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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Literacy: NA

@Aruba:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Aruba

Data code: AA

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full
autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the
Netherlands Antilles

Government type: NA

National capital: Oranjestad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands)

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; in 1990,
Aruba requested and received from the Netherlands cancellation of the
agreement to automatically give independence to the island in 1996)

National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution: 1 January 1986

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands
(since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN
(since 1 January 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Jan (Henny) H. EMAN (since 29 July
1994) and Deputy Prime Minister Glenbert F. CROES
cabinet : Council of Ministers elected by the Staten
elections: the queen is a constitutional monarch; governor general
appointed for a six-year term by the queen; prime minister and deputy
prime minister elected by the Staten for a four-year term; election
last held 29 July 1994 (next to be held by July 1998)
election results : Jan (Henny) H. EMAN elected prime minister; percent
of legislative vote - NA; Glenbert F. CROES elected deputy prime
minister; percent of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats;
members elected by direct popular vote and serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 29 July 1994 (next to be held by NA July 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AVP
10, MEP 9, OLA 2

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson
ODUBER]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Jan (Henny) H. EMAN]; National
Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]; New Patriotic Party or
PPN [Eddy WERLEMEN]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET];
Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo BERLINSKI]; Democratic Action '86
or AD '86 [Arturo ODUBER]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert
CROES]
note: governing coalition includes the AVP and OLA

International organization participation: ECLAC (associate), Interpol,
IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom
of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (part of the Kingdom of
the Netherlands)

Flag description: blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes
across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in
white in the upper hoist-side corner

Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the Aruban economy,
although offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also
important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade
has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities.
Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985
level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in
1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has
further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and less than 1%
unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job vacancies
despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.4 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $21,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3.5% (1996)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: most employment is in the tourist industry (1996)

Unemployment rate: 0.5% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $145 million
expenditures : $185 million, including capital expenditures of $42
million (1988)

Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: aloes; livestock; fishing

Exports:
total value: $1.3 billion (including oil re-exports) (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: mostly refined petroleum products
partners: US 64%, EU

Imports:
total value: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: food, consumer goods, manufactures, petroleum products,
crude oil for refining and reexport
partners: US 8%, EU

Debt - external: $669 million (December 1995)

Economic aid: the Netherlands provided a 1996 aid package of $224
million to Aruba, the Netherlands Antilles, and Suriname

Currency: 1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate
since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Aruba:Communications

Telephones: 22,922 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: more than adequate
international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands
Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 19,000 (1993 est.)

@Aruba:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved : NA km
unpaved: NA km
note : most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large
tracts of the interior

Ports and harbors: Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Merchant marine:
total : 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,274 GRT/ 10,130 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 3 (1996 est.)

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: drug money-laundering center and transit point for
narcotics bound for the US and Europe; added to the US list of major
drug producing or drug transit countries in December 1996
______________________________________________________________________

ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS
Islands]

(territory of Australia)

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 5 sq km
land: 5 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
Cartier Island

Area - comparative: about eight times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 74.1 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all grass and sand)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime
hazards

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in
August 1983

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are only seasonal caretakers

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
conventional short form : Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Data code: AT

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered by the
Australian Ministry for Sport, Territories, and Local Government

National capital: none; administered from Canberra, Australia

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Legal system: relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic
visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

ATLANTIC OCEAN
[Map of Argentina]

@Atlantic Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between Africa, Europe, Antarctica, and the
Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 82.217 million sq km
note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
Denmark Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea,
North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and other tributary
water bodies

Area - comparative: slightly less than nine times the size of the US;
second-largest of the world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean,
but larger than Indian Ocean or Arctic Ocean)

Coastline: 111,866 km

Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of
Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea;
hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from
August to November

Terrain: surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark
Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre
(broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic,
counterclockwise warm water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean
floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south
centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m
highest point : sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and
whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic
nodules, precious stones

Natural hazards: icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and
the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been
spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from
Antarctica occur in the extreme southern Atlantic Ocean; ships subject
to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to
May and extreme southern Atlantic from May to October; persistent fog
can be a maritime hazard from May to September

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include the
manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is
hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international
disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil,
and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico,
Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and
municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean
Sea

Environment - international agreements:
party to : none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: major choke points include the Dardanelles, Strait
of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits
include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The
Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the
Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

@Atlantic Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data
Codes appendix

Economy

Economy - overview: The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's
most heavily trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and
Western Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation
of natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands
(The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean
Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

@Atlantic Ocean:Communications

Telephone system:
international: numerous submarine cables with most between continental
Europe and the UK, between North America and the UK, and in the
Mediterranean; numerous direct links across Atlantic via satellite
networks

@Atlantic Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp
(Belgium), Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca
(Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal),
Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas
(Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London
(UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada),
Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo
(Norway), Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
(Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation - note: Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two
important waterways

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
______________________________________________________________________

AUSTRALIA

@Australia:Geography

Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South
Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 7,686,850 sq km
land: 7,617,930 sq km
water : 68,920 sq km
note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east;
tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
highest point: Mount Kosciusko 2,229 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver,
uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds,
natural gas, petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 54%
forests and woodland: 19%
other : 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 21,070 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts

Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing,
industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil
salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification;
clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of
many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the
northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by
increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited
natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Desertification

Geography - note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest
country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern
coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the
Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer

@Australia:People

Population: 18,438,824 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 2,018,363; female 1,921,252)
15-64 years: 66% (male 6,188,476; female 6,041,173)
65 years and over : 12% (male 987,092; female 1,282,468) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.96% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 13.73 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.89 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.64 years
male : 76.69 years
female: 82.74 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Australian(s)
adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups: Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%

Languages: English, native languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female : 100% (1980 est.)

@Australia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
conventional short form: Australia

Data code: AS

Government type: federal parliamentary state

National capital: Canberra

Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian
Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland,
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
(Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
Islands, Norfolk Island

Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir William DEANE (since 16 February
1996)
head of government : Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11
March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister Timothy Andrew FISCHER (since 11
March 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet selected from among the members of Federal Parliament
by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen; following legislative elections, the leader of
the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually
appointed prime minister by the governor general for a three-year term

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the
Senate (76 seats - 12 from each of the six states and two from each of
the two territories; one-half of the members elected every three years
by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of
Representatives (148 seats; members elected by popular vote on the
basis of proportional representation to serve three-year terms; no
state can have fewer than five representatives)
elections: Senate - last held 2 March 1996 (next to be held NA 1999);
House of Representatives - last held 2 March 1996 (next to be held NA
1999)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - Liberal-National 37, Labor 29, Australian Democrats 8, Greens
1, independent 1; note - subsequent to the election, there has been a
change in the distribution of seats; the new distribution is as
follows - Liberal-National 37, Labor 28, Australian Democrats 7,
Greens 2, independents 2; House of Representatives - percent of vote
by party - NA; seats by party - Liberal-National 94, Labor 49,
independent 5

Judicial branch: High Court, the Chief Justice and six other justices
are appointed by the governor general

Political parties and leaders:
government : coalition of Liberal Party, John Winston HOWARD, and
National Party, Timothy Andrew FISCHER
opposition: Australian Labor Party, Kim BEAZLEY; Australian Democratic
Party, Cheryl KERNOT; Green Party, Bob BROWN

Political pressure groups and leaders: Australian Democratic Labor
Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Peace and Nuclear
Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party splinter group)

International organization participation: AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC,
AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G- 8, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NAM
(guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew Sharp PEACOCK
chancery : 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, and
San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Genta Hawkins HOLMES
embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
Territory 2600
mailing address: APO AP 96549
telephone: [61] (6) 270-5000
FAX: [61] (6) 270-5970
consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side
quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross
constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four,
larger, seven-pointed stars

Economy

Economy - overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style
capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP above the levels in highly
industrialized West European countries. Rich in natural resources,
Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, minerals,
metals, and fossil fuels. Commodities account for about 60% of the
value of total exports, so that a downturn in world commodity prices
can have a big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for
increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in
international markets continues to be severe. Australia has suffered
from the low growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD
countries in the early 1990s, but the economy has expanded at
reasonably steady rates in recent years. In addition to high
unemployment, short-term economic problems include a balancing of
output growth and inflationary pressures and the stimulation of
exports to offset rising imports.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $430.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,600 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.1%
industry: 27.7%
services: 69.2% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3.1% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 8.4 million (December 1996)
by occupation : finance and services 34%, public and community
services 23%, wholesale and retail trade 20%, manufacturing and
industry 17%, agriculture 6% (1987 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.5% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $95.69 billion
expenditures : $95.15 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96 est.)

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food
processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 1.2% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 38.83 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 173 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 8,278 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle,
sheep, poultry

Exports:
total value: $59.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities : coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat,
machinery and transport equipment
partners: Japan 24%, South Korea 8%, NZ 7%, US 7%, UK, Taiwan,
Singapore, Hong Kong (1994/95)

Imports:
total value : $59.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office
machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and
petroleum products
partners: US 22%, Japan 17%, UK 6%, China 5%, NZ 5% (1994/95)

Debt - external: $134 billion (June 1996)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.25 billion (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.2835 (January
1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3668 (1994), 1.4704 (1993),
1.3600 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Australia:Communications

Telephones: 8.7 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: good domestic and international service
domestic: domestic satellite system
international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and
Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and
6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean Regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 258, FM 67, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 134 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 9.2 million (1992 est.)

@Australia:Transportation

Railways:
total : 38,563 km (2,914 km electrified; 172 km dual gauge)
broad gauge: 6,083 km 1.600-m gauge
standard gauge: 16,752 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 15,728 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total : 895,030 km
paved: 345,482 km (including 1,330 km of expressways)
unpaved: 549,548 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas
5,600 km

Ports and harbors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport,
Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceton (Tasmania), Mackay,
Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine:
total: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,282,084 GRT/3,326,092
DWT
ships by type : bulk 30, cargo 4, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk
1, container 5, liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 14,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 443 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 275
over 3,047 m : 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 106
914 to 1,523 m: 116
under 914 m : 31 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 168
1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 146 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal
Australian Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 4,863,007 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 4,200,090 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 127,508 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $7.9 billion (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY96/97)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian
Antarctic Territory)

Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit
opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of
opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate
______________________________________________________________________

AUSTRIA

@Austria:Geography

Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 83,850 sq km
land: 82,730 sq km
water : 1,120 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
total: 2,564 km
border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366
km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330
km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent
rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional
showers

Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the
eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,797 m

Natural resources: iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal,
lignite, copper, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 24%
forests and woodland: 39%
other : 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: some forest degradation caused by air
and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of
agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal-
and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks
transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Tropical Timber 94

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of
central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys;
major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern
lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures
elsewhere

@Austria:People

Population: 8,132,505 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 717,989; female 681,897)
15-64 years: 68% (male 2,777,525; female 2,703,296)
65 years and over : 15% (male 464,802; female 786,996) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: -0.02% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.17 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.05 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.15 years
male : 73.96 years
female: 80.51 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.37 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups: German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other 0.1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9%

Languages: German

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1974 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Austria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich

Data code: AU

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Vienna

Administrative divisions: 9 states (Bundeslaender, singular -
Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich,
Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence: 1156 (from Bavaria)

National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955)

Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review
of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate
administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential
elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)
head of government: Chancellor Viktor KLIMA (since 28 January 1997);
Vice Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (since 22 April 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of
the chancellor
elections : president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
presidential election last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held NA 1998);
chancellor chosen by the president from the majority party in the
National Council; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the
advice of the chancellor
election results: Thomas KLESTIL elected president; percent of vote,
second ballot - Thomas KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43%

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung
consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (63 members; members
represent each of the provinces on the basis of population, but with
each province having at least three representatives) and the National
Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular
vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Council - last held 17 December 1995 (next to be
held Fall 1999)
election results : National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe
38.3%, OeVP 28.3%, FPOe 22.1%, Greens 4.6%, LF 5.3%, other 1.4%; seats
by party - SPOe 71, OeVP 53, FPOe 40, Greens 9, LF 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof;
Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court
or Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party of Austria or
SPOe [Viktor KLIMA, chairman]; Austrian People's Party or OeVP
[Wolfgang SCHUESSEL, chairman]; Freedom Movement or FPOe (formerly the
Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Joerg HAIDER, chairman]; Communist
Party or KPOe [Walter SILBERMAYER, chairman]; The Greens [Madeleine
PETROVIC]; Liberal Forum or LF [Heide SCHMIDT]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Federal Chamber of Trade and
Commerce; Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist) or
OeGB; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP
representing business, labor, and farmers; OeVP-oriented League of
Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its
chief lay organization, Catholic Action

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU,
FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
MINURSO, MTCR, NACC (observer), NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU
(observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Helmut TUERK
chancery : 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Swanee G. HUNT
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone : [43] (1) 313-39
FAX: [43] (1) 310-0682

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and red

Economy

Economy - overview: Austria has a well-developed market economy with a
sizable - but falling - proportion of nationalized industry, an
extensive social safety net, and a high standard of living. Austria's
economy is closely integrated with Germany and other EU members -
Austria joined the EU on 1 January 1995. Since the early 1980s, the
Austrian economy has experienced stable growth. EU membership has had
a positive impact on foreign investment and has helped to lower
inflation. In April 1996, the government passed a two-year austerity
budget - including cuts in social allowances, a freeze on civil
servants' wages, and new energy and capital gains taxes - designed to
bring the economy in line with the Maastricht criteria for membership
in the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). EMU convergence has
become a top priority for Austria. Despite Austria's generally
favorable prospects, the economy faces a number of medium-term
challenges; for example, fiscal tightening is constraining expected
growth, and unemployment is expected to increase.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $157.6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.1% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $19,700 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 27%
services : 70% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 3.648 million (1996)
by occupation: services 56.4%, industry and crafts 35.4%, agriculture
and forestry 8.1%
note : an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European
countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about 5% of
labor force (1988)

Unemployment rate: 6.2% (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $61.2 billion
expenditures: $71 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: food, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals,
electrical, paper and pulp, tourism, mining, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 0.6% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 17.43 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 56.5 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 5,960 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets; cattle,
pigs, poultry; sawn wood

Exports:
total value: $55.5 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber,
textiles, paper products, chemicals
partners: EU 64.8% (Germany 38.1%, Italy 8.1%), Eastern Europe 11.8%,
Japan 1.6%, US 3.5% (1994)

Imports:
total value : $65.8 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles,
chemicals, textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals
partners: EU 68.4% (Germany 40%, Italy 8.8%), Eastern Europe 6.55%,
Japan 4.3%, US 4.4% (1994)

Debt - external: $30.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $544 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Austrian schilling (AS) = 100 groschen

Exchange rates: Austrian schillings (AS) per US$1 - 11.302 (January
1997), 10.587 (1996), 10.081 (1995), 11.422 (1994), 11.632 (1993),
10.989 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Austria:Communications

Telephones: 3.47 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: highly developed and efficient
international : satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 2 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 21 (repeaters 545), shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 47 (repeaters 870)

Televisions: 2,418,584 (1984 est.)

@Austria:Transportation

Railways:
total : 5,624 km
standard gauge: 5,269 km 1.435-m gauge (3,263 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 355 km 1.000-m and 0.760-m gauge (86 km electrified)
(1995)

Highways: 200,000 km
paved: 200,000 km (including 1,596 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 446 km

Pipelines: crude oil 554 km; petroleum products 171 km; natural gas
2,611 km

Ports and harbors: Linz, Vienna

Merchant marine:
total: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 84,623 GRT/116,682 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 22, combination bulk 2, container 1,
refrigerated cargo 2 (1996 est.)

Airports: 55 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 51
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 41 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 4
914 to 1,523 m : 4 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army (includes Flying Division)

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,107,905 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,754,823 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 46,298 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.1 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
South American cocaine destined for Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

AZERBAIJAN

Introduction

Current issues: Azerbaijan continues to be plagued by an unresolved
nine-year-old conflict with Armenian separatists over its
Nagorno-Karabakh region. The Karabakh Armenians have declared
independence and seized almost 20% of the country's territory,
creating almost 1 million Azerbaijani refugees in the process. Both
sides have generally observed a Russian-mediated cease-fire in place
since May 1994, and support the OSCE-mediated peace process, now
entering its fifth year. Nevertheless, Baku and Xankandi (Stepanakert,
Nagorno-Karabakh region) remain far apart on most substantive issues
from the placement and composition of a peacekeeping force to the
enclave's ultimate political status, and prospects for a negotiated
settlement remain dim.

@Azerbaijan:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran
and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 86,600 sq km
land: 86,100 sq km
water: 500 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
total: 2,013 km
border countries : Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia
(with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with
Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179
km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
note: Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Lowland (much of it below sea level)
with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag (Karabakh) Upland
in west; Baku lies on Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula that juts into
Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous
metals, alumina

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 11%
other : 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts; some lowland areas threatened by rising
levels of the Caspian Sea

Environment - current issues: local scientists consider the Abseron
(Apsheron) Peninsula (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea
to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of
severe air, water, and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the
use of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic defoliants used in the
production of cotton

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography - note: landlocked

@Azerbaijan:People

Population: 7,797,476 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 1,302,759; female 1,247,868)
15-64 years: 61% (male 2,315,272; female 2,446,087)
65 years and over: 6% (male 186,699; female 298,791) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.78% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 22.89 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.32 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 80.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.52 years
male : 59.27 years
female: 67.99 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.77 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups: Azeri 90%, Dagestani Peoples 3.2%, Russian 2.5%,
Armenian 2.3%, other 2% (1995 est.)
note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
region

Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox
2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)
note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; actual
practicing adherents are much lower

Languages: Azeri 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 96% (1989 est.)

@Azerbaijan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Azerbaijani Republic
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form : none
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: AJ

Government type: republic

National capital: Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11
cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar
respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas
Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, AliBayramli Sahari*, Astara
Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu,
Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu,
Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy
Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli
Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran
Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir
Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala
Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan
Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu,
Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi
Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*,
Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu,
Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali
Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax
Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 May

Constitution: adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since NA November
1996); First Deputy Prime Ministers Abbas ABBASOV (since NA), Samed
SADYKOV (since NA), Vahid AKHMEDOV (since NA), Elchin EFENDIYEV (since
NA)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed
by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term;
election last held 3 October 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); prime
minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
and confirmed by the National Assembly
election results: Heydar ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote -
Heydar ALIYEV 97%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125
seats; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 12 and 26 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF
[Ebulfez ELCIBEY, chairman]; Musavat Party [Isa GAMBAR, chairman];
National Independence Party [Etibar MAMEDOV, chairman]; Social
Democratic Party or SDP [Araz ALIZADE, chairman]; Communist Party
[Ramiz AKHMEDOV, chairman]; People's Freedom Party [Yunus OGUZ,
chairman]; Independent Social Democratic Party [Arif YUNUSOV and Leila
YUNOSOVA, cochairmen]; New Azerbaijan Party [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman];
Boz Gurd Party [Iskander HAMIDOV, chairman]; Azerbaijan Democratic
Independence Party [Qabil HUSEYNLI, chairman]; Islamic Party of
Azerbaijan [Ali Akram, chairman]; Ana Veten Party [Fazail AGAMALIYEV];
Azerbaijan Democratic Party [Sardar Jalaloglu MAMEDOV]; Azerbaijan
Democratic Party of Proprietors or DPOP [Makhmud MAMEDOV]; Azerbaijan
Patriotic Solidarity Party [Sabir RUSTAMHANLI]; Azerbaijan Republic
Reform Party [Fuad ASADOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan
(unregistered) [Sayad SAYADOV]; Equality of the Peoples Party
[Faukhraddin AYDAYEV]; Independent Azerbaijan Party [Nizami
SULEYMANOV]; Labor Party of Azerbaijan [Sabutai HAJIYEV];
Liberal-Democratic Party of Azerbaijan [Lyudmila NIKOLAYEVNA];
National Enlightenment Party [Hajy Osman EFENDIYEV]; National
Liberation Party [Panak SHAKHSEVEV]; Peasant Party [Firuz MUSTAFAYEV];
Radical Party of Azerbaijan [Malik SHARIFOV]; United Azerbaijan Party
[Kerrar ABILOV]; Vetan Adzhagy Party [Zakir TAGIYEV]

Political pressure groups and leaders: self-proclaimed Armenian
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Sadval,
Lezgin movement

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS,
EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NACC, NAM (observer),
OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV
chancery: (temporary) Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC
20005 or P. O. Box 28790, Washington, DC 20038-8790
telephone : [1] (202) 842-0001
FAX: [1] (202) 842-0004

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard D. KAUZLARICH
embassy: Azadliq Prospekti 83, Baku
mailing address : use embassy street address
telephone: [9] (9412) 96-03-35
FAX: [9] (9412) 96-04-69

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and
green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red
band

Economy

Economy - overview: Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than
either Armenia or Georgia, the other Transcaucasian states. It
resembles the Central Asian states in its majority nominally Muslim
population, high structural unemployment, and low standard of living.
The economy's most prominent products are oil, cotton, and gas.
Production from the Caspian oil and gas field has been in decline for
several years, but the November 1994 ratification of the $7.5 billion
oil deal with a consortium of Western companies should generate the
funds needed to spur future industrial development. Azerbaijan shares
all the formidable problems of the ex-Soviet republics in making the
transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable
energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only
recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic
ties and structures are slowly being replaced. A major short-term
obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up foreign
investment, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the ethnic
Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh. Trade with Russia and
the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while
trade is building up with the nations of Europe, Turkey, Iran and the
UAE.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.9 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.2% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,550 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 26%
industry : 30%
services: 44% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 20% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.789 million
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction
26%, other 42% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 1.1% includes officially registered unemployed;
also large numbers of unregistered unemployed and underemployed
workers (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $565 million
expenditures: $682 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield
equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals;
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -8% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 5.24 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 16.63 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,200 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit,
vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value : $700 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles,
cotton
partners: CIS, European countries, Turkey

Imports:
total value: $900 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities : machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs,
textiles
partners: CIS, European countries, Turkey

Debt - external: $100 million (of which $75 million to Russia)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $14 million (1993)
note: commitments, 1992-95, $1,000 million ($185 million in
disbursements); wheat from Turkey

Currency: 1 manat = 100 gopik

Exchange rates: manats per US$1 - 4,230 (November 1996), 4,375 (April
1996), 4,500 (April 1995), 4,168 (end of December 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Azerbaijan:Communications

Telephones: 710,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: 202,000 persons waiting for telephone installations
(January 1991 est.)
domestic: telephone service is of poor quality and inadequate; a joint
venture to establish a cellular telephone system in the Baku area is
operational
international: cable and microwave radio relay connections to former
Soviet republics; connection through Moscow international gateway
switch to other countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat and 1
Intersputnik (Intelsat provides service to Turkey and through Turkey
to 200 more countries; Intersputnik provides direct service to New
York)

Radio broadcast stations: 1 state-owned radio broadcast station

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2
note: domestic and Russian TV programs are received locally and
Turkish and Iranian TV is received from an Intelsat satellite through
a receive-only earth station

Televisions: NA

@Azerbaijan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (1993)

Highways:
total: 57,770 km
paved: 54,188 km
unpaved: 3,582 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas
1,240 km

Ports and harbors: Baku (Baki)

Airports: 69 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 29
over 3,047 m : 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 40
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 33 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border
Guards

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 1,982,747 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,596,087 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 69,524 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 33.5 billion manats (1994);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding, separatist
conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; Caspian Sea boundaries
are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakstan, Russia, and
Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly
for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program;
transshipment point for opiates to Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

THE BAHAMAS

@The Bahamas:Geography

Location: Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
southeast of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 24 15 N, 76 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 13,940 sq km
land: 10,070 sq km
water : 3,870 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,542 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
(measured from the archipelagic straight baselines)
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain: long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Alvernia 63 m

Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber

Land use:
arable land : 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 32%
other : 67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause
extensive flood and wind damage

Environment - current issues: coral reef decay

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba;
extensive island chain

@The Bahamas:People

Population: 275,941 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 39,280; female 38,755)
15-64 years: 66% (male 89,483; female 93,479)
65 years and over : 6% (male 6,209; female 8,735) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.41% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 21.47 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.45 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.75 years
male: 70.36 years
female : 77.2 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.36 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bahamian(s)
adjective: Bahamian

Ethnic groups: black 85%, white 15%

Religions: Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist
6%, Church of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other
2%

Languages: English, Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write but definition of
literacy not available
total population: 98.2%
male: 98.5%
female: 98% (1995 est.)

@The Bahamas:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Commonwealth of The Bahamas
conventional short form: The Bahamas

Data code: BF

Government type: commonwealth

National capital: Nassau

Administrative divisions: 21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands,
Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour,
Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long
Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nicholls Town and
Berry Islands, Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador
and Rum Cay

Independence: 10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution: 10 July 1973

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Orville TURNQUEST (since 2 January
1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM (since 19
August 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Frank WATSON (since December
1994)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime
minister's recommendation
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen; prime minister and deputy prime minister
appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(16-member body appointed by the governor general upon the advice of
the prime minister and the opposition leader for a five-year term) and
the House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular
vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 14 March 1997 (next to be held by March 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FNM
34, PLP 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry
CHRISTIE]; Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arlington Griffith BUTLER
chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 319-2660
FAX: [1] (202) 319-2668
consulate(s) general : Miami and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sidney WILLIAMS
embassy: Queen Street, Nassau
mailing address: P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau; American Embassy, Nassau,
P.O. Box 9009, Miami, FL 33159; Nassau, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-3370 (pouch)
telephone: [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206
FAX: [1] (242) 328-7838

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top),
gold, and aquamarine with a black equilateral triangle based on the
hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with an
economy heavily dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism
alone accounts for more than 50% of GDP and directly or indirectly
employs 40% of the archipelago's labor force. A slowdown in the
expansion of the tourism sector - especially stopover travel from
Europe - led to a reduction in the country's GDP growth rate in 1995,
down to an estimated 2% from 3.5% in 1994. The construction sector
benefited from hotel rehabilitation and the government's ongoing
housing development program. Earnings from exports of vegetable and
citrus production have been decreasing since 1993 but were expected to
increase in 1996 due to storm damage to crops in Florida. Overall
growth prospects in the short run will depend heavily on the fortunes
of the tourism sector and continued income growth in the US, which
accounts for the majority of tourist visits.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $18,700 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 3%
industry: 6%
services: 91% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.1% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 136,900 (1993)
by occupation : government 30%, tourism 40%, business services 10%,
agriculture 5% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $665 million
expenditures: $725 million, including capital expenditures of $94
million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment,
salt production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded steel
pipe

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 267,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 874 million kWh (1993)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,717 kWh (1993)

Agriculture - products: citrus, vegetables; poultry

Exports:
total value: $267.5 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish, refined petroleum
products
partners: US 24%, Spain 14%, UK 7%, Norway 7%, France 6%, Italy 5%
(1995 est.)

Imports:
total value : $1.17 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, crude oil, vehicles,
electronics
partners : US 29%, Finland 10%, Iran 10%, Denmark 8%

Debt - external: $393 million (1995)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bahamian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1 - 1.00 (February 1997;
fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@The Bahamas:Communications

Telephones: 119,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : totally automatic system; highly developed
international: tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida; 3
coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 200,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 60,000 (1993 est.)

@The Bahamas:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,450 km
paved: 1,406 km
unpaved: 1,044 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau

Merchant marine:
total: 988 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,690,478
GRT/37,428,826 DWT
ships by type: bulk 176, cargo 205, chemical tanker 41, combination
bulk 7, combination ore/oil 23, container 56, liquefied gas tanker 21,
oil tanker 184, passenger 47, refrigerated cargo 150, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 53, short-sea passenger 11, vehicle carrier 14
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 46 countries
among which are Norway 157, Greece 146, UK 128, US 69, Denmark 51,
Sweden 34, Finland 32, Belgium 29, Japan 27, and Monaco 27; Bahamas
owns 10 additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 256,379 DWT that

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