Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

The 1997 CIA World Factbook

Part 36 out of 47

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 4.8 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

RPR and UDF); Free-DOM Movement [Marguerite SUDRE]; National Front
(FN), Alix MOREL

International organization participation: FZ, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy has traditionally been based on
agriculture. Sugarcane has been the primary crop for more than a
century, and in some years it accounts for 85% of exports. The
government has been pushing the development of a tourist industry to
relieve high unemployment, which recently amounted to one-third of the
labor force. The gap in Reunion between the well-off and the poor is
extraordinary and accounts for the persistent social tensions. The
white and Indian communities are substantially better off than other
segments of the population, often approaching European standards,
whereas indigenous groups suffer the poverty and unemployment typical
of the poorer nations of the African continent. The outbreak of severe
rioting in February 1991 illustrates the seriousness of socioeconomic
tensions. The economic well-being of Reunion depends heavily on
continued financial assistance from France.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.9 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.7% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,300 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry : NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 242,169 (1993)
by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 21%, services 49% (1981)

Unemployment rate: 35% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA

Industries: sugar, rum, cigarettes, handicraft items

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: 1.09 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,670 kWh (1994)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco, tropical fruits,
vegetables, corn

Exports:
total value: $171.776 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: sugar 63%, rum and molasses 4%, perfume essences 2%,
lobster 3%, (1993)
partners: France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy, Madagascar

Imports:
total value: $2.354 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities : manufactured goods, food, beverages, tobacco, machinery
and transportation equipment, raw materials, and petroleum products
partners: France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy, Madagascar

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: substantial annual subsidies from France

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4169 (January 1997),
5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Reunion:Communications

Telephones: 191,647 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: adequate system; principal center is Saint-Denis
domestic : modern open wire and microwave radio relay network
international: radiotelephone communication to Comoros, France,
Madagascar; new microwave route to Mauritius; satellite earth station
- 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: 151,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (repeaters 18)

Televisions: 116,181 (1992 est.)

@Reunion:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,784 km
paved: 2,187 km
unpaved: 597 km (1987 est.)

Ports and harbors: Le Port, Pointe des Galets

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2 (1996)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: French forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, and
Gendarmerie)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 176,600 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 92,170 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 5,724 (1997 est.)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

ROMANIA

@Romania:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 237,500 sq km
land: 230,340 sq km
water : 7,160 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
total : 2,508 km
border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km,
Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362
km, Ukraine (south) 169 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog;
sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of
Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from
the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point : Moldoveanu 2,544 m

Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural
gas, coal, iron ore, salt

Land use:
arable land: 41%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures : 21%
forests and woodland: 29%
other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 31,020 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes most severe in south and southwest;
geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Environment - current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water
pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents;
contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography - note: controls most easily traversable land route between
the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine

@Romania:People

Population: 22,463,077 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 2,223,136; female 2,130,497)
15-64 years : 68% (male 7,586,237; female 7,679,992)
65 years and over: 13% (male 1,186,948; female 1,656,267) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: -0.28% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 9.8 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 11.75 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.11 years
male : 66.28 years
female: 74.13 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.23 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.1%, Hungarian 8.9%, German 0.4%, Ukrainian,
Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%

Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6% (of which 3% are
Uniate), Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%

Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male : 98%
female: 95% (1992 est.)

@Romania:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form : Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania

Data code: RO

Government type: republic

National capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1
municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor,
Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau,
Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj,
Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures,
Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu,
Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

National holiday: National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

Constitution: 8 December 1991

Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and communist legal
theory; is now based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Emil CONSTANTINESCU (since 29 November
1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Victor CIORBEA (since 12 December
1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 3 November 1996, with runoff between the top two
candidates held 17 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2000); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: percent of vote - Emil CONSTANTINESCU 54.4%, Ion
ILIESCU 45.6%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the
Senate or Senat (143 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote
on a proportional representation to serve four-year terms) and the
Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (343 seats; members are
elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation to
serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA
2000); Chamber of Deputies - last held 3 November 1996 (next to be
held NA 2000)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - CDR 30.7%, PDSR
23.1%, USD 13.2%, UDMR 6.8%, PRM 4.5%, PUNR 4.2%, others 17.5%; seats
by party - CDR 53, PDSR 41, USD 23, UDMR 11, PRM 8, PUNR 7; Chamber of
Deputies - percent of vote by party - CDR 30.2%, PDSR 21.5%, USD
12.9%, UDMR 6.6% PRM 4.5%, PUNR 4.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party -
CDR 122, PDSR 91, USD 53, UDMR 25, PRM 19, PUNR 18, ethnic minorities
15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice, judges are appointed by the
president on recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or DP [Petre ROMAN];
Romanian Social Democratic Party or PSDR [Sergiu CUNESCU]; Party of
Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR [Adrian NASTASE]; Democratic Union
of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party
or PNL [Mircea IONESCU-QUINTUS]; National Peasants' Christian and
Democratic Party or PNTCD [Ion DIACONESCU]; Romanian National Unity
Party or PUNR [Valeriu TABARA]; Socialist Labor Party or PSM [Ilie
VERDET]; Agrarian Democratic Party of Romania or PDAR [Victor SURDU];
The Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU]; Romania Mare Party
(Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Civic Alliance
Party or PAC [Nicolae MANOLESCU, chairman]; Liberal Party '93 or PL-93
[Dinu PATRICIU]; National Liberal Party-Democratic Convention or
PNL-CD [Nicolae CERVENI]; Socialist Party or PS [Tudor MOHORA]
note: to increase their voting strength several of the above-mentioned
parties united under umbrella organizations: PNTCD, PNL, and PNL-CD
form the bulk of the Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU]; PD
and PSDR form the Union of Social Democrats or USD [Petre ROMAN]; and
PAC and PL-93 form the National Liberal Alliance or ANL [Nicolae
MANOLESCU]; PSM, PS, ANL, and numerous other small parties failed to
gain representation in the most recent election

Political pressure groups and leaders: various human rights and
professional associations

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
CEI, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS
(observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mircea Dan GEOANA
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851
FAX : [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Alfred H. MOSES
embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
mailing address: American Consulate General (Bucharest), Unit 1315,
APO AE 09213-1315
telephone: [40] (1) 210 01 49, 210 40 42
FAX: [40] (1) 210 03 95
branch office: Cluj-Napoca

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in
the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra
and Chad

Economy

Economy - overview: Romania, one of the poorer countries in Central
and Eastern Europe, began the transition from Communism with a largely
obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the
country's needs. Over the past seven years, economic restructuring has
lagged behind most other countries in the region. Consequently,
economic performance is declining, with slowing GDP growth, ballooning
budget deficits, accelerating inflation, a plunging exchange rate, and
anemic foreign investment. Unemployment was low at about 6% at the end
of 1996, but the rate will rise when restructuring gets underway. A
new government elected in November 1996 promises to accelerate
economic reform, restructuring, and privatization, introduce fiscal
and monetary austerity, reduce the state's role in the economy, and
open Romania to foreign investment. The government will tackle its
formidable economic problems in two stages, with an emergency plan
over the winter of 1996/97 to ensure social and political stability,
followed by a radical structural reform program over its remaining
three-and-one-half years aimed eventually at EU accession. At the same
time, it wants to keep campaign promises to increase benefits to
disadvantaged groups. Bucharest hopes to receive financial and
technical assistance from international financial institutions and
western governments and negotiations over a new IMF standby agreement
are underway. If reform stalls, however, Romania's bond rating - just
below investment grade - could fall and needed capital from both
public and private sources could quickly dry up. Rich agricultural and
oil resources are strengths for the future.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $113.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.1% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,200 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 33.4%
services: 46.6% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 56.9% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 10.1 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: industry 28.8%, agriculture 36.4%, other 34.8% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 6.1% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $6 billion
expenditures: $7.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy,
chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum production and
refining

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 22.06 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 52.48 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,245 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed,
potatoes, grapes; milk, eggs, meat

Exports:
total value: $7.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: textiles and footwear 25.2%, metals and metal products
19.4%, fuels and mineral products 10.0%, chemicals 9.4%, other 36.0%
(1995)
partners : Germany 17.8%, Italy 15.6%, France 5.7%, Turkey 4.5%,
Netherlands 3.0%, China 3.0% (1995)

Imports:
total value : $93.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: fuels and minerals 25.1%, machinery and transport
equipment 19.4%, food and agricultural goods 6.1%, chemicals 9.0%,
other 40.4% (1995)
partners: Germany 17.1%, Italy 13.2%, Russia 12.6%, France 5.2%, US
4.2%, Egypt 4.1% (1995)

Debt - external: $7.8 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $81 million (1993)

Currency: 1 leu (L) = 100 bani

Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1 - 5,970 (January 1997), 3,085.39
(1996), 2,033.28 (1995), 1,655.09 (1994), 760.05 (1993), 307.95 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Romania:Communications

Telephones: 2.6 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: poor service; 89% of telephone network is automatic; trunk
network is microwave radio relay; roughly 3,300 villages with no
service (February 1990 est.)
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; new digital
international direct-dial exchanges are in Bucharest (1993 est.)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 5, shortwave 0
note: in 1995, 135 local radio stations were registered

Radios: 4.64 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 436 cable TV stations, 66 local TV
stations

Televisions: 4.58 million (1992 est.)

@Romania:Transportation

Railways:
total : 11,365 km
broad gauge: 45 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 10,893 km 1.435-m gauge (3,723 km electrified; 3,060
km double track)
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (1994)

Highways:
total : 153,170 km
paved: 78,117 km (including 113 km of expressways)
unpaved: 75,053 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Pipelines: crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural
gas 6,400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Braila, Constanta, Galati, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea

Merchant marine:
total: 234 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,445,810 GRT/3,654,660
DWT
ships by type: bulk 39, cargo 167, container 2, oil tanker 13,
passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 9
note : Romania owns an additional 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 1,025,108 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas,
Bermuda, Cyprus, Liberia, Malta, and Syria (1996 est.)

Airports: 156 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 27
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 129
2,438 to 3,047 m : 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 108 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces,
Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 5,884,704 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 4,955,267 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 201,752 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $650 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Ukraine over continental shelf
of the Black Sea under which significant gas and oil deposits may
exist; agreed to two-year negotiating period, after which either party
can refer dispute to the International Court of Justice

Illicit drugs: important transshipment point for Southwest Asian
heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American
cocaine bound for Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

RUSSIA

@Russia:Geography

Location: Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes
included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and
the North Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 100 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 17,075,200 sq km
land: 16,995,800 sq km
water: 79,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.8 times the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total : 19,917 km
border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast)
3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 294 km, Finland 1,313 km,
Georgia 723 km, Kazakstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km,
Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 167
km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Ukraine 1,576 km

Coastline: 37,653 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf : 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in
much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the
polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in
Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic
coast

Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous
forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern
border regions

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Mount El'brus 5,633 m

Natural resources: wide natural resource base including major deposits
of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber
note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder
exploitation of natural resources

Land use:
arable land : 8%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 46%
other: 42% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment
to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and
earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula

Environment - current issues: air pollution from heavy industry,
emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major
cities; industrial and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and
sea coasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from
improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of
sometimes intense radioactive contamination

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: largest country in the world in terms of area but
unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world;
despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates
(either too cold or too dry) for agriculture

@Russia:People

Population: 147,305,569 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 20% (male 15,258,810; female 14,683,485)
15-64 years: 67% (male 47,945,470; female 51,067,792)
65 years and over: 13% (male 5,645,915; female 12,704,097) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: -0.29% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 9.52 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 14.84 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.44 male(s)/female
total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.81 years
male: 58.39 years
female: 71.56 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Russian(s)
adjective: Russian

Ethnic groups: Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%,
Bashkir 0.9%, Byelorussian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1%

Religions: Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other

Languages: Russian, other

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male : 100%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

@Russia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Russian Federation
conventional short form: Russia
local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
local short form: Rossiya
former: Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Data code: RS

Government type: federation

National capital: Moscow

Administrative divisions: 49 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast'),
21 autonomous republics* (avtonomnyk respublik, singular - avtonomnaya
respublika), 10 autonomous okrugs**(avtonomnykh okrugov, singular -
avtonomnyy okrug), 6 krays*** (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal
cities (singular - gorod)****, and 1 autonomous
oblast*****(avtonomnaya oblast'); Adygeya (Maykop)*, Aginskiy
Buryatskiy (Aginskoye)**, Altay (Gorno-Altaysk)*, Altayskiy
(Barnaul)***, Amurskaya (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel'skaya,
Astrakhanskaya, Bashkortostan (Ufa)*, Belgorodskaya, Bryanskaya,
Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude)*, Chechnya (Groznyy)*, Chelyabinskaya,
Chitinskaya, Chukotskiy (Anadyr')**, Chuvashiya (Cheboksary)*,
Dagestan (Makhachkala)*, Evenkiyskiy (Tura)**, Ingushetiya (Nazran')*,
Irkutskaya, Ivanovskaya, Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal'chik)*,
Kaliningradskaya, Kalmykiya (Elista)*, Kaluzkskaya, Kamchatskaya
(Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk)*,
Kareliya (Petrozavodsk)*, Kemerovskaya, Khabarovskiy***, Khakasiya
(Abakan)*, Khanty-Mansiyskiy (Khanty-Mansiysk)**, Kirovskaya, Komi
(Syktyvkar)*, Koryakskiy (Palana)**, Kostromskaya, Krasnodarskiy***,
Krasnoyarskiy***, Kurganskaya, Kurskaya, Leningradskaya, Lipetskaya,
Magadanskaya, Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola)*, Mordoviya (Saransk)*,
Moskovskaya, Moskva****, Murmanskaya, Nenetskiy (Nar'yan-Mar)**,
Nizhegorodskaya, Novgorodskaya, Novosibirskaya, Omskaya,
Orenburgskaya, Penzenskaya, Permskaya, Komi-Permyatskiy (Kudymkar)**,
Primorskiy (Vladivostok)***, Pskovskaya, Rostovskaya, Ryazanskaya,
Sakha (Yakutiya)*, Sakhalinskaya (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samarskaya,
Sankt-Peterburg****, Saratovskaya, Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya
(Vladikavkaz)*, Smolenskaya, Stavropol'skiy***, Sverdlovskaya
(Yekaterinburg), Tambovskaya, Tatarstan (Kazan')*, Taymyrskiy
(Dudinka)**, Tomskaya, Tul'skaya, Tverskaya, Tyumenskaya, Tyva
(Kyzyl)*, Udmurtiya (Izhevsk)*, Ul'yanovskaya, Ust'-Ordynskiy
Buryatskiy (Ust'-Ordynskiy)**, Vladimirskaya, Volgogradskaya,
Vologodskaya, Voronezhskaya, Yamalo-Nenetskiy (Salekhard)**,
Yaroslavskaya, Yevreyskaya*****; note - when using a place name with
an adjectival ending 'skaya' or 'skiy', the word Oblast' or Avonomnyy
Okrug or Kray should be added to the place name
note : the autonomous republics of Chechnya and Ingushetia were
formerly the autonomous republic of Checheno-Ingushetia (the boundary
between Chechnya and Ingushetia has yet to be determined); the cities
of Moscow and St. Petersburg are federal cities; administrative
divisions have the same names as their administrative centers
(exceptions have the administrative center name following in
parentheses)

Independence: 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, June 12 (1990)

Constitution: adopted 12 December 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Boris Nikolayevich YEL'TSIN (since 12 June
1991)
head of government: Premier and Chairman of the Russian Federation
Government Viktor Stepanovich CHERNOMYRDIN (since 14 December 1992),
First Deputy Premiers and First Deputy Chairmen of the Government
Anatoliy Borisovich CHUBAYS (since NA March 1997), Boris Y. NEMTSOV
(since NA March 1997)
cabinet: Ministries of the Government or "Government" appointed by the
president
note: there is also a Presidential Administration that drafts
presidential edicts and provides staff and policy support to the
entire executive branch; a Security Council that was originally
established as a presidential advisory body in June 1991 with
responsibility for managing individual and state security; a Defense
Council and a Foreign Policy Council formed in July 1996 and October
1996 respectively
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 16 June 1996 with runoff election on 3 July 1996
(next to be held NA June 2000); note - no vice president; if the
president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill
health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier succeeds him; the
premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election
is held, which must be within three months; premier and deputy
premiers appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma
election results: Boris Nikolayevich YEL'TSIN elected president;
percent of vote in runoff - YEL'TSIN 54%, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV 40%

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoe Sobranie
consists of the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (178 seats,
filled ex-officio by the top executive and legislative officials in
each of the 89 federal administrative units - oblasts, krays,
republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the cities of Moscow and
St. Petersburg; members serve four-year terms) and the State Duma or
Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats, half elected in single-member
districts and half elected from national party lists; members are
elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : State Duma - last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held
NA December 1999)
election results: State Duma - percent of vote received by parties
clearing the 5% threshold entitling them to a proportional share of
the 225 party list seats - Communist Party of the Russian Federation
22.3%, Liberal Democratic Party of Russia 11.2%, Our Home Is Russia
10.1%, Yabloko Bloc 6.9%; seats by party - Communist Party of the
Russian Federation 157, independents 78, Our Home Is Russia 55,
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia 51, Yabloko Bloc 45, Agrarian Party
of Russia 20, Russia's Democratic Choice 9, Power To the People 9,
Congress of Russian Communities 5, Forward, Russia! 3, Women of Russia
3, other parties 15

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are appointed by the
Federation Council on recommendation of the president; Supreme Court,
judges are appointed by the Federation Council on recommendation of
the president; Superior Court of Arbitration, judges are appointed by
the Federation Council on recommendation of the president

Political parties and leaders:
pro-market democrats : Yabloko Bloc [Grigoriy YAVLINSKIY]; Russia's
Democratic Choice Party [Yegor GAYDAR]; Forward, Russia! [Boris
FEDOROV]
centrists/special interest parties: Our Home Is Russia [Viktor
CHERNOMYRDIN]; Russian People's Republican Party [Aleksandr LEBED];
Congress of Russian Communities [Dmitriy ROGOZIN]; Women of Russia
[Alevtina FEDULOVA and Yekaterina LAKHOVA]
anti-market and/or ultranationalist : Communist Party of the Russian
Federation [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Russia
[Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY]; Agrarian Party [Mikhail LAPSHIN]; Power To
the People [Nikolay RYZHKOV and Sergey BABURIN]; Russian Communist
Workers' Party [Viktor ANPILOV and Viktor TYULKIN]
note: some 269 political parties, blocs, and associations tried to
gather enough signatures to run slates of candidates in the 17
December 1995 Duma elections; 43 succeeded

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: BIS (pending member), BSEC,
CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), CIS, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NSG, OAS
(observer), OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council, UNAVEM III,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIH, UNMOP,
UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(applicant), ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Yuliy Mikhaylovich VORONTSOV
chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone : [1] (202) 298-5700 through 5704
FAX: [1] (202) 298-5735
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco, and Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires John F. TEFFT
embassy : Novinskiy Bul'var 19/23, Moscow
mailing address: APO AE 09721
telephone: [7] (095) 252-24-51 through 59
FAX: [7] (095) 956-42-61
consulate(s) general: St. Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue,
and red

Economy

Economy - overview: Russia, a vast country with a wealth of natural
resources, a well-educated population, and a diverse, but declining,
industrial base, continues to experience formidable difficulties in
moving from its old centrally planned economy to a modern market
economy. Most of 1996 was a lost year for economic reforms, with
government officials focused in the first half of the year on
President YEL'TSIN's reelection and then on his medical problems. The
only major success was in the fight against inflation, which fell from
131% in 1995 to 22% in 1996. Russia failed to make any progress in
restructuring its social welfare programs to target the most needy -
among whom are many of the old pensioners - or to pass needed tax
reform. While approximately 75% of industry has now been privatized,
the agricultural sector has undergone little reform since the break-up
of the Soviet Union. Stockholder rights remain weak while crime and
corruption are rampant in much of the economy. Many enterprises
continue to operate without hard budget constraints, resulting in
barter trade and increased inter-enterprise debts. According to
official statistics, the Russian economy declined for the fifth
straight year since the beginning of reforms, with GDP in 1996 falling
by 6% and industrial output by 5%. The true size of the Russian
economy remains controversial, however, with estimates of unreported
economic activity ranging from 20%-50% of GDP. Indeed, according to
Russian statistics, the Russian consumer has seen a small improvement
in the last several years, with real average incomes growing by about
8% from early 1993 to late 1996. The share of the Russian population
living below the poverty line is said to have dropped from one-third
in early 1993 to one-fifth in late 1996. Few Russians lack basic
necessities, and ownership of consumer goods such as VCRs and
automobiles has increased markedly. The growth of wage and pension
arrears slowed in the second half of 1996, and the government pledged
to clear all budget-funded wage and pension arrears by the end of
1997. The government continued to be plagued with tax collection
problems during 1996, forcing it to cut its planned spending by 18%. A
crackdown on major tax debtors at the end of the year had only limited
success. Spending by all levels of government remains high, between
40%-45% of GDP. The economy is continuing its integration into world
markets. Russia's trade surplus, after adjustment for unreported
"shuttle" trade, grew to a record $28.5 billion in 1996, according to
official Russian statistics. Export growth, which slowed from 18% to
9%, was due mostly to increased raw material prices. After increasing
by 15% in 1995, imports dipped by 2% in 1996 as Russian demand for
Western consumer goods slackened. Russia is continuing to make
progress in its WTrO negotiations; the government has made quick
accession one of its major policy goals. The continued unsettled
economic and political situation has discouraged foreign investment,
which totaled only $6.5 billion in 1996, including $2.1 billion in
direct investment; furthermore, capital flight continues to exceed in
volume the inflow of foreign capital. The central bank estimates that
$30 billion in US currency circulates in the Russian economy. In March
1997, YEL'TSIN signaled his intention to restart stalled economic
reforms by reorganizing the cabinet, bringing in a new team of
ministers with strong reform credentials.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $767 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: -6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,200 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 22% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 73 million (1996)
by occupation : NA

Unemployment rate: 9.3% (December 1996) (according to ILO definition)
with considerable additional underemployment

Budget:
revenues : $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: complete range of mining and extractive industries
producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine
building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space
vehicles; shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment;
communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and
construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting
equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables,
textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: -5% (1996)

Electricity - capacity: 214.69 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 833.16 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 5,114 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed,
vegetables, fruits (because of its northern location does not grow
citrus, cotton, tea, and other warm climate products); meat, milk

Exports:
total value: $88.3 billion (1996)
commodities : petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and
wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and
military manufactures
partners: Europe, North America, Japan, Third World countries

Imports:
total value: $59.8 billion (1996)
commodities : machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines,
meat, grain, sugar, semifinished metal products
partners: Europe, North America, Japan, Third World countries

Debt - external: $130 billion (yearend 1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $13 billion (1990-96)
note : US commitments, including Ex-Im, $15 billion (1990-96); other
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1990-96), $125 billion

Currency: 1 ruble (R) = 100 kopeks

Exchange rates: rubles per US$1 - 5,727 (March 1997), 5,121 (1996),
4,559 (1995), 2,191 (1994), 992 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Russia:Communications

Telephones: 25.4 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system: total pay phones for long distant calls 34,100;
enlisting foreign help, by means of joint ventures, to speed up the
modernization of its telecommunications system; in 1992, only 661,000
new telephones were installed compared with 855,000 in 1991, and in
1992 the number of unsatisfied applications for telephones reached
11,000,000; expanded access to international electronic mail service
available via Sprint network; the inadequacy of Russian
telecommunications is a severe handicap to the economy, especially
with respect to international connections
domestic: NMT-450 analog cellular telephone networks are operational
and growing in Moscow and St. Petersburg; intercity fiber-optic cable
installation remains limited
international: international traffic is inadequately handled by a
system of satellites, landlines, microwave radio relay, and outdated
submarine cables; much of this traffic passes through the
international gateway switch in Moscow which carries most of the
international traffic for the other countries of the Commonwealth of
Independent States; a new Russian Intersputnik satellite will link
Moscow and St. Petersburg with Rome from whence calls will be relayed
to destinations in Europe and overseas; satellite earth stations - NA
Intelsat, 4 Intersputnik (2 Atlantic Ocean Region and 2 Indian Ocean
Region), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean Region), and NA Orbita

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA; note - there are
about 1,050 (including AM, FM, and shortwave) radio broadcast stations
throughout the country

Radios: 50 million (1993 est.)(radio receivers with multiple speaker
systems for program diffusion 74,300,000)

Television broadcast stations: 7,183

Televisions: 54.85 million (1992 est.)

@Russia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 154,000 km; note - 87,000 km in common carrier service (38,000
km electrified); 67,000 km serve specific industries and are not
available for common carrier use
broad gauge: 154,000 km 1.520-m gauge (1 January 1994)

Highways:
total : 948,000 km (including 416,000 km which serve specific
industries or farms and are not maintained by governmental highway
maintenance departments)
paved: 336,000 km
unpaved: 612,000 km (including 411,000 km of graveled or other forms
of macadam surface and 201,000 km of unstabilized earth) (1995 est.)

Waterways: total navigable routes in general use 101,000 km; routes
with navigation guides serving the Russian River Fleet 95,900 km;
routes with night navigational aids 60,400 km; man-made navigable
routes 16,900 km (1 January 1994)

Pipelines: crude oil 48,000 km; petroleum products 15,000 km; natural
gas 140,000 km (30 June 1993)

Ports and harbors: Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', Kaliningrad, Kazan',
Khabarovsk, Kholmsk, Krasnoyarsk, Moscow, Murmansk, Nakhodka,
Nevel'sk, Novorossiysk, Petropavlovsk, St. Petersburg, Rostov, Sochi,
Tuapse, Vladivostok, Volgograd, Vostochnyy, Vyborg

Merchant marine:
total: 660 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,731,677 GRT/7,940,756
DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 24, cargo 348, chemical tanker 1,
combination bulk 21, combination ore/oil 15, container 28,
multifunction large-load carrier 3, oil tanker 136, passenger 6,
passenger-cargo 4, refrigerated cargo 20, roll-on/roll-off cargo 38,
short-sea passenger 13, specialized tanker 2
note: Russia owns an additional 137 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
2,466,872 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas, Cyprus,
Honduras, Liberia, Malta, Panama, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Singapore, and Vanuatu (1996 est.)

Airports: 2,517 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 630
over 3,047 m : 54
2,438 to 3,047 m: 202
1,524 to 2,437 m : 108
914 to 1,523 m: 115
under 914 m: 151 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1,887
over 3,047 m : 25
2,438 to 3,047 m: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 134
914 to 1,523 m: 291
under 914 m: 1,392 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Forces, Air Defense
Forces, Strategic Rocket Forces

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 38,449,126 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 29,996,967 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 1,115,858 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA
note : the Intelligence Community estimates that defense spending in
Russia fell by about 10% in real terms in 1996, reducing Russian
defense outlays to about one-sixth of peak Soviet levels in the late
1980s (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: inherited disputes from former USSR
including sections of the boundary with China; islands of Etorofu,
Kunashiri, and Shikotan and the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet
Union in 1945, administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; Caspian Sea
boundaries are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakstan,
Russia, and Turkmenistan; potential dispute with Ukraine over Crimea;
Estonian and Russian negotiators reached a technical order agreement
in December 1996, which Estonia is prepared to sign and ratify in
January 1997; Estonia had claimed over 2,000 sq km of Russian
territory in the Narva and Pechora regions - based on boundary
established under the 1920 Peace Treaty of Tartu; based on the 1920
Treaty of Riga, Latvia had claimed the Abrene/Pytalovo section of the
border ceded by the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic to Russia in
1944; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved
the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other
nation; dispute with Lithuania over the position of the riparian and
maritime boundary with Kaliningrad Oblast; Svalbard is the focus of a
maritime boundary dispute in the Barents Sea between Norway and Russia

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly
for domestic consumption; government has active eradication program;
increasingly used as transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast
Asian opiates and cannabis and Latin American cocaine to Western
Europe and the US
______________________________________________________________________

RWANDA

Introduction

Current issues: following the outbreak of genocidal strife in Rwanda
in April 1994 between Tutsi and Hutu factions, more than 2 million
refugees fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda and Democratic
Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire; according to the UN High
Commission on Refugees, in 1996 and early 1997 nearly 1,300,000 Hutus
returned to Rwanda; of these, 720,000 returned from Zaire, 480,000
from Tanzania, 88,000 from Burundi, and 10,000 from Uganda

@Rwanda:Geography

Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 26,340 sq km
land: 24,950 sq km
water: 1,390 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 893 km
border countries: Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217
km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to
January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with
altitude declining from west to east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m
highest point : Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m

Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten
ore), natural gas, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 35%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures : 18%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are
in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the
Congo

Environment - current issues: deforestation results from uncontrolled
cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified : Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; predominantly rural population

@Rwanda:People

Population: 7,737,537 (July 1997 est.)
note : genocide and civil war in 1994 killed more than 1 million
Rwandans and forced more than 2 million to flee to neighboring
countries

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 1,769,247; female 1,757,957)
15-64 years: 52% (male 1,978,076; female 2,018,141)
65 years and over: 3% (male 88,556; female 125,560) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 8.24% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 38.73 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 21.06 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 64.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)
note: following the outbreak of genocidal strife in Rwanda in April
1994 between Tutsi and Hutu factions, more than 2 million refugees
fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Democratic Republic
of the Congo, formerly Zaire; according to the UN High Commission on
Refugees, in 1996 and early 1997 nearly 1,300,000 Hutus returned to
Rwanda; of these 720,000 returned from Democratic Republic of the
Congo, 480,000 from Tanzania, 88,000 from Burundi, and 10,000 from
Uganda

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 118.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 39.11 years
male : 38.64 years
female: 39.6 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.93 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Rwandan(s)
adjective: Rwandan

Ethnic groups: Hutu 80%, Tutsi 19%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%, indigenous
beliefs and other 25%

Languages: Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French
(official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial
centers

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 60.5%
male: 69.8%
female: 51.6% (1995 est.)

@Rwanda:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Rwandese Republic
conventional short form : Rwanda
local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda
local short form: Rwanda

Data code: RW

Government type: republic; presidential, multiparty system

National capital: Kigali

Administrative divisions: 10 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture in French; plural - NA, singular - prefegitura in
Kinyarwanda); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama,
Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali, Ruhengeri

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: on 5 May 1995, the Transitional National Assembly
adopted a new constitution which included elements of the constitution
of 18 June 1991 as well as provisions of the 1993 Arusha peace accord
and the November 1994 multi-party protocol of understanding

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and
customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme
Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Pasteur BIZIMUNGU (since 19 July 1994); Vice
President Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME (since 19 July 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Celestin RWIGEMA (since 1 September
1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections : current president installed by force by the Tutsi Rwandan
Patriotic Front; normally the president is elected by popular vote for
a five-year term; elections last held NA (next to be held NA); prime
minister appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral Transitional National Assembly or
Assemblee Nationale de Transition (70 seats; members were
predetermined by the Arusha peace accord to serve NA-year terms)
elections: last held 26 December 1988 ( next to be held NA); note -
the Transitional National Assembly is a power-sharing body established
on 12 December 1994 following a multi-party protocol of understanding
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPF
19, MDR 13, PSD 13, PL 13, PDC 6, PSR 2, PDI 2, other 2; note - the
distribution of seats was predetermined

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, consists of the Court of
Cassation and the Council of State in joint session

Political parties and leaders: significant parties include: Rwandan
Patriotic Front or RPF [Alexis KANYARENGWE, chairman]; Democratic
Republican Movement or MDR; Liberal Party or PL; Democratic and
Socialist Party or PSD; Christian Democratic Party or PDC; Islamic
Democratic Party or PDI; Rwandan Socialist Party or PSR; National
Movement for Democracy and Development or MRND, former ruling party

Political pressure groups and leaders: Rwanda Patriotic Army or RPA,
the RPF military wing [Maj. Gen. Paul KAGAME, commander]; Rally for
the Democracy and Return (RDR)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC,
CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Theogene N. RUDASINGWA
chancery: (temporary) Suites C1 and C2, 2141 Wisconsin Avenue, NW,
Washington, DC 20007
telephone : [1] (202) 232-2882
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert GRIBBIN III
embassy: Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali
mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali
telephone : [250] 756 01 through 03, 721 26, 771 47
FAX: [250] 721 28

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side),
yellow, and green with a large black letter R centered in the yellow
band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the
flag of Guinea, which has a plain yellow band

Economy

Economy - overview: Rwanda is a poor African nation suffering bitterly
from ethnic-based civil war. The agricultural sector dominates the
economy; coffee and tea normally make up 80%-90% of exports. The
amount of fertile land is limited, however, and deforestation and soil
erosion continue to reduce the production potential. Manufacturing
focuses mainly on the processing of agricultural products. A
structural adjustment program with the World Bank began in October
1990. Ethnic-based insurgency since 1990 has devastated wide areas,
especially in the north, and displaced hundreds of thousands of
people. A peace accord in mid-1993 temporarily ended most of the
fighting, but resumption of large-scale civil warfare in April 1994 in
the capital city Kigali and elsewhere took 500,000 lives in that year
alone and severely damaged already poor economic prospects. Sketchy
data suggest that GDP dropped 50% in 1994 and came back partially, by
25%, in 1995. Plentiful rains helped agriculture in 1996, and outside
aid continued to support this desperately poor economy. The economy
continues to suffer massively from failure to maintain the
infrastructure, looting, neglect of important cash crops, and lack of
health care facilities. Because of the accumulated damage to capital
plant and the decline in public discipline, recovery of domestic
production will proceed slowly.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $400 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 52%
industry: 13%
services: 35% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 22% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 3.6 million
by occupation: agriculture 93%, government and services 5%, industry
and commerce 2%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: mining of cassiterite (tin ore) and wolframite (tungsten
ore), tin, cement, processing of agricultural products, small-scale
beverage production, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles,
cigarettes

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 60,000 kW

Electricity - production: 190 million kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: 23 kWh (1993 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from
chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock

Exports:
total value: $51.2 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: coffee 63%, tea, cassiterite, wolframite, pyrethrum
partners : Brazil, EU

Imports:
total value: $237.3 million (f.o.b.,1995 est.)
commodities: textiles, foodstuffs, machines and equipment, capital
goods, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
partners: US, EU, Kenya, Tanzania

Debt - external: $1 billion (December 1995)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: in October 1990 Rwanda launched a Structural Adjustment Program
with the IMF; since September 1991, the EU has given $46 million and
the US $25 million in support of this program (1993)

Currency: 1 Rwandan franc (RF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1 - 309.85 (December 1996),
306.82 (1996), 262.20 (1995), 144.31 (1993), 133.35 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Rwanda:Communications

Telephones: 6,400 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: telephone system does not provide service to the
general public but is intended for business and government use
domestic : the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the
prefectures by microwave radio relay; the remainder of the network
depends on wire and HF radiotelephone
international: international connections employ microwave radio relay
to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant
countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in
Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 630,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@Rwanda:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 12,000 km
paved: 1,000 km
unpaved: 11,000 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft

Ports and harbors: Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye

Airports: 7 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 2
under 914 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Gendarmerie

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,806,832 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 920,343 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $112.5 million (1992)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 7% (1992)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

SAINT HELENA

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Saint Helena:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean, west of
Angola, about two-thirds of the way from South America to Africa

Geographic coordinates: 15 56 S, 5 42 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 410 sq km
land: 410 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Ascension, Gough Island, Inaccessible Island,
Nightingale Island, and Tristan da Cunha

Area - comparative: slightly more than two times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 60 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds

Terrain: rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Queen Mary's Peak 2,060 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures : 6%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 82% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: active volcanism on Tristan da Cunha

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: Napoleon Bonaparte's place of exile and burial (his
remains were taken to Paris in 1840); harbors at least 40 species of
plants unknown anywhere else in the world; Ascension is a breeding
ground for sea turtles and sooty terns

@Saint Helena:People

Population: 7,036 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 722; female 698)
15-64 years : 71% (male 2,621; female 2,396)
65 years and over: 9% (male 240; female 359) (1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.78% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 14.21 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.4 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 29.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.58 years
male : 72.53 years
female: 78.79 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Saint Helenian(s)
adjective: Saint Helenian

Ethnic groups: African descent, white

Religions: Anglican (majority), Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman
Catholic

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition : age 20 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 98% (1987 est.)

@Saint Helena:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Saint Helena

Data code: SH

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Jamestown

Administrative divisions: 1 administrative area and 2 dependencies*;
Ascension*, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha*

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen, 10 June
1989 (second Saturday in June)

Constitution: 1 January 1989

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: NA years of age

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor and Commander in Chief David Leslie
SMALLMAN (since NA 1995)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, two ex-officio
officers, and six elected members of the Legislative Council
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor is
appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (16 seats,
including the governor, 2 ex-officio and 12 elected members; members
are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held NA July 1993 (next to be held NA July 1997)
election results : percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: ICFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Saint Helenian shield centered on the outer half of
the flag; the shield features a rocky coastline and three-masted
sailing ship

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy depends primarily on financial
assistance from the UK. The local population earns some income from
fishing, the raising of livestock, and sales of handicrafts. Because
there are few jobs, a large proportion of the work force has left to
seek employment overseas.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : NA%
industry: NA%
services : NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 2,416 (1991 est.)
by occupation: professional, technical, and related workers 8.7%,
managerial, administrative, and clerical 12.8%, sales people 8.1%,
farmer, fishermen, etc. 5.4%, craftspersons, production process
workers 14.7%, others 50.3% (1987)
note : a large proportion of the work force has left to seek
employment overseas

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $11.2 million
expenditures: $11 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY92/93)

Industries: crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fishing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: maize, potatoes, vegetables; timber production
being developed; crawfishing on Tristan da Cunha

Exports:
total value : $704,000 (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: fish (frozen and salt-dried skipjack, tuna), handicrafts
partners : South Africa, UK

Imports:
total value: $14.434 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: food, beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed,
building materials, motor vehicles and parts, machinery and parts
partners : UK, South Africa

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Saint Helenian pound (úS) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Saint Helenian pounds (úS) per US$1 - 0.6023 (January
1997), 0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993),
0.5664 (1992); note - the Saint Helenian pound is at par with the
British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Saint Helena:Communications

Telephones: 550

Telephone system:
domestic : automatic network; HF radiotelephone to Ascension, then
into worldwide submarine cable and satellite networks
international: major coaxial submarine cable relay point between South
Africa, Portugal, and UK at Ascension; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 2,500 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA

Communications - note: Gough Island has a meteorological station

@Saint Helena:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : NA km (mainland 118 km, Ascension NA km, Tristan da Cunha NA
km)
paved: 180.7 km (mainland 98 km, Ascension 80 km, Tristan da Cunha
2.70 km)
unpaved: NA km (mainland 20 km, Ascension NA km, Tristan da Cunha NA
km)

Ports and harbors: Georgetown (on Ascension), Jamestown

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands in the Caribbean Sea, about one-third of
the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 17 20 N, 62 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 269 sq km
land: 269 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 135 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea : 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental
margin

Climate: subtropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal
temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

Terrain: volcanic with mountainous interiors

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Liamuiga 1,156 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 22%
permanent crops : 17%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 17%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (July to October)

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:People

Population: 41,803 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 7,285; female 6,945)
15-64 years: 60% (male 12,471; female 12,395)
65 years and over : 6% (male 1,107; female 1,600) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.1% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23.08 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.85 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.22 years
male: 64.18 years
female: 70.44 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.49 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Kittsian(s), Nevisian(s)
adjective: Kittsian, Nevisian

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Anglican, other Protestant sects, Roman Catholic

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 97%
male : 97%
female: 98% (1980 est.)

@Saint Kitts and Nevis:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
conventional short form: Saint Kitts and Nevis
former: Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis

Data code: SC

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Basseterre

Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Christ Church Nichola Town,
Saint Anne Sandy Point, Saint George Basseterre, Saint George
Gingerland, Saint James Windward, Saint John Capisterre, Saint John
Figtree, Saint Mary Cayon, Saint Paul Capisterre, Saint Paul
Charlestown, Saint Peter Basseterre, Saint Thomas Lowland, Saint
Thomas Middle Island, Trinity Palmetto Point

Independence: 19 September 1983 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 19 September (1983)

Constitution: 19 September 1983

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Dr. Cuthbert Montraville SEBASTIAN

Book of the day: