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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Flag description: green with large white Arabic script (that may be
translated as There is no God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of
God) above a white horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist
side); green is the traditional color of Islam

Economy

Economy - overview: This is a well-to-do oil-based economy with strong
government controls over major economic activities. About 40% of GDP
comes from the private sector. Economic (as well as political) ties
with the US are especially strong. The petroleum sector accounts for
roughly 75% of budget revenues, 35% of GDP, and 90% of export
earnings. Saudi Arabia has the largest reserves of petroleum in the
world (26% of the proved total), ranks as the largest exporter of
petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. For the 1990s the
government intends to bring its budget, which has been in deficit
since 1983, back into balance, and to encourage private economic
activity. Roughly four million foreign workers play an important role
in the Saudi economy, for example, in the oil and service sectors. For
over a decade, Saudi Arabia's domestic and international outlays have
outstripped its income, and the government has cut its foreign
assistance and is beginning to rein in domestic programs. A
substantial rise in oil prices was the key to a successful 1996. For
1997, the country looks to its policies of maintaining moderate fiscal
reforms, restraining public spending, and encouraging non-oil exports.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $205.6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,600 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 9%
industry: 50%
services: 41% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1% (1996 est.)

Labor force: 6 million-7 million
by occupation: government 40%, industry, construction, and oil 25%,
services 30%, agriculture 5%
note: 35.87% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 6.5% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $43.7 billion
expenditures: $48.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic
petrochemicals, cement, two small steel-rolling mills, construction,
fertilizer, plastics

Industrial production growth rate: 17% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 20.9 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 62.75 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 3,228 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates,
citrus; mutton, chickens, eggs, milk

Exports:
total value: $53.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 90%
partners: Japan 18%, US 15%, South Korea 10%, Singapore 7%, France 4%
(1995 est.)

Imports:
total value : $25.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor
vehicles, textiles
partners: US 21%, UK 9%, Germany 8%, Japan 8%, Switzerland 5%, France
5% (1995 est.)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
donor: pledged $100 million in 1993 to fund reconstruction of Lebanon

Currency: 1 Saudi riyal (SR) = 100 halalah

Exchange rates: Saudi riyals (SR) per US$1 - 3.7450 (fixed rate since
June 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Saudi Arabia:Communications

Telephones: 1.46 million (1993)

Telephone system: modern system
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay and coaxial and fiber-optic
cable systems
international: microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait,
Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan;
submarine cable to Djibouti, Egypt and Bahrain; satellite earth
stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1
Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 43, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: 5 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 80

Televisions: 4.5 million (1993 est.)

@Saudi Arabia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,390 km
standard gauge: 1,390 km 1.435-m gauge (448 km double track) (1992)

Highways:
total: 159,000 km
paved: 67,893 km
unpaved: 91,107 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,400 km; petroleum products 150 km; natural gas
2,200 km (includes natural gas liquids 1,600 km)

Ports and harbors: Ad Dammam, Al Jubayl, Duba, Jiddah, Jizan, Rabigh,
Ra's al Khafji, Al Mishab, Ras Tanura, Yanbu' al Bahr, Yanbu' al
Sinaiyah

Merchant marine:
total : 79 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 998,503 GRT/1,417,265
DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 12, chemical tanker 7, container 3,
liquefied gas tanker 1, livestock carrier 5, oil tanker 24, passenger
1, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 12, short-sea
passenger 9 (1996 est.)

Airports: 174 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 79
over 3,047 m: 30
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
914 to 1,523 m : 3
under 914 m: 13 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 95
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 66
914 to 1,523 m : 24 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Land Force (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense
Force, National Guard, Coast Guard, Frontier Forces, Public Security
Force, Ministry of Interior Forces

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 5,498,492 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 3,057,533 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 176,060 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $13.3 billion (1996 budget)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 10% (1996); note - based on
1996 budget figure

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: large section of boundary with Yemen not
defined; location and status of boundary with UAE is not final, de
facto boundary reflects 1974 agreement; Kuwaiti ownership of Qaruh and
Umm al Maradim islands is disputed by Saudi Arabia; in 1996, agreed
with Qatar to demarcate border per 1992 accord; that process is
ongoing

Illicit drugs: death penalty for traffickers; increasing consumption
of heroin and cocaine
______________________________________________________________________

SENEGAL

@Senegal:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania

Geographic coordinates: 14 00 N, 14 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 196,190 sq km
land: 192,000 sq km
water: 4,190 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries:
total: 2,640 km
border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338
km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km

Coastline: 531 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has
strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by
hot, dry, harmattan wind

Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in
southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point : unnamed location in the Futa Jaldon foothills 581 m

Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore

Land use:
arable land : 12%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 16%
forests and woodland: 54%
other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 710 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: wildlife populations threatened by
poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification;
overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping

Geography - note: The Gambia is almost an enclave of Senegal

@Senegal:People

Population: 9,403,546 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 2,259,765; female 2,270,363)
15-64 years: 49% (male 2,190,263; female 2,418,385)
65 years and over: 3% (male 130,742; female 134,028) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.35% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 44.91 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 11.4 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.98 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 62.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 56.93 years
male: 54.15 years
female: 59.79 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.24 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese

Ethnic groups: Wolof 36%, Fulani 17%, Serer 17%, Toucouleur 9%, Diola
9%, Mandingo 9%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 2%

Religions: Muslim 92%, indigenous beliefs 6%, Christian 2% (mostly
Roman Catholic)

Languages: French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Diola, Mandingo

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 33.1%
male: 43%
female: 23.2% (1995 est.)

@Senegal:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form : Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal

Data code: SG

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule

National capital: Dakar

Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions, singular - region);
Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Saint-Louis,
Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor

Independence: 4 April 1960 from France; complete independence was
achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
(The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement on 12 December 1981 that
called for the creation of a loose confederation to be known as
Senegambia, but the agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)

Constitution: 3 March 1963, revised 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in Constitutional Court; the Council of State audits
the government's accounting office; Senegal has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdou DIOUF (since 1 January 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Habib THIAM (since 7 April 1991)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in
consultation with the president
elections : president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 21 February 1993 (next to be held NA February
2000); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdou DIOUF reelected president; percent of vote -
Abdou DIOUF (PS) 58.4%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 32.03%, other 9.57%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (120 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 9 May 1993 (next to be held NA May 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - PS 70%, PDS 23%, other
7%; seats by party - PS 84, PDS 27, LD-MPT 3, AND/JEF-PADS 3, PIT 2,
UDS-R 1

Judicial branch: under the terms of a reform of the judicial system
implemented in 1992, the principal organs of the judiciary are as
follows; Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final
Appeals or Cour de Cessation; Court of Appeals

Political parties and leaders: African Party for Democracy and
Socialism or AND/JEF-PADS [Landing SAVANE, secretary-general];
Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye
BATHILY]; Democratic and Patriotic Convention or CDP Garab-Gi [Dr. Iba
Der THIAM]; Independent Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; Let Us
Unite Senegal (coalition of African Party for Democracy and Socialism
and National Democratic Rally); National Democratic Rally or RND
[Madier DIOUF]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE];
Senegalese Democratic Union-Renewal or UDS-R [Mamadou Puritain FALL];
Socialist Party or PS [President Abdou DIOUF]; other small
uninfluential parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: students; teachers; labor;
Muslim Brotherhoods

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mamadou Mansour SECK
chancery: 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 234-0540, 0541

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dane Farnsworth SMITH, Jr. (5 August
1996)
embassy: Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Avenue Kleber, Dakar
mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 23 42 96, 23 34 24
FAX: [221] 22 29 91

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the
yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy

Economy - overview: In 1994 Senegal embarked on its most concerted
structural adjustment effort yet to exploit the 50% devaluation of the
currencies of the 14 Francophone African nations which took place on
12 January of that year. After years of foot-dragging, the government
passed a liberalized labor code which should lower the cost of labor
and improve the manufacturing sector's competitiveness. Inroads also
have been made in closing tax loopholes, eliminating monopoly power in
several sectors, and privatizing state-owned firms. At the same time,
the government is holding the line on current fiscal expenditure under
the watchful eyes of international organizations on which it depends
for substantial support. The IMF, in mid-1995, announced that the
government met most economic targets as called for in its Enhanced
Structural Adjustment Facility agreement and released the second $50
million tranche. The country's narrow tax and resource base,
environmental degradation, and untamed growth of the population will
continue to hold back improvement in living standards over the medium
term. According to the draft budget, GDP will again rise by 5% in
1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $15.6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 21%
industry: 19%
services: 60% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.8% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 2.509 million (77% are engaged in subsistence farming; 175,000
wage earners)
by occupation: private sector 40%, government and parapublic 60%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $876 million
expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining,
petroleum refining, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1994)

Electricity - capacity: 303,440 kW

Electricity - production: 1.027 billion kWh (1997 est.)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 109 kWh (1997 est.)

Agriculture - products: peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton,
tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish

Exports:
total value: $968 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: fish, ground nuts (peanuts), petroleum products,
phosphates, cotton
partners : France, other EU countries, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali

Imports:
total value: $1.22 billion (f.o.b., 1995.)
commodities: foods and beverages, consumer goods, capital goods,
petroleum products
partners: France 30%, other EU countries, Nigeria, Cameroon, Cote
d'Ivoire, Algeria, China, Japan

Debt - external: $4.1 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $439 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1966), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Senegal:Communications

Telephones: 81,988 (1995 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: above-average urban system; microwave radio relay, coaxial
cable and fiber optic cable in trunk system
international : 4 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 6, shortwave 1

Radios: 850,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 61,000 (1993 est.)

@Senegal:Transportation

Railways:
total: 904 km
narrow gauge: 904 km 1.000-meter gauge (70 km double track) (1995)

Highways:
total: 14,580 km
paved: 4,214 km
unpaved: 10,366 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 897 km total; 785 km on the Senegal river, and 112 km on
the Saloum river

Ports and harbors: Dakar, Kaolack, Matam, Podor, Richard-Toll,
Saint-Louis, Ziguinchor

Merchant marine:
total: 1 bulk ship, 1,995 GRT/3,775 DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 17 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 10
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie,
National Police (Surete Nationale)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,938,693 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,012,181 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 94,397 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $81 million (1996 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.1% (1996 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: short section of boundary with The Gambia is
indefinite

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian
heroin moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of
cannabis
______________________________________________________________________

SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

Introduction

Current issues: Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a
joint independent state, but this entity has not been formally
recognized as a state by the US; the US view is that the Socialist
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of
the successor republics represents its continuation.

@Serbia and Montenegro:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 102,350 sq km (Serbia 88,412 sq km; Montenegro 13,938 sq km)
land: 102,136 sq km (Serbia 88,412 sq km; Montenegro 13,724 sq km)
water: 214 sq km (Serbia 0 sq km; Montenegro 214 sq km)

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky (Serbia is slightly
larger than Maine; Montenegro is slightly smaller than Connecticut)

Land boundaries:
total: 2,246 km
border countries : Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with
Montenegro), Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km (312 km with Serbia, 215 km
with Montenegro), Bulgaria 318 km (with Serbia), Croatia (north) 241
km (with Serbia), Croatia (south) 25 km (with Montenegro), Hungary 151
km (with Serbia), The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km
(with Serbia), Romania 476 km (with Serbia)
note: the internal boundary between Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km

Coastline: 199 km (Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km)

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: in the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid
summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental
and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the
coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with
heavy snowfall inland

Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the
east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountain
and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands
off the coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Daravica 2,656 m

Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc,
nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures : NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters from sewage
outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air
pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution
from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the
Danube

Environment - international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: controls one of the major land routes from Western
Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the
Adriatic coast

@Serbia and Montenegro:People

Population: 11,223,853 (July 1997 est.) (Montenegro - 680,212; Serbia
- 10,543,641)

Age structure:
0-14 years : Montenegro - 22% (male 78,101; female 73,067); Serbia -
21% (male 1,146,238; female 1,066,842)
15-64 years: Montenegro - 68% (male 231,641; female 227,245); Serbia -
67% (male 3,544,055; female 3,495,673)
65 years and over: Montenegro - 10% (male 28,880; female 41,278);
Serbia - 12% (male 555,592; female 735,241) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: Montenegro - 0.00%; Serbia - -0.13% (1997
est.)

Birth rate: Montenegro - 13.93 births/1,000 population; Serbia - 12.68
births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: Montenegro - 7.33 deaths/1,000 population; Serbia - 9.64
deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: Montenegro: -6.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population;
Serbia: -4.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : Montenegro - 1.09 male(s)/female; Serbia - 1.08
male(s)/female
under 15 years: Montenegro - 1.07 male(s)/female; Serbia - 1.07
male(s)/female
15-64 years: Montenegro - 1.02 male(s)/female; Serbia - 1.01
male(s)/female
65 years and over: Montenegro - 0.70 male(s)/female; Serbia - 0.76
male(s)/female
all ages : Montenegro - 0.99 male(s)/female Serbia - 0.99
male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: Montenegro - 11.50 deaths/1,000 live births;
Serbia - 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : Montenegro - 75.96 years; Serbia - 72.9 years
male: Montenegro - 72.48 years; Serbia - 70.51 years
female: Montenegro - 79.76 Serbia - 75.47 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: Montenegro - 1.80 children born/woman; Serbia -
1.76 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Serb(s) and Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Serbian and Montenegrin

Ethnic groups: Serbs 63%, Albanians 14%, Montenegrins 6%, Hungarians
4%, other 13%

Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%,
other 11%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%

Literacy: NA

@Serbia and Montenegro:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Serbia and Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Srbija-Crna Gora
note : Serbia and Montenegro has self-proclaimed itself the "Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia," but the US view is that the Socialist Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the
successor republics represents its continuation

Data code: Serbia - SR; Montenegro - MW

Government type: republic

National capital: Belgrade

Administrative divisions: 2 republics (pokajine, singular - pokajina);
and 2 nominally autonomous provinces*; Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia,
Vojvodina*

Independence: 11 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed as
self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia - SFRY)

National holiday: St. Vitus Day, 28 June

Constitution: 27 April 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Zoran LILIC (since 25 June 1993); note -
Slobodan MILOSEVIC is president of Serbia (since 9 December 1990);
Momir BULATOVIC is president of Montenegro (since 23 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Radoje KONTIC (since 29 December
1992); Deputy Prime Ministers Jovan ZEBIC (since NA March 1993), Uros
KLIKOVAC (since 15 September 1994), and Nikola SAINOVIC (since 15
September 1995)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president elected by the Federal Assembly for a four-year
term; election last held 25 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1997); prime
minister nominated by the president
election results : Zoran LILIC elected president; percent of
legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Savezna Skupstina
consists of the Chamber of Republics or Vece Republika (40 seats, 20
Serbian, 20 Montenegrin; members distributed on the basis of party
representation in the republican assemblies to serve four-year terms)
and the Chamber of Citizens or Vece Gradjana (138 seats, 108 Serbian
with half elected by constituency majorities and half by proportional
representation, 30 Montenegrin with six elected by constituency and 24
proportionally; members serve four-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Republics - last held 24 December 1996 (next to
be held NA 2000); Chamber of Citizens - last held 3 November 1996
(next to be held NA 2000)
election results : Chamber of Republics - percent of vote by party -
NA; seats by party - NA; note - seats are filled on a proportional
basis to reflect the composition of the legislatures of the republics
of Montenegro and Serbia; Chamber of Citizens - percent of vote by
party - NA; seats by party - SPS/JUL/ND 64, Zajedno 22, DPSCG 20, SRS
16, NS 8, SVM 3, other 5; note - Zajedno coalition includes SPO, DS,
GSS

Judicial branch: Federal Court or Savezni Sud, judges are elected by
the Federal Assembly; Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the
Federal Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former
Communist Party) [Slobodan MILOSEVIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS
[Vojislav SESELJ]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC,
president]; Democratic Party or DS [Zoran DJINDJIC]; Democratic Party
of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists
of Montenegro or DPSCG [Momir BULATOVIC, president]; People's Party of
Montenegro or NS [Milan PAROSKI]; Liberal Alliance of Montenegro
[Slavko PEROVIC]; Democratic Community of Vojvodina Hungarians or DZVM
[Sandor PALL]; League of Communists-Movement for Yugoslavia or SK-PJ
[Dragan ATANASOVSKI]; Democratic Alliance of Kosovo or LDK [Dr.
Ibrahim RUGOVA, president]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA
[Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Civic Alliance of Serbia or GSS [Vesna PESIC,
chairman]; Socialist Party of Montenegro or SP [leader NA]; Yugoslav
United Left or JUL [Mirjana MARKOVIC (MILOSEVIC's wife)]; New
Democracy or ND [Dusan MIHAJLOVIC]; Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians
or SVM

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

Diplomatic representation in the US: the US and Serbia and Montenegro
do not maintain full diplomatic relations; the Embassy of the former
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia continues to function in the
US
chief of mission : Ambassador (vacant); Counselor, Charge d'Affaires
ad interim Nebojsa VUJOVIC
chancery: 2410 California St. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-6566

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Serbia and
Montenegro do not maintain full diplomatic relations
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chief of Mission Richard M.
MILES
embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade
mailing address : American Embassy, Belgrade, United States Department
of State, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 645655
FAX: [381] (11) 645332

Economy

Economy - overview: The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation in
1991 has been followed by highly destructive warfare, the
destabilization of republic boundaries, and the breakup of important
interrepublic trade flows. Output in Serbia and Montenegro dropped by
half in 1992-93. Like the other former Yugoslav republics, it had
depended on its sister republics for large amounts of energy and
manufactures. Wide differences in climate, mineral resources, and
levels of technology among the republics accentuated this
interdependence, as did the communist practice of concentrating much
industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The breakup of
many of the trade links, the sharp drop in output as industrial plants
lost suppliers and markets, and the destruction of physical assets in
the fighting all have contributed to the economic difficulties of the
republics. One singular factor in the economic situation of Serbia and
Montenegro is the continuation in office of a communist government
that is primarily interested in political and military mastery, not
economic reform. Hyperinflation ended with the establishment of a new
currency unit in June 1993; prices were relatively stable in 1995.
Reliable statistics are hard to come by; the GDP estimate is extremely
rough. The economic boom anticipated by the government after the
suspension of UN sanctions in December 1995 failed to materialize in
1996 and early 1997, exacerbating the regime's financial problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,900 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 25%
industry : 50%
services: 25% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 79% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total : 2.178 million
by occupation: industry 41%, services 35%, trade and tourism 12%,
transportation and communication 7%, agriculture 5% (1994)

Unemployment rate: more than 35% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks
and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy
(steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth,
cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone);
consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances);
electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 11.78 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 33.77 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,798 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives;
cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value : $1.4 billion (1995 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials
partners: Russia, Italy, Germany

