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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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Illicit drugs: exports locally-produced marijuana and hashish to East
Asia, the US, and other Western markets; serves as a transit point for
heroin and crystal methamphetamines
______________________________________________________________________

PITCAIRN ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK)

@Pitcairn Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half
of the way from Peru to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 25 04 S, 130 06 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 47 sq km
land: 47 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 51 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone : 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical, hot, humid, modified by southeast trade winds;
rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pawala Valley Ridge 347 m

Natural resources: miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish

Land use:
arable land : NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (especially November to March)

Environment - current issues: deforestation (only a small portion of
the original forest remains because of burning and clearing for
settlement)

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Pitcairn Islands:People

Population: 54 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years : NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -0.6% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Pitcairn Islander(s)
adjective: Pitcairn Islander

Ethnic groups: descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian
wives

Religions: Seventh-Day Adventist 100%

Languages: English (official), Tahitian/English dialect

@Pitcairn Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands
conventional short form: Pitcairn Islands

Data code: PC

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Adamstown

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June)

Constitution: Local Government Ordinance of 1964

Legal system: local island by-laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal with three years residency

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by UK High Commissioner to New Zealand and Governor
(non-resident) of the Pitcairn Islands Robert John ALSTON (since NA
August 1994); Commissioner (non-resident) G. D. HARRAWAY (since NA; is
the liaison person between the governor and the Island Council)
head of government: Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island
Council Jay WARREN (since NA)
cabinet: NA
elections : the queen is a hereditary monarch; island magistrate
elected by popular vote for a three-year term; last known election
held NA December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1996)
election results: Jay WARREN re-elected island magistrate; percent of
vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Island Council (10 seats, 6 popularly
elected, 1 appointed by the 6 elected members, 2 appointed by the
governor, and the Island Secretary; members serve one-year terms)
elections: take place each December; last held NA December 1996 (next
to be held NA December 1997)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - all independents

Judicial branch: Island Court, island magistrate presides over the
court and is elected every three years

Political parties and leaders: none

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer
half of the flag; the coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue
with a shield featuring a yellow anchor

Economy

Economy - overview: The inhabitants exist on fishing and subsistence
farming. The fertile soil of the valleys produces a wide variety of
fruits and vegetables, including citrus, sugarcane, watermelons,
bananas, yams, and beans. Bartering is an important part of the
economy. The major sources of revenue are the sale of postage stamps
to collectors and the sale of handicrafts to passing ships.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 14 able-bodied men (1993)
by occupation: no business community in the usual sense; some public
works; subsistence farming and fishing

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $729,884
expenditures: $878,119, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994/95
est.)

Industries: postage stamps, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: wide variety of fruits and vegetables

Exports: $NA
commodities: fruits, vegetables, curios
partners: NA

Imports: $NA
commodities: fuel oil, machinery, building materials, flour, sugar,
other foodstuffs
partners: NA

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA bilateral commitments (1992-93), $84,000

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.4247 (January
1997),1.4543 (1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993),
1.8584 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Pitcairn Islands:Communications

Telephones: 24

Telephone system: party line telephone service on the island
domestic: NA
international: radiotelephone

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA

@Pitcairn Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 6.4 km
paved : 0 km
unpaved: 6.4 km

Ports and harbors: Bounty Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports: none

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

POLAND

@Poland:Geography

Location: Central Europe, east of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 52 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 312,683 sq km
land: 304,510 sq km
water: 8,173 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,888 km
border countries: Belarus 605 km, Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456
km, Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Slovakia 444
km, Ukraine 428 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone : defined by international treaties
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with
frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and
thundershowers

Terrain: mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Raczki Elblaskie -2 m
highest point: Rysy 2,499 m

Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead,
salt

Land use:
arable land: 47%
permanent crops : 1%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 29%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: situation has improved since 1989 due to
decline in heavy industry and increased environmental concern by
postcommunist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious
because of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants, and
the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from
industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of
hazardous wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: historically, an area of conflict because of flat
terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain

@Poland:People

Population: 38,615,239 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (male 4,235,659; female 4,038,016)
15-64 years : 67% (male 12,842,909; female 13,020,736)
65 years and over: 12% (male 1,698,505; female 2,779,414) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.18 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.82 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.47 years
male : 68.27 years
female: 76.91 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.43 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Pole(s)
adjective: Polish

Ethnic groups: Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%, Byelorussian
0.5% (1990 est.)

Religions: Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Eastern
Orthodox, Protestant, and other 5%

Languages: Polish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1978 est.)

@Poland:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Poland
conventional short form: Poland
local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska
local short form: Polska

Data code: PL

Government type: democratic state

National capital: Warsaw

Administrative divisions: 49 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular -
wojewodztwo); Biala Podlaska, Bialystok, Bielsko Biala, Bydgoszcz,
Chelm, Ciechanow, Czestochowa, Elblag, Gdansk, Gorzow, Jelenia Gora,
Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin, Koszalin, Krakow, Krosno, Legnica,
Leszno, Lodz, Lomza, Lublin, Nowy Sacz, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostroleka,
Pila, Piotrkow, Plock, Poznan, Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow, Siedlce,
Sieradz, Skierniewice, Slupsk, Suwalki, Szczecin, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow,
Torun, Walbrzych, Warszawa, Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zamosc, Zielona Gora

Independence: 11 November 1918 (independent republic proclaimed)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)

Constitution: interim "small constitution" came into effect in
December 1992 supplementing the heavily amended constitution of 22
July 1952; referendum for a new constitution to be held 25 May 1997

Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and
holdover communist legal theory; changes being gradually introduced as
part of broader democratization process; limited judicial review of
legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI (since 23 December
1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Wlodimierz CIMOSZEWICZ (since 7
February 1996), Deputy Prime Ministers Roman JAGIELINSKI (since 7
March 1995), Marek BELKA (since NA February 1997), and Miroslaw
PIETRIEWICZ (since 7 February 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the prime minister and
the Sejm; the prime minister appoints and the Sejm approves the
Council of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election first round held 5 November 1995, second round held 19
November 1995 (next to be held NA November 2000); prime minister and
deputy prime ministers elected by the Sejm; election last held NA 1996
(next to be held September 1997)
election results: Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI elected president; percent of
legislative vote, second round - Aleksander KWASNIEWSKI 51.7%, Lech
WALESA 48.3%; Wlodimierz CIMOSZEWICZ selected prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly or Zgromadzenie
Narodowe consists of the Senate or Senat (100 seats; members are
elected by a majority vote on a provincial basis to serve four-year
terms) and the Sejm (460 seats; members are elected under a complex
system of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held 14
September 1997); Sejm elections last held 19 September 1993 (next to
be held 14 September 1997)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - post-communist parties (PSL 34, SLD 37), post-Solidarity
parties (UW 6, NSZZ 12, BBWR 2), non-communist, non-Solidarity
(independents 7, unaffiliated 1, vacant 1); Sejm - percent of vote by
party - NA; seats by party - post-communist parties (SLD 171, PSL
132), post-Solidarity parties (UW 74, UP 41, BBWR 16), non-communist,
non-Solidarity (KPN 22)
note: four seats are constitutionally assigned to ethnic German
parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president
on the recommendation of the National Council of Judiciary

Political parties and leaders:
post-Communist: Democratic Left Alliance or SLD (Social Democracy of
Poland) [Jozef OLEKSY]; Polish Peasant Party or PSL [Waldemar PAWLAK]
post-Solidarity parties: Freedom Union or UW (Democratic Union and
Liberal Democratic Congress merged to form Freedom Union) [Leszek
BALCEROWICZ]; Christian-National Union or ZCHN [Marian PILKA]; Center
Alliance Party or PC [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI]; Peasant Alliance or PL
[Gabriel JANOWSKI]; Solidarity Electoral Action or AWS [Marian
KRZAKLEWSKI]; Union of Labor or UP [Ryszard BUGAJ]; Conservative Party
or PK [Aleksander HALL]; Nonparty Reform Bloc or BBWR [Jacek
LIPINSKI]; Nonparty Reform Block United for Elections or BBWR-SW
[Jerzy GWIZDZ]
non-Communist, non-Solidarity : Movement for the Reconstruction of
Poland or ROP [Jan OLSZEWSKI]; Confederation for an Independent Poland
or KPN [Leszek MOCZULSKI]; German Minority or MN [Gerhardt
BARTODZIEJ]; Union of Real Politics or UPR [Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: powerful Roman Catholic Church;
Solidarity (trade union); All Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ
(trade union)

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC
(observer), CBSS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NACC, NAM
(guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security
Council (temporary), UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UPU, WCL, WEU
(associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Jerzy KOZMINSKI
chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-3800 through 3802
FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271
consulate(s) general : Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nicholas Andrew REY
embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31, Warsaw
mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, US Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-5010
telephone: [48] (2) 628-30-41
FAX: [48] (2) 628-82-98
consulate(s) general: Krakow

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red;
similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and
white

Economy

Economy - overview: In 1996, Poland continued to make good progress in
the difficult transition to a market economy. The transition began on
1 January 1990, when the new democratic government instituted shock
therapy by decontrolling prices, slashing subsidies, and drastically
reducing import barriers. Although real GDP fell sharply in 1990 and
1991, in 1992 Poland became the first country in the region to resume
economic growth with a 2.6% increase. Growth advanced to 3.8% in 1993,
5.2% in 1994, 6.5% in 1995, and 6.0% in 1996. Most of the growth since
1991 has come from the booming private sector, which now accounts for
more than 60% of GDP, attributable mostly to the creation of new
private firms. Large-scale industry still remains largely in state
hands. The trade and current account balances officially are in
deficit but in fact both have comfortable surpluses because of large,
unrecorded sales to cross-border visitors. The government has promised
to extend privatization and social welfare reform and to maintain
fiscal and monetary discipline. As for external debt, the burden was
sharply reduced by reschedulings and write-offs of both private and
official debt during 1991-95.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $246.3 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,400 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 6%
industry: 40%
services: 54% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 18.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 17.662 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: industry and construction 32.0%, agriculture 27.6%,
trade, transport, and communications 14.7%, government and other 25.7%
(1992)

Unemployment rate: 13.3% (yearend 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $37.1 billion
expenditures: $40.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals,
shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 29.64 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 127.42 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 3,124 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, milk, fruits, vegetables, wheat;
poultry and eggs; pork, beef

Exports:
total value: $30.9 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: intermediate goods 38%, machinery and transport equipment
23%, consumer goods 21%, foodstuffs 10%, fuels 7% (1996 est.)
partners : Germany 35.7%, Netherlands 5.9%, Russia 5.4%, Italy 4.9%
(1994)

Imports:
total value: $34.6 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 32%, intermediate goods
20%, chemicals 15%, consumer goods 9%, food 9%, fuels 8% (1996 est.)
partners: Germany 27.5%, Italy 8.4%, Russia 6.8%, UK 5.3% (1994)

Debt - external: $45.8 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: Western governments and institutions pledged $22 billion in
grants and loans during 1990-94, but much of the money has not been
disbursed

Currency: 1 zloty (Zl) = 100 groszy

Exchange rates: zlotych (Zl) per US$1 - 2.8158 (January 1997), 2.4250
(1995); note - a currency reform on 1 January 1995 replaced 10,000 old
zlotys with 1 new zloty; 22,723 (1994), 18,115 (1993), 13,626 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Poland:Communications

Telephones: 5 million (1994)

Telephone system: underdeveloped and outmoded system; government aims
to have 10 million phones in service by the year 2000
domestic: cable, open wire, and microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - NA Intelsat, NA Eutelsat, 1
Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions), and 1 Intersputnik
(Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 27, FM 27, shortwave 0

Radios: 10.9 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 40 (Russian repeaters 5)

Televisions: 9.6 million

@Poland:Transportation

Railways:
total: 24,313 km
broad gauge : 652 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 22,243 km 1.435-m gauge (11,648 km electrified; 8,978
km double track)
narrow gauge: 1,418 km various gauges including 1.000-m, 0.785-m,
0.750-m, and 0.600-m (1995)

Highways:
total: 372,479 km
paved : 243,229 km (including 257 km of expressways)
unpaved: 129,250 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 3,997 km navigable rivers and canals (1991)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,986 km; petroleum products 360 km; natural gas
4,600 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Gdansk, Gdynia, Gliwice, Kolobrzeg, Szczecin,
Swinoujscie, Ustka, Warsaw, Wrocaw

Merchant marine:
total: 125 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,952,937 GRT/2,933,887
DWT
ships by type: bulk 72, cargo 30, chemical tanker 4, container 7,
passenger 1, refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea
passenger 5
note: Poland owns an additional 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
233,906 DWT operating under the registries of The Bahamas, Cyprus,
Liberia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Vanuatu (1996 est.)

Airports: 134 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 69
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 27
914 to 1,523 m : 3
under 914 m: 7 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 65
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m : 32
under 914 m: 18 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 10,321,399 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 8,030,056 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 327,862 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.46 billion (1997)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.3% (1997)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of amphetamines for the
international market; transshipment point for Asian and Latin American
illicit drugs to Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

PORTUGAL

@Portugal:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
west of Spain

Geographic coordinates: 39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 92,391 sq km
land: 91,951 sq km
water: 440 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,214 km
border countries: Spain 1,214 km

Coastline: 1,793 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier
in south

Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico in Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium
ore, marble

Land use:
arable land : 26%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 36%
other : 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 6,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: Azores subject to severe earthquakes

Environment - current issues: soil erosion; air pollution caused by
industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in
coastal areas

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Tropical
Timber 94

Geography - note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic
locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

@Portugal:People

Population: 9,931,045 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 895,294; female 848,133)
15-64 years: 68% (male 3,280,015; female 3,429,007)
65 years and over: 15% (male 605,074; female 873,522) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.01% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.75 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.3 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.42 years
male: 72.02 years
female: 79.04 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.36 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups: homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores,
Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to
mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000

Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant denominations 1%, other 2%

Languages: Portuguese

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85%
male: 89%
female: 82% (1990 est.)

@Portugal:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal

Data code: PO

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Lisbon

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos, singular -
distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular -
regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca,
Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa,
Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila
Real, Viseu

Dependent areas: Macau (scheduled to become a Special Administrative
Region of China on 20 December 1999)

Independence: 1140 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)

Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982, 1 June 1989, and
5 November 1992

Legal system: civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews
the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Manuel de Oliviera GUTERRES
(since 28 October 1995)
cabinet : Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative
body to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 14 January 1996 (next to be held NA January 2001);
following assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or
leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by
the president
election results: Jorge SAMPAIO elected president; percent of vote -
Jorge SAMPAIO (Socialist) 53.8%, Anibal CAVACO SILVA (Conservative)
46.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia
da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections : last held 1 October 1995 (next to be held by NA October
1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - PSD 34.0%, PS 43.8%, CDU
8.6%, CDS/PP 9.1%; seats by party - PSD 88, PS 112, CDU 15, CDS/PP 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica, judges
appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party or PSD [Marcelo
Rebelo DE SOUSA]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Antonio GUTERRES];
Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Carlos CARVALHAS]; Popular Party or
PP [Manuel MONTEIRO], may have joined the CDS for the election;
National Solidarity Party or PSN [Manuel SERGIO]; Center Democratic
Party or CDS; United Democratic Coalition or CDU (communists)

International organization participation: AfDB, Australia Group, BIS,
CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer),
MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAVEM III,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Fernando Antonio de Lacerda ANDRESEN
GUIMARAES
chancery: 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 328-8610
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San
Francisco
consulate(s): Los Angeles, New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence
(Rhode Island), Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth Frawley BAGLEY
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600 Lisbon
mailing address : PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (1) 7266600, 7266659, 7268670, 7268880
FAX: [351] (1) 7269109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag description: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths)
and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on
the dividing line

Economy

Economy - overview: Portugal's short-term economic fundamentals remain
strong: the economy has grown by more than 2% during the past two
years, with similar growth expected in 1997. The Socialist
government's primary economic goal is to place Portugal in the first
group of countries adopting the single European currency, and it has
instituted a disciplined 1997 budget to bolster Lisbon's chances.
Portuguese government forecasts suggest that it is likely to meet
partially the Maastricht monetary convergence criteria by lowering its
budget deficit from 4% of GDP in 1996 to 2.9% in 1997, although the
government predicts that government debt will be cut only to 68% of
GDP, overshooting Maastricht's 60% target. Social programs - a
priority for the Socialists - will still grow slightly faster than GDP
in 1997, mandating strict budget discipline in other areas. As for the
long run, Portugal is increasing its infrastructure spending - much of
it in anticipation of hosting the world's International Exposition in
1998 - while working to modernize its capital plant and increase
competitiveness in hopes of increasing Portugal's GDP, which remains
below 65% of the EU's average GDP per capita.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $122.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $12,400 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 6%
industry: 36%
services: 58% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3.4% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4.53 million (1996 est.)
by occupation : services 54.5%, manufacturing 24.4%, agriculture,
forestry, fisheries 11.2%, construction 8.3%, utilities 1.0%, mining
0.5% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $48 billion
expenditures: $52 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.4
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork;
metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2.2% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 8.83 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 33.1 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,863 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; sheep,
cattle, goats, poultry, meat, dairy products

Exports:
total value: $25.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: clothing and footwear, machinery, cork and paper
products, hides
partners : EU 80%, other developed countries 9% (US 4.5%)

Imports:
total value: $34.2 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, agricultural products,
chemicals, petroleum, textiles
partners: EU 72%, other developed countries 8% (US 3%), less developed
countries 17%

Debt - external: $13.6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $248 million (1993)
recipient : ODA, $70 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Portuguese escudo (Esc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1 - 160.35 (January
1997), 154.24 (1996), 151.11 (1995), 165.99 (1994), 160.80 (1993),
135.00 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Portugal:Communications

Telephones: 3,444,300 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: generally adequate integrated network of coaxial cables,
open wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth
stations
international: 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3
Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat;
tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat
(Atlantic Ocean Region) is planned

Radio broadcast stations: AM 57, FM 66 (repeaters 22), shortwave 0

Radios: 2.2 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 66 (repeaters 23)

Televisions: 2,970,892 (1993 est.)

@Portugal:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,068 km
broad gauge: 2,761 km 1.668-m gauge (464 km electrified; 426 km double
track)
narrow gauge: 307 km 1.000-m gauge
note : in 1994, Portugal had 3,520 km of track of which 464 km were
electrified

Highways:
total: 68,732 km
paved: 59,110 km (including 587 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,622 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national
economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300 metric-ton cargo
capacity

Pipelines: crude oil 22 km; petroleum products 58 km
note: there is a 700 km natural gas pipeline which connects with one
in Spain carrying Algerian natural gas which is to open in 1997; the
secondary lines that will be 300 km long have not yet been built

Ports and harbors: Aveiro, Funchal (Madeira Islands), Horta (Azores),
Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Praia da Vitoria
(Azores), Setubal, Viana do Castelo

Merchant marine:
total: 84 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 556,069 GRT/906,790 DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 47, chemical tanker 6, container 5,
liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 7, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated
cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 2
note: Portugal has created a captive register on Madeira for
Portuguese-owned ships; ships on the Madeira Register (MAR) will have
taxation and crewing benefits of a flag of convenience; Portugal owns
an additional 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 322,887 DWT
operating under the registries of Cyprus, Liberia, and Panama (1996
est.)

Airports: 67 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 66
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 32 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National
Republican Guard, Fiscal Guard, Public Security Police

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,543,502 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 2,049,806 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 80,494 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.07 billion (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor
province) disputed with Indonesia and not recognized by the UN

Illicit drugs: important gateway country for Latin American cocaine
entering the European market; transshipment point for hashish from
North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin
______________________________________________________________________

PUERTO RICO

(commonwealth associated with the US)

@Puerto Rico:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 66 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 9,104 sq km
land: 8,959 sq km
water: 145 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Rhode
Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 501 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north; mountains
precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal
areas

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Cerro de Punta 1,338 m

Natural resources: some copper and nickel, potential for onshore and
offshore oil

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops : 5%
permanent pastures: 26%
forests and woodland: 16%
other: 49% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: the recent drought has caused water
levels in reservoirs to drop and prompted water rationing for more
than one-half of the population

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: important location along the Mona Passage - a key
shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and
best natural harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high
central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively
dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north

@Puerto Rico:People

Population: 3,828,506 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (male 485,782; female 463,226)
15-64 years: 65% (male 1,192,306; female 1,298,256)
65 years and over : 10% (male 170,170; female 218,766) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.93% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 17.21 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.87 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.49 years
male : 70.04 years
female: 79.22 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.08 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens)
adjective: Puerto Rican

Ethnic groups: Hispanic

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant denominations and other 15%

Languages: Spanish, English

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89%
male: 90%
female: 88% (1980 est.)

@Puerto Rico:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
conventional short form: Puerto Rico

Data code: RQ

Dependency status: commonwealth associated with the US

Government type: commonwealth

National capital: San Juan

Administrative divisions: none (commonwealth associated with the US);
there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 78 municipalities

Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

National holiday: US Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Constitution: ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July
1952; effective 25 July 1952

Legal system: based on Spanish civil code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the US William Jefferson CLINTON (since
20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993)
head of government : Governor Pedro ROSSELLO (since 2 January 1993)
cabinet: NA
elections : governor of Puerto Rico elected by popular vote for a
four-year term; election last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held NA
November 2000)
election results: Pedro ROSSELLO reelected governor of Puerto Rico;
percent of vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of the
Senate (28 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives (54 seats;
members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : Senate - last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held 7
November 2000); House of Representatives - last held 5 November 1996
(next to be held 7 November 2000)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PNP 19, PPD 8, PIP 1; House of Representatives - percent of
vote by party - NA; seats by party - PNP 37, PPD 16, PIP 1
note: Puerto Rico elects one representative to the US House of
Representatives; elections last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held
7 November 2000); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PNP 1 (Carlos Romero BARCELO)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, justices appointed by the governor
with the consent of the Senate; Superior Courts, justices appointed by
the governor with the consent of the Senate; Municipal Courts,
justices appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate

Political parties and leaders: National Republican Party of Puerto
Rico, Luis FERRE; Popular Democratic Party (PPD), Hector ACEVEDO; New
Progressive Party (PNP), Pedro ROSSELLO; Puerto Rican Independence
Party (PIP), Ruben BERRIOS Martinez; Puerto Rican Communist Party
(PCP), leader(s) unknown

Political pressure groups and leaders: Armed Forces for National
Liberation (FALN); Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution; Boricua
Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros); Armed Forces of Popular
Resistance

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC
(associate), FAO (associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, WCL,
WFTU, WHO (associate), WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (commonwealth associated
with the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (commonwealth associated
with the US)

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist
side bears a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based
on the US flag

Economy

Economy - overview: Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies
in the Caribbean region. A diverse industrial sector has surpassed
agriculture as the primary locus of economic activity and income.
Encouraged by duty-free access to the US and by tax incentives, US
firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico since the 1950s. US minimum
wage laws apply. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and
other livestock products as the main source of income in the
agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important
source of income for the island, with estimated arrivals of nearly 3.9
million tourists in 1993.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $31.6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,200 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5.1% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.3 million (1996)
by occupation: government 22%, manufacturing 17%, trade 20%,
construction 6%, communications and transportation 5%, other 30%
(1993)

Unemployment rate: 14% (FY95/96 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $5.1 billion
expenditures: $5.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY94/95)

Industries: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products;
tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 4.47 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 16.82 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 4,231 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: livestock products, chickens; sugarcane,
coffee, pineapples, plantains, bananas

Exports:
total value : $22.9 billion (f.o.b. 1996)
commodities: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum,
beverage concentrates, medical equipment
partners: US 88% (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $19.1 billion (c.i.f. 1996)
commodities: chemicals, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products
partners : US 62% (1995 est.)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 US dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Puerto Rico:Communications

Telephones: 1,166,231 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: modern system, integrated with that of the US by
high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data
capability
domestic: digital telephone system with about 1 million lines (1990
est.); cellular telephone service
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; submarine cable
to US

Radio broadcast stations: AM 50, FM 63, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.565 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9
note: cable television available with US programs (1990 est.)

Televisions: 952,000 (1992 est.)

@Puerto Rico:Transportation

Railways:
total: 96 km
narrow gauge: 96 km 1.000-m gauge, rural, narrow-gauge system for
hauling sugarcane; no passenger service

Highways:
total: 14,100 km
paved : 14,100 km
unpaved: 0 km (1995 est.

Ports and harbors: Guanica, Guayanilla, Guayama, Playa de Ponce, San
Juan

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 22 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 20
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m : 7 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: paramilitary National Guard, Police Force

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

QATAR

@Qatar:Geography

Location: Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi
Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 25 30 N, 51 15 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 11,437 sq km
land: 11,437 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries:
total: 60 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 60 km

Coastline: 563 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer

Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and
gravel

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Qurayn Aba al Bawl 103 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops : NA%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 94% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 80 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: haze, dust storms, sandstorms common

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources
are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer
Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: strategic location in central Persian Gulf near
major petroleum deposits

@Qatar:People

Population: 670,274 (July 1997 est.)
note : includes 516,508 non-nationals (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 95,145; female 91,338)
15-64 years : 70% (male 339,892; female 131,429)
65 years and over: 2% (male 8,567; female 3,903) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.04% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 17.26 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 3.5 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 26.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 2.59 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 2.2 male(s)/female
total population: 1.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.56 years
male: 71.06 years
female: 76.18 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.57 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Qatari(s)
adjective: Qatari

Ethnic groups: Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%, other
14%

Religions: Muslim 95%

Languages: Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second
language

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.4%
male : 79.2%
female: 79.9% (1995 est.)

@Qatar:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Qatar
conventional short form : Qatar
local long form: Dawlat Qatar
local short form: Qatar
note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation falls between
cutter and gutter, but not like ka-tar (rhymes with guitar)

Data code: QA

Government type: traditional monarchy

National capital: Doha

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (baladiyat, singular -
baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al
Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Jarayan al Batnah, Ash Shamal, Umm Salal

Independence: 3 September 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 September (1971)

Constitution: provisional constitution enacted 19 April 1972

Legal system: discretionary system of law controlled by the amir,
although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law is significant
in personal matters

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 27 June 1995
when, as crown prince, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad Al
Thani, in a bloodless coup); Crown Prince JASSIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa
Al Thani, third son of the amir (selected crown prince by the amir 22
October 1996); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of minister
of defense and commander-in-chief of the armed forces
head of government: Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Khalifa Al Thani,
brother of the amir (since 30 October 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the amir
elections: none; the amir is an absolute monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (35
seats; members appointed by the amir)
note: the constitution calls for elections for part of this
consultative body, but no elections have been held since 1970, when
there were partial elections to the body; Council members have had
their terms extended every four years since

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC,
ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO
(pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Saad Muhammad al-KUBAYSI
chancery: Suite 200, 4200 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Patrick N. THEROS
embassy: 149 Ahmed Bin Ali St., Fariq Bin Omran (opposite the
television station), Doha
mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha; pouch address - AMEMB Doha,
Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-6130
telephone: [974] 864701 through 864703
FAX: [974] 861669

Flag description: maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white
points) on the hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: Oil is the backbone of the economy and accounts
for more than 30% of GDP, roughly 80% of export earnings, and 66% of
government revenues. Proved oil reserves of 3.7 billion barrels should
ensure continued output at current levels for about 23 years. Oil has
given Qatar a per capita GDP comparable to the leading West European
industrial countries. Qatar's proved reserves of natural gas exceed 7
trillion cubic meters, more than 5% of the world total, third largest
in the world. Production and export of natural gas are becoming
increasingly important. Long-term goals feature the development of
off-shore petroleum and the diversification of the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $21,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 45%
services: 54% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.2% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 233,000 (1993 est.)
note: 83.49% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $3 billion
expenditures: $3.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, fertilizers,
petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 1.3 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 5.5 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 10,095 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products,
beef; fish (all on small scale)

Exports:
total value: $4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum products 80%, steel, fertilizers
partners: Japan 54%, Singapore 7%, South Korea 6%, Australia 3%, UAE
3% (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $4.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : machinery and equipment, consumer goods, food, chemicals
partners: Italy 16%, Germany 11%, Japan 10%, UK 9%, France 9% (1995
est.)

Debt - external: $5.7 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Qatari riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams

Exchange rates: Qatari riyals (QR) per US$1 - 3.6400 riyals (fixed
rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Qatar:Communications

Telephones: 160,717 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: modern system centered in Doha
domestic: NA
international : tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay
to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite
earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and
1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 201,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 205,000 (1992 est.)

@Qatar:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,210 km
paved : 1,089 km
unpaved: 121 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 235 km; natural gas 400 km

Ports and harbors: Doha, Halul Island, Umm Sa'id

Merchant marine:
total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 512,456 GRT/850,858 DWT
ships by type : combination ore/oil 2, container 3, cargo 11, oil
tanker 3 (1996 est.)

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Public Security

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 286,178 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 150,398 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 5,432 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $400 million (1996 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.5% (1996 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial dispute with Bahrain over the
Hawar Islands; maritime boundary with Bahrain; in 1996, agreed with
Saudi Arabia to demarcate border per 1992 accord; that process is
ongoing
______________________________________________________________________

REUNION

(overseas department of France)

@Reunion:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of
Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 21 06 S, 55 36 E

Map references: World

Area:
total: 2,510 sq km
land: 2,500 sq km
water : 10 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 201 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and
dry from May to November, hot and rainy from November to April

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Piton des Neiges 3,069 m

Natural resources: fish, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland : 35%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic, devastating cyclones (December to April);
Piton de la Fournaise on the southeastern coast is an active volcano

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Reunion:People

Population: 692,204 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 32% (male 114,655; female 109,301)
15-64 years: 62% (male 211,112; female 217,897)
65 years and over: 6% (male 16,211; female 23,028) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.87% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23.4 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.71 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.08 years
male: 72.03 years
female: 78.29 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.69 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Reunionese (singular and plural)
adjective : Reunionese

Ethnic groups: French, African, Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani, Indian

Religions: Roman Catholic 94%, Hindu, Islam, Buddhist

Languages: French (official), Creole widely used

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79%
male: 76%
female: 80% (1982 est.)

@Reunion:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Department of Reunion
conventional short form: Reunion
local long form: none
local short form : Ile de la Reunion

Data code: RE

Dependency status: overseas department of France

Government type: NA

National capital: Saint-Denis

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France); there
are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
government, but there are four arrondissements, 24 communes, and 47
cantons

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of France Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
1995), represented by Prefect Robert POMMIES (since NA 1996)
head of government : President of the General Council Christophe PAYET
(since 4 April 1994) and President of the Regional Council Margarite
SUDRE (since 25 June 1993)
cabinet: NA
elections: prefect appointed by the president of France on the advice
of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the General
and Regional Councils are elected by the members of those councils,
who vote on party lines

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council (47 seats; members are
elected by direct popular vote to serve six-year terms) and unicameral
Regional Council (45 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote
to serve six-year terms)
elections : General Council - last held NA March 1994 (next to be held
NA 2000); Regional Council - last held 25 June 1993 (next to be held
NA 1999)
election results: General Council - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - PCR 12, PS 12, UDF 11, RPR 5, others 7; Regional
Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UPF 17,
Free-Dom Movement 13, PCR 9, PS 6
note : Reunion elects 3 representatives to the French Senate;
elections last held 24 September 1992 (next to be held NA); results -
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 1, FRA 1,
independent 1; Reunion also elects 5 deputies to the French National
Assembly; elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993 (next to be held as
a special election on 25 May - 1 June 1997); results - percent of vote
by party - NA; seats by party - PS 1, PCR 1, UPF 1, RPR 1, UDF-CDS 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic or RPR [Andre'
Maurice PIHOUEE]; Union for French Democracy or UDF [Ibrahim DINDAN];
Communist Party of Reunion or PCR [Paul VERGES]; France-Reunion Future
or FRA [Andre THIEN AH KOON]; Socialist Party or PS [Jean-Claude
FRUTEAU]; Social Democrats or CDS; Union for France or UPF (includes

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