Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The 1997 CIA World Factbook

Part 37 out of 47

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 4.8 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

(since 1 January 1996)
head of government : Prime Minister Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS (since 6 July
1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sam CONDOR (since 6 July 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general in consultation
with the prime minister
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; following
legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a
majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor
general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (14 seats, 11
popularly elected from single member constituencies; members serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 3 July 1995 (next to be held by July 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - SKLNP 58%, PAM 41%; seats
by party - SKNLP 7, PAM 1, NRP 1, CCM 2

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint
Lucia); one judge of the Supreme Court resides in Saint Kitts

Political parties and leaders: People's Action Movement (PAM), Dr.
Kennedy SIMMONDS; Saint Kitts and Nevis Labor Party (SKNLP), Dr.
Denzil DOUGLAS; Nevis Reformation Party (NRP), Joseph PARRY; Concerned
Citizens Movement (CCM), Vance AMORY

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Interpol, IOC, OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WIPO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Osbert LIBURD
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 686-2636
FAX: [1] (202) 686-5740

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Saint Kitts and Nevis; US interests are monitored by the embassy in
Bridgetown, Barbados

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a
broad black band bearing two white five-pointed stars; the black band
is edged in yellow; the upper triangle is green, the lower triangle is
red

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy has traditionally depended on the
growing and processing of sugarcane; decreasing world prices have hurt
the industry in recent years. Tourism and export-oriented
manufacturing have assumed larger roles. Most food is imported. The
newly elected government has undertaken a program designed to
revitalize the faltering sugar sector. It is also working to improve
revenue collection in order to better fund social programs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $235 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,700 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 22%
services: 72% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: -0.9% (1995)

Labor force:
total : 18,172 (June 1995)
by occupation: services 69%, manufacturing 31%

Unemployment rate: 4.3% (May 1995)

Budget:
revenues: $100.2 million
expenditures: $100.1 million, including capital expenditures of $41.4
million (1996 est.)

Industries: sugar processing, tourism, cotton, salt, copra, clothing,
footwear, beverages

Industrial production growth rate: NA %

Electricity - capacity: 15,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 42 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, rice, yams, vegetables, bananas;
fishing potential not fully exploited

Exports:
total value: $35.4 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery, food, electronics, beverages and tobacco
partners: US 46.6%, UK 26.4%, Caricom nations 9.8% (1994)

Imports:
total value : $112.4 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: machinery, manufactures, food, fuels
partners: US 45%, Caricom nations 18.8%, UK 12.5%, Canada 4.2%, Japan
4.2%, (1994)

Debt - external: $45.3 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Communications

Telephones: 3,800 (1986 est.)

Telephone system: good interisland VHF/UHF/SHF radiotelephone
connections and international link via Antigua and Barbuda and Saint
Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)
domestic : interisland links are handled by VHF/UHF/SHF radiotelephone
international: international calls are carried by radiotelephone to
Antigua and Barbuda and from there switched to submarine cable or to
Intelsat, or carried to Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands
Antilles) by radiotelephone and switched to Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 25,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4

Televisions: 9,500 (1993 est.)

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Transportation

Railways:
total: 58 km
narrow gauge: 58 km 0.762-m gauge on Saint Kitts to serve sugarcane
plantations (1995)

Highways:
total : 310 km
paved: 132 km
unpaved: 178 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Basseterre, Charlestown

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Police Force, Coast
Guard

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment points for South American drugs destined
for the US
______________________________________________________________________

SAINT LUCIA

@Saint Lucia:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and North
Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 13 53 N, 60 68 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 620 sq km
land: 610 sq km
water : 10 sq km

Area - comparative: 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 158 km

Maritime claims: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm or to the edge of the continental
margin
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from
January to April, rainy season from May to August

Terrain: volcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Gimie 950 m

Natural resources: forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral
springs, geothermal potential

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops : 21%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 13%
other: 53% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hurricanes and volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion,
particularly in the northern region

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Saint Lucia:People

Population: 150,630 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 35% (male 26,430; female 26,018)
15-64 years: 60% (male 44,117; female 45,922)
65 years and over: 5% (male 3,091; female 5,052) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.14% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23.31 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.71 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.36 years
male : 67.74 years
female: 75.23 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.44 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Saint Lucian(s)
adjective: Saint Lucian

Ethnic groups: black 90%, mixed 6%, East Indian 3%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 7%, Anglican 3%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 67%
male: 65%
female : 69% (1980 est.)

@Saint Lucia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Saint Lucia

Data code: ST

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Castries

Administrative divisions: 11 quarters; Anse La Raye, Castries,
Choiseul, Dauphin, Dennery, Gros Islet, Laborie, Micoud, Praslin,
Soufriere, Vieux Fort

Independence: 22 February 1979 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 February (1979)

Constitution: 22 February 1979

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General William George MALLET (since 1 June
1996)
head of government : Prime Minister Vaughn LEWIS (since 31 March 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; following
legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a
majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor
general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an
11-member body, six appointed on the advice of the prime minister,
three on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and two after
consultation with religious, economic, and social groups) and the
House of Assembly (17 seats; members are elected by popular vote from
single member constituencies to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Assembly - last held 27 April 1992 (next to be
held NA May 1997)
election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - UWP 11, SLP 6

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, jurisdiction extends
to Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, the British Virgin Islands,
Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Political parties and leaders: United Workers' Party (UWP), Vaughn
LEWIS; Saint Lucia Labor Party (SLP), Kenneth ANTHONY; Saint Lucia
Freedom Party (SLFP), Martinus FRANCOIS

International organization participation: ACCT (associate), ACP, C,
Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol,
IOC, ISO (subscriber), NAM, OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Joseph Edsel EDMUNDS
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 364-6792 through 6795
FAX: [1] (202) 364-6728
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Saint Lucia; the Ambassador to Saint Lucia resides in Bridgetown
(Barbados)

Flag description: blue with a gold isosceles triangle below a black
arrowhead; the upper edges of the arrowhead have a white border

Economy

Economy - overview: Though foreign investment in manufacturing and
information processing in recent years has increased Saint Lucia's
industrial base, the economy remains vulnerable due to its heavy
dependence on banana production, which is subject to periodic droughts
and tropical storms. Indeed, the destructive effect of Tropical Storm
Iris in mid-1995 caused the loss of 20% of the year's banana crop.
Increased competition from Latin American bananas will probably
further reduce market prices, exacerbating Saint Lucia's need to
diversify its economy in coming years, e.g., by further expanding
tourism, manufacturing, and construction.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $695 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,400 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 13.8%
industry: 17.4%
services: 68.8% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 43,800
by occupation: agriculture 43.4%, services 38.9%, industry and
commerce 17.7% (1983 est.)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $361.5 million
expenditures: $311 million, including capital expenditures of $104
million (1995 est.)

Industries: clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages,
corrugated cardboard boxes, tourism, lime processing, coconut
processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA %

Electricity - capacity: 34,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: 801 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, citrus, root
crops, cocoa

Exports:
total value: $104.1 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: bananas 60%, clothing, cocoa, vegetables, fruits, coconut
oil
partners: UK 56%, US 22%, Caricom countries 19% (1991)

Imports:
total value: $270.5 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: manufactured goods 21%, machinery and transportation
equipment 21%, food and live animals, chemicals, fuels
partners: US 34%, Caricom countries 17%, UK 14%, Japan 7%, Canada 4%
(1991)

Debt - external: $115 million (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000
(February 1997; fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Saint Lucia:Communications

Telephones: 26,000 (1992 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: system is automatically switched
international: direct microwave radio relay link with Martinique and
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; tropospheric scatter to Barbados;
international calls beyond these countries are carried by Intelsat
from Martinique

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 104,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 ( two commercial stations and one
cable)

Televisions: 26,000 (1992 est.)

@Saint Lucia:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 760 km
paved: 500 km
unpaved : 260 km

Ports and harbors: Castries, Vieux Fort

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Saint Lucia Police Force, Coast Guard

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $5 million (1991); note - for
police forces

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (1991)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transit point for South American drugs destined for the
US and Europe
______________________________________________________________________

SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON

(territorial collectivity of France)

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon:Geography

Location: Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
south of Newfoundland (Canada)

Geographic coordinates: 46 50 N, 56 20 E

Map references: North America

Area:
total: 242 sq km
land: 242 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the
Miquelon groups

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are
windy

Terrain: mostly barren rock

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 m

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: 4%
other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime
hazard

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: vegetation scanty

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon:People

Population: 6,862 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over : NA

Population growth rate: 0.76% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 12.63 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.59 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over : NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 9.26 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 76.64 years
male: 75.07 years
female: 78.53 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.62 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French

Ethnic groups: Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)

Religions: Roman Catholic 99%

Languages: French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (1982 est.)

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and
Miquelon
conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

Data code: SB

Dependency status: self-governing territorial collectivity of France

Government type: NA

National capital: Saint-Pierre

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)
note : there are no first-order administrative divisions approved by
the US Government, but there are two communes - St. Pierre, Miquelon

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under
French control since 1763)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law with special adaptations for local
conditions, such as housing and taxation

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995), represented by Prefect Jean-Francois CARENCO (since NA)
head of government : President of the General Council Bernard LE
SOAVEC (since NA 1996)
cabinet: NA
elections: prefect appointed by the president of France on the advice
of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the General Council
is elected by the members of the council

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19
seats, 15 from Saint Pierre and 4 from Miquelon; members are elected
by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: elections last held NA April 1994 (next to be held NA April
2000)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR
15, other 4
note: Saint Pierre and Miquelon elect 1 seat to the French Senate;
elections last held NA September 1995 (next to be held NA September
2004); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR
1; Saint Pierre and Miquelon also elects 1 seat to the French National
Assembly; elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held 25
May-1 June 1997 - special election); results - percent of vote by
party - UDF 73.78%; seats by party - UDF 1

Judicial branch: Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur
d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party or PS; Rassemblement
pour la Republique or RPR; Union pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF

International organization participation: FZ, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territorial collectivity of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territorial collectivity
of France)

Flag description: a yellow sailing ship rides on a dark blue
background with a black wave line under the ship; on the hoist side, a
vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part is red with a
green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by a white
cross dividing the square into four sections; the middle part has a
white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red
background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one on
top of the other; the flag of France is used for official occasions

Economy

Economy - overview: The inhabitants have traditionally earned their
livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off
the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however,
because the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre has dropped
steadily over the years. In 1992, an arbitration panel awarded the
islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 sq km to settle a
longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents
only 25% of what France had sought. The islands are heavily subsidized
by France. Imports come primarily from Canada and France.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $74 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 2,980 (1994)
by occupation : NA

Unemployment rate: 9.3% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: $28 million
expenditures : $28 million, including capital expenditures of $7.8
million (1992 est.)

Industries: fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets;
tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs; fish catch of
14,800 metric tons (1994)

Exports:
total value: $5 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : fish and fish products, fox and mink pelts
partners: US 58%, France 17%, UK 11%, Canada, Portugal (1990)

Imports:
total value: $70.2 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery,
building materials
partners : Canada, France, US, Netherlands, UK

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4169 (January 1997),
5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon:Communications

Telephones: 3,650 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : NA
international: radiotelephone communication with most countries in the
world; 1 earth station in French domestic satellite system

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 3,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (programs from France, Canada, and
the US are rebroadcast)

Televisions: 2,000 (1992 est.)

@Saint Pierre and Miquelon:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 114 km
paved: 69 km
unpaved: 45 km (1994 est.)

Ports and harbors: Saint Pierre

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: focus of maritime boundary dispute between
Canada and France; in 1992 an arbitration panel awarded the islands an
exclusive economic zone area of 12,348 sq km to settle the dispute
______________________________________________________________________

SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
the Grenadines]

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands in the Caribbean Sea, north of Trinidad
and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 13 15 N, 61 12 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total : 340 sq km
land: 340 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 84 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season
(May to November)

Terrain: volcanic, mountainous

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Soufriere 1,234 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 18%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 36%
other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hurricanes; Soufriere volcano on the island of Saint
Vincent is a constant threat

Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters and
shorelines from discharges by pleasure yachts and other effluents; in
some areas pollution is severe enough to make swimming prohibitive

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography - note: the administration of the islands of the Grenadines
group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:People

Population: 119,092 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 19,208; female 18,571)
15-64 years: 63% (male 37,555; female 37,166)
65 years and over: 5% (male 2,719; female 3,873) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.62% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 19.07 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.35 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -7.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.22 years
male: 71.71 years
female: 74.78 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.01 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Saint Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s)
adjective: Saint Vincentian or Vincentian

Ethnic groups: black, white, East Indian, Carib Amerindian

Religions: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Seventh-Day Adventist

Languages: English, French patois

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population : 96%
male: 96%
female: 96% (1970 est.)

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Data code: VC

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Kingstown

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes; Charlotte, Grenadines, Saint
Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick

Independence: 27 October 1979 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1979)

Constitution: 27 October 1979

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General David JACK (since 29 September 1989)
head of government: Prime Minister James Fitz-Allen MITCHELL (since 30
July 1984)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; following
legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually
appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime
minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime
minister

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (21 seats, 15 elected
representatives and 6 appointed senators; members are elected by
popular vote from single member constituencies to serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 21 February 1994 (next to be held by NA May 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP
12, ULP 3

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint
Lucia); one judge of the Supreme Court resides in Saint Vincent

Political parties and leaders: New Democratic Party (NDP), James F.
MITCHELL; United People's Movement (UPM), Adrian SAUNDERS; National
Reform Party (NRP), Joel MIGUEL; Unity Labor Party (ULP),Vincent
BEACHE - formed by the coalition of Saint Vincent Labor Party (SVLP)
and the Movement for National Unity (MNU)

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, OAS, OECS, OPANAL,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kingsley C.A. LAYNE
chancery : 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 364-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 364-6736

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; the Ambassador to Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines resides in Bridgetown (Barbados)

Flag description: three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold
(double width), and green; the gold band bears three green diamonds
arranged in a V pattern

Economy

Economy - overview: Agriculture, dominated by banana production, is
the most important sector of this lower middle income economy. The
services sector, based mostly on a growing tourist industry, is also
important. The government has been relatively unsuccessful at
introducing new industries, and high unemployment rates of 35%-40%
continue. The continuing dependence on a single crop represents the
biggest obstacle to the islands' development; tropical storms wiped
out substantial portions of crops in both 1994 and 1995. The tourism
sector has considerable potential for development over the next
decade.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $259 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,190 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 18%
services: 70% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 67,000 (1984 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 26%, industry 17%, services 57% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: 35%-40% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $80 million
expenditures: $118 million, including capital expenditures of $39
million (1996 est.)

Industries: food processing, cement, furniture, clothing, starch

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 20,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 61.6 million kWh (1993)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 480 kWh (1993)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coconuts, sweet potatoes, spices;
small numbers of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats; small fish catch used
locally

Exports:
total value: $55 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : bananas, eddoes and dasheen (taro), arrowroot starch,
tennis racquets
partners: Caricom countries 57%, UK 29%, US 9% (1994)

Imports:
total value : $122 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, chemicals and
fertilizers, minerals and fuels
partners: US 35%, Caricom countries 27%, UK 12% (1994)

Debt - external: $93 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000
(February 1997; fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Communications

Telephones: 6,189 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: islandwide, fully automatic telephone system; VHF/UHF
radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to the other islands of the
Grenadines
international: VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to Barbados;
new SHF radiotelephone to Grenada and to Saint Lucia; access to
Intelsat earth station in Martinique through Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 76,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 cable

Televisions: 20,600 (1992 est.)

@Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 800 km
paved : 450 km
unpaved: 350 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Kingstown

Merchant marine:
total: 692 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,545,742 GRT/10,306,453
DWT
ships by type: bulk 114, cargo 349, chemical tanker 25, combination
bulk 9, combination ore/oil 6, container 36, liquefied gas tanker 4,
livestock carrier 5, multi-function large load carrier 1, oil tanker
65, passenger 3, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 35,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 34, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker
1, vehicle carrier 1
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 24 countries
among which are Croatia 29, Slovenia 9, China 9, Greece 5, Norway 3,
Ukraine 3, UAE 3, Germany 2, Russia 2, Syria 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police
Force, Coast Guard

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment points for South American drugs destined
for the US and Europe
______________________________________________________________________

SAN MARINO

@San Marino:Geography

Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic coordinates: 43 46 N, 12 25 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 60 sq km
land: 60 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain: rugged mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Fiume Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 749 m

Natural resources: building stone

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures : NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Geography - note: landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe
after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines

@San Marino:People

Population: 24,714 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (male 1,993; female 1,992)
15-64 years : 68% (male 8,442; female 8,270)
65 years and over: 16% (male 1,683; female 2,334) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.76% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.68 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.97 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.37 years
male: 77.42 years
female: 85.32 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.51 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: Italian

Literacy:
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95% (1976 est.)

@San Marino:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form : Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino

Data code: SM

Government type: republic

National capital: San Marino

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular -
castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano,
Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle

Independence: 301 AD (by tradition)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic, 3
September

Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the
functions of a constitution

Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: co-chiefs of state Captain Regent Piero Paolo
GASPERONI and Captain Regent Pietro BUGLI (for the period 1 April-30
September 1996)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political
Affairs Gabriele GATTI (since NA July 1986)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council
for a five-year term
elections : co-chiefs of state (captain regents) elected by the Great
and General Council for a six-month term; election last held NA March
1996 (next to be held NA September 1996); secretary of state for
foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council
for a five-year term; election last held NA 1993 (next to be held NA
1998)
election results: Giancarlo VENTURINI and Maurizio RATTINI elected
captain regents; percent of legislative vote - NA; Gabriele GATTI
elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent
of legislative vote - NA
note: the popularly elected parliament (Great and General Council)
selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (Co-Chiefs
of State) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the
Great and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State) which
has ten other members, all selected by the Great and General Council;
assisting the Captains Regent are three Secretaries of State - Foreign
Affairs, Internal Affairs, and Finance - and several additional
secretaries; the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has assumed
many of the prerogatives of a prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Great and General Council or Consiglio
Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular
vote to serve five-year terms)
elections : last held 30 May 1993 (next to be held by NA May 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - PDCS 41.4%, PSS 23.7%,
PDP 18.6%, AP 7.7%, MD 5.3%, RC 3.3%; seats by party - PDCS 26, PSS
14, PDP 11, AP 4, MD 3, RC 2

Judicial branch: Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or PDCS
[Cesare GASPERONI, secretary general]; Democratic Progressive Party or
PDP (formerly San Marino Communist Party or PSS) [Claudio FELICI,
secretary general]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Maurizio
RATTINI, secretary general]; Democratic Movement or MD [Massimo
TONTI]; Popular Alliance or AP [Tito MASI]; Communist Refoundation or
RC [Paolo GIOVAGNOLI]

International organization participation: CE, ECE, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM (guest), OSCE, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: San Marino does not have an
embassy in the US
honorary consulate(s) general: Washington and New York
honorary consulate(s): Detroit

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in San Marino; the US Consul General in Florence (Italy) is accredited
to San Marino

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light
blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the
coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks)
flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word
LIBERTAS (Liberty)

Economy

Economy - overview: The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In
1995 more than 3.3 million tourists visited San Marino. The key
industries are banking, wearing apparel, electronics, and ceramics.
Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level
of output and standard of living are comparable to those of Italy,
which supplies much of its food.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $408 million (1994 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (1994 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $16,900 (1994 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5.3% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 15,600 (1995)
by occupation: industry 40%, agriculture 2% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 3.6% (April 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $320 million
expenditures: $320 million, including capital expenditures of $26
million (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW
note: electricity supplied by Italy

Electricity - production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by Italy

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: wheat, grapes, maize, olives; cattle, pigs,
horses, meat, cheese, hides

Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy;
commodities: building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked
goods, hides, and ceramics

Imports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy;
commodities: wide variety of consumer manufactures, food

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Italian lire (Lit) = 100 centesimi; note - also mints its
own coins

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1 - 1,568.1 (January 1997),
1,542.9 (1996), 1,628.9 (1995), 1,612.4 (1994), 1,573.7 (1993),
1,232.4 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@San Marino:Communications

Telephones: 15,000 (1995 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into
Italian system
international: microwave radio relay and cable connections to Italian
network; no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA (1 private radio
broadcast station)

Radios: 12,535 (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1991 est.)
note: receives broadcasts from Italy

Televisions: 7,500 (1992 est.)

@San Marino:Transportation

Railways: 0 km; note - there is a 1.5 km cable railway connecting the
city of San Marino to Borgo Maggiore

Highways:
total: 220 km
paved : NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

Military

Military branches: Voluntary Military Force, Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.7 million (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE

@Sao Tome and Principe:Geography

Location: Western Africa, island in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the
Equator, west of Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 7 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 960 sq km
land: 960 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: more than five times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 209 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

Terrain: volcanic, mountainous

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 36%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland : NA%
other: 61% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion and
exhaustion

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification

@Sao Tome and Principe:People

Population: 147,865 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (male 29,815; female 29,307)
15-64 years: 55% (male 40,830; female 41,056)
65 years and over : 5% (male 3,053; female 3,804) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.54% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 33.77 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 60.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.09 years
male : 62.15 years
female: 66.08 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.22 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Sao Tomean(s)
adjective: Sao Tomean

Ethnic groups: mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves),
forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers
from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of
servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)

Religions: Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day
Adventist

Languages: Portuguese (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73%
male: 85%
female : 62% (1991 est.)

@Sao Tome and Principe:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe
local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe
local short form: Sao Tome e Principe

Data code: TP

Government type: republic

National capital: Sao Tome

Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos, singular -
concelho); Principe, Sao Tome

Independence: 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1975)

Constitution: approved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990

Legal system: based on Portuguese legal system and customary law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Miguel TROVOADA (since 4 April 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Raul Wagner BRAGANCA NETO (since 20
November 1996)
cabinet : Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
proposal of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 30 June and 15 July 1996 (next to be held in 2001);
prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the
president
election results : Miguel TROVOADA reelected president in Sao Tome's
second multiparty presidential election; percent of vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia
Nacional (55 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: parliament dissolved by President TROVOADA in July 1994;
early elections held 2 October 1994 (next to be held October 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - MLSTP 49%, PCD-GR 25.5%,
ADI 25.5%; seats by party - MLSTP 27, PCD-GR 14, ADI 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the National
Peoples Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Party for Democratic
Convergence-Reflection Group or PCD-GR [Armindo AGUIAR, secretary
general]; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe or
MLSTP [Francisco Fortunas PIRES]; Christian Democratic Front or FDC
[Alphonse Dos SANTOS]; Democratic Opposition Coalition or CODO;
Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Carlos NEVES]; other small
parties

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: Sao Tome and Principe does not
have an embassy in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the
UN, headed by First Secretary Domingos AUGUSTO Ferreira, located at
122 East 42nd Street, Suite 1604, New York, NY 10168, telephone [1]
(212) 697-4211

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao
Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to
the islands

Flag description: three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow
(double width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed
side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles
triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors
of Ethiopia

Economy

Economy - overview: This small poor island economy has become
increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence over 20 years ago.
However, cocoa production has substantially declined because of
drought and mismanagement. The resulting shortage of cocoa for export
has created a persistent balance-of-payments problem. Sao Tome has to
import all fuels, most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and a
significant amount of food. Over the years, it has been unable to
service its external debt and has had to depend on concessional aid
and debt rescheduling. Considerable potential exists for development
of a tourist industry, and the government has taken steps to expand
facilities in recent years. The government also has attempted to
reduce price controls and subsidies, but economic growth has remained
sluggish.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $149 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.6% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 28%
industry: 14%
services: 58% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 38% (1994 est.)

Labor force: most of population mainly engaged in subsistence
agriculture and fishing; there are shortages of skilled workers

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $58 million
expenditures: $114 million, including capital expenditures of $54
million (1993 est.)

Industries: light construction, textiles, soap, beer; fish processing;
timber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 6,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 12 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra,
cinnamon, pepper, coffee, bananas, papaya, beans; poultry; fish

Exports:
total value: $7.8 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: cocoa 85%-90%, copra, coffee, palm oil
partners: Netherlands 75.7%, Germany 1.2%, Portugal 1.1%

Imports:
total value : $26.2 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, food products,
petroleum products
partners: Portugal 32.2%, France 16.8%, Belgium 6.6%, Japan, Angola

Debt - external: $250 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 dobra (Db) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: dobras (Db) per US$1 - 2,500 (November 1996), 1,610
(May 1995), 129.59 (1 July 1993), 230 (1992), 260.0 (November 1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Sao Tome and Principe:Communications

Telephones: 2,200 (1986 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: minimal system
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 33,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1992 est.)

Televisions: NA

@Sao Tome and Principe:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 310 km
paved: 211 km
unpaved: 99 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Santo Antonio, Sao Tome

Merchant marine:
total : 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,096 GRT/1,105 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Security Police

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 36,127 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 18,898 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

SAUDI ARABIA

@Saudi Arabia:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea,
north of Yemen

Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 1,960,582 sq km
land: 1,960,582 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than one-fifth the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 4,415 km
border countries: Iraq 814 km, Jordan 728 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676
km, Qatar 60 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1,458 km

Coastline: 2,640 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: not specified
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature

Terrain: mostly uninhabited, sandy desert

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Jabal Sawda' 3,133 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 56%
forests and woodland: 1%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms

Environment - current issues: desertification; depletion of
underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent
water bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater
desalination facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea
provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through
Persian Gulf and Suez Canal

@Saudi Arabia:People

Population: 20,087,965 (July 1997 est.)
note : includes 5,164,790 non-nationals (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 4,389,113; female 4,252,034)
15-64 years: 55% (male 6,561,725; female 4,410,589)
65 years and over: 2% (male 246,894; female 227,610) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.42% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 37.94 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.18 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.49 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.08 male(s)/female
total population: 1.26 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 43.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.51 years
male: 67.72 years
female: 71.4 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.41 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Saudi(s)
adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian

Ethnic groups: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%

Religions: Muslim 100%

Languages: Arabic

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 62.8%
male: 71.5%
female: 50.2% (1995 est.)

@Saudi Arabia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
conventional short form: Saudi Arabia
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
local short form: Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah

Data code: SA

Government type: monarchy

National capital: Riyadh

Administrative divisions: 13 provinces (mintaqah, singular -
mintaqat); Al Bahah, Al Hudud Ash Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al
Qasim, Ar Riyad, Ash Sharqiyah (Eastern Province), 'Asir, Hail, Jizan,
Makkah, Najran, Tabuk

Independence: 23 September 1932 (unification)

National holiday: Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)

Constitution: none; governed according to Shari'a (Islamic law)

Legal system: based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been
introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud
(since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister
ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the king, heir to
the throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22 February
1996); note - the king is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: King and Prime Minister FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al
Saud (since 13 June 1982); Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime
Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (half-brother to the king,
heir to the throne since 13 June 1982, regent from 1 January to 22
February 1996); note - the king is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Council of Ministers is appointed by the king and includes
many royal family members
elections: none; the king is an absolute monarch

Legislative branch: a consultative council (60 members and a chairman
appointed by the king for four-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of Justice

Political parties and leaders: none allowed

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
BIS (pending member), CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC,
OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador BANDAR bin Sultan bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud
chancery: 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 342-3800
consulate(s) general : Houston, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Wyche FOWLER, Jr.
embassy : Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh
mailing address: American Embassy-Riyadh, Unit 61307, APO AE
09803-1307; International Mail: P. O. Box 94309, Riyadh 11693
telephone: [966] (1) 488-3800
FAX : [966] (1) 488-7360
consulate(s) general: Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah)

Book of the day: