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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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@Singapore:Communications

Telephones: 1.23 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system: good domestic facilities; good international service
domestic: NA
international: submarine cables to Malaysia (Sabah and Peninsular
Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations -
2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat
(Pacific Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1996)

Televisions: 1.05 million (1992 est.)

@Singapore:Transportation

Railways:
total: 38.6 km
narrow gauge: 38.6 km 1.000-m gauge
note: there is a 67 km mass transit system with 42 stations

Highways:
total: 2,972 km
paved: 2,892 km (including 132 km of expressways)
unpaved : 80 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Singapore

Merchant marine:
total : 737 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,420,046
GRT/24,508,019 DWT
ships by type: bulk 122, cargo 123, chemical tanker 24, combination
bulk 8, combination ore/oil 6, container 115, liquefied gas tanker 23,
livestock carrier 1, multifunction large-load carrier 6, oil tanker
259, refrigerated cargo 7, roll-on/roll-off cargo 14, short-sea
passenger 1, specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 24
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 24 countries
among which are Japan 42, Denmark 33, Hong Kong 26, Germany 22,
Thailand 17, Sweden 15, Belgium 11, China 10, US 10, and Indonesia 8;
Singapore also owns an additional 220 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 10,289,213 DWT that operate under the registries of The
Bahamas, Cyprus, Hong Kong, Honduras, Liberia, Malta, Malaysia,
Panama, Thailand, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Vanuatu (1996
est.)

Airports: 8 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 8
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force,
Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,034,380 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 756,649 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.64 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.2% (FY95/96)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: two islands in dispute with Malaysia

Illicit drugs: transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the
US, Western Europe, and the Third World; also a money-laundering
center
______________________________________________________________________

SLOVAKIA

@Slovakia:Geography

Location: Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 48 40 N, 19 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 48,845 sq km
land: 48,800 sq km
water: 45 sq km

Area - comparative: about twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries:
total: 1,355 km
border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 515
km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 90 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: rugged mountains in the central and northern part and
lowlands in the south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovka 2,655 m

Natural resources: brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore,
copper and manganese ore; salt

Land use:
arable land: 31%
permanent crops : 3%
permanent pastures: 17%
forests and woodland: 41%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants
presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography - note: landlocked

@Slovakia:People

Population: 5,387,665 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (male 588,511; female 563,090)
15-64 years : 68% (male 1,802,132; female 1,831,119)
65 years and over: 11% (male 233,476; female 369,337) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.12% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.37 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.58 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.91 years
male : 69.11 years
female: 76.9 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.34 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak

Ethnic groups: Slovak 85.7%, Hungarian 10.7%, Gypsy 1.5% (the 1992
census figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which could
reach 500,000 or more), Czech 1%, Ruthenian 0.3%, Ukrainian 0.3%,
German 0.1%, Polish 0.1%, other 0.3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%,
Orthodox 4.1%, other 17.5%

Languages: Slovak (official), Hungarian

Literacy: NA

@Slovakia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska Republika
local short form: Slovensko

Data code: LO

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Bratislava

Administrative divisions: 4 departments (kraje, singular - kraj)
Bratislava, Zapadoslovensky, Stredoslovensky, Vychodoslovensky
note: an article in the Slovakian press mentions there are 8
departments named Bratislava, Banska Bystrica, Kosice, Nitra, Presov,
Trnava, Trencin, and Zilina

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: Slovak Constitution Day, 1 September (1992);
Anniversary of Slovak National Uprising, 29 August (1944)

Constitution: ratified 1 September 1992, fully effective 1 January
1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to
comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and
Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal
theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Michal KOVAC (since 8 February 1993)
head of government : Prime Minister Vladimir MECIAR (since 12 December
1994)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of
the prime minister
elections: president elected by National Council for a five-year term;
election last held 8 February 1993 (next to be held March 1998);
following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party
or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime
minister by the president
election results: Michal KOVAC elected president; percent of
parliamentary vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic
or Narodna Rada Slovensky Repubiky (150 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 30 September-1 October 1994 (next to be held by
October 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - HZDS 35%, SDL 10.4%,
Hungarian coalition (Hungarian Christian Democrats, Hungarian Civic
Party, Coexistence) 10.2%, KDH 10.1%, DU 8.6%, ZRS 7.3%, SNS 5.4%;
seats by party - governing coalition 83 (HZDS 61, ZRS 13, SNS 9),
opposition 67 (SDL 18, Hungarian coalition 17, KDH 17, DU 15)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the National
Parliament

Political parties and leaders: Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or
HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR, chairman]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL
[Jozef MIGAS, chairman]; Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement or
MKDH [Vojtech BUGAR]; Hungarian Civic Party or MOS [Laszlo A. NAGY,
president]; Coexistence [Miklos DURAY, chairman]; Christian Democratic
Movement or KDH [Jan CARNOGURSKY, chairman]; Democratic Union or DU
[Jozef MORAVCIK, chairman]; Association of Slovak Workers or ZRS [Jan
LUPTAK, chairman]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Jan SLOTA, chairman];
Slovak Green Alternative or SZA [Zora LAZAROVA, chairwoman]; Farmers'
Party of Slovakia or RSS [Pavel DELINGA, chairman]; Social Democratic
Party of Slovakia or SSDS [Jaroslav WOLF, chairman]; Party of Greens
in Slovakia or SZS [Jozef POKORNY, chaiman]; Democratic Party or DS
[Jan LANGOS, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Party of Entrepreneurs and
Businessmen of Slovakia; Christian Social Union; Confederation of
Trade Unions or KOZ; Metal Workers Unions or KOVO and METALURG;
Association of Employers of Slovakia; Association of Towns and
Villages or ZMOS

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC
(observer), CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant),
FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
NACC, NSG, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNTAES, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Branislav LICHARDUS
chancery: (temporary) Suite 250, 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20007
telephone : [1] (202) 965-5160
FAX: [1] (202) 965-5166

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph R. JOHNSON
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address : use embassy street address
telephone: [42] (7) 533-0861, 533-3338
FAX: [42] (7) 533-5439

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue,
and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the
hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and
blue

Economy

Economy - overview: Since the establishment of the Slovak Republic on
1 January 1993, Slovakia has continued the difficult transformation
from a centrally controlled economy to a modern market-oriented
economy. Macroeconomic performance improved steadily in 1994-96, but
privatization progressed only in fits and starts. Strong export
performance boosted GDP growth to 4.8% in 1994 after a four-year
decline. GDP surged to 7.4% growth in 1995 and should be only slightly
less in 1996, the fastest growth in Central and Eastern Europe.
Unemployment fell to about 12% in 1996 and inflation dropped from 26%
in 1993 to 5.5% in 1996, the lowest in the region. Foreign debt of
$4.6 billion also is the lowest in the region and the second lowest
per capita. Private activity now makes up roughly two-thirds of GDP.
Positive international financial performance has led Standard & Poor's
to raise its rating of the National Bank of Slovakia's foreign
currency debt to just one step below investment grade. Although Slovak
economic performance continues to be impressive, many warning signs of
possible danger ahead have been raised. Aggregate demand has surged in
the form of increased personal and government consumption. At the same
time that the budget deficit is growing, the money supply has been
rapidly increasing, which could apply upward pressure on inflation.
The trade and current account deficits both are mounting as imports
soar and exports sag. Perhaps most troubling, Slovakia continues to
have difficulty attracting foreign investment because of perceived
political problems and halting progress on restructuring and
privatization. The government projects 6.4% growth in 1997 and 5% in
1998. Continuing economic recovery in western Europe should boost
exports and production, but Slovakia's image with foreign creditors
and investors could suffer setbacks in 1997 if progress on
privatization and restructuring stalls.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $42.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5.4%
industry: 39.9%
services: 54.7% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5.5% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.538 million
by occupation : industry 29.3%, agriculture 8.9%, construction 8.0%,
transport and communication 8.2%, services 45.6% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $5.3 billion
expenditures : $5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995)

Industries: metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity,
gas, coke, oil, and nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers;
machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport
vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products

Industrial production growth rate: 2.8% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 7.12 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 23.6 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 4,400 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit;
hogs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Exports:
total value: $8.1 billion (January-November 1996)
commodities : machinery and transport equipment 18.7%; chemicals
13.4%; miscellaneous manufactured goods 13.1%; raw materials 5.0%
(1995)
partners: EU 37.4%, Central Europe Free Trade Agreement 44.3% (Czech
Republic 35.2%), FSU 7.1% (1995)

Imports:
total value : $9.6 billion (f.o.b., January-November 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 29.0%; fuels 18.0%;
intermediate manufactured goods 17.6%; miscellaneous manufactured
goods 8.0% (1995)
partners: EU 34.7%, Central Europe Free Trade Agreement 32.9% (Czech
Republic 27.5%), FSU 19.5% (1995)

Debt - external: $4.6 billion hard currency indebtedness (1995 est.)

Economic aid: NA

Currency: 1 koruna (Sk) = 100 halierov

Exchange rates: koruny (Sk) per US$1 - 31.50 (January 1997), 30.654
(1996), 29.713 (1995), 32.045 (1994), 30.770 (1993), 28.26 (1992),
29.53 (1991); note - values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange
rate

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Slovakia:Communications

Telephones: 1,362,178 (1992 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA; note - there are
22 private broadcast stations and 1 public (state) broadcast station

Radios: 915,000 (1995 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 56 private broadcast stations, 1 public
(state) broadcast station (1995 est.)

Televisions: 1.2 million (1995 est.)

