemblea
Federale consists of the Council of States or German - Standerat,
French - Conseil des Etats, Italian - Consiglio degli Stati (46 seats;
members are elected two from each canton and one from each half canton
to serve four-year terms) and the National Council or German -
Nationalrat, French - Conseil National, Italian - Consiglio Nazionale
(200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a basis of
proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: Council of States - last held throughout 1995 (each canton
determines when the next election will be held); National Council -
last held 20 October 1995 (next to be held NA October 1999)
election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - PRD 17, PDC 16, UDC 5, PSS 5, LPS 2, LdU 1; National
Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRD 45, PSS
55, PDC 34, UDC 29, Greens 10, LPS 7, FPS 6, LdU/EVP 5, SD 3, PdAdS 3,
Ticino League 2, EDU 1

Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court, judges elected for six-year
terms by the Federal Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Radical Free Democratic Party
(Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz or FDP, Parti
Radical-Democratique Suisse or PRD, Partitio Liberal-Radicale Svizzero
or PLR) [Franz STEINEGGER, president]; Social Democratic Party
(Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz or SPS, Parti Socialist Suisse
or PSS, Partito Socialista Svizzero or PSS, Partida Socialdemocratica
de la Svizra or PSS) [Peter BODENMANN, president]; Christian
Democratic People's Party (Christichdemokratische Volkspartei der
Schweiz or CVP, Parti Democrate-Chretien Suisse or PDC, Partito
Democratico-Cristiano Popolare Svizzero or PDC, Partida
Cristiandemocratica dalla Svizra or PCD) [Anton COTTIER, president];
Swiss People's Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei or SVP, Union
Democratique du Centre or UDC, Unione Democratica de Centro or UDC,
Uniun Democratica da Center or UDC) [Ueli MAURER, president]; Green
Party (Grune Partei der Schweiz or Grune, Parti Ecologiste Suisse or
Les Verts, Partito Ecologista Svizzero or I Verdi, Partida Ecologica
Svizra or La Verda) [Verena DIENER, president]; Freedom Party or FPS
[Roland BORER]; Liberal Party (Liberale Partei der Schweiz or LPS,
Parti Liberal Suisse or PLS, Partito Liberale Svizzero or PLS)
[Francois Jeanneset, president]; Alliance of Independents' Party
(Landesring der Unabhaengigen or LdU, Alliance des Independants or
AdI) [Daniel ANDRES, president]; Ticino League (Lega dei Ticinesi)
[Giuliano BIGNASCA, president]; and other minor parties including
Swiss Democratic Party (Schweizer Demokraten or SD, Democrates Suisses
or DS, Democratici Svizzeri or DS), Workers' Party (Parti Suisse du
Travail or PST, Partei der Arbeit der Schweiz or PdAdS, Partito
Svizzero del Lavoro or PSdL), Evangelical People's Party (Evangelische
Volkspartei der Schweiz or EVP, Parti Evangelique Suisse or PEV,
Partito Evangelico Svizzero or PEV), and the Union of Federal
Democrats (Eidgenossisch-Demokratische Union or EDU, Union
Democratique Federale or UDF, Unione Democratica Federale or UDF);
note - see elections

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G- 8,
G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN
(observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP,
UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alfred DEFAGO (since April 1997)
chancery: 2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 745-7900
FAX: [1] (202) 387-2564
consulate(s) general : Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New
York, Pago Pago (American Samoa), and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Madeleine May KUNIN (since 8 August 1996)
embassy: Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3005 Bern
mailing address : use embassy street address
telephone: [41] (31) 357 70 11
FAX: [41] (31) 357 73 44

Flag description: red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in
the center that does not extend to the edges of the flag

Economy

Economy - overview: Switzerland, a fundamentally prosperous and stable
modern economy with a per capita GDP roughly 10% above that of the big
West European economies, is experiencing continued economic
difficulties. GDP has dropped for five consecutive quarters,
unemployment is reaching record levels, and the fiscal deficit is
again above 3% of GDP. In 1997, growth may reach barely 0.6%; a
recovery is not likely before mid to late 1997. Weak domestic consumer
demand is partly at fault; declining real disposable income is
combining with a reluctance to reduce saving rates in the face of an
uncertain employment outlook. Switzerland's leading sectors, including
financial services, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, and
special-purpose machines, will therefore be more reliant on export
markets at the same time they are being squeezed by the strong franc.
Consequently, growth in machinery and equipment investment, for
example, is expected to taper off. On the other side, import growth in
1997 also is likely to be lower than the 1995 rate of 6.6%, but higher
than 1996's expected 1.9%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $161.3 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -0.75% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $22,600 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.8%
industry: 31.1%
services: 66.1% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 0.8% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 3.776 million (939,000 foreign workers, mostly Italian)
by occupation: services 67%, manufacturing and construction 29%,
agriculture and forestry 4% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 5.3% (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $31 billion
expenditures : $36.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995)

Industries: machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision
instruments

Industrial production growth rate: -2% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 14.27 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 62.2 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 6,810 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grains, fruits, vegetables; meat, eggs

Exports:
total value: $81.35 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: manufactures 94.74%, agricultural products 2.99%, raw
materials 2.05%, fuels 0.15% (1995)
partners: EU countries 62.1%, US 8.7%, Japan 4.0% (1996 est.)

Imports:
total value : $80.05 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: manufactures 86.81%, agricultural products 6.44%, raw
materials 3.65%, fuels 2.93% (1995)
partners: EU 80.2%, US 6.6% (1996 est.)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.034 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SFR) = 100 centimes,
rappen, or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SFR) per US$1 -
1.3936 (January 1997), 1.2360 (1996), 1.1825 (1995), 1.3677 (1994),
1.4776 (1993), 1.4062 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Switzerland:Communications

Telephones: 4.573 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international services
domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean
and Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 265, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.727 million (1994 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18 (repeaters 1,322)

Televisions: 2.513 million (1994 est.)

@Switzerland:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,719 km (1,432 km double track)
standard gauge: 3,283 km 1.435-m gauge (99% electrified; 310 km
nongovernment owned)
narrow gauge: 1,255 km 1.000-m gauge (99% electrified; 1,181 km
nongovernment owned)
other gauge : 1,181 km NA-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 71,055 km (including 1,540 km of expressways)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 65 km; Rhine (Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen to
Bodensee); 12 navigable lakes

Pipelines: crude oil 314 km; natural gas 1,506 km

Ports and harbors: Basel

Merchant marine:
total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 378,871 GRT/665,519 DWT
ships by type: bulk 13, cargo 1, chemical tanker 6, oil tanker 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, specialized tanker 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 67 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 66
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m : 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 40 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force and Antiaircraft Command, Frontier
Guards, Fortification Guards

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,889,213 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,617,691 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 41,038 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.74 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: money-laundering center; transit country for and
consumer of South American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin
______________________________________________________________________

SYRIA

@Syria:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Lebanon and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 185,180 sq km
land: 184,050 sq km
water: 1,130 sq km
note: includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territory

Area - comparative: slightly larger than North Dakota

Land boundaries:
total: 2,253 km
border countries: Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon
375 km, Turkey 822 km

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 41 nm
territorial sea: 35 nm

Climate: mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and
mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather
with snow or sleet periodically hitting Damascus

Terrain: primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain;
mountains in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: unnamed location near Lake Tiberias -200 m
highest point: Mount Hermon 2,814 m

Natural resources: petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores,
asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum

Land use:
arable land: 28%
permanent crops : 4%
permanent pastures: 43%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,060 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification; water pollution from dumping of raw sewage
and wastes from petroleum refining; inadequate supplies of potable
water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Environmental Modification

Geography - note: there are 42 Israeli settlements and civilian land
use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (August 1996 est.)

@Syria:People

Population: 16,137,899 (July 1997 est.)
note: in addition, there are 32,600 people living in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights - 17,600 Arabs (16,000 Druze and 1,600
Alawites) and 15,000 Israeli settlers (August 1996 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 46% (male 3,839,369; female 3,654,350)
15-64 years: 51% (male 4,174,734; female 3,997,666)
65 years and over : 3% (male 234,127; female 237,653) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.3% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 38.7 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.7 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 38.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.44 years
male: 66.21 years
female : 68.74 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.73 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Syrian(s)
adjective: Syrian

Ethnic groups: Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects
16%, Christian (various sects) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in
Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo)

Languages: Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian,
French widely understood

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70.8%
male : 85.7%
female: 55.8% (1995 est.)

@Syria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Syrian Arab Republic
conventional short form: Syria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah
local short form : Suriyah
former: United Arab Republic (with Egypt)

Data code: SY

Government type: republic under military regime since March 1963

National capital: Damascus

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As
Suwayda', Dar'a, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab, Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif
Dimashq, Tartus

Independence: 17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under
French administration)

National holiday: National Day, 17 April (1946)

Constitution: 13 March 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and civil law system; special
religious courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Hafiz al-ASAD (since 22 February 1971); note
- President ASAD seized power in the November 1970 coup, assumed
presidential powers 22 February 1971, and was confirmed as president
in the 12 March 1971 national elections; Vice Presidents 'Abd al-Halim
ibn Said KHADDAM (since 11 March 1984), Rifaat al-ASAD (since 11 March
1984), and Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 March 1984)
head of government: Prime Minister Mahmud ZUBI (since 1 November
1987), Deputy Prime Ministers Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March
1984), Salim YASIN (since NA December 1981), and Rashid AKHTARINI
(since 4 July 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 2 December 1991 (next to be held NA December 1998);
vice presidents appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy
prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: Hafiz al-ASAD reelected president; percent of vote -
Hafiz al-ASAD 99.98%

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Council or Majlis al-shaab
(250 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 24-25 August 1994 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
National Progressive Front 167, independents 83

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court, justices are appointed
for four-year terms by the president; High Judicial Council; Court of
Cassation; State Security Courts

Political parties and leaders:
National Progressive Front includes : the ruling Arab Socialist
Renaissance (Ba'th) Party, Hafiz al-ASAD, president of the republic,
secretary general of the party, and chairman of the National
Progressive Front; Syrian Arab Socialist Party (ASP), 'Abd al-Ghani
KANNUT; Arab Socialist Union (ASU), Jamal ATASSI; Syrian Communist
Party (SCP), Yusuf FAYSAL; Arab Socialist Unionist Party, Safwan
QUDSI; Democratic Socialist Union Party, Ahmad al-ASAD

Political pressure groups and leaders: non-Ba'th parties have little
effective political influence; Communist party ineffective;
conservative religious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU,
CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO,
ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Walid MUALEM
chancery: 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-6313
FAX: [1] (202) 234-9548

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher W. S. ROSS
embassy: Abou Roumaneh, Al-Mansur Street No. 2, Damascus
mailing address : P. O. Box 29, Damascus
telephone: [963] (11) 333-2814, 333-0788, 332-0783
FAX: [963] (11) 224-7938

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black with two small green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line
centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a
plain white band and of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an
Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band;
also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a symbolic eagle centered
in the white band

Economy

Economy - overview: Sheltered from the pressures of the international
marketplace for almost three decades, Syria's predominantly statist
economy is on a weak footing because of Damascus's failure to
implement extensive economic reform. After an economic rebound in the
early 1990s in the wake of the Persian Gulf war, economic growth has
slowed as the traditionally volatile economy has once again slumped.
Current account and budget deficits and inflation are increasing. The
dominant agricultural sector remains underdeveloped, with roughly 80%
of agricultural land still dependent on rain-fed sources. Although
Syria has sufficient water supplies in the aggregate at normal levels
of precipitation, the great distance between major water supplies and
population centers poses serious distribution problems, and the water
problem is exacerbated by rapid population growth, industrial
expansion, and increased water pollution. Unemployment remains a
nagging problem because about 60% of the population is under the age
of 20, ensuring a steady flow of job seekers into the already tight
labor market. Private investment is critical to the modernization of
the agricultural, energy, and export sectors, particularly because
Damascus is saddled with a heavy foreign debt. Oil production is
leveling off, and the efforts of the nonoil sector to penetrate
international markets have fallen short. Syria's inadequate
infrastructure, outmoded technological base, and weak educational
system hamper competition with neighbors such as Jordan and Israel.
The dominant public sector continues to be plagued by labor,
financial, and management problems, and much of the private sector is
hobbled by a shortage of capital. The economic benefits of any peace
treaty with Israel will depend in large part on the pace of economic
reform.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $98.3 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.2% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 28%
industry: 18%
services: 54% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 20% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4.7 million (1995 est.)
by occupation: services 40%, agriculture 40%, industry 20% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3 billion
expenditures : $3.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum, textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco,
phosphate rock mining

Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (1994)

Electricity - capacity: 4.16 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 14.25 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 902 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas;
beef, lamb, eggs, poultry, milk

Exports:
total value: $4.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum 56%, food and live animals 16%, textiles 16%
(1994 est.)
partners: EU 57% (Germany 17%, Italy 16%, France 11%), Lebanon 14%,
Saudi Arabia 7% (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value : $5.2 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery 25%, food and live animals 15%, transport
equipment 12%, chemicals 8% (1994 est.)
partners: EU 33% (Italy 9%, Germany 8%, France 4%), South Korea 4.5%,
US 4%, Japan 3% (1995 est.)

Debt - external: $22 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: $4.2 billion (1990-92)

Currency: 1 Syrian pound (úS) = 100 piastres

Exchange rates: Syrian pounds (úS) per US$1 - 41.9 (January 1997);
official fixed rate 11.225

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Syria:Communications

Telephones: 541,465 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: fair system currently undergoing significant
improvement and digital upgrades, including fiber-optic technology
domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay network
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 1 submarine cable; coaxial
cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey;
participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.392 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 17

Televisions: 700,000 (1993 est.)

@Syria:Transportation

Railways:
total : 1,998 km
broad gauge: 1,766 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 232 km 1.050-m gauge

Highways:
total: 39,243 km
paved : 27,862 km (including 850 km of expressways)
unpaved: 11,381 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 870 km; minimal economic importance

Pipelines: crude oil 1,304 km; petroleum products 515 km

Ports and harbors: Baniyas, Jablah, Latakia, Tartus

Merchant marine:
total: 125 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 381,408 GRT/565,225 DWT
ships by type: bulk 12, cargo 109, livestock carrier 3,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 99 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 84
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m : 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 62 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 13 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Navy, Syrian Arab Air
Force, Syrian Arab Air Defense Forces, Police and Security Force

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,742,851 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 2,095,933 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 170,328 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $875 million (1994 est.); note
- based on official budget data that understate actual spending

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 8% (1994 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Hatay
question with Turkey; dispute with upstream riparian Turkey over
Turkish water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers;
Syrian troops in northern, central, and eastern Lebanon since October
1976

Illicit drugs: a transit point for Lebanese and Turkish refined
cocaine going to Europe and heroin and hashish bound for regional and
Western markets
______________________________________________________________________

TAJIKISTAN

Introduction

Current issues: Tajikistan has experienced three changes of government
since it gained independence in September 1991. The current president,
Emomali RAHMONOV, was elected in November 1994, yet has been in power
since 1992. The country is suffering through its fourth year of a
civil conflict, with no clear end in sight. Underlying the conflict
are deeply rooted regional and clan-based animosities that pit a
government consisting of people primarily from the Kulob (Kulyab),
Khujand (Leninabad), and Hisor (Hissar) regions against a secular and
Islamic-led opposition from the Gharm, Gorno-Badakhshan, and
Qurghonteppa (Kurgan-Tyube) regions. Government and opposition
representatives have held periodic rounds of UN-mediated peace talks
and agreed in September 1994 to a cease-fire which has been
periodically extended. Russian-led peacekeeping troops are deployed
throughout the country, and Russian-commanded border guards are
stationed along the Tajikistani-Afghan border.

@Tajikistan:Geography

Location: Central Asia, west of China

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 71 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total : 143,100 sq km
land: 142,700 sq km
water: 400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries:
total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870
km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid
to polar in Pamir Mountains

Terrain: Pamirs and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana
Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Syrdariya 300 m
highest point: Qullai Kommunizm 7,495 m

Natural resources: significant hydropower potential, some petroleum,
uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten

Land use:
arable land : 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 4%
other: 65% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 6,390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: inadequate sanitation facilities;
increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive
pesticides; part of the basin of the shrinking Aral Sea suffers from
severe overutilization of available water for irrigation and
associated pollution

Environment - international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked

@Tajikistan:People

Population: 5,945,903 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (male 1,263,725; female 1,234,730)
15-64 years : 53% (male 1,578,940; female 1,599,458)
65 years and over: 5% (male 114,118; female 154,932) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.18% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 27.93 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.74 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 109.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.68 years
male : 61.55 years
female: 67.97 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.58 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani

Ethnic groups: Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because
of emigration), other 6.6%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 5%

Languages: Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and
business

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

@Tajikistan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikistan
local short form: none
former : Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: TI

Government type: republic

National capital: Dushanbe

Administrative divisions: 2 oblasts (viloyatho, singular - viloyat)
and one autonomous oblast* (viloyati avtonomii); Viloyati Avtonomii
Badakhshoni Kuni* (Khorugh - formerly Khorog), Viloyati Khatlon
(Qurghonteppa - formerly Kurgan-Tyube), Viloyati Leninobod (Khujand -
formerly Leninabad)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

Independence: 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: National Day, 9 September (1991)

Constitution: new constitution adopted 6 November 1994

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Emomali RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994;
head of state and Assembly chairman since NA November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Yahyo AZIMOV (since 8 February
1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president who proposes
them to the Supreme Assembly for approval
elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 6 November 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of vote
- Emomali RAHMONOV 58%, Abdumalik ABDULLAJANOV 40%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli (181
seats; members are popularly elected to serve five-year terms)
elections : last held 26 February and 12 March 1995 (next to be held
NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; estimated seats by
party - Communist Party and affiliates 100, People's Party 10, Party
of People's Unity 6, Party of Economic and Political Renewal 1, other
64

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Book of the day: