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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Pipelines: crude oil 931 km; petroleum products 1,748 km; natural gas
322 km

Ports and harbors: Cape Town, Durban, East London, Mosselbaai, Port
Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha

Merchant marine:
total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 270,848 GRT/266,029 DWT
ships by type: container 6, oil tanker 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 662 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 351
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m : 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43
914 to 1,523 m: 74
under 914 m: 220 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 311
1,524 to 2,437 m : 33
914 to 1,523 m: 278 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: South African National Defense Force or SANDF
(includes Army, Navy, Air Force, and Medical Services), South African
Police Service or SAPS

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 10,972,813 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 6,672,760 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 435,972 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.9 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.2% (FY95/96)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Swaziland has asked South Africa to open
negotiations on reincorporating some nearby South African territories
that are populated by ethnic Swazis or that were long ago part of the
Swazi Kingdom

Illicit drugs: transshipment center for heroin and cocaine; cocaine
consumption on the rise; world's largest market for illicit
methaqualone, usually imported illegally from India through various
east African countries; illicit cultivation of marijuana
______________________________________________________________________

SOUTH GEORGIA AND THE
Sandwich Islands]

(dependent territory of the UK)

@South Georgia and the:Geography

Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean,
east of the tip of South America

Geographic coordinates: 54 30 S, 37 00 W

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total : 4,066 sq km
land: 4,066 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Shag Rocks, Clerke Rocks, Bird Island

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: NA km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year,
interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as
snow

Terrain: most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged
and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep,
glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic
origin with some active volcanoes

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Paget 2,915 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland : 0%
other: 100% (largely covered by permanent ice and snow with some
sparse vegetation consisting of grass, moss, and lichen)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: the South Sandwich Islands have prevailing weather
conditions that generally make them difficult to approach by ship;
they are also subject to active volcanism

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: the north coast of South Georgia has several large
bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in this
century, live on South Georgia

@South Georgia and the:People

Population: no indigenous population
note: there is a small military garrison on South Georgia, and the
British Antarctic Survey has a biological station on Bird Island; the
South Sandwich Islands are uninhabited

@South Georgia and the:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
conventional short form: none

Data code: SX

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK; administered by a
civil commissioner based in the Falkland Islands

National capital: none; Grytviken on South Georgia is the garrison
town

Flag description: the flag of the UK is used

Economy

Economy - overview: Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There
is a potential source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill.
The islands receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK.

Budget:
revenues: $291,777
expenditures: $451,000, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988
est.)

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

@South Georgia and the:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: coastal radiotelephone station at Grytviken

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA

@South Georgia and the:Transportation

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Grytviken

Airports: none

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina
______________________________________________________________________

SPAIN

@Spain:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay,
Mediterranean Sea, and North Atlantic Ocean, southwest of France

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 504,750 sq km
land: 499,400 sq km
water: 5,350 sq km
note: includes Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, and five places of
sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco -
Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de
Velez de la Gomera

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Oregon

Land boundaries:
total: 1,919.1 km
border countries: Andorra 65 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km,
Portugal 1,214 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Morocco (Melilla) 9.6 km

Coastline: 4,964 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and
cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy
and cool along coast

Terrain: large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills;
Pyrenees in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point : Pico de Teide on Canary Islands 3,718 m

Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites,
fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash,
hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 30%
permanent crops : 9%
permanent pastures: 21%
forests and woodland: 32%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 34,530 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from
raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas;
water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation;
desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification,
Law of the Sea

Geography - note: strategic location along approaches to Strait of
Gibraltar

@Spain:People

Population: 39,107,912 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 15% (male 3,121,625; female 2,942,492)
15-64 years: 69% (male 13,396,398; female 13,400,728)
65 years and over: 16% (male 2,592,692; female 3,653,977) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.06% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 9.94 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.54 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 77.39 years
male: 73.59 years
female: 81.46 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.18 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Spaniard(s)
adjective: Spanish

Ethnic groups: composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Religions: Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%

Languages: Castilian Spanish 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 98%
female: 94% (1986 est.)

@Spain:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form: Spain
local short form: Espana

Data code: SP

Government type: parliamentary monarchy

National capital: Madrid

Administrative divisions: 17 autonomous communities (comunidades
autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon,
Asturias, Canarias, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon,
Cataluna, Communidad Valencian, Extremadura, Galicia, Islas Baleares,
La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco
note: there are five places of sovereignty on and off the coast of
Morocco (Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and
Penon de Velez de la Gomera) with administrative status unknown

Independence: 1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)

National holiday: National Day, 12 October

Constitution: 6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978

Legal system: civil law system, with regional applications; does not
accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975)
head of government : President of the Government Jose Maria AZNAR
(since 5 May 1996); First Vice President Francisco ALVAREZ-CASCOS
FERNANDEZ (since 5 May 1996) and Second Vice President (and Minister
of Economy and Finance) Rodrigo RATO FIGAREDO (since 5 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president
note : there is also a Council of State that is the supreme
consultative organ of the government
elections: the king is a hereditary monarch; president proposed by the
king and elected by the National Assembly following legislative
elections; election last held 3 March 1996 (next to be held by NA
2000)
election results: Jose Maria AZNAR elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral The General Courts or National Assembly
or Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado (256 seats;
208 members are directly elected by popular vote and the other 48 were
appointed by the regional legislatures to serve four-year terms) and
the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats;
members are elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional
representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 3 March 1996 (next to be held by March
2000); Congress of Deputies - last held 3 March 1996 (next to be held
by March 2000)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PP 132, PSOE 96, CiU 11, PNV 6, IU 2, others 9; Congress of
Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 38.9%, PSOE 37.5%, IU 10.7%,
CiU 4.6%; seats by party - PP 156, PSOE 141, IU 21, CiU 16, other 16

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo

Political parties and leaders:
principal national parties, from right to left: Popular Party or PP
[Jose Maria AZNAR Lopez]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE
[Felipe GONZALEZ Marquez, secretary general]; Spanish Communist Party
or PCE [Julio ANGUITA Gonzalez]; United Left or IU (a coalition of
parties including the PCE and other small parties) [Julio ANGUITA
Gonzalez]
chief regional parties: Convergence and Union or CiU [Jordi PUJOL,
secretary general] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of
Catalonia or CDC [Pere ESTEVE] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia
or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN LLEIDA]); Basque Nationalist Party or PNV
[Xabier ARZALLUS Antia and Jose Antonio ARDANZA]; Canarian Coalition
or CC (a coalition of five parties)

Political pressure groups and leaders: on the extreme left, the Basque
Fatherland and Liberty or ETA and the First of October Antifascist
Resistance Group or GRAPO use terrorism to oppose the government; free
labor unions (authorized in April 1977); Workers Confederation or
CC.OO; the Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller
independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; business and landowning
interests; the Catholic Church; Opus Dei; university students

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, EU,
FAO, G- 8, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO,
NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio de OYARZABAL MARCHESI
chancery : 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard N. GARDNER
embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address : APO AE 09642
telephone: [34] (1) 587-2200
FAX: [34] (1) 587-2303
consulate(s) general: Barcelona

Flag description: three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double
width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of
the yellow band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by
the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and
Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar

Economy

Economy - overview: Spain's mixed capitalist economy supports a GDP
three-fourths that of the four leading West European economies. Its
center-right government has staked much on gaining admission to the
first group of countries to implement the European single currency by
developing an austere 1997 budget - including a wage freeze for
public-sector employees - in hopes of meeting the Maastricht monetary
convergence criteria. The government slashed spending by $1.6 billion
in mid-1996 to ensure that Spain's deficit did not exceed its target
of 4.4% of GDP for the year; the government forecasts a deficit of 3%
for 1997. The AZNAR administration advocates liberalization,
privatization, and deregulation of the economy, and has introduced
some tax reforms to that end. Unemployment, nevertheless, remains the
highest in the EU at about 22%, but the government, for political
reasons, has made only limited progress in changing labor laws or
reforming pension schemes, which are key to the sustainability of
Spain's economic advances.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $593 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.6%
industry: 33.6%
services: 62.8% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3.7% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 12.475 million
by occupation: services 62%, manufacturing, mining, and construction
29%, agriculture 9% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 22% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $113 billion
expenditures : $139 billion, including capital expenditures of $15
billion (1995)

Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and
beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding,
automobiles, machine tools, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 39.58 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 163.7 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 3,752 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar
beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish catch of
866,831 metric tons in 1993

Exports:
total value: $94.5 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: cars and trucks, semifinished manufactured goods,
foodstuffs, machinery (1994)
partners : EU 72.1%, US 4.2%, other developed countries 7.9% (1996)

Imports:
total value : $118.3 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, fuels, semifinished
goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, chemicals (1994)
partners: EU 65.6%, US 6.6%, other developed countries 11.5%, Middle
East 6.2% (1996)

Debt - external: $90 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.213 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 134.77 (January 1997),
126.66 (1996), 124.69 (1995), 133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Spain:Communications

Telephones: 12.6 million (1990 est.)

Telephone system: generally adequate, modern facilities
domestic: NA
international: 22 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations -
2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat, NA
Inmarsat, and NA Marecs; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 190, FM 406 (repeaters 134), shortwave 0

Radios: 12 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 100 (repeaters 1,297)

Televisions: 15.7 million (1992 est.)

@Spain:Transportation

Railways:
total: 14,343 km
broad gauge: 12,139 km 1.668-m gauge (6,510 km electrified; 2,295 km
double track)
standard gauge: 488 km 1.435-m gauge (488 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,716 km (privately owned: 1,669 km 1.000-m gauge, 489
km electrified; 28 km 0.914-m gauge, 28 km electrified; government
owned: 19 km 1.000-m gauge, all electrified)

Highways:
total: 343,197 km
paved: 339,765 km (including 7,747 km of expressways)
unpaved : 3,432 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,045 km, but of minor economic importance

Pipelines: crude oil 265 km; petroleum products 1,794 km; natural gas
1,666 km

Ports and harbors: Aviles, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena,
Castellon de la Plana, Ceuta, Huelva, La Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary
Islands), Malaga, Melilla, Pasajes, Gijon, Santa Cruz de Tenerife
(Canary Islands), Santander, Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo

Merchant marine:
total: 141 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 888,815 GRT/1,396,541
DWT
ships by type : bulk 9, cargo 33, chemical tanker 10, combination
ore/oil 1, container 9, liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 26,
passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 9, roll-on/roll-off cargo 31,
short-sea passenger 6, specialized tanker 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 96 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 82
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m : 15
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 28 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 12 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Civil Guard,
National Police, Coastal Civil Guard

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 10,387,353 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 8,381,141 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 333,758 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6.3 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Gibraltar question with UK; Spain controls
five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast
of Morocco - the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, which Morocco
contests, as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez
de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas

Illicit drugs: key European gateway country for Latin American cocaine
and North African hashish entering the European market; transshipment
point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin
______________________________________________________________________

SPRATLY ISLANDS

@Spratly Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of reefs in the South China Sea,
about two-thirds of the way from southern Vietnam to the southern
Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 8 38 N, 111 55 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total : less than 5 sq km
land: less than 5 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes 100 or so islets, coral reefs, and sea mounts scattered
over the South China Sea

Area - comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 926 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: tropical

Terrain: flat

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point : unnamed location on Southwest Cay 4 m

Natural resources: fish, guano, undetermined oil and natural gas
potential

Land use:
arable land : 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: typhoons; serious maritime hazard because of numerous
reefs and shoals

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategically located near several primary shipping
lanes in the central South China Sea; includes numerous small islands,
atolls, shoals, and coral reefs

@Spratly Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are scattered garrisons

@Spratly Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Spratly Islands

Data code: PG

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to commercial
fishing. The proximity to nearby oil- and gas-producing sedimentary
basins suggests the potential for oil and gas deposits, but the region
is largely unexplored, and there are no reliable estimates of
potential reserves; commercial exploitation has yet to be developed.

Industries: none

@Spratly Islands:Communications

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@Spratly Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 4 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: about 50 small islands or reefs are occupied by
China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by
China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and
the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive economic
zone, which encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly claimed the
island
______________________________________________________________________

SRI LANKA

@Sri Lanka:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 81 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total : 65,610 sq km
land: 64,740 sq km
water: 870 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,340 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March);
southwest monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central
interior

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pidurutalagala 2,524 m

Natural resources: limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems,
phosphates, clay

Land use:
arable land: 14%
permanent crops: 15%
permanent pastures : 7%
forests and woodland: 32%
other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,500 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional cyclones and tornadoes

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife
populations threatened by poaching; coastal degradation from mining
activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being
polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes

@Sri Lanka:People

Population: 18,721,178 (July 1997 est.)
note: since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and
armed Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand
Tamil civilians have fled the island; as of late 1996, 63,068 were
housed in refugee camps in south India, another 30,000-40,000 lived
outside the Indian camps, and more than 200,000 Tamils have sought
political asylum in the West

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 2,698,852; female 2,581,476)
15-64 years : 66% (male 6,019,140; female 6,266,311)
65 years and over: 6% (male 565,671; female 589,728) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.14% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 18.64 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.9 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.42 years
male: 69.75 years
female: 75.23 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.15 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sri Lankan(s)
adjective: Sri Lankan

Ethnic groups: Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Burgher, Malay, and
Vedda 1%

Religions: Buddhist 69%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 8%

Languages: Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil
(national language) 18%
note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken by about
10% of the population

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.2%
male: 93.4%
female: 87.2% (1995 est.)

@Sri Lanka:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
conventional short form: Sri Lanka
former: Ceylon

Data code: CE

Government type: republic

National capital: Colombo

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Central, North Central, North
Eastern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western

Independence: 4 February 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence and National Day, 4 February (1948)

Constitution: adopted 16 August 1978

Legal system: a highly complex mixture of English common law,
Roman-Dutch, Muslim, Sinhalese, and customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12
November 1994); note - Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE is the prime minister; in
Sri Lanka the president is considered to be both the chief of state
and the head of the government, this is in contrast to the more common
practice of dividing the roles between the president and the prime
minister when both offices exist
head of government: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA
(since 12 November 1994); note - Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE is the prime
minister; in Sri Lanka the president is considered to be both the
chief of state and the head of the government, this is in contrast to
the more common practice of dividing the roles between the president
and the prime minister when both offices exist
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president in consultation with the
prime minister
elections : president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 9 November 1994 (next to be held NA November 2000)
election results : Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA elected
president; percent of vote - Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA
(People's Alliance) 62%, Srima DISSANAYAKE (United National Party)
37%, other 1%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (225 seats; members elected
by popular vote on the basis of a modified proportional representation
system to serve six-year terms)
elections: last held 16 August 1994 (next to be held by August 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - PA 49.0%, UNP 44.0%, SLMC
1.8%, TULF 1.7%, SLPF 1.1%, EPDP 0.3%, UPF 0.3%, PLOTE 0.1%, other
1.7%; seats by party - PA 105, UNP 94, EPDP 9, SLMC 7, TULF 5, PLOTE
3, SLPF 1, UPF 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the Judicial
Service Commission; Court of Appeals

Political parties and leaders: All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), C. G.
Kumar PONNAMBALAM; Ceylon Workers Congress (CLDC), S. THONDAMAN;
Communist Party, K. P. SILVA; Communist Party/Beijing (CP/B), N.
SHANMUGATHASAN; Democratic People's Liberation Front (DPLF), leader
NA; Democratic United National Front (DUNF), G. M. PREMACHANDRA; Eelam
People's Democratic Party (EPDP), Douglas DEVANANDA; Eelam People's
Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRL), Suresh PREMACHANDRAN; Eelam
Revolutionary Organization of Students (EROS), Shankar RAJI; Lanka
Socialist Party/Trotskyite (LSSP, or Lanka Sama Samaja Party), Colin
R. DE SILVA; Liberal Party (LP), Chanaka AMARATUNGA; New Socialist
Party (NSSP, or Nava Sama Samaja Party), Vasudeva NANAYAKKARA;
People's Alliance (PA), Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA; People's
Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE), Dharmalingam
SIDARTHAN; People's United Front (MEP, or Mahajana Eksath Peramuna),
Dinesh GUNAWARDENE; Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP), Sirimavo
BANDARANAIKE; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (SLMC), M. H. M. ASHRAFF; Sri
Lanka People's Party (SLMP, or Sri Lanka Mahajana Party), Ossie
ABEYGUNASEKERA; Sri Lanka Progressive Front (SLPF), leader NA; Tamil
Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO), leader NA; Tamil United
Liberation Front (TULF), M. SIVASITHAMBARAM; United National Party
(UNP), Dingiri Banda WIJETUNGA; Upcountry People's Front (UPF), leader
NA; several ethnic Tamil and Muslim parties, represented in either
parliament or provincial councils
note: the United Socialist Alliance (USA), which was formed in 1987
and included the NSSP, LSSP, SLMP, CP/M, and CP/B, was defunct as of
1993, following the formation of the People's Alliance Party (PA)

Political pressure groups and leaders: Liberation Tigers of Tamil
Eelam (LTTE) and other smaller Tamil separatist groups; other radical
chauvinist Sinhalese groups; Buddhist clergy; Sinhalese Buddhist lay
groups; labor unions

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, NAM, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Geetha DE
SILVA
chancery : 2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4025 through 4028
FAX : [1] (202) 232-7181
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador A. Peter BURLEIGH
embassy: 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3
mailing address : P. O. Box 106, Colombo
telephone: [94] (1) 448007
FAX: [94] (1) 437345, 446013

Flag description: yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel
has two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the
other panel is a large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a
sword, and there is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field
appears as a border that goes around the entire flag and extends
between the two panels

Economy

Economy - overview: Industry - dominated by the fast-growing apparel
industry - has surpassed agriculture as the main source of export
earnings. The economy has been plagued by high rates of unemployment
since the late 1970s. Economic growth accelerated in 1991-95 as
domestic conditions began to improve and conditions for foreign
investment brightened. In 1996, however, a drought, slow economic
reform, and civil war exacted a heavy economic toll. Insufficient
monsoon rains caused power cuts that hurt industrial and agricultural
production, and the stepped-up Tamil insurgency reduced foreign
investment and tourism - two key sources of foreign exchange.
Meanwhile, Colombo's counterinsurgency efforts caused defense
expenditures to overshoot budget targets by 42%. In 1997, agricultural
production should recover from the effects of last year's drought, but
industry will still be hampered by high real interest rates, slow
improvement in foreign investment inflows, and stalled progress on
privatization. The government's main challenge this year will be to
curb defense and social welfare spending to cut the budget deficit as
a percentage of GDP in half by 1998, as stipulated in its deficit
reduction program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $69.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,760 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 23.8%
industry: 24.7%
services : 51.5% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 15.9% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 6.2 million (1994)
by occupation: agriculture 42%, services 40%, industry 18% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 13.1% (1994)

Budget:
revenues : $3 billion
expenditures: $4.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1
billion (1997)

Industries: processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other
agricultural commodities; clothing, cement, petroleum refining,
textiles, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 6.2% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 1.56 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 4.33 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 236 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseed,
roots, spices, tea, rubber, coconuts; milk, eggs, hides, meat

Exports:
total value: $4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: textiles and apparel, tea, petroleum products, diamonds,
other gems, rubber products (1994)
partners : US 34.8%, UK 8.9%, Germany 6.9%, Belgium-Luxembourg 5.9%
(1994)

Imports:
total value: $5 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: textiles, machinery and equipment, transport equipment,
petroleum, building materials, sugar (1994)
partners: Japan 11.0%, India 8.5%, South Korea 6.8%, Hong Kong 6.6%,
Taiwan 5.2%, Singapore 4.9% (1994)

Debt - external: $9.6 billion (1995)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $602 million (1995 est.)

Currency: 1 Sri Lankan rupee (SLRe) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Sri Lankan rupees (SLRes) per US$1 - 56.921 (January
1997), 55.271 (1996), 51.252 (1995), 49.415 (1994), 48.322 (1993),
43.830 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Sri Lanka:Communications

Telephones: 175,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: very inadequate domestic service, good international
service
domestic: NA
international: submarine cables to Indonesia and Djibouti; satellite
earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 5, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.525 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 5

Televisions: 865,000 (1992 est.)

@Sri Lanka:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,484 km
broad gauge: 1,459 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 25 km 0.762-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 98,642 km
paved: 37,484 km
unpaved: 61,158 km (1993 est.)

Waterways: 430 km; navigable by shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude oil and petroleum products 62 km (1987)

Ports and harbors: Colombo, Galle, Jaffna, Trincomalee

Merchant marine:
total: 26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 220,660 GRT/329,365 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 13, container 1, oil tanker 2,
refrigerated cargo 8 (1996 est.)

Airports: 13 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 5,066,744 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 3,946,315 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 184,619 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $736 million (1997)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.7% (1997)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

SUDAN

@Sudan:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and
Eritrea

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 2,505,810 sq km
land: 2.376 million sq km
water : 129,810 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total : 7,687 km
border countries: Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km,
Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605
km, Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 18 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season (April
to October)

Terrain: generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in east and west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m

Natural resources: petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper,
chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold

Land use:
arable land : 5%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 19,460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dust storms

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion;
desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and
its tributaries

@Sudan:People

Population: 32,594,128 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 7,584,401; female 7,271,175)
15-64 years: 52% (male 8,536,476; female 8,492,043)
65 years and over : 2% (male 398,591; female 311,442) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.06% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 40.54 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 11.16 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.28 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 74.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 55.54 years
male: 54.6 years
female: 56.53 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.79 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese

Ethnic groups: black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%,
Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum)

Languages: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of
Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
note: program of Arabization in process

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 46.1%
male: 57.7%
female: 34.6% (1995 est.)

@Sudan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former : Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

Data code: SU

Government type: transitional - previously ruling military junta;
presidential and National Assembly elections held in March 1996; new
constitution to be drafted by the National Assembly

National capital: Khartoum

Administrative divisions: 26 states (wilayat, singular - wilayat or
wilayah*); A'ali an Nil, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrat, Al Jazirah, Al
Khartum, Al Qadarif, Al Wahdah, An Nil al Abyad, An Nil al Azraq, Ash
Shamaliyah*, Bahr al Jabal, Gharb al Istiwa'iyah, Gharb Bahr al
Ghazal, Gharb Darfur, Gharb Kurdufan, Janub Darfur, Janub Kurdufan,
Junqali, Kassala, Nahr an Nil, Shamal Bahr al Ghazal, Shamal Darfur,
Shamal Kurdufan, Sharq al Istiwa'iyah, Sinnar, Warab

Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)

Constitution: 12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985;
interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30
June 1989; new constitution to be drafted following national elections
held in March 1996

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20
January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed
Islamic law in the northern states; Islamic law applies to all
residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some
separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal, but noncompulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Lt. General Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR
(since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Major General al-Zubayr
Muhammad SALIH (since 19 October 1993), Second Vice President (Police)
Maj. General George KONGOR AROP (since NA February 1994); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government : President Lt. General Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR
(since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Major General al-Zubayr
Muhammad SALIH (since 19 October 1993), Second Vice President (Police)
Maj. General George KONGOR AROP (since NA February 1994); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the president; note - President
al-BASHIR's government is dominated by members of Sudan's National
Islamic Front, a fundamentalist political organization formed from the
Muslim Brotherhood in 1986; front leader Hasan al-TURABI dominates
much of Khartoum's overall domestic and foreign policies; President
al-BASHIR named a new cabinet on 20 April 1996 which includes members
of the National Islamic Front, serving and retired military offficers,
and civilian technocrats
elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 6-17 March 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR elected president;
percent of vote - Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR 75.7%; note - about forty
other candidates ran for president
note : al-BASHIR, as chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for
National Salvation (RCC), assumed power on 30 June 1989 and served
concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister,
and minister of defense until 16 October 1993 when he was appointed
president by the RCC; upon its dissolution on 16 October 1993, the
RCC's executive and legislative powers were devolved to the president
and the Transitional National Assembly (TNA), Sudan's appointed
legislative body, which has since been replaced by the National
Assembly which was elected in March 1996

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (400 seats; 275
elected by popular vote, 125 elected by a supraassembly of interest
groups known as the National Congress; members serve four-year terms)
elections : last held 6-17 March 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: NA; the March 1996 elections were held on a nonparty
basis; parties are banned in the new National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Special Revolutionary Courts

Political parties and leaders: none; banned following 30 June 1989
coup

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Islamic Front, Hasan
al-TURABI

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
AMF, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mahdi Ibrahim MOHAMED
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565 through 8570
FAX : [1] (202) 667-2406
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: operations in Khartoum were
suspended in February 1996; Ambassador to Sudan Timothy M. CARNEY and
several members of the mission have relocated to Nairobi, Kenya and
operate out of the US Embassy there; the embassy is located at the
corner of Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue; mailing address: P. O.
Box 30137, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831; telephone: [254] (2) 334141; FAX:
[254] (2) 340838

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: Sudan is buffeted by civil war, chronic political
instability, adverse weather, high inflation, a drop in remittances
from abroad, and counterproductive economic policies. The private
sector's main areas of activity are agriculture and trading, with most
private industrial investment predating 1980. Agriculture employs 80%
of the work force. Industry mainly processes agricultural items.
Sluggish economic performance over the past decade, attributable
largely to declining annual rainfall, has kept per capita income at
low levels. A large foreign debt and huge arrearages continue to cause
difficulties. In 1990 the International Monetary Fund took the unusual
step of declaring Sudan noncooperative because of its nonpayment of
arrearages to the Fund. After Sudan backtracked on promised reforms in
1992-93, the IMF threatened to expel Sudan from the Fund. To avoid
expulsion, Khartoum agreed to make payments on its arrears to the
Fund, liberalize exchange rates, and reduce subsidies, measures it has
partially implemented. The government's continued prosecution of the
civil war and its growing international isolation continued to inhibit
growth in the nonagricultural sectors of the economy during 1996.
Hyperinflation has raised consumer prices above the reach of most.
Popular unrest erupted several times in 1996 in reaction to unpopular
government economic decisions.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26.6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $860 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 33%
industry : 17%
services: 50% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 133% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 11 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 10%, government
6%
note: labor shortages for almost all categories of skilled employment
(1983 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (FY92/93 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $382 million
expenditures: $1.06 billion, including capital expenditures of $91
million (1995 est.)

Industries: cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap
distilling, shoes, petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate: 6.8% (FY92/93 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 500,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 1.3 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 37 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, groundnuts, sorghum, millet, wheat,
gum arabic, sesame; sheep

Exports:
total value: $500 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: cotton 44%, livestock/meat 13%, gum arabic 11%, sesame
10%
partners : Egypt 33.3%, Saudi Arabia 16.6%, Japan 13.4%, Italy 12%
(1995)

Imports:
total value: $1 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum products, manufactured goods,
machinery and equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles
partners : EU 29.4%, US 17.6%, Saudi Arabia 8.7%, Egypt 6.3% (1995)

Debt - external: $18.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $387 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Sudanese pound (£Sd) = 100 piastres

Exchange rates: Sudanese pounds (£Sd) per US$1 - official rate:
1,454.0 (December 1996), 750.0 (November 1995), 277.8 (1994), 153.8
(1993), 69.4 (1992); market rate: 1,4600.00 (January 1997), 1,250.79
(1996), 571.02 (August 1995), 289.61 (1994), 159.31 (1993), 97.43
(1992)
note : the market rate is a unified exchange rate determined by a
committee of local bankers, without official intervention, and is
quoted uniformly by all commercial banks

Fiscal year: calendar year
note: prior to July 1995, Sudan had a fiscal year that began on 1 July
and ended on 30 June; as a transition to their new fiscal year, a
six-month budget was implemented for 1 July - 31 December 1995; the
new calendar year (1 January - 31 December) fiscal year became
effective 1 January 1996

@Sudan:Communications

Telephones: 77,215 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: large, well-equipped system by African standards,
but barely adequate and poorly maintained by modern standards
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone
communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system
with 14 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 6.67 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: 2.06 million (1992 est.)

@Sudan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,516 km
narrow gauge: 4,800 km 1.067-m gauge; 716 km 1.6096-m gauge plantation
line

Highways:
total : 11,610 km
paved: 4,203 km
unpaved: 7,407 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 5,310 km navigable

Pipelines: refined products 815 km

Ports and harbors: Juba, Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal, Nimule, Port Sudan,
Sawakin

Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 37,359 GRT/49,422 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1996 est.)

Airports: 56 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 20
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
under 914 m: 8 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m : 24 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Force
Militia

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 7,437,363 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 4,576,117 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 341,516 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: administrative boundary with Kenya does not
coincide with international boundary; administrative boundary with
Egypt does not coincide with international boundary creating the
"Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km
______________________________________________________________________

SURINAME

@Suriname:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
between French Guiana and Guyana

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 56 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 163,270 sq km
land: 161,470 sq km
water: 1,800 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,707 km
border countries: Brazil 597 km, French Guiana 510 km, Guyana 600 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : unnamed location in the coastal plain -2 m
highest point: Wilhelmina Gebergte 1,286 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower potential, fish, shrimp,
bauxite, iron ore, and small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, gold

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 96%
other : 4% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 600 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation as timber is cut for
export

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of
flora and fauna which for the most part is not threatened because of
the lack of development; relatively small population most of which
lives along the coast

@Suriname:People

Population: 424,569 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 73,017; female 69,538)
15-64 years: 61% (male 132,188; female 128,260)
65 years and over: 5% (male 10,033; female 11,533) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.83% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23.2 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.83 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -9.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.32 years
male: 67.78 years
female: 72.99 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.64 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Surinamer(s)
adjective: Surinamese

Ethnic groups: Hindustani (also known locally as "East Indians"; their
ancestors emigrated from northern India in the latter part of the 19th
century) 37%, Creole (mixed white and black) 31%, Javanese 15.3%,
"Maroons" (their African ancestors were brought to the country in the
17th and 18th centuries as slaves) 10.3%, Amerindian 2.6%, Chinese
1.7%, white 1%, other 1.1%

Religions: Hindu 27.4%, Muslim 19.6%, Roman Catholic 22.8%, Protestant
25.2% (predominantly Moravian), indigenous beliefs 5%

Languages: Dutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo
(Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is native language of Creoles
and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others),
Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93%
male: 95%
female: 91% (1995 est.)

@Suriname:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Suriname
conventional short form: Suriname
local long form : Republiek Suriname
local short form: Suriname
former: Netherlands Guiana, Dutch Guiana

Data code: NS

Government type: republic

National capital: Paramaribo

Administrative divisions: 10 districts (distrikten, singular -
distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para,
Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini, Wanica

Independence: 25 November 1975 (from Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 November (1975)

Constitution: ratified 30 September 1987

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jules WIJDENBOSCH (since 14 September 1996);
Vice President Pretaapnarian RADHAKISHUN (since 14 September 1996);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jules WIJDENBOSCH (since 14 September
1996); Vice President Pretaapnarian RADHAKISHUN (since 14 September
1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet : Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president from among
the members of the National Assembly
note: Commander in Chief of the National Army maintains significant
power
elections: president and vice president elected by the National
Assembly for five-year terms; election last held 23 May 1996; runoff
election held 5 September 1996 (next to be held NA May 2001)
election results: Jules WIJDENBOSCH elected president; percent of
legislative vote NA; National Assembly failed to elect president;
results reflect the People's Assembly votes - Jules WIJDENBOSCH (NDP)
438, Ronald VENETIAAN (NF) 407

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (51 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections : last held 23 May 1996 (next to be held NA May 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP
16, NF 14, BVD 5, KTPI 5, DA'91 4, Pendawa Lima 4, Alliance 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices nominated for life

Political parties and leaders: The New Front (NF), a coalition of
three parties (NPS, VHP, SPA), leader Ronald R. VENETIAAN; Progressive
Reform Party (VHP), Jaggernath LACHMON; National Party of Suriname
(NPS), Ronald VENETIAAN; Party of National Unity and Solidarity
(KTPI), Willy SOEMITA; Suriname Labor Party (SPA), Fred DERBY;
Democratic Alternative '91 (DA '91), a coalition of two parties (AF,
and BEP) formed in January 1991, Winston JESSURUN; Alternative Forum
(AF), Rick VAN RAVENSWAY; Party for Brotherhood and Unity in Politics
(BEP), Caprino ALLENDY; Pendawa Lima, Paul SOMOHARDJO; National
Democratic Party (NDP), Desire BOUTERSE; Progressive Workers' and Farm
Laborers' Union (PALU), Ir Iwan KROLIS; The Progressive Development
Alliance, a combination of three parties (DP, HPP, PVF), Frank
PLAYFAIR; Democratic Party (DP), Frank PLAYFAIR; Reformed Progressive
Party (HPP), Harry KISOENSINGH; Party of the Federation of Land
Workers PVF), Jwan SITAL; Party for Renewal and Democracy (BVD), Atta
MUNGRA; Independent Progressive Democratic Alternative (OPDA),
Joginder RAMKHILAWAN

Political pressure groups and leaders: Union for Liberation and
Democracy, Kofi AFONGPONG; Mandela Bushnegro Liberation Movement,
Leendert ADAMS; Tucayana Amazonica, Alex JUBITANA, Thomas SABAJO;
General Liberation and Development Party (ABOP), George TIRINI

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OIC,
OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Cicyl G.
ALWART
chancery: Suite 108, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-7488, 7490 through 7492
FAX : [1] (202) 244-5878
consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis K. HAYS
embassy: Dr. Sophie Redmondstraat 129, Paramaribo
mailing address : P. O. Box 1821, American Embassy Paramaribo,
Department of State, Washington, DC, 20521-3390
telephone: [597] 472900, 477881, 476459
FAX: [597] 420800

Flag description: five horizontal bands of green (top, double width),
white, red (quadruple width), white, and green (double width); there
is a large yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is dominated by the bauxite industry,
which accounts for upwards of 15% of GDP and more than 65% of export
earnings. Following a dismal year in 1994 which saw the value of the
Surinamese currency plummet by about 80%, inflation rise to more than
600%, and national output fall for the fifth consecutive year, nearly
all economic indicators improved in 1995-96. The government unified
the exchange rate and maintained a fairly tight monetary policy.
Inflation apparently has been eliminated, and tax revenues have
increased sufficiently to erase the budget deficit. The release of
substantial development aid from the Netherlands - which had been held
up due to the government's failure to initiate economic reforms - also
has helped buoy the economy. Suriname's economic prospects for the
medium term will depend on continued implementation of economic
restructuring. The new government elected in the fall of 1996 has sent
mixed signals about commitment to these reforms.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.4 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,150 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry : 33%
services: 53% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 0% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: agriculture, industry, services

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $205 million
expenditures: $174 million, including capital expenditures of $12
million (1995 est.)

Industries: bauxite and gold mining, alumina and aluminum production,
lumbering, food processing, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 6.5% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 389,000 kW 000 kW

Electricity - production: 1.402 billion kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,929 kWh (1995)

Agriculture - products: paddy rice, bananas, palm kernels, coconuts,
plantains, peanuts; beef, chicken; forest products and shrimp of
increasing importance

Exports:
total value: $432 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: alumina, aluminum, shrimp and fish, rice, bananas
partners: Norway 33%, Netherlands 26%, US 13%, Japan 6%, Brazil 6%, UK
3% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $418 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities : capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton,
consumer goods
partners: US 40%, Netherlands 24%, Trinidad and Tobago 11%, Japan 3%
(1994)

Debt - external: $198 million (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, the Netherlands provided a 1996 aid package of $224
million to Suriname, Aruba, and the Netherlands Antilles

Currency: 1 Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (Sf.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Surinamese guilders, gulden, or florins (Sf.) per US$1
- central bank midpoint rate: 401.00 (January 1997), 401.26 (1996),
442.23 (1995), 134.12 (1994); parallel rate: 412 (December 1995), 510
(December 1994), 109 (January 1994)
note : beginning July 1994, the central bank midpoint exchange rate
was unified and became market determined

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Suriname:Communications

Telephones: 43,522 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: international facilities good
domestic: microwave radio relay network
international : satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 14, shortwave 1

Radios: 290,256 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 6 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 59,598 (1993 est.)

@Suriname:Transportation

Railways:
total: 166 km (single track)
standard gauge: 80 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 86 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 4,470 km
paved : 1,162 km
unpaved: 3,308 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km; most important means of transport; oceangoing
vessels with drafts ranging up to 7 m can navigate many of the
principal waterways

Ports and harbors: Albina, Moengo, New Nickerie, Paramaribo, Paranam,
Wageningen

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,421 GRT/2,990 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, container 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 38 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 32
over 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 31 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 6
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: National Army (includes small Navy and Air Force
elements), Civil Police

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 121,618 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 71,811 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims area in French Guiana between Litani
Rivier and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa Rivier);
claims area in Guyana between New (Upper Courantyne) and
Courantyne/Koetari Rivers (all headwaters of the Courantyne)

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
mostly for Europe
______________________________________________________________________

SVALBARD

(territory of Norway)

@Svalbard:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, islands between the Arctic Ocean, Barents
Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea, north of Norway

Geographic coordinates: 78 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:

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