@Slovakia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,660 km
broad gauge: 102 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge : 3,507 km 1.435-m gauge (1424 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 51 km (46 km 1,000-m gauge; 5 km 0.750-m gauge) (1995)

Highways:
total: 17,868 km
paved: 17,654 km (including 198 km of expressways)
unpaved: 214 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 172 km on the Danube

Pipelines: petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km

Ports and harbors: Bratislava, Komarno

Merchant marine:
total: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,010 GRT/22,039
DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 37 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 12
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 25
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m : 10
under 914 m: 11 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Reserve Force
(Home Guards)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,462,052 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,118,955 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 48,245 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $423 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.7% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Hungary;
unresolved property issues with Czech Republic over redistribution of
former Czechoslovak federal property

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
and hashish bound for Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

SLOVENIA

@Slovenia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic
Sea, between Austria and Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 15 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 20,256 sq km
land: 20,256 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:
total: 1,334 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Italy 232 km,
Hungary 102 km

Coastline: 46.6 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with
mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to
the east

Terrain: a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain
region adjacent to Italy, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous
rivers to the east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m

Natural resources: lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops : 3%
permanent pastures: 28%
forests and woodland: 51%
other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding and earthquakes

Environment - current issues: Sava River polluted with domestic and
industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and
toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution
(originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid
rain

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94

@Slovenia:People

Population: 1,973,096 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 173,932; female 165,167)
15-64 years : 70% (male 690,309; female 686,440)
65 years and over: 13% (male 92,926; female 164,322) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.06% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 8.91 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.54 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.93 years
male: 71.24 years
female: 78.84 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.22 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian

Ethnic groups: Slovene 91%, Croat 3%, Serb 2%, Muslim 1%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 70.8% (including 2% Uniate), Lutheran 1%,
Muslim 1%, other 27.2%

Languages: Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 6%, other 3%

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population : 99%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Slovenia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form : Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenije
local short form: Slovenija

Data code: SI

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Ljubljana

Administrative divisions: 136 municipalities (obcine, singular -
obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (obcine mestne, singular - obcina
mestna) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Bled, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Brda,
Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova-Tisina, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem,
Cerknica, Cerkno, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj,
Destrnik-Trnovska Vas, Divaca, Dobrepolje, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov
Gradec, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek,
Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji
Petrovci, Grosuplje, Hodos Salovci, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija,
Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola, Jesenice, Jursinci,
Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Koper*,
Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart,
Lendava, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina,
Loski Potok, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Medvode, Menges,
Metlika, Mezica, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske
Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*,
Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran, Pivka,
Podcetrtek, Podvelka-Ribnica, Postojna, Preddvor, Ptuj*, Puconci,
Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica,
Ravne-Prevalje, Ribnica, Rogasevci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse,
Semic, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica,
Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska
Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki,
Sostanj, Starse Store, Sveti Jurij, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trzic,
Turnisce, Velenje*, Velike Lasce, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice
Vojnik, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki,
Ziri, Zrece

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: National Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)

Constitution: adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Milan KUCAN (since 22 April 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Janez DRNOVSEK (since 14 May 1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
elected by the National Assembly
elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 6 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1997);
following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority
party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to
become prime minister by the president and elected by the National
Assembly; election last held NA November 1996 (next to be held NA
November 2000)
election results: Milan KUCAN elected president; percent of vote -
63.9%; Janez DRNOVSEK elected prime minister; percent of National
Assembly vote - 51%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90
seats, 40 are directly elected and 50 are selected on a proportional
basis; note - the numbers of directly elected and proportionally
elected seats varies with each election; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : National Assembly - last held 10 November 1996 (next to be
held Fall 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - LDS 27.01%, SLS 19.38%,
SDS 16.13%, SKD 9.62%, ZLDS 9.03%, DeSUS 4.32%, SNS 3.22%; seats by
party - LDS 25, SLS 19, SDS 16, SKD 10, ZLSD 9, DeSUS 5, SNS 4,
Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1; note - seating as of January
1997 is as follows: LDS 25, SLS 19, SDS 16, SKD 9, ZLSD 9, DeSUS 5,
SNS 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1, independents 1
note: the National Council or Drzavni Svet is an advisory body with
limited legislative powers; it may propose laws and ask to review any
National Assembly decisions; in the election of 6 December 1992, 40
members were elected to represent local, professional, and
socioeconomic interests (next election to be held in the fall of 1997)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the National
Assembly on recommendation of the Judicial Council; Constitutional
Court, judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and
nominated by the president

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic or LDS [Janez
DRNOVSEK, chairman]; Slovene Christian Democrats or SKD [Lozje
PETERLE, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Slovenia or SDS [Janez
JANSA, chairman]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Marjan PODOBNIK,
chairman]; United List (former Communists and allies) or ZLSD [Janez
KOCIJANCIC, chairman]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC,
chairman]; Democratic Party of Retired (Persons) of Slovenia or DeSUS
[Joze GLOBACNIK]

Political pressure groups and leaders: none

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE,
FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
NACC (observer), NAM (guest), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Ernest PETRIC
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 667-5363
FAX: [1] (202) 667-4563
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Victor JACKOVICH
embassy: address NA, Ljubljana
mailing address: P.O. Box 254, Prazakova 4, 61000 Ljubljana; American
Embassy, Ljubljana, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone : [386] (61) 301-427, 472, 485
FAX: [386] (61) 301-401

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue,
and red with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav,
Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the
center, beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers,
and above it, there are three six-sided stars arranged in an inverted
triangle which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje,
the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th
centuries); the seal is located in the upper hoist side of the flag
centered in the white and blue bands

Economy

Economy - overview: Slovenia appears to be making a solid economic
recovery, fulfilling the promise it showed at the time of Yugoslavia's
breakup. Its per capita GDP is now the highest in Central and Eastern
Europe and comparable to the levels in the poorer West European
countries. Slovenia has benefited from strong ties to Western Europe
and suffered comparatively small physical damage during Yugoslavia's
breakup. The beginning was difficult, however. Real GDP fell 15% in
1991-92, while inflation soared to 200% in 1992. The turning point
came in 1993, when real GDP grew 1%, unemployment leveled off, and
inflation slowed dramatically. In 1994, real GDP rose 5.5%, tapering
off to an estimated 3.5% in 1995 and an estimated 3% in 1996. The
government gets good marks from foreign observers for fiscal policy -
the budget deficit has not exceeded 1% of GDP in any year since 1991,
and the current account balance has remained in surplus throughout the
transition period, with the exception of 1995-96. The Slovene
privatization program, which began in 1994, involves about 1,400
firms, but less than half have been privatized. Growth in the near
term depends largely on economic revitalization in Western Europe
which buys 70% of Slovenia's exports. Slovenia itself must press on
with privatization, restructuring, the encouragement of foreign
investment, and the maintenance of a stable tolar.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $24 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $12,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4.8%
industry: 33.2%
services : 62% (1996)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 8.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 857,400
by occupation: NA%

Unemployment rate: 13% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $8.48 billion
expenditures: $8.53 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: ferrous metallurgy and rolling mill products, aluminum
reduction and rolled products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics
(including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment,
wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

Industrial production growth rate: -1% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 2.361 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 12 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 5,362 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn,
grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry

Exports:
total value: $8.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities : machinery and transport equipment 31.4%, manufactured
goods 50.7%, chemicals 10.5%, food 3.8% (1995)
partners: Germany 28.9%, former Yugoslavia 16.5%, Italy 13.6%, France
8.6%, Austria 6.4%, US 3.3% (January-July 1996 est.)

Imports:
total value : $9.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 33.8%, manufactured
goods 30.4%, chemicals 12.1%, fuels and lubricants 6.6%, food 8.4%
(1995)
partners: Germany 22.3%, Italy 17.1%, former Yugoslavia 7.4%, France
9.2%, Austria 9.1%, US 3.2% (January-July 1996 est.)

Debt - external: $4.3 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $5 million (1993)

Currency: 1 tolar (SlT) = 100 stotins

Exchange rates: tolars (SlT) per US$1 - 141.15 (December 1996), 135.36
(1996), 118.52 (1995), 128.81 (1994), 113.24 (1993), 81.29 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Slovenia:Communications

Telephones: 527,800 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 0
note: there are more than 20 regional and local radio broadcast
stations

Radios: 596,100 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 7
note: there are more than 20 local cable television broadcast stations

Televisions: 454,400 (1993 est.)

@Slovenia:Transportation

Railways:
total : 1,201 km
standard gauge: 1,201 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 499 km) (1994)

Highways:
total: 14,760 km
paved: 11,808 km (including 218 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,952 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: NA

Pipelines: crude oil 290 km; natural gas 305 km

Ports and harbors: Izola, Koper, Piran

Merchant marine:
total: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 217,629 GRT/389,779 DWT
(controlled by Slovenian owners)
ships by type : bulk 9, cargo 5
note: ships operate under the flags of Antigua and Barbuda, Liberia,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Singapore; no ships remain under
the Slovenian flag (1996 est.)

Airports: 14 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 5 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Slovene Defense Forces

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 531,797 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 423,918 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 15,572 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $298 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% to 1.7% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime border dispute with Croatia over
direct access to the sea in the Adriatic; the border issue is
currently under negotiation; Italy is negotiating with Slovenia over
property and minority rights issues dating from World War II

Illicit drugs: transit point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for
Western Europe and for precursor chemicals
______________________________________________________________________

SOLOMON ISLANDS

@Solomon Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east
of Papua New Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 S, 159 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 28,450 sq km
land: 27,540 sq km
water: 910 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 5,313 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Makarakomburu 2,447 m

Natural resources: fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates, lead,
zinc, nickel

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 88%
other : 9% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons, but they are rarely destructive;
geologically active region with frequent earth tremors; volcanic
activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; much of the
surrounding coral reefs are dead or dying

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified : Law of the Sea

@Solomon Islands:People

Population: 426,855 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 98,797; female 95,162)
15-64 years : 52% (male 111,702; female 108,505)
65 years and over: 3% (male 6,345; female 6,344) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.3% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 37.3 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.31 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.45 years
male: 68.96 years
female: 74.07 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.27 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Solomon Islander(s)
adjective: Solomon Islander

Ethnic groups: Melanesian 93%, Polynesian 4%, Micronesian 1.5%,
European 0.8%, Chinese 0.3%, other 0.4%

Religions: Anglican 34%, Roman Catholic 19%, Baptist 17%, United
(Methodist/Presbyterian) 11%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, other
Protestant 5%, traditional beliefs 4%

Languages: Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua franca,
English spoken by 1%-2% of population
note: 120 indigenous languages

Literacy: NA

@Solomon Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Solomon Islands
former: British Solomon Islands

Data code: BP

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Honiara

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 town*; Central,
Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel, Makira, Malaita, Temotu, Western
note: there may be two new provinces of Choiseul (Lauru) and
Rennell/Bellona and the administrative unit of Honiara may have been
abolished

Independence: 7 July 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 July (1978)

Constitution: 7 July 1978

Legal system: common law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Moses PITAKAKA (since 10 June 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Solomon MAMALONI (since 7 November
1994); Deputy Prime Minister Francis SAEMALA (since NA February 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister from among the members of Parliament
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen on the advice of Parliament for up to five
years; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority
party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually elected prime
minister by Parliament; deputy prime minister appointed by the
governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the
members of Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament (47 seats; members
elected from single member constituencies by popular vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 26 May 1993 (next to be held 6 August 1997)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GNUR
21, PAP 7, NAPSI 5, SILP 4, UP 4, independents 6

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: National Unity and Reconciliation Group
(GNUR), Solomon MAMALONI; People's Alliance Party (PAP); National
Action Party (NAPSI), leader NA; Solomon Islands Labor Party (SILP),
leader NA; United Party (UP), leader NA; Nationalist Front for
Progress (NFP), Andrew NORI; Labor Party (LP), Joses TUHANUKU;
Christian Fellowship, leader NA

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen Rex HOROI (represents the country
as both the Permanent Representative to the UN and the ambassador to
the US)
chancery: Permanent Mission of the Solomon Islands to the UN, 820
Second Avenue, Suite 800, New York, NY 10017
telephone : [1] (212) 599-6193
FAX: [1] (212) 661-8925

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Solomon Islands (embassy closed July 1993); the ambassador to Papua
New Guinea is accredited to the Solomon Islands

Flag description: divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the
lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with
five white five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower
triangle is green

Economy

Economy - overview: The bulk of the population depend on subsistence
agriculture, fishing, and forestry for at least part of their
livelihood. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be
imported. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such
as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. The Government of the Solomon Islands
is nearing financial insolvency. In mid-1995 the central bank
suspended interest and principal payments on government bonds and
treasury bills held by financial institutions and the general public.
The government so far has taken no steps to restrain expenditure or
address the deficit, which is expected to be considerably higher than
the $20 million forecasted in the 1996 budget.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 10.4% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 26,842
by occupation: services 41.5%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing
23.7%, commerce, transport, and finance 21.7%, construction,
manufacturing, and mining 13.1% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $147 million
expenditures: $168 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: copra, fish (tuna)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 20,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 55 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: cocoa, beans, coconuts, palm kernels, rice,
potatoes, vegetables, fruit; cattle, pigs; timber; fish

Exports:
total value: $170 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: timber, fish, palm oil, cocoa, copra
partners : Japan 39%, UK 23%, Thailand 9%, Australia 5%, US 2% (1991)

Imports:
total value: $152 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: plant and machinery, manufactured goods, food and live
animals, fuel
partners: Australia 34%, Japan 16%, Singapore 14%, NZ 9%

Debt - external: $100 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $8.625 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.); $3.3
million from NZ (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 Solomon Islands dollar (SI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Solomon Islands dollars (SI$) per US$1 - 3.7900
(November 1996), 3.4059 (1995), 3.2914 (1994), 3.1877 (1993), 2.9281
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Solomon Islands:Communications

Telephones: 5,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 38,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 2,000 (1992 est.)

@Solomon Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 2,100 km
paved: 32 km
unpaved: 2,068 km (includes about 800 km of private plantation roads)
(1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Aola Bay, Honiara, Lofung, Noro, Viru Harbor,
Yandina

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 29 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m : 17 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: no regular military forces; Solomon Islands
National Reconnaissance and Surveillance Force; Royal Solomon Islands
Police (RSIP)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

SOMALIA

@Somalia:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian
Ocean, east of Ethiopia

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 49 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 637,660 sq km
land: 627,340 sq km
water: 10,320 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 2,366 km
border countries: Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,626 km, Kenya 682 km

Coastline: 3,025 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon,
moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October -
southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular
rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Shimbiris 2,450 m

Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron
ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 69%
forests and woodland: 26%
other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern
plains in summer

Environment - current issues: famine; use of contaminated water
contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern
approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

@Somalia:People

Population: 6,590,325 (July 1997 est.)
note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1987
by the Somali Government with the cooperation of the UN and the US
Bureau of the Census; population estimates are updated year by year
between census years by factoring growth rates into them and by taking
account of refugee movements and of losses due to famine; lower
estimates of Somalia's population in mid-1996 (on the order of 6.0
million to 6.5 million) have been made by aid and relief agencies,
based on the number of persons being fed; population counting in
Somalia is complicated by the large numbers of nomads and by refugee
movements in response to famine and clan warfare

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 1,449,037; female 1,452,171)
15-64 years: 53% (male 1,777,131; female 1,718,389)
65 years and over: 3% (male 89,346; female 104,251) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.03% (1997 est.) (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 45.49 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 18.34 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.) (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female (1997 est.)
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population : 1.01 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 125.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 46.23 years
male: 44.66 years
female: 47.85 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.76 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Somali(s)
adjective : Somali

Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu, Arabs 30,000

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 24%
male: 36%
female: 14% (1990 est.)

@Somalia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Somalia
former: Somali Republic

Data code: SO

Government type: none

National capital: Mogadishu

Administrative divisions: 18 regions (plural - NA, singular -
gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo,
Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag,
Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which
became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian
Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN
trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: Somalia has no functioning government; the United
Somali Congress (USC) ousted the regime of Major General Mohamed SIAD
Barre on 27 January 1991; the present political situation is one of
anarchy, marked by interclan fighting and random banditry

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Golaha Shacbiga
note: the Golaha Shacbiga is not functioning

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (not functioning)

Political parties and leaders: the United Somali Congress or USC
ousted the former regime on 27 January 1991; formerly the only party
was the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party or SRSP, headed by former
President and Commander in Chief of the Army Major General Mohamed
SIAD Barre

Political pressure groups and leaders: numerous clan and subclan
factions are currently vying for power

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU,
NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Somalia does not have an embassy
in the US (ceased operations on 8 May 1991)

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Somalia; US interests are represented by the US Embassy in Nairobi
at Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue; mail address: P. O. Box
30137, Unit 64100, Nairobi; APO AE 09831; telephone: [254] (2) 334141;
FAX [254] (2) 340838

Flag description: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in
the center; design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was
a UN trust territory)

Economy

Economy - overview: One of the world's poorest and least developed
countries, Somalia has few resources. Moreover, much of the economy
has been devastated by the civil war. Agriculture is the most
important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and
about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and seminomads, who are dependent
upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the
population. Crop production generates only 10% of GDP and employs
about 20% of the work force. The main export crop is bananas; sugar,
sorghum, and corn are grown for the domestic market. The small
industrial sector is based on the processing of agricultural products
and accounts for less than 10% of GDP; most facilities have been shut
down because of the civil strife. The greatly increased political
turmoil of 1991-93 resulted in a substantial drop in agricultural
output, with widespread famine. In 1994 economic conditions stabilized
in the countryside, followed in 1995 by slight improvements. However,
ongoing civil strife in Mogadishu and outlying areas is interfering
with any substantial recovery.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.6 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $500 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 65.5%
industry: 8.7%
services: 25.8% (1990 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA

Labor force:
total: 3.7 million (very few are skilled laborers)(1993 est.)
by occupation: agriculture (mostly pastoral nomadism) 71%, industry
and services 29%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: a few small industries, including sugar refining,
textiles, petroleum refining (mostly shut down)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 144,000 kW prior to the civil war, but now
largely shut down due to war damage; some localities operate their own
generating plants, providing limited municipal power; note - UN and
relief organizations use their own portable power systems

Electricity - production: 60 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane;
cattle, sheep, goats; fishing potential largely unexploited

Exports:
total value: $130 million (1994 est.)
commodities: bananas, live animals, fish, hides (1995)
partners: Saudi Arabia 57%, Yemen 14%, Italy 13%, US (bananas) (1995
est.)

Imports:
total value: $269 million (1994 est.)
commodities : manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs,
construction materials (1995)
partners: Kenya 24%, Djibouti 18%, Pakistan 6% (1995 est.)

Debt - external: $2.6 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Somali shilling (So. Sh.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1 - 4,100 (November
1996 est.), 7,000 (January 1996 est.), 5,000 (1 January 1995), 2,616
(1 July 1993), 4,200 (December 1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Somalia:Communications

Telephones: 9,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: the public telecommunications system was completely
destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions; all relief
organizations depend on their own private systems
domestic: recently, local cellular telephone systems have been
established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers
international : international connections are available from Mogadishu
by satellite

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA (there are at
least five radio broadcast stations of NA type)

Radios: 350,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (Somalia's only TV station was
demolished during the civil strife, sometime in 1991)

Televisions: 113,000 (1992 est.)

@Somalia:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 18,000 km
paved: 2,700 km
unpaved: 15,300 km (1993 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 15 km

Ports and harbors: Bender Cassim (Boosaaso), Berbera, Chisimayu
(Kismaayo), Merca, Mogadishu

Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,529 GRT/6,892 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 47 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m : 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 36
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 19 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: NA; note - no functioning central government
military forces; clan militias continue to battle for control of key
economic or political prizes

Military manpower - military age:
males: 1,615,598 years of age (1997 est.)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,408,639 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 901,827 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: most of the southern half of the boundary
with Ethiopia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial
dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden
______________________________________________________________________

SOUTH AFRICA

@South Africa:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of
Africa

Geographic coordinates: 29 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,219,912 sq km
land: 1,219,912 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward
Island)

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total : 4,750 km
border countries: Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491
km, Namibia 855 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km

Coastline: 2,798 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days,
cool nights

Terrain: vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow
coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point : Njesuthi 3,408 m

Natural resources: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore,
manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum,
copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops : 1%
permanent pastures: 67%
forests and woodland: 7%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,700 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged droughts

Environment - current issues: lack of important arterial rivers or
lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures;
growth in water usage threatens to outpace supply; pollution of rivers
from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting
in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
Sea

Geography - note: South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost
completely surrounds Swaziland

@South Africa:People

Population: 42,327,458 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (male 7,470,444; female 7,340,734)
15-64 years: 61% (male 12,729,753; female 12,891,969)
65 years and over : 4% (male 762,041; female 1,132,517) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.51% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 26.89 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 11.89 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 53.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 56.29 years
male: 54.4 years
female: 58.23 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.22 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: South African(s)
adjective: South African

Ethnic groups: black 75.2%, white 13.6%, Colored 8.6%, Indian 2.6%

Religions: Christian 68% (includes most whites and Coloreds, about 60%
of blacks and about 40% of Indians), Muslim 2%, Hindu 1.5% (60% of
Indians), traditional and animistic 28.5%

Languages: 11 official languages, including Afrikaans, English,
Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.8%
male : 81.9%
female: 81.7% (1995 est.)

@South Africa:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of South Africa
conventional short form: South Africa
abbreviation : RSA

Data code: SF

Government type: republic

National capital: Pretoria (administrative); Cape Town (legislative);
Bloemfontein (judicial)

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State,
Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, North-West, Northern Cape,
Northern Province, Western Cape

Independence: 31 May 1910 (from UK)

National holiday: Freedom Day, 27 April (1994)

Constitution: 10 December 1996; this new constitution was certified by
the Constitutional Court on 4 December 1996, was signed by President
MANDELA on 10 December 1996, and entered into effect on 3 February
1997; it is being implemented in phases

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Nelson MANDELA (since 10 May 1994); Deputy
Executive President Thabo MBEKI (since 10 May 1994); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Nelson MANDELA (since 10 May 1994);
Deputy Executive President Thabo MBEKI (since 10 May 1994); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and deputy executive presidents elected by the
National Assembly; election last held 9 May 1994 (next to be held in
April 1999)
election results: Nelson MANDELA elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - 100% (by acclamation); Thabo MBEKI and
Frederik W. DE KLERK elected deputy executive presidents; percent of
National Assembly vote - 100% (by acclamation)
note: the initial governing coalition, made up of the ANC, the IFP,
and the NP, which constituted a Government of National Unity or GNU,
no longer includes the NP which was withdrawn by DE KLERK on 30 June
1996 when he voluntarily gave up his position as deputy executive
president and distanced himself from the programs of the ANC

Legislative branch: bicameral parliament consisting of the National
Assembly (400 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a
system of proportional representation to serve five-year terms) and
the National Council of Provinces (90 seats, ten members elected by
each of the nine provincial legislatures for five-year terms; has
special powers to protect regional interests, including the
safeguarding of cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic
minorities); note - following the implementation of the new
constitution on 3 February 1997 the former Senate was disbanded and
replaced by the National Council of Provinces with essentially no
change in membership and party affiliations, although the new
institution's responsibilities have been changed somewhat by the new
constitution
elections: National Assembly and Senate - last held 26-29 April 1994
(next to be held NA April 1999); note - the Senate was disbanded and
replaced by the National Council of Provinces on 6 February 1997
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - ANC
62.6%, NP 20.4%, IFP 10.5%, FF 2.2%, DP 1.7%, PAC 1.2%, ACDP 0.5%,
other 0.9%; seats by party - ANC 252, NP 82, IFP 43, FF 9, DP 7, PAC
5, ACDP 2; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
ANC 61, NP 17, FF 4, IFP 5, DP 3

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court of Appeals; High
Courts; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: African National Congress or ANC
[Nelson MANDELA, president]; National Party or NP [Frederik W. DE
KLERK, president]; Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI,
president]; African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth
MESHOE, president]; Democratic Party or DP [Tony LEON, president];
Freedom Front or FF [Constand VILJOEN, president]; Pan-Africanist
Congress or PAC [Stanley MOGOBA, president]
note: in addition to these seven parties which received seats in the
National Assembly, 11 other parties won votes in the national
elections in April 1994

Political pressure groups and leaders: South African National Civics
Organization or SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE, national president];
Congress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [John GOMONO,
president]; note - both SANCO and COSATU, as well as the South African
Communist Party, are in a formal alliance with the ANC

International organization participation: AfDB, BIS, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, MTCR, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Franklin SONN
chancery: 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1607
consulate(s) general: Beverly Hills (California), Chicago, and New
York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador James A. JOSEPH
embassy: 877 Pretorius St., Arcadia 0083
mailing address: P.O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001
telephone: [27] (12) 342-1048
FAX : [27] (12) 342-2244
consulate(s) general: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg

Flag description: two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and
blue separated by a central green band which splits into a horizontal
Y, the arms of which end at the corners of the hoist side, embracing a
black isosceles triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow
yellow bands; the red and blue bands are separated from the green band
and its arms by narrow white stripes
note: prior to 26 April 1994, the flag was actually four flags in one
- three miniature flags reproduced in the center of the white band of
the former flag of the Netherlands, which has three equal horizontal
bands of orange (top), white, and blue; the miniature flags are a
vertically hanging flag of the old Orange Free State with a horizontal
flag of the UK adjoining on the hoist side and a horizontal flag of
the old Transvaal Republic adjoining on the other side

Economy

Economy - overview: Despite the efforts of South Africa's first
majority-run government, income inequality remains among the world's
most extreme. Many of the white one-seventh of the South African
population enjoy incomes, material comforts, and health and
educational standards equal to those of Western Europe. In contrast,
most of the remaining population suffers from the poverty patterns of
the Third World, including unemployment, lack of job skills, and bleak
living conditions. The main strength of the economy lies in its rich
mineral resources, which provide two-thirds of exports. Economic
developments for the remainder of the 1990s will be driven largely by
the new government's attempts to improve black living standards, to
set the country on a steady export-led growth path, and to cut back
the enormous numbers of unemployed. The economy in recent years has
absorbed less than 5% of the more than 300,000 workers entering the
labor force annually. Local economists estimate that the economy must
grow at least 5% in real terms annually to absorb all of the new
entrants, much less reduce the accumulated total.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $227 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,400 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 5%
industry: 37%
services : 58% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 9% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 14.2 million economically active (1996)
by occupation: services 35%, agriculture 30%, industry 20%, mining 9%,
other 6%

Unemployment rate: 34% (1996 est.); note - an additional 11% of the
workforce is underemployed

Budget:
revenues : $30.5 billion
expenditures: $38 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.6
billion (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold,
chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron
and steel, chemical, fertilizer, foodstuffs

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 34.57 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 158.78 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 3,305 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables;
beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $29.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: gold 27%, other minerals and metals 20%-25%, food 5%,
chemicals 3% (1994)
partners: Italy, Japan, US, Germany, UK, other EU countries, Hong Kong

Imports:
total value : $26.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery 32%, transport equipment 15%, chemicals 11%,
petroleum products, textiles, scientific instruments (1994)
partners: Germany, US, Japan, UK, Italy

Debt - external: $30 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: current aid pledges include US $600 million over three years,
1994-96; UK $150 million over three years; Australia $21 million over
three years; Japan $1.3 billion over two years ending in 1996; EU $833
million over five years

Currency: 1 rand (R) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: rand (R) per US$1 - 4.6410 (January 1997), 4.2706
(1996), 3.6266 (1995), 3.5490 (1994), 3.2636 (1993), 2.8497 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@South Africa:Communications

Telephones: 5,206,235 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: the system is the best developed, most modern, and
has the highest capacity in Africa
domestic: consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial
cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, and
radiotelephone communication stations; key centers are Bloemfontein,
Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria
international : 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 3
Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 286, shortwave 0

Radios: 12.1 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 67 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 3.45 million (1990 est.)

@South Africa:Transportation

Railways:
total: 21,431 km
narrow gauge: 20,995 km 1.067-m gauge (9,087 km electrified); 436 km
0.610-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 182,329 km
paved : 55,428 km (including 2,040 km of expressways)
unpaved: 126,901 km (1991 est.)

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