Imports:
total value: $2.4 billion (1995 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants,
manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
partners : Germany, Italy, Russia

Debt - external: $11.2 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Yugoslav New Dinar (YD) = 100 paras

Exchange rates: Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per US $1 - official rate:
4.9 (September 1996) 1.5 (early 1995); black market rate: 2 to 3
(early 1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Serbia and Montenegro:Communications

Telephones: 700,000

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: 27 (public or state-owned 1, private 26)

Radios: 2.015 million

Television broadcast stations: 8 (state owned 1, privately owned 7)
plus 1 Satellite TV down link and 48 cable distribution systems

Televisions: 1 million

@Serbia and Montenegro:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,960 km
standard gauge: 3,960 km 1.435-m gauge (1,341 km electrified) (1994)

Highways:
total: 47,000 km
paved : 28,059 km
unpaved: 18,941 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: crude oil 415 km; petroleum products 130 km; natural gas
2,110 km

Ports and harbors: Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Tivat

Merchant marine:
total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 353,202 GRT/594,745 DWT
(Montenegro owns 21 ships totaling 326,133 GRT/544,600 DWT -
controlled by Montenegrin beneficial owners; Serbia owns 1 bulk
carrier totaling 17,069 GRT/50,145 DWT - controlled by Serbian
beneficial owners)
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 8, container 3, short-sea passenger ferry
1
note: Montenegrin ships operate under the flags of Malta, Panama, and
Cyprus; the Serbian ship operates under the flag of Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines; no ships remain under Yugoslav flag (1996 est.)

Airports: 44 (Serbia 39, Montenegro 5) (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 28
over 3,047 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (Serbia 3, Montenegro 2)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (Serbia 4, Montenegro 1)
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
under 914 m : 14 (Serbia 14, Montenegro 0)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 16
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (Serbia 2, Montenegro 0)
914 to 1,523 m: 14 (Serbia 12, Montenegro 2) (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: People's Army (includes Ground Forces with internal
and border troops, Naval Forces, and Air and Air Defense Forces),
Civil Defense

Military manpower - military age: Montenegro - 19; Serbia - NA

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: Montenegro - 187,041; Serbia - 2,734,293 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: Montenegro - 150,933
(1997 est.); Serbia - 2,191,041 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: Montenegro -
5,518; Serbia - NA (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 6.5 billion dinars (1995 est.);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 24% (1995 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: disputes with Bosnia and Herzegovina over
Serbian populated areas; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks
independence from Serbian republic; Eastern Slavonia, which was held
by ethnic Serbs during the ethnic conflict, is currently being
overseen by the UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia;
reintegration of Eastern Slavonia into Croatia will occur in 1997;
Serbia and Montenegro is disputing Croatia's claim to the Prevlaka
Peninsula in southern Croatia because it controls the entrance to
Kotor Bay in Montenegro; Prevlaka is currently under observation by
the UN military observer mission in Prevlaka (UNMOP)

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route
______________________________________________________________________

SEYCHELLES

@Seychelles:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, group of islands in the Indian Ocean,
northeast of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 4 35 S, 55 40 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 455 sq km
land: 455 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast
monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest
monsoon (March to May)

Terrain: Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly;
others are coral, flat, elevated reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point : Morne Seychellois 905 m

Natural resources: fish, copra, cinnamon trees

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 74% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are
rare; short droughts possible

Environment - current issues: water supply depends on catchments to
collect rain water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography - note: 40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands

@Seychelles:People

Population: 78,107 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30.2% (male 11,885; female 11,708)
15-64 years: 63.5% (male 24,336; female 25,293)
65 years and over: 6.3% (male 1,698; female 3,187) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.7% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 20.53 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.14 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.53 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 69.57 years
male: 64.81 years
female: 74.47 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.06 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)
adjective: Seychelles

Ethnic groups: Seychellois (mixture of Asians, Africans, Europeans)

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Anglican 8%, other 2%

Languages: English (official), French (official), Creole

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58%
male: 56%
female: 60% (1971 est.)

@Seychelles:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles
conventional short form: Seychelles

Data code: SE

Government type: republic

National capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: 23 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins,
Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie
Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand'
Anse (on Mahe Island), Grand' Anse (on Praslin Island), La Digue, La
Riviere Anglaise, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe Larue,
Port Glaud, Saint Louis, Takamaka

Independence: 29 June 1976 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 18 June (1993) (adoption of new
constitution)

Constitution: 18 June 1993

Legal system: based on English common law, French civil law, and
customary law

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977); note
- the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President France Albert RENE (since 5 June 1977);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 20-23 July 1993 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results : President France Albert RENE reelected; percent of
vote - France Albert RENE (SPPF) 59.5%, Sir James MANCHAM (DP) 36.72%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (33 seats, 22 popularly elected by direct vote, 11 allocated
on a proportional basis to parties winning at least 9 percent of the
vote; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20-23 July 1993 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - SPPF 82%, DP 15%, UO 3%;
seats by party (elected) - SPPF 21, DP 1; seats by party (awarded) -
SPPF 6, DP 4, UO 1
note: the 11 awarded seats are apportioned according to the share of
each party in the total vote

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal; Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: ruling party - Seychelles People's
Progressive Front or SPPF [France Albert RENE]; Democratic Party or DP
[Sir James MANCHAM]; United Opposition or UO [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] - a
coalition of the following parties: Seychelles Party or PS [Wavel
RAMKALAWAN], Seychelles Democratic Movement or MSPD[Jacques HONDOUL],
and Seychelles Liberal Party or SLP [Ogilvie BERLOUIS]; New Democratic
Party [Christopher GILL (former member of DP)]

Political pressure groups and leaders: trade unions; Roman Catholic
Church

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, C, ECA,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires ad interim
Claude MOREL
chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of Seychelles to
the United Nations, 820 Second Avenue, Suite 900F, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785
FAX : [1] (212) 972-1786

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to the
Seychelles

Flag description: five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow,
red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist
side

Economy

Economy - overview: Since independence in 1976, per capita output in
this Indian Ocean archipelago has grown to roughly seven times the old
near-subsistence level, led by the tourist sector, which employs about
30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency
earnings. In recent years the government has encouraged foreign
investment in order to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same
time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by
promoting the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale
manufacturing. The vulnerability of the tourist sector was illustrated
by the sharp drop in 1991-92 due largely to the Gulf war. Although the
industry has rebounded, the government recognizes the continuing need
for upgrading the sector in the face of stiff international
competition.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $450 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.1% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,000 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 3.6%
industry: 15%
services: 81.4% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: -0.3% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 26,000 (1996)
by occupation: industry and commerce 31%, services 21%, government
20%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 12%, other 16% (1985)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $220 million
expenditures: $241 million, including capital expenditures of $36
million (1994 est.)

Industries: tourism; fishing; processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir
(coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing, furniture; beverages

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1992)

Electricity - capacity: 33,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 110 million kWh (1992)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,582 kWh (1992 est.)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes,
cassava (tapioca), bananas; broiler chickens; tuna fishing (expansion
under way)

Exports:
total value: $56.1 million ( f.o.b. 1995)
commodities: fish, cinnamon bark, copra, petroleum products
(re-exports)
partners : France, UK, China, Germany, Japan (1993)

Imports:
total value: $238 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: manufactured goods, food, petroleum products, tobacco,
beverages, machinery and transportation equipment
partners: China, Singapore, South Africa, UK (1993)

Debt - external: $170 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Seychelles rupee (SRe) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Seychelles rupees (SRe) per US$1 - 4.9968 (January
1997), 4.9700 (1996), 4.7620 (1995), 5.0559 (1994), 5.1815 (1993),
5.1220 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Seychelles:Communications

Telephones: 13,000 (1995 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : radiotelephone communications between islands in the
archipelago
international: direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent
island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth
station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 35,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (in a government network)

Televisions: 6,000 (1993 est.)

@Seychelles:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 270 km
paved: 170 km
unpaved: 100 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Victoria

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 14 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Coast Guard, Marines, National Guard,
Presidential Protection Unit, Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 21,860 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 11,030 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $13.7 million (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims Tromelin Island
______________________________________________________________________

SIERRA LEONE

@Sierra Leone:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Guinea and Liberia

Geographic coordinates: 8 30 N, 11 30 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 71,740 sq km
land: 71,620 sq km
water : 120 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 958 km
border countries: Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf : 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December);
winter dry season (December to April)

Terrain: coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland
plateau, mountains in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Loma Mansa (Bintimani) 1,948 m

Natural resources: diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold,
chromite

Land use:
arable land: 7%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 31%
forests and woodland: 28%
other : 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 290 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: dry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara
(November to May); sandstorms, dust storms

Environment - current issues: rapid population growth pressuring the
environment; overharvesting of timber, expansion of cattle grazing,
and slash-and-burn agriculture have resulted in deforestation and soil
exhaustion; civil war depleting natural resources; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Environmental Modification

@Sierra Leone:People

Population: 4,891,546 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 1,084,736; female 1,119,802)
15-64 years: 52% (male 1,216,111; female 1,320,847)
65 years and over: 3% (male 76,371; female 73,679) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.54% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 46.67 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.75 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population : 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 132.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 48.02 years
male: 45.06 years
female: 51.07 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.29 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sierra Leonean(s)
adjective: Sierra Leonean

Ethnic groups: 13 native African tribes 99% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%,
other 39%), Creole, European, Lebanese, and Asian 1%

Religions: Muslim 60%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%

Languages: English (official, regular use limited to literate
minority), Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal
vernacular in the north), Krio (the language of the re-settled
ex-slave population of the Freetown area and is lingua franca)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write in English, Mende,
Temne, or Arabic
total population: 31.4%
male: 45.4%
female: 18.2% (1995 est.)

@Sierra Leone:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Sierra Leone
conventional short form: Sierra Leone

Data code: SL

Government type: constitutional democracy

National capital: Freetown

Administrative divisions: 3 provinces and 1 area*; Eastern, Northern,
Southern, Western*

Independence: 27 April 1961 (from UK)

National holiday: Republic Day, 27 April (1961)

Constitution: 1 October 1991; subsequently amended several times

Legal system: based on English law and customary laws indigenous to
local tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (inaugurated 29 March
1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (inaugurated 29 March
1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet : Ministers of State appointed by the president with the
approval of the House of Representatives; the cabinet is responsible
to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election held 26-27 February 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); note -
president's tenure of office is limited to 2 five-year terms
election results : Ahmad Tejan KABBAH elected president; percent of
popular vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (80 seats, 68
elected, 12 filled by paramount chiefs elected in separate elections;
members serve NA-year terms)
elections : last held NA February 1996 (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SLPP
27, UNPP 17, PDP 12, APC 5, NUP 4, DCP 3; note - first elections since
the former House of Representatives was shut down by the military coup
of 29 April 1992

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: 15 parties registered for the February
1996 elections; National Peoples Party or NPP [Andrew TURAY];
Democratic Center Party or DCP [Abu KOROMA]; Peoples Progressive Party
or PPP [Edward KAMARA, chairman]; Coalition for Progress Party or CPP
[Geredine WILLIAMS-SARHO]; National Unity Movement or NUM; United
National Peoples Party or UNPP; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP
[Thaimu BANGURA, chairman]; All Peoples Congress or APC [S. A. T.
KOROMA, chairman]; National Republican Party or NRP; Social Democratic
Party or SDP; Peoples National Convention or PNC [I. B. KARGBO,
chairman]; National Unity Party or NUP [A. O. D. GEORGE, chairman];
Sierra Leone Peoples Party or SLPP [Paul DUNBAR, chairman]; National
Democratic Alliance or NDA; National Alliance for Democracy Party or
NADP

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John Ernest LEIGH
chancery: 1701 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 939-9261 through 9263
FAX: [1] (202) 483-1793

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador John L. HIRSCH
embassy: Corner of Walpole and Siaka Stevens Streets, Freetown
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [232] (22) 226481 through 226485
FAX : [232] (22) 225471

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of light green (top),
white, and light blue

Economy

Economy - overview: Sierra Leone has substantial mineral,
agricultural, and fishery resources. However, the economic and social
infrastructure is not well developed, and serious social disorders
continue to hamper economic development. Agriculture employs about
two-thirds of the working population, with subsistence agriculture
dominating the sector. Manufacturing consists mainly of the processing
of raw materials and of light manufacturing for the domestic market.
The mining of diamonds, bauxite, and rutile is the major source of
hard currency. The government has worked hard to meet its IMF- and
World Bank-mandated stabilization targets, holding down fiscal
deficits and retiring much of its domestic debt, but at a steep cost
in terms of forgone capital investments and social spending. Moreover,
the economic infrastructure has nearly collapsed due to neglect and
war-related disruptions in the mining and agricultural export sectors.
The continuing civil war in Liberia has led to a large influx of
refugees, who place additional burdens on Sierra Leone's fragile
economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $980 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 49%
industry: 21%
services: 30% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5.6% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 1.369 million (1981 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 19%, services 16% (1981 est.)
note: only about 65,000 wage earners (1985)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $75 million
expenditures: $128 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY94/95 est.)

Industries: mining (diamonds, bauxite, rutile); small-scale
manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear); petroleum
refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 119,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 185 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 43 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, palm oil,
peanuts; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish

Exports:
total value: $39.3 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: rutile, diamonds, bauxite, coffee, cocoa, fish
partners: US 20%, Belgium 20%, Spain 13%, UK 6%, other Western Europe

Imports:
total value: $140 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels and lubricants
partners: Cote d'Ivoire, EU countries, India

Debt - external: $1.4 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 leone (Le) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: leones (Le) per US$1 - 908.08 (January 1997), 920.73
(1996), 755.22 (1995), 586.74 (1994), 567.46 (1993), 499.44 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Sierra Leone:Communications

Telephones: 17,526 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: marginal telephone and telegraph service
domestic: national microwave radio relay system made unserviceable by
military activities
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 980,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 45,000 (1992 est.)

@Sierra Leone:Transportation

Railways:
total : 84 km used on a limited basis because the mine at Marampa is
closed
narrow gauge: 84 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 11,674 km
paved: 1,284 km
unpaved : 10,390 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 800 km; 600 km navigable year round

Ports and harbors: Bonthe, Freetown, Pepel

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 4 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Police, Security Forces

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 1,037,049 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 503,252 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $14 million (FY92/93)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.6% (FY92/93)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

SINGAPORE

@Singapore:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 1 22 N, 103 48 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 647.5 sq km
land: 637.5 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than 3.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone : within and beyond territorial sea, as defined
in treaties and practice
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry
seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water
catchment area and nature preserve

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m
highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 6%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: 5%
other : 87% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: industrial pollution; limited natural
fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste
disposal problems

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified : Climate Change

Geography - note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

@Singapore:People

Population: 3,440,693 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 21% (male 378,651; female 357,070)
15-64 years: 72% (male 1,237,478; female 1,239,494)
65 years and over: 7% (male 101,536; female 126,464) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.67% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 14.13 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.68 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population : 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 78.15 years
male: 75.14 years
female: 81.4 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.46 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Singaporean(s)
adjective: Singapore

Ethnic groups: Chinese 76.4%, Malay 14.9%, Indian 6.4%, other 2.3%

Religions: Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu,
Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist

Languages: Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil
(official), English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 91.1%
male: 95.9%
female: 86.3% (1995 est.)

@Singapore:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
conventional short form: Singapore

Data code: SN

Government type: republic within Commonwealth

National capital: Singapore

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)

National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)

Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965 (based on preindependence
State of Singapore Constitution)

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state : President ONG Teng Cheong (since 1 September 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November
1990) and Deputy Prime Ministers LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November
1990) and Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 August 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament
elections : president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 28 August 1993 (next to be held NA August 1999);
following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or
the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister
by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: ONG Teng Cheong elected president in the country's
first popular election for president; percent of vote - ONG Teng
Cheong 59%, CHUA Kim Yeow 41%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (83 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 2 January 1997 (next to be held by 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 65% (in contested
constituencies), other 35%; seats by party - PAP 81, WP 1, SPP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice is appointed by the
president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are
appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice; Court
of Appeals

Political parties and leaders:
government : People's Action Party (PAP), GOH Chok Tong, secretary
general
opposition: Singapore Democratic Party (SDP), CHEE Soon Juan; Workers'
Party (WP), J. B. JEYARETNAM; National Solidarity Party (NSP), C. K.
TAN; Singapore People's Party (SPP), CHIAM See Tong

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS
(pending member), C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNIKOM,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador CHAN Heng Chee
chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Timothy A. CHORBA
embassy : 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508
mailing address: FPO AP 96534
telephone: [65] 476-9100
FAX: [65] 476-9340

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white;
near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white
crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing
five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle

Economy

Economy - overview: Singapore has an open economy with strong service
and manufacturing sectors and excellent international trading links
derived from its entrepot history. A slump in global demand for
electronics slowed Singapore's export growth in 1996, and as a result,
real GDP grew 6.5%, down from 8.9% in 1995. The government predicts
growth will be in the 5%-7% range in 1997. Rising labor costs continue
to be a threat to Singapore's competitiveness, and the government's
strategy to address this problem includes increasing productivity,
improving infrastructure, and encouraging higher value-added
industries. In applied technology, per capita output, investment, and
labor discipline, Singapore has key attributes of a developed country.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $72.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (1996)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $21,200 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NEGL%
industry: 28%
services : 72%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.3% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 1.801 million (1996 est.)
by occupation : financial, business, and other services 33.5%,
manufacturing 25.6%, commerce 22.9%, construction 6.6%, other 11.4%
(1994)

Unemployment rate: 2.7% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $18.5 billion
expenditures: $13.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.4
billion (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: petroleum refining, electronics, oil drilling equipment,
rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages,
ship repair, entrepot trade, financial services, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 4.51 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 22.1 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 7,002 kWh (1995)

Agriculture - products: rubber, copra, fruit, vegetables; poultry

Exports:
total value: $144.8 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: computer equipment, rubber and rubber products, petroleum
products, telecommunications equipment
partners: Malaysia 19%, US 18%, Hong Kong 9%, Japan 8%, Thailand 6%
(1995)

Imports:
total value: $151.1 billion (1996 est., including goods for reexport)
commodities: aircraft, petroleum, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: Japan 21%, Malaysia 15%, US 15%, Thailand 5%, Taiwan 4%,
South Korea 4% (1995)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Singapore dollar (S$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Singapore dollars (S$) per US$1 - 1.4061 (January
1997), 1.4100 (1996), 1.4174 (1995), 1.5274 (1994), 1.6158 (1993),
1.6290 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

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